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7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 525


7=SINO-INDIAN phylosector
This phylosector comprises 22 sets of languages spoken by communities in eastern Asia, from the Himalayas to
Manchuria (Heilongjiang), constituting the Sino-Tibetan (or Sino-Indian) continental affinity. See note on
nomenclature below.
70= TIBETIC phylozone 71= HIMALAYIC phylozone 72= GARIC phylozone
73= KUKIC phylozone 74= MIRIC phylozone 75= KACHINIC phylozone
76= RUNGIC phylozone 77= IRRAWADDIC phylozone 78= KARENIC phylozone
79= SINITIC phylozone
This continental affinity is composed of two major parts: the disparate Tibeto-Burman affinity (zones 70= to 77=),
spoken by relatively small communities (with the exception of 77=) in the Himalayas and adjacent regions; and the
closely related Chinese languages of the Sinitic set and net (zone 79=), spoken in eastern Asia. The Karen
languages of zone 78=, formerly considered part of the Tibeto-Burman grouping, are probably best regarded as a
third component of Sino-Tibetan affinity.
Zone 79=Sinitic includes the outer-language with the largest number of primary voices in the world, representing the
most populous network of contiguous speech-communities at the end of the 20
th
century ("Mainstream Chinese" or
so-called 'Mandarin', standardised under the name of Putonghua).
This phylosector is named 7=Sino-Indian (rather than Sino-Tibetan) to maintain the broad geographic nomenclature of
all ten sectors of the linguasphere, composed of the names of continental or sub-continental entities. The future
nomenclature of the Sino-Tibetan affinity itself remains a matter for public debate and consensus, although it should
be observed that languages from 8 of 10 zones in this phylosector are currently spoken in geographic India. More
important, however, is the need for further geographic surveying and comparative analysis in this phylosector, which
in Southeast Asia includes a number of geographically fragmented and interspersed speech communities.
Before consulting the following tables, please see Guide to the Register in Volume One
Additional or improved data on languages and communities covered by this sector will be welcomed
by e-mail at: REGISTER@LINGUASPHERE.ORG, or by letter-post at: LINGUASPHERE PRESS, HEBRON SA34 0XT, WALES (UK).
COLUMN 1 & 2
layers of reference
codes and reference-names
COLUMN 3
other nomenclature and notes
COLUMNS 4 & 5
nation-states scale of
(+ provinces) and speakers
70= TIBETIC
phylozone
covers the "Tibetan" or Phke+ Kinnauri set, part of the
"Tibeto-Burman" affinity within the "Sino-Tibetan" ("Sino-
Indian") continental affinity; comprising 1 set of languages (=
25 outer languages) spoken by communities in Central Asia,
on both sides of the Himalayas:
70-A PHKE+ KINNAURI
Bhutan; China; Nepal; adjacent
India; Pakistan:
6
70-A PHKE+ KINNAURI
set
BODISH, "tibetan"+ kanauri
70-AA PHKE+ GURUNG*
chain
from c.650: Tibetan scriptinter-relationships and ethnolinguistic
nomenclature to be reviewed
70-AAA PHKE+ LADAKHI
net
BHOTIA, bhote, tibate, huniya, kazi, lama, shalgno, dalai, xifan, hsifan,
pohbetian, tebilian, "wider tibetan"
70-AAA-a Phke China (Tibet; Sichuan; Qinghai);
Nepal; Bhutan; India (Arunachal
Pradesh; West Bengal; Sikkim;
Uttar Pradesh; Himachal Pradesh;
Jammu & Kashmir; migration>
Karnataka); Pakistan
6
70-AAA-aa phke-L. classical-tibetan, "classical" phke, "classical" bhotia, including
"archaic literary tibetan" "later classical tibetan" Tibetan script
China (Tibet)
page 526 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
70-AAA-ab choni+ golog phke-N., "non-tonal tibetan" Qinghai-S.+ Tibet-E.+ Yunnan-N.
mountains
China-W. (Tibet; also Qinghai;
Yunnan)
5
70-AAA-aba choni cone, chone, chona (Tibet)
70-AAA-abb golog ngolok, mgolog Golug (Tibet)
70-AAA-abc zhong-dian chong-tien (Tibet)
70-AAA-abd ambo ngambo, amdo (Tibet); also India
70-AAA-abe dpari dpalri, dparus (Tibet)
70-AAA-abf rebkong (Tibet)
70-AAA-abg banag banang, sbanag, panakha-panags Banag (Tibet); India frontier
70-AAA-abh wayen (Tibet)
70-AAA-abi horke (Tibet)
70-AAA-abj blabrang (Tibet)
70-AAA-ac utsang zang, phke-C., part of "tonal tibetan" China (Tibet); Nepal; Bhutan
70-AAA-aca utsang-F. "modern literary tibetan", "cultivated spoken tibetan" (Tibet)
70-AAA-acb utsang-U. lhasa "city tibetan", dbus Lhasa (Tibet: Lhasa )
70-AAA-acc utsang-V. "vehicular tibetan" (Tibet)
70-AAA-acd panang panags, panakha Phu-Chu+ Sankosh confluence: Punakha (Tibet)
70-AAA-ace sotati-po (Tibet)
70-AAA-acf lhomi lhoket, shing-saapa Lhoma* (Tibet); Nepal
70-AAA-acg tseku (Tibet); Bhutan; Nepal
70-AAA-ach kyerung (Tibet)
70-AAA-aci kagate shuba, shyuba, kagate-bhotia, shigatse (Tibet)
70-AAA-acj olangchung-gola (Tibet)
70-AAA-ack naapa nawa-sherpa, naba, naapaa (Tibet)
70-AAA-acl helambu-sherpa helambu-sharpa (Tibet)
70-AAA-acm nyam-kat mnyam-skad (Tibet)
70-AAA-acn aba apa, ba, batang (Tibet); India frontier
70-AAA-aco dartsemdo tatsienlu India frontier
70-AAA-acp dru India frontier
70-AAA-acq garhwal garhwal-bhotia, "tibetan" garhwali Garwhal district India (Uttar Pradesh)
70-AAA-acr jad dzad, tehri-garhwal-bhotia India frontier
70-AAA-acs gtsang India frontier
70-AAA-act hanniu India frontier
70-AAA-acu bud-kat bod-skad (Tibet)
70-AAA-acv sangyas sangs-rgyas, "upper" kanawar bhotia (Tibet)
70-AAA-acw paraung paurong India frontier
70-AAA-acx kumaun Kumaun, Kumaon hills India (Uttar Pradesh)
70-AAA-acy takpa dwags (Tibet); India frontier
70-AAA-ad kham-atuence phke-E., part of "tonal tibetan" China (Tibet) 5
70-AAA-ada kham khams, khams-yal, khams-bhotia, kam, chamdo Chamco* (Tibet)
70-AAA-adb nyarong niarong (Tibet)
70-AAA-adc atuence atuentse, ngan-shuen-kuan, an-shuen-kuan-nyarong, "tibetan"-SE. (Tibet); India frontier
70-AAA-add sdedge (Tibet)
70-AAA-ade mbathang (Tibet)
70-AAA-ae sherpa "mountain" phke, sharpa, xiaerba, serwa; sharpa-bhotia, part of "tonal
tibetan" #sherpa =eastener
Nepal; India (Sikkim; West Bengal) 4
70-AAA-aea sherpa-'nepal' Solu Khumbu district Nepal
70-AAA-aeb sherpa-'sikkim' (Sikkim)
70-AAA-aec sherpa-'bengal' (West Bengal) 4
70-AAA-af dolpo+ tichurong phke-S., part of "tonal tibetan" Nepal 3
70-AAA-afa dolpo phke-dolpa, dolpa 2 Nepal
70-AAA-afb tichurong ticherong Nepal
70-AAA-afc mugali mngari Nepal
70-AAA-afd mugali-kham Nepal
70-AAA-afe humla humla-bhotia, dangali-phke Nepal
70-AAA-b Dzongkha+ Groma "Wider"-Tibetan-S., lho-ke, lho-ka, hloka, lho-skad, de-njong-ke, da-
ndzong-ka #lho-ke, lho-ka = southern language
China-W. (Tibet); Nepal; Bhutan;
India (Sikkim; also Arunchal
Pradesh*)
4
70-AAA-ba jirel ziral, jiri Jiri valley transition to [70] Phke Nepal-E. 3
70-AAA-bb sikkim-bhotia sikkimese, sikami, sikkim de-njong-ke, sikkim lho-ke Sikkim-N.
