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DEAD-END NETWORK

OCTOPUS NETWORK
A network where each additional line and
extension does not necessarily match the
initial configuration is often called an
“octopus” network. Dead-end networks
often evolve into octopus networks over
time.
The octopus network includes the
following anomalies:
• Different airline materials
• Curves, reductions and enlargements
without apparent reason
• Inconsistent diameters of air lines
• Installation done with no knowledge
of pneumatic standards
Predicting what flow and pressure are
available at any point is virtually
impossible. Air flow fluctuations from
varying usage of pneumatic equipment
and air tools makes it even more difficult
to get the right pressure and flow at any
given point.
This results in varying pressure and air
flow conditions through out the system,
creating many problems.
This type of network, while quite common,
is the worst possible situation.
In a dead-end network, air flow must be
sacrificed (quantity of air per minute) in
order to preserve a uniform pressure at the
point of use. The progressive reduction of
the central pipe while it moves away from
the compressor maintains pressure.
However, air tools and equipment must
be placed along the length of the circuit in
decreasing order of consumption (SCFM).
The equipment using the most air flow
must be located near the compressor, and
that using less, further away.
This generates major handling problems,
as production processes are not neces-
sarily designed this way.
This is not the optimum network design.
CONVENTIONAL
NETWORK
OCTOPUS
NETWORK
The main source of inefficiencies and problems
affecting compressed air distribution systems is
often the distribution plan of the system itself.
The majority of problems therefore usually occur
somewhere between the compressor and the
application points.
Most systems are usually of either of two types:
• Dead-end network
• Octopus network
…neither of which provides the best results…
DESIGNINGANEFFICIENT
COMPRESSEDAIR
DISTRIBUTIONNETWORK
COMPRESSOR
COMPRESSOR
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THE PROBLEM
More than 98% of factories using
compressed air started out with a
dead-end network.
Over the years, their systems have come
to resemble a giant “octopus” whose
growth reminds us of a monster escaping
our control.
At the very least, the dead-end network
they have has sacrificed air flow in order
to maintain point of use pressure.
A closed loop network allows the air
supply to flow through several lines at a
time to any given point on the network.
The balance between pressure, air flow
and stability of supply is ensured by using
a single diameter for piping. This type of
system will also easily accommodate
modifications and can easily supply tools
and equipment with varying supply
requirements anywhere on the network.
Ball valves permit the isolation of a
particular portion of the air line network
to allow for easy:
• Repairs
• Connections
• Enlargements
• Periodic maintenance
The size of each loop does not need to be
uniform. The important thing is to have at
least two different supply routes available
simultaneously for each feeder pipe
descending toward a tool or piece of
equipment.
This type of network is the ideal situation
for compressed air distribution systems,
providing the balance between flow and
pressure required to provide the most
efficient distribution of compressed air.
CLOSED LOOP NETWORK
The equipment located
at point A demonstrates
that the air supply flows
through several lines at
a time, providing
balanced pressure and
air flow.
OPTIMAL NETWORKEFFICIENCY
A well-built closed loop network is
therefore most often the ideal situation
for the distribution of compressed air.
In addition to being easy to plan and to
modify when needed, this type of
distribution system becomes an immense
compressed air reservoir that:
• Offers a constant air flow at all times
• Guarantees a uniform pressure
through out
• Contributes to the life of the
compressor by limiting functioning
time
• Reduces the electrical consumption
of the compressor
THE SOLUTION
The secret to planning an efficient,
problem-free distribution network is
actually quite simple. The goal is to
achieve a balance between flow and
pressure to maintain the ideal situation at
all points of use, while providing for future
expansion and remaining flexible in the
face of varying compressed air needs.
How is this balance achieved ?
The best solution remains the
CLOSED LOOP NETWORK design.
COMPRESSOR
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COMPRESSED AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
System design should start with a layout of the
shop or plant. Designate where and what tools will
be used. Determine the placement of the mainline.
Try to keep the line as short as possible while
providing access to where tools are used. Try to
keep in mind any future needs or alterations. It is
much easier to make changes if they are planned for.
