P. 1
Quality Assurance

Quality Assurance

|Views: 3,170|Likes:
Published by medo-abrahim-4304

More info:

Published by: medo-abrahim-4304 on Dec 12, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PPT, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

06/10/2013

pdf

text

original

Sections

Quality Assurance

Quality Assurance
Quality Assurance

Quality Assurance

Module “1”

Module “1”
Module “1”

Module “1”

Basic Concepts and

Basic Concepts and
Definitions

Definitions

Basic Concepts and

Basic Concepts and
Definitions

Definitions

Introduction

Introduction

Businesses have focused on quality in the

Businesses have focused on quality in the
last 20-30 years.

last 20-30 years.
As markets have become much more

As markets have become much more
competitive - quality has become widely

competitive - quality has become widely
regarded as a key ingredient for success

regarded as a key ingredient for success
in business.

in business.

Businesses have focused on quality in the

Businesses have focused on quality in the
last 20-30 years.

last 20-30 years.
As markets have become much more

As markets have become much more
competitive - quality has become widely

competitive - quality has become widely
regarded as a key ingredient for success

regarded as a key ingredient for success
in business.

in business.

Introduction

Introduction

Today's business climate requires an

Today's business climate requires an
exact interpretation of customer

exact interpretation of customer
requirements coupled with effective and

requirements coupled with effective and
efficient processes to meet those

efficient processes to meet those
requirements.

requirements.

Today's business climate requires an

Today's business climate requires an
exact interpretation of customer

exact interpretation of customer
requirements coupled with effective and

requirements coupled with effective and
efficient processes to meet those

efficient processes to meet those
requirements.

requirements.

Defining 'Quality'

Defining 'Quality'

In its broadest sense,

In its broadest sense,

Quality is a degree of excellence

In the narrow sense,

In the narrow sense,

Product or service quality is “conformance
with requirement, freedom from defects or
contamination, or simply a degree of
customer satisfaction.”

In its broadest sense,

In its broadest sense,

Quality is a degree of excellence

In the narrow sense,

In the narrow sense,

Product or service quality is “conformance
with requirement, freedom from defects or
contamination, or simply a degree of
customer satisfaction.”

Defining 'Quality'

Defining 'Quality'

To reach the definition of “Quality”, some

To reach the definition of “Quality”, some
concepts may be discussed:

concepts may be discussed:

Meeting requirements

•Specifications are an imprecise means of
conveying subjective aspects. Conformance to
requirements is not necessarily all there is to
achieving quality.

To reach the definition of “Quality”, some

To reach the definition of “Quality”, some
concepts may be discussed:

concepts may be discussed:

Meeting requirements

•Specifications are an imprecise means of
conveying subjective aspects. Conformance to
requirements is not necessarily all there is to
achieving quality.

Defining 'Quality'

Defining 'Quality'

Quality is a result

•Quality is the result of a comparison between what
was required and what was provided. It is judged
not by the producer but by the receiver.

Quality is a result

•Quality is the result of a comparison between what
was required and what was provided. It is judged
not by the producer but by the receiver.

Defining 'Quality'

Defining 'Quality'

Customer satisfaction

•The only true measure of acceptable quality is
customer satisfaction, which takes into account
both objective and subjective interpretations of the
needs and expectations of customers.

Customer satisfaction

•The only true measure of acceptable quality is
customer satisfaction, which takes into account
both objective and subjective interpretations of the
needs and expectations of customers.

Defining 'Quality'

Defining 'Quality'

Changing customer perceptions

•Customer needs and expectations are constantly
changing. Awareness of new technology,
legislation, problems, competitor products or
services creates new wants for customers.

Changing customer perceptions

•Customer needs and expectations are constantly
changing. Awareness of new technology,
legislation, problems, competitor products or
services creates new wants for customers.

Defining 'Quality'

Defining 'Quality'

Definition

Definition

Quality has many meanings:

•a degree of excellence,
•conformance with requirements,
•the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear
on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs,
•fitness for use,
•freedom from defects, imperfections or
•contamination and delighting customers.

Definition

Definition

Quality has many meanings:

•a degree of excellence,
•conformance with requirements,
•the totality of characteristics of an entity that bear
on its ability to satisfy stated or implied needs,
•fitness for use,
•freedom from defects, imperfections or
•contamination and delighting customers.

Defining 'Quality'

Defining 'Quality'

Quality is about:

Quality is about:

A standard which can be accepted by both the supplier and the
customer.
Giving complete satisfaction to the customer;
Complying consistently to an agreed level of specification;
Providing an acceptable product at an acceptable cost;
Providing a product which is 'fit for the purpose';
The totality of features or characteristics of a product that bear
on its ability to satisfy a given need.