mountains
India (Sikkim) 3
70-AAA-bc groma tromowa Chambi valley Bhutan; China (Tibet); India
(Sikkim)
70-AAA-bca 'upper'-groma (Tibet); Bhutan; (Sikkim)
70-AAA-bcb 'lower'-groma (Sikkim)
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 527
70-AAA-bd spiti Lahul-Spiti district China (Tibet); India (Sikkim)
70-AAA-be tomo chumba, chumbi, chambi Chumba China (Tibet)
70-AAA-bf dzongkha bhutanese, bhutan-bhotia, zongkhar, zonkar, jonkha, drukke, drukha,
bhutan de-njong-ke, bhutan lho-ke
Bhutan 5
70-AAA-bg tshalingpa tshali Bhutan 3
70-AAA-bh dagpakha part of dakpa, dukpa-bhotia Bhutan; China (Tibet) 3
70-AAA-bha dagpakha-S. Bhutan
70-AAA-bhb dagpakha-N. (Tibet)
70-AAA-bi padam #identity of ta-padam-teng in Bhutan and (adi-)padam in Arunachal
Pradesh to be confirmed
Bhutan; India (Arunachal Pradesh) 4*
70-AAA-bia ta-padam-teng Bhutan 3
70-AAA-bib adi-padam padam (Arunachal Pradesh) 3
70-AAA-bj laya-lingzhi "shepherds' bhutanese"-NW. Bhutan 2
70-AAA-bja laya Bhutan
70-AAA-bjb lingzhi Bhutan
70-AAA-bk adap dap, "bhutanese"-CS. Bhutan 3
70-AAA-bl sagtengpa* mira-sagtengpa, brokpa, part of dakpa, hutan Sakteng valley
classification within this net to be confirmed
Bhutan 3
70-AAA-c Ladakhi+ Purik "Wider"-Tibetan-W. Pakistan (NWF); India (Jammu &
Kashmir); China (Tibet)
5
70-AAA-ca ladakhi ladak, ladhakhi, ladwags Ladakh mountains Indus upper valley
Tibetan script
India (Jammu & Kashmir) 4
70-AAA-caa budhi Budhi (Jammu & Kashmir)
70-AAA-cab bod-butun (Jammu & Kashmir)
70-AAA-cac maryul (Jammu & Kashmir)
70-AAA-cad hanu (Jammu & Kashmir)
70-AAA-cae leh Leh (Jammu & Kashmir)
70-AAA-caf sham (Jammu & Kashmir)
70-AAA-cb changthang Indus upper valley India (Jammu & Kashmir)
70-AAA-cba byan-skat (Jammu & Kashmir)
70-AAA-cbb rong Henis park environs: Rong (Jammu & Kashmir)
70-AAA-cbc rapshu (Jammu & Kashmir)
70-AAA-cbd stotpa (Jammu & Kashmir)
70-AAA-cc balti sbalti, sbalt, baltistani, baltistan bhotia Baltistan mountains Pakistan (NWF); India (Jammu &
Kashmir)
5
70-AAA-cd purik burig, purig, purig-skad, purik-bhotia, purig-pa, purki Himalaya-W.
mountains
(Kashmir) 5
70-AAA-ce zangskari zanskari, zaskari Zaskar mountains (Kashmir); China (Tibet) 4
70-AAA-d Larkye Gorka-N. district: Buri-gandalei valley Nepal 3
70-AAA-da larkye kutang-bhotia Nepal 3
70-AAA-e Loyu loya, mustang, dolpa 3 Dolpa district Nepal 4
70-AAA-ea lo mustang "proper", lo-montang; lo-pa, lo-ba community Manthang,
Mustang
Nepal-CN.
70-AAA-eb seke Nepal-CN.
70-AAA-f Thudam-Bhotia* thudam Taplejung district Nepal (Mechi) 3*
70-AAA-fa thudam-bhotia thudam-bhote classification to be confirmed Nepal (Mechi) 3
70-AAA-g Sherdukpen India (Arunachal Pradesh; Assam) 3
70-AAA-ga sherdukpen India (Arunachal Pradesh; Assam) 3
70-AAA-gaa sherdukpen-N. (Arunachal Pradesh)
70-AAA-gab sherdukpen-S. (Assam)
70-AAB GURUNG+ TAMANG
net
"WIDER"-GURUNG
70-AAB-a Tamang+ Murmi Nepal; India (Sikkim; West Bengal;
also migration> Uttar Pradesh)
5
70-AAB-aa murmi tamang-NW. Nuwakot-N. mountains Terai plains Nepal 5
70-AAB-aaa murmi-N. Nuwakot-N. mountains Nepal
70-AAB-aab murmi-S. Terai plains Nepal
70-AAB-ab tamang-SW. Nuwakot-S. mountains Terai plains Nepal-C. 5
70-AAB-ac tamang-E. Nepal-E.; India (Sikkim) 5
70-AAB-aca tamang-kathmandu Kathmandu>E. Nepal-E.
70-AAB-acb tamang-sikkim (Sikkim)
70-AAB-acc tamang-darjiling Darjiling & environs (West Bengal)
70-AAB-b Gurung-N.+
Manangba
Nepal 3
70-AAB-ba manangba manangi Manang district Nepal (Gandaki) 3
70-AAB-bb gurung-N. Nepal-C.
page 528 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
70-AAB-c Gurung-SW. Nepal 5
70-AAB-ca kaski-gurung gurung-W. Kaski district Nepal 4
70-AAB-cb syangja-gurung gurung-S. Syangja district Nepal 4
70-AAB-d Gurung-E. Nepal 4
70-AAB-da lanjung lamjung Nepal 4
70-AAB-daa daduwa Lanjung district: Daduwa & environs Nepal
70-AAB-dab gorkha Gorkha district Nepal
70-AAB-e Thakali+ Baragaunle Mustang Mustang valley Nepal 4
70-AAB-ea thakali Nepal-N. 3
70-AAB-eb baragaunle-1 Nepal-N. 3
70-AAB-ec baragaunle-2 Nepal-N. 3
70-AAB-f Ghale galle-gurung Nepal 4
70-AAB-fa ghale West Gorkha district Nepal 4
70-AAC BUMTHANGKHA+
MANGDIKHA net
KEBUMTAMP
70-AAC-a Bumthangkha+
Mangdikha
Bhutan; also China (Tibet) 5
70-AAC-aa mangdi-kha mandop Mangdi district: Tongsa environs Bhutan-C.
70-AAC-ab gungde-kha Bhutan-C.
70-AAC-ac khen-kha khen, keng Bhutan-C.
70-AAC-ad bumthang-kha bumthang, bhumtang, bhumtam, bumtang-kha Bumtang-Tang Bhutan-C. 5
70-AAC-ae tsamang-kha Kurto-NE. district Bhutan-C.
70-AAC-af kurtopa-kha Kurto district Bhutan-C.
70-AAC-ag salabe-kha+
yangtsepa-kha
Yangtse Tawang dsitricts Tibet adjacent Bhutan-C.; also (Tibet)
70-AAC-aga salabe-kha Bhutan-C.
70-AAC-agb yangtsepa-kha Yangtse district Bhutan-C.
70-AAD TSANGLA+
SHARCHAGPA net
70-AAD-a Sharchagpa Uchan script Bhutan 5
70-AAD-aa sharchagpa-kha sarchap-kha, sharchop-kha; shachop, sharchup person Tashigang
Dungsam districts
Bhutan-E. 5
70-AAD-ab monpa-kha Bhutan-E.
70-AAD-b Tsangla Bhutan; China (Tibet) 4
70-AAD-ba tsangla sangla Himalaya-E. mountains Bhutan; China (Tibet) 4
70-AAD-baa tsangla-bhutan Bhutan-E.
70-AAD-bab tsangla-tibet China (Tibet-S.)
70-AAE TARALIKHAM net KAIKE
70-AAE-a Tarali-kham Nepal (Kamali; Dhaulagiri) 3
70-AAE-aa tarali-kham kaike Nepal (Kamali; Dhaulagiri) 3
70-AAE-aaa dolpa Dolpa district (Karnali)
70-AAE-aab dhaulagiri below Dhaulagiri massif (Dhaulagiri)
70-AB KINNAURI+ THAMI
chain
kanauri+ thami, himalayish
70-ABA KINNAURI+ LAHULI
net
kanauri+ lahuli Devanagari script; Tibetan script
70-ABA-a Bunan+Thebor India (Himachal Pradesh; Jammu
& Kashmir); China (Tibet)
3
70-ABA-aa bunan Bhaga lower valley India-NW.; China (Tibet-W.) 3
70-ABA-aaa bunan-lahuli Bunan district (Himachal Pradesh)
70-ABA-aab gahri (Himachal Pradesh) and/or (Tibet)
70-ABA-ab lippa India-NW.
70-ABA-ac zangram India-NW.
70-ABA-ad thebor India-NW.
70-ABA-ae sumchu sumtsu Sumchum Gmpa India (Jammu & Kashmir)
70-ABA-af sungam India-NW.
70-ABA-ag kanam India-NW.