Drop supply lines at the point of use or at regular
intervals, to minimize hose length. Size the lines
appropriately for the equipment to be used.
Each supply line should be installed with at least a
filter and regulator. FRLs should be installed at the
point of use, allowing the air to be prepared properly
for the application. Designate appropriate supply lines
as clean air lines for use with paint guns, blow guns
or tire inflator gauges.
On lines operating air tools, install lubricators to
extend tool life.
PROPER SYSTEM DESIGN CAN
INFLUENCE AIR TREATMENT NEEDS
PROPER SLOPES AND DROPS
As for the slope of network pipes, either for lines
running along exterior walls or within a building,
there should be a minimum inclination of 1 inch
for every 10 feet of length. This will lead any
condensation toward water evacuation points.
It must be noted that the feeder pipe may perform
both functions: air flow and the elimination of
condensed liquids. Secondary pipes attached
below the main pipes should include a ball valve
and will help eliminate condensation at their feet
by the presence of evacuation valves.
• Properly installed pipe minimizes the amount of moisture
at the point of use. Piping should slope in the direction of
the air flow to an accessible moisture drain point
• Outlets should be taken from the top of the main
air lines to keep moisture out
• Assemble and test for leaks one section at a time to avoid
major disassembly later
• Pipe unions should be installed at regular intervals.
This makes future repairs and modifications easier
• Sealant should always be used on threads to eliminate air leaks
• Tapered threads should not be overtightened as this could
cause the fitting to crack
• Air lines should be secured to a solid surface using
pipe clamps
• All piping and fittings should be checked regularly to avoid
leaks in the system. An air leak will reduce the amount of
air at the tool, causing pressure drop. It will also cause the
compressor to work longer and harder, increasing energy
and maintenance costs. See Series 41 for an idea of air leak
costs (Page 185)
PROPER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM INSTALLATION
A properly designed system can offer cleaner air of the
appropriate volume and pressure, translating to better tool
performance and worker productivity.
SYSTEM DESIGN
Lowest Point of the
Main Line
Pre-formed Pipe
Main line slope: 1 inch for
every 10 feet of run (always
in the same direction as the
air flow)
Water
Trap Tee
Pipe Clip
Ball Valve
“Y” Strainer
Automatic
Drain
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COMPRESSED AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
= 1/2 x ABCDA
= ABC
CLOSED LOOP NETWORK
A D
C B
LINEAR/DEAD-END NETWORK
BEFORE EVALUATING TOTAL NETWORK LENGTH
EQUIVALENT LENGTHS FOR VARIOUS FITTINGS (IN LENGTH OF EQUIVALENT TUBE)
In order to calculate an effective length of the total network, fittings used must also be taken into account. Every direction change,
cross manifold, T connection or reduction in line size within the network will cause pressure loss equivalent to adding additional line
length.
The table below indicates effective lengths added to the network by each of these restrictions and/or connections.
Flow capacity is a function of total network length; longer lines require larger diameters to maintain the same flow and minimise
pressure drop.
The type of network used will also have an impact on line size. There are two basic types of network designs: closed loop and
linear/dead-end. Both are commonly used for compressed air networks.
For a closed loop system, the fact that there are always at least two
paths to any point on the loop means that only half of the total length
must be considered when sizing the main air line
For a linear/dead-end system, the total length of line must be
considered when sizing the main air line
B C
NETWORK TYPES
A
EFFECTIVE LENGTH
= ABC
EFFECTIVE LENGTH
Correct sizing of the air line is essential
to maximize the cost effectiveness of the
compressed air distribution system.
Network line size is determined by the
flow capacity required for the tools and
equipment to be supplied, as well as by
system design and length.