Quality is about:

Quality is about:

A standard which can be accepted by both the supplier and the
customer.
Giving complete satisfaction to the customer;
Complying consistently to an agreed level of specification;
Providing an acceptable product at an acceptable cost;
Providing a product which is 'fit for the purpose';
The totality of features or characteristics of a product that bear
on its ability to satisfy a given need.

Defining 'Quality'

Defining 'Quality'

Quality is not about:

Quality is not about:

Complying with a specification;
Being the best;
Only producing a product that is 'fit for the
purpose

Quality is not about:

Quality is not about:

Complying with a specification;
Being the best;
Only producing a product that is 'fit for the
purpose

Defining 'Quality'

Defining 'Quality'

Quality is all about

Quality is all about

Customer Satisfaction!

Customer Satisfaction!

Quality is all about

Quality is all about

Customer Satisfaction!

Customer Satisfaction!

Defining 'Quality'

Defining 'Quality'

Differences between a 'Grade' and a 'Class' of a

Differences between a 'Grade' and a 'Class' of a
product or service

product or service

Example

•A Rolls Royce motor car is in a different class to a family car.
They were each designed for a totally different purpose. A
Rolls Royce that constantly fails to start would be of poor
quality whereas the family car that starts every time would be
of good quality, assuming all other features to be equal.

Differences between a 'Grade' and a 'Class' of a

Differences between a 'Grade' and a 'Class' of a
product or service

product or service

Example

•A Rolls Royce motor car is in a different class to a family car.
They were each designed for a totally different purpose. A
Rolls Royce that constantly fails to start would be of poor
quality whereas the family car that starts every time would be
of good quality, assuming all other features to be equal.

Defining 'Quality'

Defining 'Quality'

““Grade”

Grade”

Differences in product or service performance
and degrees of refinement are differences in
grade.

““Class”

Class”

Differences in purpose are differences in
class.

““Grade”

Grade”

Differences in product or service performance
and degrees of refinement are differences in
grade.

““Class”

Class”

Differences in purpose are differences in
class.

Quality characteristics

Quality characteristics

Features of a product or service needed to
satisfy customer needs are quality
characteristic.
When dealing with products the
characteristics are almost always technical
characteristics, whereas service quality
characteristics have a human dimension.

Features of a product or service needed to
satisfy customer needs are quality
characteristic.
When dealing with products the
characteristics are almost always technical
characteristics, whereas service quality
characteristics have a human dimension.

Quality characteristics

Quality characteristics

Product quality dimension

Product quality dimension

Performance

•Refers to the efficiency with a product achieves its intended
purpose.

Features

•Are attributes of a product that supplement the product's
basic performance.

Reliability

•Refers to the propensity for product to perform consistently
over its useful design life.

Conformance

•When a product is designed, certain numeric dimensions for
the product's performance will be established, such as
capacity, speed, size, durability.

Product quality dimension

Product quality dimension

Performance

•Refers to the efficiency with a product achieves its intended
purpose.

Features

•Are attributes of a product that supplement the product's
basic performance.

Reliability

•Refers to the propensity for product to perform consistently
over its useful design life.

Conformance

•When a product is designed, certain numeric dimensions for
the product's performance will be established, such as
capacity, speed, size, durability.

Quality Characteristics

Quality Characteristics

Durability

•Is the degree to which a product tolerates stress or
trauma without failing.

Serviceability

•Is the ease of repair for a product.

Aesthetics

•Are subjective sensory characteristics such as
taste, feel, sound, look and smell.

Perceived quality

•Is based on customer opinion.

Durability

•Is the degree to which a product tolerates stress or
trauma without failing.

Serviceability

•Is the ease of repair for a product.

Aesthetics

•Are subjective sensory characteristics such as
taste, feel, sound, look and smell.

Perceived quality

•Is based on customer opinion.

Quality Characteristics

Quality Characteristics

Service quality dimensions

Service quality dimensions

Tangibles

•Include the physical appearance of the service facility, the
equipment, the personnel, and the communication materials.

Service Reliability

•It relates to the ability of the service provider to perform the
promised service dependably and accurately.

Responsiveness

•Is the willingness of the service provider to be helpful and
prompt in providing service.

Assurance

•Refers to the knowledge and courtesy of employees and their
ability to inspire trust and confidence.