70-ABA-b Kinnauri+ Kanashi kanauri+ kanashi India; also China (Tibet) 4
70-ABA-ba kanashi India (Himachal Pradesh) 3
70-ABA-bb chitkhuli chitkuli, tshuli, tsitkhuli Sangla valley (Baspa river): Chitkul
Rakchham
India (Himachal Pradesh)
70-ABA-bc tukpa India (Himachal Pradesh)
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 529
70-ABA-bd kinnauri kanauri, kanawari, tibas-skad Kinnaur Lahul-Spiti Mahasu-N.
districts
India (Himachal Pradesh); adjacent
China (Tibet)
4
70-ABA-bda kinnauri-V. "lower" kanauri, kinnaurayanuskad, "vehicular" kinnauri, "standard"
kinnauri
(Himachal Pradesh)
70-ABA-bdb kinnauri-kalpa "upper" kanauri, harijan-kinnauri Kalpa environs (Himachal Pradesh)
70-ABA-bdc malhesti (Himachal Pradesh)
70-ABA-bdd minchhang* milchanang, minchhanang #or an alternative name for preceding
dialect (Malhesti)
(Himachal Pradesh)
70-ABA-c Chamba-Lahuli part of lahauli, lahuli India (Himachal Pradesh); Nepal 3
70-ABA-ca chamba Chamba district India (Himachal Pradesh) 3
70-ABA-cb manchati manchad India (Himachal Pradesh)
70-ABA-cc patni Patan Nepal; India (Himachal Pradesh)
70-ABA-d Tinan-Lahuli part of lahauli, lahuli India (Himachal Pradesh) 4
70-ABA-da tinan Tinan valley India (Himachal Pradesh) 4
70-ABA-db rangloi Rangloi valley India (Himachal Pradesh)
70-ABA-dc gondla Chenab valley: Gondla India (Himachal Pradesh)
70-ABB ALMORA net
70-ABB-a Almora Almora India (Uttar Pradesh); Nepal
(Makhakali)
3
70-ABB-aa rangkas India (Uttar Pradesh); Nepal
(Makhakali)
2
70-ABB-ab darmiya darimiya India (Uttar Pradesh); perhaps also
Nepal (Makhakali)
3
70-ABB-ac chaudangsi tsaudangsi India (Uttar Pradesh); perhaps also
Nepal (Makhakali)
3
70-ABB-ad byangsi Nepal (Makhakali) 3
70-ABC THAMI+ BARAAMU
net
70-ABC-a Thami+ Baraamu Nepal (Awalia); China (Tibet) 4
70-ABC-aa thami Dolakha & environs Nepal (Janakpur); China (Tibet-S.) 4
70-ABC-ab baraamu barhamu, brahmu, bhramu Gorkha-N. district: Kumhali environs
(Takhu)
Nepal (Gandaki) 2
70-AC KUSANDA chain "tanahun hills"
70-ACA KUSANDA net
70-ACA-a Kusanda kusunda Tanahun hills: Kumhali environs Nepal 0
70-ACA-aa kusanda extinct 1980's Nepal-W. 0
70-AD CHANTEL chain
70-ADA CHANTEL net
70-ADA-a Chentel-Magar Kali-Gandaki valley Nepal 3
70-ADA-aa chentel-magar chantel Nepal-C. 3
page 530 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
71= HIMALAYIC
phylozone
covers the "East Himalayan+ Dhimal" grouping, part of the
"Tibeto-Burman" affinity within the "Sino-Tibetan" ("Sino-
Indian") continental affinity; comprising 3 sets of languages (=
48 outer languages) spoken by communities in Central Asia,
in the eastern Himalayan mountain-valleys and highlands:
71-A NEWARI+ DOLKHALI 71-B MAGAR+ LORONGKHA
71-C DHIMAL+TOTO
Nepal; India; Bhutan; Tibet
6
71-A NEWARI+
DOLKHALI set
"newaric"; part of "himalayan"-E.
71-AA NEWARI+
DOLKHALI chain
71-AAA NEWARI+
DOLKHALI net
71-AAA-a Newari+ Dolkhali Old-Nepalese Nepal; also India (Bihar) 5
71-AAA-aa newari newar, including shiv-margi, hindu-margi buddha-margi
Devanagari script
Nepal-C.; Nepal-E. 5
71-AAA-aaa newari-L. "archaic literary" newari Nepal
71-AAA-aab newari-F. "modern literary" newari Nepal 5
71-AAA-aac kathmandu newari-C. Kathmandu valley Nepal (Bagmati)
71-AAA-aad kirtipur Kirtipur Nepal (Bagmati)
71-AAA-aae totali Nepal (Bagmati)
71-AAA-aaf bhaktapur baktapur Bhaktapur Nepal (Bagmati)
71-AAA-ab dolkhali dolakha Dolakha Nepal (Janakpur)
71-AAA-ac pahri newar-pahari, sindhupalchok-pahari Sindhupalchok Nepal
71-B MAGAR+
LORONGKHA set
KIRANTI, including rai; part of "himalayan"-E. a complex continuum
of mountain-valley idioms, presented from west to east; treatment of
idioms as inner-languages or dlalects is based on relative complexity
of relationships within an outer-language; overall classification to be
reviewed #kiranti and rai are overlapping cover-terms, used locally
with a variety of interpretations
71-BA MAGAR+ THULUNG
chain
KIRANTI-WEST
71-BAA TAKALE+ GAMALE
net
KHAM or to be treated as 2 or more nets
71-BAA-a Raute Achham+ Surkhet districts Nepal (Seti; Bheri) 2
71-BAA-aa raute nomadic classification to be confirmed Nepal (Seti; Bheri) 2
71-BAA-b Sheshi Rukum+ Rolpa districts Nepal (Rapti) 3
71-BAA-ba sheshi sheshi-kham Nepal (Rapti) 3
71-BAA-c Gamale Rukum+ Rolpa districts: Gam Khola Nepal (Rapti) 4
71-BAA-ca gamale gamale-kham Nepal (Rapti) 4
71-BAA-d Nisi Rukum+ Rolpa districts Nepal (Rapti) 3
71-BAA-da nisi nisi-kham Nepal (Rapti) 3
71-BAA-e Takale Rukum+ Rolpa districts: Taka-Shera with transhumance between
Dhaulagiri-W. massif (summer) and Rolpa-S. hills (winter)
Nepal (Rapti) 4
71-BAA-ea takale-A. "kham" proper, takale-kham, kham-magar, parbate Nepal (Rapti) 4
71-BAA-eb wali Nepal (Rapti)
71-BAA-f Maikoti Rukum+ Rolpa districts Nepal (Rapti) 3
71-BAA-fa maikoti maikoti-kham Nepal (Rapti) 3
71-BAB MAGAR+ RAJI net
71-BAB-a Raji Nepal (Bheri; Seti); also India 3
71-BAB-aa bardia Surkhet Bardia districts Nepal (Bheri); India frontier
71-BAB-ab banke-kailali Banke-Kailali district Nepal (Seti)
71-BAB-b Magar-W. Nepal (Bheri; Rapti; Dhaulagiri;
Lumbini; Gandaki)
5
71-BAB-ba magar-W. Pokhara>W. Nepal (Bheri; Rapti; Dhaulagiri;
Lumbini; Gandaki)
5
71-BAB-c Magar-E. Baghmati upper valley>E. Nepal (Gandaki; Bagmati) 5
71-BAB-ca magar-E. magari, manggar Baghmati upper valley>E. Nawalparasi hills Nepal (Gandaki; Bagmati) 5
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Linguasphere Observatory page 531
71-BAC CHEPANG+ VAYU
net
71-BAC-a Chepang+ Gharti Nepal (Narayani) 4
71-BAC-aa chepang tsepang Makwanpur-garhi & environs, Inner Terai foothills Nepal (Narayani) 4
71-BAC-aaa chepang-W. (Narayani)
71-BAC-aab chepang-E. (Narayani)
71-BAC-ab bujhel bujal, gharti Yangchok environs, Chimkesori mountain>S. Nepal (Narayani)
71-BAC-ac gharti-2 'slave' gharti Nepal (Narayani)
71-BAC-b Vayu -bilingual in [59] Nepali Nepal (Janakpur) 3
71-BAC-ba vayu wayu, hayu, wayo Ramechhap+ Sindhuli-garhi & environs, Sun-Kosi
middle valley +phonology, grammar and lexicon strongly influenced
by [59] Nepali
Nepal (Janakpur) 3
71-BAC-baa murajor (Janakpur)
71-BAC-bab manedihi (Janakpur)
71-BAD BAHING+ SUNWAR
net
71-BAD-a Bahing+ Sunwar Nepal (Sagarmatha; Janakpur) 4
71-BAD-aa bahing+ rokhung between Solu Melung Thatan rivers Nepal (Sagarmatha) 3
71-BAD-aaa bahing baing, bainge-rai, banenge, including rumdali (Sagarmatha)
71-BAD-aab namber-sacha (Sagarmatha)
71-BAD-aac rokhung (Sagarmatha)
71-BAD-aad khaling-2 distinct from adjacent [71] Khaling (Sagarmatha)
71-BAD-aae dobo-lo (Sagarmatha)
71-BAD-aaf proca-lo (Sagarmatha)
71-BAD-ab sunwar sunuwar, sunbar, sunwari Everest massif>SW.: Ramechhap
Okhaldhunga-NW. districts dialects to be confirmed
Nepal (Sagarmatha) 4
71-BAD-aba mukhiya (Sagarmatha)
71-BAD-abb kwoico-lo (Sagarmatha)
71-BAD-abc surel (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE THULUNG+ DUMI
net
71-BAE-a Dumi+ Khaling Nepal (Sagarmatha) 4
71-BAE-aa khaling khalinge-rai, kalenge-rai, khaling-brat, khl-bra Solu Khumbu district Nepal (Sagarmatha) 4
71-BAE-aaa khaling-A. (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-aab balurus (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-aac romlo (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-aad phuleli (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-ab dumi dumi-bo'o, dum-bro, ro'do-bro, lsi-rai, sotmali Khotang-N. district:
Rawakhola-M. valley
Nepal (Sagarmatha) 3
71-BAE-aba dumi-A. (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-abb brasmi (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-abc kharbari (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-abd lamdija (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-abe makpa (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-ac koi koyu, kohi, koyi, koi-bo'o, koyu-bo' excluding scattered speakers in
other areas of Nepal, known as koi but speaking only [59] Nepali
Khotang district
Nepal (Sagarmatha) 2
71-BAE-aca koi-A. (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-acb sungdel (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-acc behere (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-b Lingkhim* originally Dudkhosi valley; migrated to Ilam district: Sumbek
panchayat (Yokpi)
Nepal (Sagarmatha) 1*
71-BAE-ba lingkhim limkhim, linkhim, lingkhim-rai only 1 speaker reported in 1991 (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-c Thulung+
Lannachyo
Nepal; India (Bihar) 4
71-BAE-ca thulung thulunge-rai Everest massif Nepal (Sagarmatha) 4
