PLASMODIUM

 Sporozoa

Plasmodium sp. – causes malaria - transmitted by a female Anopheles mosquito - S/Sx: intermittent chills, fever, sweat - with alternating generations of sexual stage (sporogony) in the mosquito and asexual stage (schizogony) in man

Dx: 6 consecutive positive malarial blood smear - Treatment: Chloroquine - Types of malaria: 1. Plasmodium malariae – quartan malaria 2. Plasmodium vivax – benign tertian malaria, most widely distributed 3. Plasmodium ovale – ovale tertian malaria, sporadic 4. Plasmodium falciparum – malignant tertian malaria

Plasmodium malariae

Plasmodium malariae ring stage

Plasmodium vivax gametocyte

Plasmodium vivax ring stage

Plasmodium vivax schizont stage

Plasmodium vivax trophozoite

Plasmodium ovale

Plasmodium ovale trophozoite

Plasmodium falciparum gametocyte

Plasmodium falciparum ring stage

DISEASES

Stages of malaria paroxysm
 Cold

stage  Hot stage  Wet stage

Treatment
Anti-malarial drug  Chloroquine (all species except P. malariae)  Quinine  Sulfadoxine (for the resistant P. falciparum)  Primaquine (for relapse of P. vivax and ovale)  Exchange transfusion
  for

rapid production of high levels of parasites in the blood

EFFECT ON RBC

P. falciparum
 Normal  Maurer’s

dot

P.vivax
 Enlarged  Shuffner’s

dot

P. ovale
 Enlarged

with jajed edge  James’s dot

P. malariae
 Normal

rbc  Ziemman’s dot

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