Service quality dimensions

Service quality dimensions

Tangibles

•Include the physical appearance of the service facility, the
equipment, the personnel, and the communication materials.

Service Reliability

•It relates to the ability of the service provider to perform the
promised service dependably and accurately.

Responsiveness

•Is the willingness of the service provider to be helpful and
prompt in providing service.

Assurance

•Refers to the knowledge and courtesy of employees and their
ability to inspire trust and confidence.

Quality Characteristics

Quality Characteristics

David Garvin found that most definitions of

David Garvin found that most definitions of
quality were either:

quality were either:

Transcendent

•Quality is something that is intuitively understood
but nearly impossible to communicate such as
beauty or love

Product-Based

•Quality is found in the components and attributes
of a product

David Garvin found that most definitions of

David Garvin found that most definitions of
quality were either:

quality were either:

Transcendent

•Quality is something that is intuitively understood
but nearly impossible to communicate such as
beauty or love

Product-Based

•Quality is found in the components and attributes
of a product

Quality Characteristics

Quality Characteristics

User-Based

•If the customer is satisfied, the product has good

quality

Manufacturing-Based

•If the product conforms to design specifications, it
has a good quality

Value-Based

•If the product is perceived as providing good value
for the price, it has a good quality.

User-Based

•If the customer is satisfied, the product has good

quality

Manufacturing-Based

•If the product conforms to design specifications, it
has a good quality

Value-Based

•If the product is perceived as providing good value
for the price, it has a good quality.

Quality and Price

Quality and Price

Most of us are attracted to certain products
and services by their price.
If the price is outside our reach then we don't
even consider quality, except perhaps to
admire it.
Price is not a feature or characteristic of the
product but is a feature of the service.

Most of us are attracted to certain products
and services by their price.
If the price is outside our reach then we don't
even consider quality, except perhaps to
admire it.
Price is not a feature or characteristic of the
product but is a feature of the service.

Quality and Cost

Quality and Cost

There is the cost of doing the right things right
first time and the cost of not doing the right
things right first time.
The latter are quality costs or the cost
incurred because failure is possible.

There is the cost of doing the right things right
first time and the cost of not doing the right
things right first time.
The latter are quality costs or the cost
incurred because failure is possible.

Quality Control

Quality Control

What is Quality Control 'QC'?

What is Quality Control 'QC'?

Is a set of measures taken to ensure that
defective products or services are not
produced, and that the design meets
performance requirements.

What is Quality Control 'QC'?

What is Quality Control 'QC'?

Is a set of measures taken to ensure that
defective products or services are not
produced, and that the design meets
performance requirements.

Quality Control

Quality Control

What is detection?

What is detection?

It is about getting rid of the bad things after
they have taken place.

What is detection?

What is detection?

It is about getting rid of the bad things after
they have taken place.

Defining ‘Quality
Assurance’

Defining ‘Quality
Assurance’

Defining “Assurance”

Defining “Assurance”

Freedom from doubt

Defining “Quality Assurance Systems”

Defining “Quality Assurance Systems”

Prevention-based systems which improve
product and service quality, and increases
productivity by placing the emphasis on
product, service and process design.

Defining “Assurance”

Defining “Assurance”

Freedom from doubt

Defining “Quality Assurance Systems”

Defining “Quality Assurance Systems”

Prevention-based systems which improve
product and service quality, and increases
productivity by placing the emphasis on
product, service and process design.

Defining ‘Quality
Assurance’

Defining ‘Quality
Assurance’

The purpose of QA is:

The purpose of QA is:

To provide assurance to a customer
To ensure that manufacturing and/or service
standards are uniform

The purpose of QA is:

The purpose of QA is:

To provide assurance to a customer
To ensure that manufacturing and/or service
standards are uniform

Defining ‘Quality
Assurance’

Defining ‘Quality
Assurance’

QA is concerned with:

QA is concerned with:

An agreed level of quality
A commitment:

•within an organization to the fundamental principle
of consistently supplying the right quality product;
•from a customer to the fundamental principle of
only accepting the right quality product;

A commitment to the basic principles of QA
and QC.

QA is concerned with:

QA is concerned with:

An agreed level of quality
A commitment:

•within an organization to the fundamental principle
of consistently supplying the right quality product;
•from a customer to the fundamental principle of
only accepting the right quality product;

A commitment to the basic principles of QA
and QC.

Quality Management
Systems

Quality Management
Systems

Definition of QMS

Definition of QMS

Is a proven technique to guarantee survival in
world class competition. Only by changing the
actions of management will the culture.
Is the art managing the whole to achieve
excellence.