71-BAE-caa solu-khumbu Solu Khumbu district (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-cab okhaldhunga Okhaldhunga district (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-cac thulung-bihar Ganges plain (Bihar)
71-BAE-cb lannachyo lancho* (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-d Tilung+ Choskule* classification to be reviewed #possible relationship of name between
Tilung and neighbouring Thulung to be examined
Nepal (Sagarmatha) 3*
71-BAE-da tilung tiling, tilling, tilung-blama Khotang-W. district: between Dudhkosi
Sunkhosi
Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-db choskule Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BAE-dc dorunkecha Nepal (Sagarmatha)
page 532 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
71-BAF CHOURASE+
JERUNG net
71-BAF-a Chourase tsaurasya, chaurasia, chaurasya Dhankuta district Nepal (Sagarmatha) 3
71-BAF-aa umbule* chourase "proper" Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BAF-ab bonu Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BAF-ac ubu Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BAF-b Jerung jero, jerum, jerunge, jero-mala, zero, zerum, zero-mala Melungkhola
lower valley
3
71-BAF-ba jerung-A. jerung "proper" Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BAF-bb madhavpur Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BAF-bc balkhu-sisneri Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BAF-bd ratnawati sindhuli Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BB KULURING+
BANTAWA chain
KIRANTI-CENTRAL
71-BBA KULURING+
SANGPANG net
71-BBA-a Nachereng-ra nachhereng, natshereng, nacering-ra, nachering, nachering-tm,
mathsereng, nachhering, nasring Khotang district: Lidim Khola
headwaters Aiselukharke
Nepal (Sagarmatha) 3
71-BBA-aa bangdel-tm bangdale, bangdile, including hachero, achero hangkula Nepal (Sagarmatha) 3
71-BBA-ab dimali Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-ac parali Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-ad hedangba "pseudo" sangpang nearly extinct Nepal (Sagarmatha) 1*
71-BBA-ae kharlali Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-af rakheli Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-b Kuluring+ Sotaring Kulung Solukhumbu district Nepal (Sagarmatha; Koshi) 4
71-BBA-ba kulu-ring khulunge-rai, kulung, khulung, kholung with vehicular extension
eastwards
Nepal (Sagarmatha; Koshi) 4
71-BBA-bb pelmung* Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-bc maha-kulung Mahakulung Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-bd tamachchang Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-be pidisoi Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-bf chhapkoa Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-bg sota-ring sotang, sottaring Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-bh namlung Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-c Sangpang sampang, sampange-rai Bhojpur Khotang districts: Dingla
Kharpa
Nepal (Sagarmatha) 3
71-BBA-ca tana Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-cb halumbung wakchali Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-cc samarung Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-cd bhalu Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-ce tongeccha Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-cf phali Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-cg khartamche Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBA-ch khotang Khotang Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBB MEOHANG+ SAAM
net
71-BBB-a Meohang-W. newang-W., newange-rai-W., newahang-W., newahang-jimi-W.,
mewahang-W. Arun upper right-bank
Nepal (Sagarmatha) 3
71-BBB-aa bala balali Bala Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBB-ab bumdemba Sishuwakhola panchayat Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBB-b Meohang-E. newang-E., newange-rai-E., newahang-E., newahang-jimi-E.,
mewahang-E. Arun upper left-bank: Sankhuwasawa Sunsari
districts
Nepal (Koshi) 1*
71-BBB-ba sunsari Sunsari district: Bhaludhunga Bishnupaduka panchayats Nepal (Koshi)
71-BBB-bb dibum dibung Mangtewa panchayat Nepal (Koshi)
71-BBB-bc mulgaon+ wangtang Yaphu panchayat Nepal (Koshi)
71-BBB-c Saam saam-rai, samakha, saama-kha Ilam district +submerged by [59]
Nepali and [71] Bantawa only elderly speakers reported in 1990's
Nepal (Mechi) 3
71-BBB-ca bungla Nepal (Mechi)
71-BBB-cb sambya Nepal (Mechi)
71-BBC PONGYONG net
71-BBC-a Pongyong Ilam district: Kannyam panchayat (Ambikau) Nepal (Mechi) 1*
71-BBC-aa pongyong ponyon-kulung, sama-kulung, kulung-pun nearly extinct Nepal (Mechi) 1*
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 533
71-BBD CHUKWA net
71-BBD-a Chukwa Bhojpur district: Kulung panchayat Nepal (Sagarmatha) 2*
71-BBD-aa chukwa-ring Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBD-ab pohing-kha* #or an alternative name for Chukwa Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBE BANTAWA+
CHAMLING net
71-BBE-a Waling* Nepal (Sagarmatha) 3
71-BBE-aa waling walung, walng Bhojpur district: Khairang panchayat Waleng*
probably extinct
Nepal (Sagarmatha) 0*
71-BBE-b Chamling+
Lambichong*
Nepal (Sagarmatha) 3
71-BBE-ba chamling chamlinge-rai, camling, rodong Khotang district: Rawa valley Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBE-bb lambichong lambichhong, chhingtang, tshingtang Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBE-c Puma Nepal (Sagarmatha*) 3
71-BBE-ca puma puma-pima, puma-la, puma-kala Nepal (Sagarmatha*) 3
71-BBE-d Deosali Nepal (Sagarmatha*) 3
71-BBE-da deosali Nepal (Sagarmatha*) 3
71-BBE-e Bantawa+ Amchoke bantawa-rai, bantaba, bontawa, bantawa yng, bantawa-yong, batawa-
dum Khotang Bhojpur Dhankuta-W. districts 20 or more
idioms to be added to the following
Nepal (Sagarmatha; Koshi; Mechi) 4
71-BBE-ea amchoke amchauke Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBE-eaa sorung Sorung Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBE-eab saharaja Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBE-eb bantawa-W. Khotang Bhojpur districts Nepal (Sagarmatha)
71-BBE-ec dilpali bantawa-N. Nepal (Koshi*)
71-BBE-ed hangkhim bantawa-S. Nepal (Koshi*)
71-BBE-ee dhankuta bantawa-SE. Dhankuta-W. district Nepal (Koshi)
71-BBE-ef chhintang Nepal
71-BBE-eg rungchenbung Nepal
71-BBE-eh yangma Nepal
71-BBE-f Dungmali+ Khesang arthare+ khesang Nepal (Koshi) 3
71-BBE-fa dungmali dungmali-pk, dungmali-bantawa, dunmali, arthare, part of kiranti
"proper" dialects to be confirmed Dhankuta district: Tamur valley
Nepal (Koshi) 3
71-BBE-faa chhinamkhang (Koshi)
71-BBE-fab hangbang (Koshi)
71-BBE-fac khandung (Koshi)
71-BBE-fad pungwai (Koshi)
71-BBE-fae roktulung (Koshi)
71-BBE-faf tuncha (Koshi)
71-BBE-fag waitpang (Koshi)
71-BBE-fb khesang khesange, part of arthare+ khesang Nepal (Koshi)
71-BBE-g Khambu* KIRANT Nepal (Mechi; perhaps also Koshi);
also India (West Bengal)
4
71-BBE-ga pallo-kirant khambu "further-kirant" (Mechi)
71-BBE-gb majh khambu "middle-kirant" (Mechi)
71-BBE-gc wallo-kirant khambu "hither-kirant" (Mechi)
71-BBE-gd nolokh-kirant khambu-darjiling Darjiling India (West Bengal)
71-BC LORONGKHA+
MOINBA chain
KIRANTI-EAST
71-BCA LORONGKHA+
MOINBA net
71-BCA-a Lorongkha-N. lorong-N., lohorong-N., lohrung-N., sankhuwasawa Everest
massif>SE. Arun upper middle valley: Sankhuwasawa district
Nepal (Koshi) 4
71-BCA-aa lorong-kha-nawa Nepal (Koshi) 4
71-BCA-ab biksit pidisoi, bikshi Nepal (Koshi)
71-BCA-ac balali Nepal (Koshi)
71-BCA-b Lorongkha-S. lorong-S., lohorong-S., lohrung-S., part of "pseudo" yakkha, part of
"pseudo" yamphu Dhankuta district: Bodhe Maunabuduke
Rajarani panchayats
Nepal (Koshi) 3
71-BCA-ba lorong-kha-te Nepal (Koshi) 3
71-BCA-bb gess Nepal (Koshi)
71-BCA-c Yamphekha yamphe, part of "pseudo" yamphu Arun upper middle valley:
Sankhuwasawa-N. district (Makalu panchayat)
Nepal (Koshi) 3
71-BCA-ca newahang-yamphe-
kha
Nepal (Koshi)
71-BCA-cb sibao-yamphe-kha Nepal (Koshi)
71-BCA-cc pa-o Nepal (Koshi)
page 534 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
71-BCA-d Yamphukha Arun upper middle valley: Sankhuwasawa district Nepal (Koshi) 3*
71-BCA-da yamphu-kha yamphu, yamphu-rai, yanphu Nepal (Koshi)
71-BCA-e Yakkhaba Nepal; India (Sikkim) 4
71-BCA-ea yakkha-ba yakha, yakkhaba-cea, yakkhaba-sala, dewan-sala India (Sikkim) 4
71-BCA-eaa yakkaba-arun Arun upper middle valley: Sankhuwasawa district (Koshi)
71-BCA-eab yakkhaba-tamur Tamur valley: Dhankuta district (Terhathum) (Koshi)
71-BCA-eac yakkhaba-sikkim Ranjitt valley (Sikkim-W.)