THINGS TO CONSIDER:
• Pressure drops are totally unrecoverable
and waste energy; a drop in pressure
from 87 to 73 PSI will decrease machine
and tool capacity by up to 27%
• Energy cost will rise by 10% if pressure
is increased by 15 PSI to compensate
for pressure drop
• Pipe fittings are responsible for much
of the pressure drop in compressed air
systems
• Pipe size should therefore be large
enough to keep pressure drop between
the reservoir and the point of use to a
minimum
• Main line size should never be smaller
than the compressor outlet size
• Main line size is determined by total tool
consumption (SCFM) and total effective
line length
• Branch line size should be determined
based on length and total consumption
of the tools on the branch
• Main lines that are too small will cause
high air velocity, thus making water
separation more difficult
• A larger main line is in fact advantageous,
acting as a reservoir for the air, reducing
the load on the compressor and providing
capacity for future demand and growth
SIZING A COMPRESSED AIR LINE
INTERNAL DIAMETER OF FITTINGS
15 mm 22 mm 28 mm 40 mm 63 mm
Ball Valve +4" +12" +16" +20" +28"
Reducer +16" +20" +24" +28" +39"
90° Elbow +28" +51" +59" +79" +138"
“T” Fitting +32" +59" +79" +98" +158"
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NOTE: Equivalent fractional diameters are approximate
LINE SIZING FOR A
CLOSED LOOP NETWORK
QUICK LINE & AIR LINE
• Calculations based on total maximum pressure drop ( P) of no more than 3 PSIG for entire network, at 100 PSIG @ 60 °F
• Total flow required is the sum of all flows for all compressed air powered tools and equipment
• Note that a typical compressor will produce approximately 4 SCFM per HP
15
15
22
22
22
22
28
28
28
40
40
40
40
63
63
63
15
15
22
22
22
28
28
28
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
63
15
15
15
22
22
22
22
28
28
28
28
40
40
40
63
63
15
15
15
15
15
22
22
22
22
28
28
40
40
40
40
63
15
15
22
22
28
28
40
40
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
15
22
22
22
28
28
40
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
63
15
22
22
28
28
40
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
63
15
22
22
28
28
40
40
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
15
22
22
28
28
40
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
15
22
22
28
28
40
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
15
22
22
28
28
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
63
SCFM
5
10
20
30
40
60
80
100
125
160
200
300
400
500
600
800
15
22
28
28
28
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
63
PIPE DIAMETERS
( P) PRESSURE DROP OVER 3 PSIG
TOTAL LENGTH OF LINE (FEET)
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63 mm - 2-1/2"
40 mm - 1-1/2"
28 mm - 1"
22 mm - 3/4"
15 mm - 1/2"
See
page 78 for
Series 06
25 50 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
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LINE SIZING FOR A
DEAD-END NETWORK
QUICK LINE & AIR LINE
• Calculations based on total maximum pressure drop ( P) of no more than 3 PSIG for entire network, at 100 PSIG @ 60 °F
• Total flow required is the sum of all flows for all compressed air powered tools and equipment
• Note that a typical compressor will produce approximately 4 SCFM per HP
NOTE: Equivalent fractional diameters are approximate
PIPE DIAMETERS
63 mm - 2-1/2"
40 mm - 1-1/2"
28 mm - 1"
22 mm - 3/4"
15 mm - 1/2"
15
15
22
22
22
28
28
40
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
63
15
22
22
22
28
28
40
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
63
15
15
22
22
22
22
28
28
28
40
40
40
40
63
63
63
15
15
15
22
22
22
22
28
28
28
28
40
40
40
63
63
15
22
22
28
28
40
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
63
15
22
22
28
28
40
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
15
22
28
28
40
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
15
22
28
28
28
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
63
22
22
28
28
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
63
22
22
28
28
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
63
22
22
28
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
63
63
SCFM
5
10
20
30
40
60
80
100
125
160
200
300
400
500
600
800
22
22
28
40
40
40
63
63
63
63
63
( P) PRESSURE DROP OVER 3 PSIG
TOTAL LENGTH OF LINE (FEET)
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See
page 79 for
Series 06
25 50 100 200 300 400 500 600 700 800 900 1000
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Series 05
AIR LINE Nylon 46
Series 06
Aluminium and Nylon
74
Series 07
QUICK LINE Aluminium and Brass 58
Series 05•06•07
COMPRESSED AIR
DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEMS
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COMPRESSED AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
WHY USE
TOPRING
COMPRESSED AIR
SYSTEMS?
