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[No. 5986.

March 18, 1941]


JOSE RUIZ, plainti an! app"llant,
#$. %E&'(I' ')IENZ', !"*"n!ant an! app"ll"".
EN(ZON, J.+
,O-)RINE+ The provision of the Marriage Law (Sec.
30, Act No. 3613) referring to "force" or "vioence" as
gro!n" of ann!#ent of #arriage, "oes not see# to
inc!"e #ere inti#i"ation, at east where it "oes not in
ega e$ect a#o!nt to force or vioence.
.'-)S+
1. This is an appea fro# a "ecision of the Mania
%o!rt of &irst 'nstance "en(ing painti$)s "e#an"
for the ann!#ent of his #arriage with "efen"ant
contracte" on Nove#*er 1+, 1,3-, with a the
o!twar" ega for#aities.
/. .revio!s to &e*r!ar(, 1,3-, /ose 0!i1 an" .eagia
Atien1a, *oth singe, were sweethearts.
0. Loving perhaps too we, she aowe" hi#, in a
#o#ent of wea2ness, to have his wa(, with the
res!t that nine #onths ater she *eca#e an
!n#arrie" #other.
4. After the *a*()s *irth, i. e., on Nove#*er 1+, 1,3-,
.eagia)s father /ose Atien1a, Att(. 3iavicencio (her
co!sin4in4aw), an" three other persons visite" /ose
0!i1 at the *oar"ing ho!se where he ive", in
5regon street.
5. The( re6!este", an" after so#e "isc!ssion,
convince" hi# to #arr( .eagia.
6. 7ith his co!sin Afre"o As!ncion, he went with /ose
Atien1a an" co#panions to Tan"!a( street, where
.eagia was iving8
1. fro# there the part(, 9oine" *( .eagia an" others,
went to the Agipa(an ch!rch at Maria %ara street,
Mania, th"n proc""!"! to $"c2r" a 3arria4"
lic"n$", an! lat"r r"t2rn"! to th" $a3"
'4lipa5an ch2rch 6h"r" th" 3arria4" 6a$
c"l"7rat"! in th" "#"nin4.
8. &o!r "a(s ater, aeging that he ha" *een force"
into we"oc2, /ose 0!i1 *ro!ght this s!it to sec!re
its avoi"ance.
9. :is co!nse has )"ra#ati1e" the visit of /ose Atien1a
an" co#panions, an" the "pans" "rawn to force
/ose 0!i1 into the #arriage, /ose)s passive an"
"owncast attit!"e, a in an e$ort to #aintain the
proposition that /ose 0!i1 went with the# that
afternoon "convince"" *( the foowing
"arg!#ents";
a. the threats of the father s!pporte" *( his
"*aisong"8
*. the !nveie" inti#i"ation *( Att(.3iavicencio
that if he wo!" not #arr( .eagia Atien1a,
he wo!" have "i<c!t( when he wo!" ta2e
the *ar e=a#inations *eca!se, as he sai",
#an( have *een re9ecte" a"#ission to the
*ar on the gro!n" of i##orait(8 an"
c. the pro#ise of Att(. 3iavicencio that 0!i1
wo!" *e ph(sica( "safe" if he wo!" go
with the#.
'SS>?;
7@N /ose 0!i1 was inti#i"ate" into #arr(ing .eagia
Atien1aA
:?LB; NoC
1. As to the Drst, it appears that in the co!rse of the
conversation "!ring the visit, 0!i1 #a"e the
state#ent that he co!" not #arr( .eagia *eca!se
he was area"( a #arrie" #an.
/. This so aro!se" /ose Atien1a that he gra**e" 0!i1)
nec2tie, e=cai#ing; "So (o! #ean to foo #(
"a!ghterC"
0. Those present intervene" 6!ic2(, an" the "isp!te
stoppe".
4. The Eare of anger is easi( !n"erstan"a*e.
5. 82t it i$ not $29ci"ntl5 "$ta7li$h"! that Jo$"
'ti"n:a !i$pla5"! an5 ;7ali$on4;, or 3a!"
an5 thr"at a4ain$t th" li*" o* R2i:.
6. 'n fact, on( a one4an"4a4haf4inch 2nife was fo!n"
in his possession *( the poice#an who# the
co#panions of 0!i1 cae" !pon seeing what the(
*eieve" to *e the *eginning of tro!*e.
1. '$ to th" thr"at to o7$tr2ct hi$ a!3i$$ion to
th" 8ar, 75 <lin4 char4"$ a4ain$t hi3 *or
i33oralit5, th" a2thoriti"$ ar" 2nani3o2$
that it i$ not $2ch a !2r"$$ a$ to con$tit2t" a
r"a$on *or ann2lin4 th" 3arria4".
8. F F F an" where a #an #arries !n"er the threat of,
or constraint fro#, a awf! prosec!tion for
se"!ction or *astar"(, he cannot avoi" the
#arriage on the gro!n" of "!ress8 F F F.
9. '$ to th" pro3i$" 75 'tt5. =illa#ic"ncio, it i$
appar"nt that 6h"n !"*"n!ant 6a$ in#it"! to
4o 6ith th"3 an! 3arr5 %"la4ia, h" ha! $o3"
*"ar$ that h" 3i4ht 7" $27>"ct"! to 7o!il5
har3 in r"taliation *or th" !i$honor in?ict"!
2pon h"r *a3il5.
1@. &or this reason, he ha" to *e ass!re" *(
3iavicencio that he wo!" *e safe if he went with
the#.
11. &ro# this state#ent, we cannot infer what
appeantGs attorne( wo!" cever( infer, i.e., that
0!i1 wo!" not *e safe if he "i" not foow the#.
1/. Appeant 6o2l! 3aA" it app"ar that that
a*t"rnoon R2i: 6a$ practicall5 Ai!napp"! *(
.eagia)s reatives !nti after the #arriage
cere#on(.
a. )hat cannot 7" tr2".
*. :e ha" #an( occasions to escape, as
pointe" o!t in appeee)s *rief.
c. :e ha" co#panions in the ho!se who# he
co!" have as2e" for hep.
". There was even the poice#an.
10. Now, consi"ering that the aw pres!#es
strong( the vai"it( of #arriage once the for#a
cere#onies have *een co#pete", we are e" to the
conc!sion that atho!gh painti$ #a( not have
oo2e" !pon the cere#on( as the happ(
c!#ination of (o!thf! ro#ance, sti the evi"ence
"oes not warrant a prono!nce#ent that his consent
to it was o*taine" thro!gh force or inti#i"ation.
14. 'n"ee", we #a( a"vert to the provision of the
Marriage Law which, referring to "force" or
"vioence", "oes not see# to inc!"e #ere
inti#i"ation, at east where it "oes not in ega
e$ect a#o!nt to force or vioence.
15. At an( rate, it is !nnecessar( to pass on the
e$ect of this ega "istinction.
16. &or even tho!gh appeant has presente" his
case in the *est possi*e ight, (et appeee)s
attorne( has s!ccessf!( #et the iss!es, !pho"ing
the 9!"ge)s conc!sion of fact that neither vioence
nor "!ress atten"e" the #arriage cee*ration.
/!"g#ent a<r#e", with costs against the appeant.
So or"ere"