71-BCA-eb lumba-yakkha yakkhaba-cea, lumba-yakha Dhankuta district: Lakhshmikhola
environs
Nepal (Koshi) 3*
71-BCA-f Lambicholong Arun upper middle left-bank: Mugakhola Sinuwakhola Nepal (Koshi) 2
71-BCA-fa lambicholong lambichong, lambitshong, part of "pseudo" yakkha, "pseudo" mugali Nepal (Koshi) 2
71-BCA-g Chhlngrng+
Chhintangrng
Arun lower middle valley: Dhanguta district Nepal (Koshi) 3*
71-BCA-ga chhlng-rng chulung, chlng, chhulung, chholong, chhilling Ankhisalla
Chhintang panchayats
Nepal (Koshi)
71-BCA-gb chhintang-rng chintang, chintang-rng, chhintange, teli Chhintang Sambhung
Pokhare Ankhisalla panchayats
Nepal (Koshi) 2*
71-BCA-h Phangduwali Dhankuta district: Phangduwa (near Mugakhola headwaters) Nepal (Koshi) 2*
71-BCA-ha phangduwali phangduwali-poti Nepal (Koshi)
71-BCA-i Belhariya Dhankuta district: Belhara Nepal (Koshi) 2
71-BCA-ia belhariya "pseudo" athpariya Nepal (Koshi) 2
71-BCA-j Athpariya Tamur right-bank: between Dhankutakhola Tangkhuwa tributaries
(Dhankuta district)
Nepal (Koshi) 3
71-BCA-ja athpariya athapre, athpare Nepal (Koshi) 3
71-BCA-k Yakthungpan Limbu, yakthungba-pan, limbu "proper", limbo, lumbu Limbu script
(from early 18
th
cent.); Devanagari script; Latin script Arun valley
eastwards
Nepal (Koshi; Mechi); Tibet; India
(Sikkim; West Bengal); also
Bhutan
5
71-BCA-ka tajeng-pan "common" limbu Nepal (Koshi; Mechi)
71-BCA-kb mundum-ban "priestly" limbu, 'high' limbu Nepal (Koshi; Mechi)
71-BCA-kc taplejunge+
phedappe
limbu-tamur Tamur valley: Taplejung Nepal (Koshi; Mechi)
71-BCA-kca taplejunge taplejung, part of taplejunge+ tamorkholea Nepal
71-BCA-kcb tamorkholea part of taplejunge+ tamorkholea Nepal
71-BCA-kcc phedappe Nepal
71-BCA-kd panthare+ chaubise Nepal (Koshi and/or Mechi)
71-BCA-kda panthare pantharey, panchthare, panchthar, part of panthare+ yanggrokke Nepal
71-BCA-kdb yanggrokke part of panthare+ yanggrokke Nepal
71-BCA-l Chhathare Dhanguta district Nepal (Koshi) 3*
71-BCA-la chhathare chhathar, chhathar-limbu, chatthare, chhathare yathungba-pan Nepal (Koshi)
71-BCA-m Moinba monba, mompa, monpa 2, momba, menpa, memba, cuona-menba, (China) Tibet; India (Arunachal
Pradesh)
4
71-BCA-ma moinba-N. Yarlung+ Zanbo valley: Medog Nyinchi. Cona counties (China) Tibet-SE. 4
71-BCA-mb moinba-S. India (Arunachal Pradesh) 4
71-C DHIMAL+ TOTO set "dhimalic"
71-CA DHIMAL+ TOTO
chain
71-CAA DHIMAL+ TOTO net
71-CAA-a Dhimal+ Toto Jhapa district: Terai-E. plains Nepal (Mechi); also India (West
Bengal)
3
71-CAA-aa dhimal Nepal (Mechi); India frontier 3
71-CAA-aaa biratnagar Biratnagar environs (Mechi)
71-CAA-aab jhapa Jhapa & environs (Mechi)
71-CAA-ab toto Nepal (Mechi); also India (West
Bengal)
3
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 535
72= GARIC
phylozone
covers the Bodo+ Konyak grouping, part of the "Tibeto-
Burman" affinity within the "Sino-Tibetan" ("Sino-Indian")
continental affinity; comprising 2 sets of languages (= 23 outer
languages) spoken by communities in and around the
Brahmaputra middle basin:
72-A BODO+ GARO 72-B KONYAK+ AO
India; Bangladesh; Burma
6
72-A BODO+ GARO set
72-AA BODO+ TRIPURA
chain
72-AAA BODO+ DIMASA net
72-AAA-a Bodo India (Assam; West Bengal;
Nagaland; Meghalaya); also Nepal

6
72-AAA-aa bodo-A. boro, bodi, bara, boroni; including bodo-kachari apparently distinct
from kachari below
India (Assam) 6
72-AAA-ab chote India (Assam and/or West Bengal)
72-AAA-ac mech mechi, meche, meci India (West Bengal)
72-AAA-b Dimasa+ Kachari including hajai India (Assam; also Nagaland); also
Burma
4
72-AAA-ba dimasa-A. dimasa "proper" India (Assam) 4
72-AAA-bb hariamba India (Assam)
72-AAA-bc kachari dimasa-kachari Cachar district North Cachar hills India (Assam) 4
72-AAA-bca 'assam'-kachari India (Assam)
72-AAA-bcb 'burma'-kachari Burma-NW.; also India (Assam)
72-AAB TRIPURI net
72-AAB-a Tripuri tripura, tripra community India (Tripura; also Mizoram;
Assam); Bangladesh
5
72-AAB-aa kok-borok tripuri, tripri, kak-barak India (Tripura); Bangladesh-E. 5
72-AAB-aaa debbarma "royal" tripuri, "vehicular" tripuri (Tripura)
72-AAB-aab jamatia (Tripura)
72-AAB-aac noatia (Tripura)
72-AAB-aad halam (Tripura; Assam)
72-AAB-aae usipi (Tripura)
72-AAB-aaf mrung (Tripura)
72-AAB-ab riang reang, kau-bru India (Tripura; Mizoram; Assam);
Bangladesh-E.