TOPRING compressed air piping
systems are put together using
non-traditional means, such as
push-in fittings or compression
fittings, as opposed to the usual
threading and welding methods
required by traditional pipe.
These assembly methods speed
up the installation process by as
much as a factor of 4, saving on
installation costs that often include
more labour than materials.
TOPRING compressed air distribution
systems are also made of corrosion
proof materials such as Brass,
Aluminium and Thermoplastics.
These modern materials provide great
improvements over traditional
conventional materials, such as Iron,
Galvanized Steel and Copper, by doing
away with the corrosion problems that
plague traditional systems. This ensures
much longer useful life, definite
improvements in flow and reductions
in operating costs.
TOPRING systems are also very light,
reducing the time and effort required to
complete installations and reducing
strain on workers.
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COMPRESSED AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
Steel tubing is subject to rust and will deteriorate over
time, unlike Aluminium and Nylon, which remain
essentially unchanged
NEW TUBING
OR PIPING
TUBING OR PIPING
OVER TIME
ALUMINIUM
NYLON
STEEL
OPERATING COSTS
PRESSURE DROP
Pressure drop occurs when the air system cannot keep up with
consumption, reducing tool efficiency and therefore reducing
productivity.
Rough, porous Steel (black) and galvanized piping causes
resistance to the passage of air and reduces the air flow available
for supplying tools and applications.
Smooth bore Nylon or Aluminium piping provides better flow and
reduced pressure drop, and therefore lower costs.
COMPRESSOR ENERGY CONSUMPTION
To compensate for the pressure drop that can be caused by rough,
porous conventional piping, especially once it is corroded, the
compressor must work harder, using more energy and adding cost.
CORROSION IN AIR PIPING:
RUST
COMPRESSED AIR SYSTEM COSTS
Analyses of compressed air system costs are often limited to the
initial cost of the piping and fittings.
There are many other cost elements beyond these that should be
considered when planning a compressed air system.
Choosing low cost piping and fittings may lower installed costs
slightly, but will lead to additional costs over the years of system
operation that will far surpass any initial savings.
FITTINGS AND PIPING COSTS
Air system decisions should not be made solely based on the
purchase price of the components.
While the cost of AIR LINE, QUICK LINE and SicoAIR compo-
nents may be higher than traditional black pipe or galvanized
systems, the savings in installation costs make up the difference.
INSTALLATION COSTS
Labour costs for a TOPRING air distribution system can be as
low as one quarter of the cost of installing a conventional system.
The combination of lightweight materials with easy to use
push-to-connect fittings means that installations can be done in
as little as 25% of the time required for comparable black pipe or
galvanised Steel installations.
TOPRING systems also require less specialized labour, and can
often be installed by the user without outside help.
TOPRING air system components are lightweight and
easy to handle, reducing installation time and costs
TOPRING air system components
are easy to assemble
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COMPRESSED AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
Total cost comparison between the TOPRING compressed
air distribution systems and conventional systems
OVERALL SYSTEM COSTS ARE THEREFORE
LOWER WITH TOPRING COMPRESSED AIR
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
While TOPRING air distribution system components may
make up a greater proportion of total initial cost than in a
conventional system, total system cost is reduced over the
life of the compressed air system.
This is due to the unique advantages of TOPRING systems:
• Lower installation costs
• Fewer leaks
• Lower pressure drop and therefore lower compressor costs
• No corrosion or deterioration
• Lower maintenance costs
TOPRINGCOMPRESSED AIR DISTRIBUTION
SYSTEMS ARE THEREFORE THE IDEAL CHOICE
TRADITIONAL STEEL OR
COPPER SYSTEMS
Maintenance costs
Maintenance costs
Operating costs
Operating costs
Installation costs
Installation costs
Fittings and
piping costs
Fittings and
piping costs
$$$$
$$$
TOPRING
COMPRESSED AIR
DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
TOPRING piping resists corrosion
and stays clean over time
Traditional piping corrodes and
allows contaminant build-up
CORROSION
Steel and galvanized steel pipes are affected by rust, and
interior surfaces pitted after several years of use cause
greater pressure loss and therefore higher operating costs.