Definition of QMS

Definition of QMS

Is a proven technique to guarantee survival in
world class competition. Only by changing the
actions of management will the culture.
Is the art managing the whole to achieve
excellence.

Quality Management
Systems

Quality Management
Systems

Quality Management and culture

Quality Management and culture

QM requires a cultural change. This change is substantial and
will not be accomplished in short period of time.

Quality Management and culture

Quality Management and culture

QM requires a cultural change. This change is substantial and
will not be accomplished in short period of time.

Quality
Element

Previous
State

Quality
Management

Definition

Product-oriented

Customer-oriented

Priorities

Second to service and cost

First among equals of service and cost

Decisions

Short- term

Long-term

Emphasis

Detection

prevention

Errors

Operations

System

Responsibility Quality control

Everyone

Problem solving Managers

Teams

Procurement

Price

Life-cycle costs, partnership

Manager's role Plan, assign, control, and enforce

Delegate, coach, faciliate, and mentor

Quality Management
Systems

Quality Management
Systems

Requirements of a Quality Management System

Requirements of a Quality Management System

To be successful, an organization must:

•Be able to offer products that satisfy a customer's
expectations;
•Agree with the relevant standards and specifications of a
contract;
•Be available at competitive prices;
•Be able to supply products or services at a cost that will still
bring a profit to that organization.

Requirements of a Quality Management System

Requirements of a Quality Management System

To be successful, an organization must:

•Be able to offer products that satisfy a customer's
expectations;
•Agree with the relevant standards and specifications of a
contract;
•Be available at competitive prices;
•Be able to supply products or services at a cost that will still
bring a profit to that organization.

Importance of “Quality”

Importance of “Quality”

Why should an organization be interested

Why should an organization be interested
in quality?

in quality?

A business would have no profits if it failed to
create and retain satisfied customers.
Therefore, quality is vital to the survival of
every enterprise.

Why should an organization be interested

Why should an organization be interested
in quality?

in quality?

A business would have no profits if it failed to
create and retain satisfied customers.
Therefore, quality is vital to the survival of
every enterprise.

Importance of “Quality”

Importance of “Quality”

What does quality apply to?

What does quality apply to?

Every product, service, process, task, action,
decision can either be acceptable or
unacceptable.
Hence, there is an intrinsic quality in
everything that an organization does.

What does quality apply to?

What does quality apply to?

Every product, service, process, task, action,
decision can either be acceptable or
unacceptable.
Hence, there is an intrinsic quality in
everything that an organization does.

Importance of “Quality”

Importance of “Quality”

Who is responsible for quality?

Who is responsible for quality?

Assigning responsibility means:

•Giving a person the right to cause things to
happen and with this right should be delegated the
authority to control the processes which deliver the
output the quality of which the person is
responsible for.

Who is responsible for quality?

Who is responsible for quality?

Assigning responsibility means:

•Giving a person the right to cause things to
happen and with this right should be delegated the
authority to control the processes which deliver the
output the quality of which the person is
responsible for.

Case study

Case study
Case study

Case study

Fedex

Managing Quality Day and Night

Fedex

Managing Quality Day and Night

Discussion Questions

Discussion Questions

What is FedEx's "common language" of quality? Is it important
for a company to establish a "common language" of quality? If
so, why?
There are several different perspective of quality, including the
operations perspective, the strategic perspective, the marketing
perspective, the financial perspective, the human resources
perspective, and the systems perspective, which of these
perspectives are being emphasized by FedEx? Why?
Is FedEx 's level of emphasis on quality appropriate? Why or
why not?

Discussion Questions

Discussion Questions

What is FedEx's "common language" of quality? Is it important
for a company to establish a "common language" of quality? If
so, why?
There are several different perspective of quality, including the
operations perspective, the strategic perspective, the marketing
perspective, the financial perspective, the human resources
perspective, and the systems perspective, which of these
perspectives are being emphasized by FedEx? Why?
Is FedEx 's level of emphasis on quality appropriate? Why or
why not?

Workshops

Workshops
Workshops

Workshops

Workshop 1

Workshop 1

In

In groups:
groups:

a. Choose a product with your team and use the product quality
dimensions mentioned before to give examples about each property.

In

In groups:
groups:

a. Choose a product with your team and use the product quality
dimensions mentioned before to give examples about each property.

Product :

Product :
Product quality dimensions

Performance
Features
Reliability

Conformance

Durability
Serviceability
Aesthetics
Perceived quality

Workshop 1 (Cont.)

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->