5
72-AAC LALUNG net "lalungic"
72-AAC-a Lalung India (Assam; also Meghalaya) 4
72-AAC-aa lalung India (Assam; also Meghalaya) 4
72-AB DEORI chain
72-ABA DEORI net
72-ABA-a Deori Chutia, Chutiya -bilingual in [59] Axamiya India (Assam; also Arunachal
Pradesh)
4
72-ABA-aa deori deuri, drori, chutiya India (Assam; also Arunachal
Pradesh)
4
72-AC GARO+ RABHA
chain
"garic"
72-ACA GARO+ RABHA net garrow
72-ACA-a Garo Bengali script India (Meghalaya; Assam; also
Tripura); Bangladesh
5
72-ACA-aa garo-F. "literary garo" Achick model India (Meghalaya; Assam)
72-ACA-ab achik achick Garo hills India (Meghalaya) 5
72-ACA-ac abeng Mymensingh plains Bangladesh 4
72-ACA-aca abengya Bangladesh
72-ACA-acb ambeng Bangladesh
72-ACA-ad awe India (Meghalaya and/or Assam)
72-ACA-b Rabha+ Megam -bilingual in [59] Axamiya India (Assam; Meghalaya; also
West Bengal); Bangladesh
5
72-ACA-ba rabha rava Garo Hills India (Meghalaya; Assam) 5
72-ACA-baa maitaria (Meghalaya)
72-ACA-bab rangdania (Meghalaya)
72-ACA-bb kamrup Kamrup district India (Assam)
72-ACA-bc chisak India (Assam...); Bangladesh
72-ACA-bd ganching India (Assam...); Bangladesh
page 536 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
72-ACA-be mande India (Assam...); Bangladesh
72-ACA-bf matchi India (Assam...); Bangladesh
72-ACA-bg atong India (Assam...); Bangladesh
72-ACA-bh ruga India (Assam...); Bangladesh
72-ACA-bi dacca Dacca Bangladesh
72-ACA-bj megam migam Bangladesh
72-ACA-c Koch "garic" koch to be distinguished from the Koch dialects of [59] Bangla
in West Bengal
Bangladesh; India (Meghalaya;
Assam)
4
72-ACA-ca koch-A. koch-E., koc, kocch, koce, koch-boli, konch Bangladesh; India (Meghalaya;
Assam)
4
72-ACA-cb banai Banai Bangladesh
72-ACA-cc harigaya Bangladesh; India-NE.
72-ACA-cd satpariya satbaria Satbaria Bangladesh
72-ACA-ce tintekiya Bangladesh; India-NE.
72-ACA-cf wanang Bangladesh; India-NE.
72-B KONYAK+ AO set "konyakic", 'konyakic naga', part of 'naga' Latin script
72-BA KONYAK+ AO chain
72-BAA KONYAK+ WANCHO
net
72-BAA-a Konyak kanyak, konyak-'naga' India (Nagaland); Burma frontier

5
72-BAA-aa tableng konyak "standard", konyak "vehicular" Wanching Wakching
vehicular extension
India (Nagaland)
72-BAA-ab konyak-A. konyak "traditional" Mon district India (Nagaland-NE.); Burma
frontier
5
72-BAA-aba angphang (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abb chang-nyu (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abc chen Chen (Nagaland-NE.); Burma frontier
72-BAA-abd chingkao+ chinglang (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abe choha (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abf gelekidoria (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abg hopao (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abh jakphang (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abi kongon (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abj longching+ longwa including longching longkhai longmein longwa (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abk mohung (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abl mon Mon (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abm mulung (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abn ngangching (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abo sang (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abp shanlang+ shengha including shanlang shengha sham-nyuyanga (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abq shu-nyuo (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abr sima (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abs sowa (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abt tabu (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abu tamkhung-nyuo Tamkhung (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abv tang (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abw tobu-nyuo (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-abx tolamlei-nyua (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-aby totok (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-b Wancho wancho-'naga' India (Arunachal Pradesh) 4
72-BAA-ba wancho (Arunachal Pradesh) 4
72-BAA-baa wancho-A. wancho "proper" (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAA-bab banpara banpara-'naga' (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAA-bac joboka (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAA-bad changnoi (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAA-bae bor-muthun bor-mutonia (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAA-baf horu-muthun (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAA-bag kulung-muthun mithan (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAA-c Phom+ Tamlu phom-'naga' India (Nagaland) 4
72-BAA-ca phom+ tamlu (Nagaland-NE.) 4
72-BAA-caa phom phon (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-cab tamlu tamlu-'naga' Tamlu (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-cac chingmengu (Nagaland-NE.)
72-BAA-cad yongyasha (Nagaland-NE.)
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 537
72-BAB CHANG net
72-BAB-a Chang India (Nagaland-CE.) 4
72-BAB-aa chang cham-'naga', mojung, machongrr, mochumi, mochungrr, changyanguh India (Nagaland-CE.) 4
72-BAC TASE net
72-BAC-a Tase tangsa, tangsa-'naga', tase-'naga' India (Arunachal Pradesh; also
Assam); Burma-N.
4
72-BAC-aa tase-W. India-NE. (Arunachal Pradesh);
Burma-N.
3
72-BAC-aaa tase-A. tangsa "proper", tasey (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aab rangpan (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aac chem-chang (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aad longphi lungphi (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aae yogli jugli (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aaf have havi (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aag khemsing kimsing (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aah lungchang (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aai lungri longri Lungri (Arunachal Pradesh); Burma-N.
72-BAC-aaj moklum muklum (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aak mosang (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aal ponthai (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aam rongrang ronrang (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aan sangwal (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aao taipi Taipi Duidam (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aap tikhak (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-aaq sanke shangge, sangche, sankey (Arunachal Pradesh); also Burma-
N.
72-BAC-aar yongkuk (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-ab tase-E. tangsa-E. Burma-N.; also India (Arunachal
Pradesh)
3
72-BAC-aba gashan Burma-N.
72-BAC-abb hkaluk Hkalak Ga Burma-N.
72-BAC-abc saukrang Burm a-N.
72-BAC-abd langshin langchin Langchin Burma-N.
72-BAC-abe mawrang morang Burma-N.; (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-abf myimu Burma-N.
72-BAC-abg sangtai Burma-N.
72-BAC-abh tulim tonglim identity of tulim at Tulim in Burma and tonglim in Arunachal
Pradesh to be confirmed Tulim
Burma-N.; (Arunachal Pradesh)
72-BAC-abi longri Burma-N.
72-BAD MONSHANG+
MOYON net
72-BAD-a Monshang+ Moyon monsang+ moyon India (Manipur); also Burma
(Sagaing)
3
72-BAD-aa monshang moshang, monsang, mushang, mawshang India (Manipur); Burma border 3
72-BAD-ab moyon mayon India (Manipur); Burma border 3
72-BAE NOCTE net
72-BAE-a Nocte nocte-'naga' India (Assam; Arunachal Pradesh) 3
72-BAE-aa nocte Lakhimpur Tirap districts India (Assam; Arunachal Pradesh) 3
72-BAE-aaa borduria India-NE.
72-BAE-aab jaipuria India-NE.
72-BAE-aac paniduria India-NE.
72-BAE-aad mohongia India-NE.
72-BAE-aae namsangia India-NE.
72-BAF AO+ YIMCHUNGRU
net
72-BAF-a Yimchungru yimchungru-'naga' India (Nagaland) 4
72-BAF-aa yimchungru-N. Tuensang district India-NE. (Nagaland-N.) 4
72-BAF-aaa tikhir (Nagaland-N.)
72-BAF-aab wai (Nagaland-N.)
72-BAF-aac chirr (Nagaland-N.)
72-BAF-aad tozhuma (Nagaland-N.)
72-BAF-ab yimchungru-S. Tuensang district India-NE. (Nagaland-N.) 4
72-BAF-aba yimchungru-A. yimchunger, yimchungre, yachum (Nagaland-N.)
72-BAF-abb minir (Nagaland-N.)
72-BAF-abc pherrongre (Nagaland-N.)
page 538 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
72-BAF-b Sangtam+ Pochuri chakhesang-'naga' India (Nagaland) 4
72-BAF-ba pochuri pochuri-'naga', pochury India (Nagaland-SE.) 4
72-BAF-bb sangtam sangtam-'naga', isachanure India (Nagaland-SE.) 4
72-BAF-bba lopho-mi (Nagaland-SE.)
72-BAF-bbb pirr sangtam-N. (Nagaland-SE.)
72-BAF-bbc phelongre (Nagaland-SE.)
72-BAF-bbd thuku-mi sangtam-C. (Nagaland-SE.)
72-BAF-bbe photsi-mi (Nagaland-SE.)
72-BAF-bbf purr sangtam-S. (Nagaland-SE.)
72-BAF-bc kizare kizare-'naga', sangtam 2 Meluri>N. India (Nagaland-SE.)
72-BAF-c Ao India-NE. (Nagaland) 5
72-BAF-ca ao aorr, uri (Nagaland) 5
72-BAF-caa pai-mi (Nagaland)
72-BAF-cab hatigoria (Nagaland)
72-BAF-cac nowgong (Nagaland)
72-BAF-cad mongsen-khari mongsen (Nagaland)
72-BAF-cae changki (Nagaland)
72-BAF-caf chongli chungli (Nagaland)
72-BAF-cag choli-mi (Nagaland)
72-BAF-cah dordar (Nagaland)
72-BAF-cai yacham (Nagaland)
72-BAF-caj longla (Nagaland)
72-BAF-cak tengsa distinction from [72] Tase / Tengsa to be confirmed (Nagaland)
72-BAG MARING+
TANGKHUL net
72-BAG-a Maring maring-'naga' India (Manipur) 4
72-BAG-aa maring khoibu+ maring (Manipur-SE.) 4
72-BAG-aaa maring-A. (Manipur-SE.)