This does not happen with TOPRING Nylon or Aluminium
piping, as this corrosion-proof piping will be as good as new
for many years to come.
MAINTENANCE COSTS
Maintenance costs for conventional systems will increase
over time as the components deteriorate. TOPRING air
distribution components will not deteriorate.
TOPRING systems remain leak free, eliminating the need
for leak audits to limit compressed air loss.
High quality QUALICOAT paint prevents scratching and,
combined with the absence of corrosion, TOPRING piping
systems do not need to be repainted over time.
LEAKS
TOPRING compressed air distribution systems use leak-
proof push-to-connect type fittings, eliminating the risk of
leaks from faulty welds or badly sealed threads.
Air leaks cost money
TOPRING piping is painted blue for easy identification
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Good quality clean compressed air
for equipment protection
• The materials used for manufacturing
TOPRING pipes and pipe fittings
ensure excellent corrosion resistance.
This guarantees the life of the product
for many years under normal use
• The inside surface of the pipe and pipe
fittings allows high flow capacities with
very little flow resistance
A complete solution from the
compressor to the workstation
• TOPRING compressed air distribution
systems are designed for both primary
and secondary distribution systems,
used for compressed air and vacuum,
from the smallest workshops to the
largest factories
Tried and tested reliability
• Not subject to corrosion damage
• Compatible with most lubrication oils
• Excellent mechanical resistance and
pressure handling
• Aluminium pipes are able to withstand
impact and shock without danger
• Aluminium and Brass components are
virtually flame proof
Significant savings on installation,
maintenance and operating costs
• TOPRING compressed air distribution
systems are easy to install and easy to
reconfigure at any time. They are also
ready for immediate pressurization
• No need for specialists or special
equipment
• Eliminates expensive preparation time
required for threaded Steel pipe and
drying time for glued plastic systems.
Push-in connection provides a strong
and permanent seal
• Lightweight rigid Aluminium or Nylon
piping is easy to lift and maneuver. It
does not require expensive support
structures
• Virtually maintenance free
Leak-free system
• Designed with reliable O-ring seals,
TOPRING compressed air distribution
systems ensure virtually leak-proof
operation
Optimal machine and tool
efficiency
• The full flow design of TOPRING
components, the low friction coefficient
of Aluminium/Nylon pipe, and the
sealing characteristics of the systems
ensure optimal and constant flow
through out
THE IDEAL COMPRESSED AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM
Maximum flexibility and
modularity
• TOPRING compressed air distribution
systems can be expanded and moved or
reconfigured easily since all
components are reusable
• Installations that would take
days/weeks with conventional systems
are accomplished in hours
• These systems will adapt to ever
changing requirements
• A wide range of parts are available
for 5 different piping sizes
FEATURES AND BENEFITS
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COMPRESSED AIR DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS
28 mm
22 mm
15 mm
63 mm
40 mm
TOPRING
COMPRESSED AIR
SYSTEMS
ARE COMPATIBLE
TOPRING offers several compressed
air distribution systems:
• Series 05 AIR LINE
• Series 07 QUICK LINE
• Series 06 SicoAIR
AIR LINE and QUIK LINE components
are compatible with each other and offer
several system options for various needs.
Series 05 AIR LINE
Calibrated Nylon
Actual dimensions
S05 AIR LINE & S07 QUICK LINE
Series 05 AIR LINE
Composite Push-In
Series 07 QUICK LINE
Calibrated Aluminium
Series 07 QUICK LINE
Calibrated Aluminium
Series 07 QUICK LINE
Brass Push-In
Series 07 QUICK LINE
Brass Compression
PIPING
15 22 28
FITTINGS
15 22 28
FITTINGS
40 63
PIPING
40 63
175
PSI
220
PSI
220
PSI
175
PSI
175
PSI
Actual dimensions
Series 07 QUICK LINE
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