72-BAG-aab khoibu (Manipur-SE.)
72-BAG-b Tangkhul tangkhul-'naga' India (Manipur) 5
72-BAG-ba tangkhul tagkhul, thangkhulm (Manipur) 5
72-BAG-baa ukhrul central tangkhul (Manipur)
72-BAG-bab champhung (Manipur)
72-BAG-bac luhuppa luppa (Manipur)
72-BAG-bad somra (Manipur)
72-BAG-bae khunggoi khangoi (Manipur)
72-BAG-baf kupome (Manipur)
72-BAG-bag phadang (Manipur)
72-BAH CHOTHE net
72-BAH-a Chothe chothe-'naga' India (Manipur); also Burma
(Sagaing)
3
72-BAH-aa chothe chote, chowte India (Manipur); Burma (Sagaing)
frontier
3
72-BAI TARAO net
72-BAI-a Tarao tarao-'naga' India (Manipur) 2
72-BAI-aa tarao-A. tarao "proper" (Manipur-SE.)
72-BAI-ab tataotrong* (Manipur-SE.) 2
72-BAJ MELURI net
72-BAJ-a Meluri rengma-E., meluri-'naga' distinct from [73] Rengma India (Nagaland) 3
72-BAJ-aa meluri (Nagaland) 3
72-BAJ-aaa meluri-A. meluory (Nagaland)
72-BAJ-aab anyo (Nagaland)
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 539
73= KUKIC
phylozone
covers the "Kuki+ Naga" grouping, part of the "Tibeto-
Burman" affinity within the "Sino-Tibetan" ("Sino-Indian")
continental affinity; comprising 4 sets of languages (= 49 outer
languages) spoken by communities in the highlands around
the middle Brahmaputra valley:
73-A LOTHA+ LIANGMAI 73-B MRUNG
73-C MIKIRI+MEITHEI 73-D THADO+FALAM
India; Burma; Bangladesh; also
Nepal; China
6
73-A LOTHA+ LIANGMAI
set
'nagic', part of 'naga' Latin script
73-AA LOTHA+ NDRENG
chain
73-AAA LOTHA+ NDRENG
net
73-AAA-a Lotha+ Ndreng lotha-'naga' India (Nagaland) 4
73-AAA-aa lotha hlota, lutha (Nagaland) 4
73-AAA-ab chizi-ma (Nagaland)
73-AAA-ac choi-mi (Nagaland)
73-AAA-ad live (Nagaland)
73-AAA-ae miklir (Nagaland)
73-AAA-af tsindir (Nagaland)
73-AAA-ag tsontsu tsontsii (Nagaland)
73-AAA-ah ndreng (Nagaland)
73-AAA-ai kyong kyo, kyon, kyou (Nagaland)
73-AB RENGMA+
SEMASIMI chain
73-ABA RENGMA+ AZONYU
net
73-ABA-a Rengma+ Azonyu part of 'naga' India (Nagaland; Assam) 4
73-ABA-aa reng-ma-A. Rengma Pathar (Nagaland; Assam)
73-ABA-ab mozhu-mi moiyui (Nagaland)
73-ABA-ac rengma-mon (Nagaland)
73-ABA-ad injang (Nagaland)
73-ABA-ae keteneneyu (Nagaland)
73-ABA-af azonyu nzonyu, unza, nzong, rengma-S. (Nagaland)
73-ABB SEMASIMI+ MAO net
73-ABB-a Semasimi+ Zumomi sema-'naga' India (Nagaland; also Assam) 5
73-ABB-aa se-masi-mi (Nagaland)
73-ABB-ab dayang sema-W. Dayang valley (Nagaland)
73-ABB-ac lazem (Nagaland)
73-ABB-ad zhimo-mi (Nagaland)
73-ABB-ae zumo-mi (Nagaland)
73-ABB-b Mao+ Maikel mao-'naga' India (Manipur; also Nagaland) 4
73-ABB-ba mao (Manipur)
73-ABB-bb pao-mata (Manipur)
73-ABB-bc spowa-ma sopvo-ma, sopfo-mo (Manipur)
73-ABB-bd maikel (Manipur)
73-ABB-be me-mi (Manipur)
73-ABB-c Angami+ Khezhama angami-'naga' India (Nagaland) 4
73-ABB-ca anga-mi India (Nagaland) 4
73-ABB-caa anga-mi-A. gna-mei, nga-mi (Nagaland)
73-ABB-cab tsogha-mi tsugu-mi (Nagaland)
73-ABB-cac monr (Nagaland)
73-ABB-cad tsanglo (Nagaland)
73-ABB-cae kohi-ma angami "standard" Kohima (Nagaland)
73-ABB-caf dzuna (Nagaland)
73-ABB-cag kehena (Nagaland)
73-ABB-cah khono-ma (Nagaland)
73-ABB-cai chakro-ma angami-W., chakru, chokri (Nagaland)
73-ABB-caj mi-ma (Nagaland)
73-ABB-cak nali (Nagaland)
page 540 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
73-ABB-cal mozo-me (Nagaland)
73-ABB-cam tengi-ma (Nagaland)
73-ABB-cb chokri-ma chokri-'naga', chakri-ma, chakru, angami-E., part of chakhesang-'naga' (Nagaland) 3
73-ABB-cc khezha-ma kheza-'naga', keza-mi, part of chakhesang-'naga' Kohima district (Nagaland-E.) 4
73-AC LIANGMAI+
RONGMAI chain
73-ACA LIANGMAI+
RONGMAI net
73-ACA-a Maram maram-'naga' India (Manipur) 3
73-ACA-aa maram Barak Valley India (Manipur) 3
73-ACA-b Liangmai India (Manipur; also Nagaland) 4
73-ACA-ba liang-mai liangmai-'naga', part of zelian Barak upper valley India (Manipur) 4
73-ACA-baa liang-mai-A. liang, liyang, lyeng-mai, liang-mei, lyang-may (Manipur)
73-ACA-bab kwoireng quoireng, koirng, koireng 2 (Manipur) 3
73-ACA-c Zemi+ Paren zemi-'naga', zeme-'naga', part of zelian Barak upper valley India (Assam; Manipur; Nagaland) 4
73-ACA-ca ze-mi jeme, zeme India (Assam)
73-ACA-caa kachcha kacha, kutcha community (Manipur)
73-ACA-cab meza-ma India-NE.
73-ACA-cac sangri-ma sengi-ma India-NE.
73-ACA-cad arung India-NE.
73-ACA-cae empui India-NE.
73-ACA-cb paren India-NE.
73-ACA-cc njauna India-NE.
73-ACA-d Mzieme mzie-me-'naga' India (Nagaland-SW.) 4
73-ACA-da mzie-me (Nagaland-SW.) 4
73-ACA-e Rongmai rongmai-'naga', rong-mei, maruong-mai, nruangh-mei, rong-mai India (Manipur; Nagaland; Assam) 4
73-ACA-ea songbu (Manipur; Nagaland) 4
73-ACA-eb puiron (Manipur; Nagaland) 4
73-ACA-eba puiron-A. impurion (Manipur; Nagaland)
73-ACA-ebb kabui kapwi, koboi, kubai (Manipur; Nagaland; Assam)
73-ACA-f Khoirao+ Thanggai khoirao-'naga' India (Manipur) 4
73-ACA-fa khoirao (Manipur)
73-ACA-fb kolya (Manipur)
73-ACA-fc mayang-khang miyang-khang (Manipur)
73-ACA-fd ngari (Manipur)
73-ACA-fe thanggal thangal (Manipur)
73-ACA-ff tukai-mi (Manipur)
73-AD KHIAMNGAN chain
73-ADA KHIAMNGAN net
73-ADA-a Khiamngan khiamngan-'naga' India (Nagaland); Burma (Sagaing)

4
73-ADA-aa khiamngan-W. Tuensang district (Nagaland) 4
73-ADA-aaa khiamngan-A. khiamngan "proper", khemungan, khienmungan, kemmungam,
khiemnungan
(Nagaland)
73-ADA-aab kalokengnyu (Nagaland)
73-ADA-aac aoshedd (Nagaland)
73-ADA-ab khiamngan-E. Burma (Sagaing) 4
73-ADA-aba makware (Sagaing)
73-ADA-abb nokaw (Sagaing)
73-ADA-abc para (Sagaing)
73-ADA-abd ponyo (Sagaing)
73-ADA-abe welam (Sagaing)
73-B MRUNG set "mruic"
73-BA MRUNG chain
73-BAA MRUNG net
73-BAA-a Mrung Arakan+ Chin hills>W. Burma (Chin); Bangladesh; India
(Mizoram)
4
73-BAA-aa mrung muru, mru, mro Burma (Chin); Bangladesh; India
(Mizoram)
4
73-BAA-aaa mrung-A. Burma (Chin); Bangladesh; India
(Mizoram)
73-BAA-aab niopreng Burma (Chin)*
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 541
73-C MIKIRI+ MEITHEI set
73-CA MIKIRI+ MEITHEI
chain
73-CAA MEITHEI+
BISHNUPURIYA net
73-CAA-a Meithei+
Bishnupuriya
comprises the Manipuri/Meithei "scheduled language" in India (as
included in the 8
th
schedule to the Constitution of India since 1992)
India ( Manipur; Assam; Tripura;
Mehgalaya; Arunachal Pradesh;
Nagaland); Bangladesh; Burma
6
73-CAA-aa meithei meithe, meitei, mitei, manipuri; india-NE. "vehicular" (formerly)
Devanagari script; Bengali script
India; Bangladesh; Burma (Chin)
73-CAA-aaa meithei-F. "literary" meithei, "literary" manipuri, manipur "standard" (Manipur; Assam; Tripura);
Bangladesh; (Chin)
73-CAA-aab manipuri India (Manipur)
73-CAA-aac kathe kathi (Manipur)
73-CAA-aad ponna (Manipur)
73-CAA-ab bishnupuriya bishnupriya Bishnupur India (West Bengal)
73-CAB MIKIRI+ AMRI net
73-CAB-a Mikiri+ Amri Mikir Rengma hills India (Nagaland; Arunachal
Pradesh; Meghalaya; Manipur;
Assam)
5
73-CAB-aa mikiri mikir India (Manipur; Assam)
73-CAB-aaa mikiri-A. (Manipur; Assam)
73-CAB-aab manchati (Manipur; Assam)
73-CAB-aac karbi (Manipur; Assam; Meghalaya;
Nagaland; Arunachal Pradesh)
73-CAB-ab amri India (Manipur; Assam)
73-CAB-ac arleng India (Manipur; Assam)
73-CAB-ad bhui India (Manipur; Assam)
73-CAB-ae rhengkitang India (Manipur; Assam)
73-D THADO+ FALAM set 'kuki+ chin'
73-DA THADO+ PAITE
chain
'kuki+ chin'-N.
73-DAA THADO+ PAITE net wider zo-mi, wider zou
73-DAA-a Ral-te Burma (Sagaing); India (Manipur)

4
73-DAA-aa ral-te assumed distinct from [73] Ral-te-2 (in Lushai+ Mizo net); to be
confirmed
Burma (Sagaing); India (Assam;
Mizoram; Manipur)
4
73-DAA-b Zo-mi Burma (Sagaing); India (Manipur)

4
73-DAA-ba zo-mi zou, zo, zorni, zo-me Chin+ Manipur Hills Burma (Sagaing); India (Manipur) 4
73-DAA-c Yo-te Burma (Chin and/or Sagaing) 3
73-DAA-ca yo-te yo, yos Burma (Chin and/or Sagaing) 3
73-DAA-d Tiddim tiddim-'chin' Latin script Burma (Chin); India (Mizoram;
Manipur)
5
73-DAA-da tiddim tedim Chin hills northward Burma (Chin); India (Mizoram;
Manipur)
5
73-DAA-daa tiddim-A. tiddim "proper", chin-hills "vehicular" Burma (Chin); India
73-DAA-dab sok-te Burma (Chin)*
73-DAA-dac kamhau kamhow, kamhao Burma (Chin)*
73-DAA-e Thado+ Gangte thado-'chin' India (Manipur; Assam; Mizoram);
Burma (Sagaing)
5
73-DAA-ea thado thadou, thado-ubiphei, thado-pao, kuki, kuki-thado (Manipur, Assam, Mizoram) 5
73-DAA-eb bai-te (Manipur)
73-DAA-ec changsen jangshen (Manipur)
73-DAA-ed kaokeep (Manipur)
73-DAA-ee khongzai (Manipur)
73-DAA-ef kipgen (Manipur)
73-DAA-eg langiung (Manipur)
73-DAA-eh sairang (Manipur)
73-DAA-ei thangngen (Manipur)
73-DAA-ej hawkip (Manipur)
73-DAA-ek shithlou (Manipur)
73-DAA-el singson shingsol (Manipur)
73-DAA-em gang-te gan-te India (Assam; Manipur); Burma 4
73-DAA-ema gang-te-'assam' (Assam)
73-DAA-emb gang-te-'manipur' (Manipur)
73-DAA-emc gang-te-'burma' Burma (Sagaing)
73-DAA-en sim-te (Manipur-SW.) 3
page 542 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
73-DAA-f Paite+ Vuite paite-'chin' India (Manipur; Mizoram; Assam);
Burma (Sagaing; Chin)
4
73-DAA-fa pai-te pai-te "proper", pai-the, par-te, hai-the India (Manipur; Mizoram; Assam)
Burma-NW.
4
73-DAA-fb hai-te hai-the India-NE.; Burma-NW.
73-DAA-fc vui-te India-NE.; Burma-NW.
73-DAA-fd siyin siyang, sizang Burma-NW. 4
73-DB CHIRU chain 'kuki+ chin'-W.
73-DBA CHIRU net
73-DBA-a Chiru India-NE. (Assam; Manipur;
Nagaland)
3
73-DBA-aa chiru-A. chhori India-NE. 3
73-DBA-ab koi-reng* India-NE.
73-DC LUSHAI+ LANGET
chain
'kuki+ chin'-C.
73-DCA LUSHAI+ PANKHU
net
73-DCA-a Lushai+ Mizo* lusai, lushei, lukhai, lushai+ mizo, "wider" mizo; including hmar
tlau tlanglang Mizo hills>N. Latin script
India-NE. ( Mizoram; also
Tripura; Assam; Manipur); Burma;
also migration to China*
4
73-DCA-aa lushai-F. "standard" lushai India (Mizoram; Tripura; Assam;
Manipur)
73-DCA-ab mizo India (Tripura); Burma (Chin)
73-DCA-ac fannai pannai India-NE.
73-DCA-ad ngen-te India-NE.; Burma (Chin)
73-DCA-ae pang paang perhaps corresponding to, or transition to, [73] Pankhu in
Burma
India-NE.
73-DCA-af dulien dhulian-twang India (Mizoram); Burma (Chin)
73-DCA-ag lusago India-NE.
73-DCA-ah sailau India-NE.
73-DCA-ai hualngo whelngo India-NE.
73-DCA-aj le India-NE.
73-DCA-ak ral-te-2 assumed distinct from [73] Ral-te (in Thado+ Paite net); to be
confirmed
India (Mizoram; Tripura)
73-DCA-b Hmar India (Assam; Manipur) 4
73-DCA-ba hmar hamar, mhar India (Assam; Manipur) 4
73-DCA-c Pankhu* perhaps corresponding to, or transition to, [73] Lushai (Pang) in India Burma (Chin) 3
73-DCA-ca pankhu pankho, panko Chin hills: Falam environs Burma (Chin) 3
73-DCB HAKA+ SHONSHE
net
'chin'-C.+ "old chin-W. transitional"
73-DCB-a Haka+ Shonshe haka-'chin' Latin script Burma (Chin); also Bangladesh;
India (Mizoram)
4
73-DCB-aa haka baungshe Haka district: Chin hills Burma (Chin).
73-DCB-ab lai lai-hawlh, pawai India (Mizoram)
73-DCB-ac klangklang thlantlang Burma (Chin).
73-DCB-ad banjogi bandzhogi, bandzogi, zotung Zotung Burma (Chin).
73-DCB-ae zokhua Zokhua Burma (Chin).
73-DCB-af shonshe Burma (Chin).
73-DCC BAWM net
73-DCC-a Bawm bawm-'chin' Bangladesh; India (Mizoram;
Assam); Burma-NW.
3
73-DCC-aa bawm bawng, bawn, bom Falam district: Chin hills Bangladesh; India (Mizoram;
Assam); Burma-NW.
3
73-DCD SENTHANG net
73-DCD-a Senthang senthang-'chin' Burma (Chin) 4
73-DCD-aa senthang hsemthang Chin hills Burma (Chin) 4
73-DCE TAWR net
73-DCE-a Tawr* tawr-'chin' Burma (Chin) 2
73-DCE-aa tawr torr Chin hills Burma (Chin) 2
73-DCF DARLONG net
73-DCF-a Darlong darlong-'chin' Bangladesh; India (Tripura) 3
73-DCF-aa darlong Bangladesh; India (Tripura) 3
73-DCG LANGET net
73-DCG-a Langet langet-'chin' India-NE. 3
73-DCG-aa langet India-NE. 3
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 543
73-DD FALAM+ KOM chain "old" 'kuki'
73-DDA LAMKANG+
MONSHANG net
73-DDA-a Lamkang lamkang-'naga' India (Manipur) 3
73-DDA-aa lamkang lamgang, hiroi-lamgang India (Manipur) 3
73-DDA-b Monshang+ Anal anal-'naga' India (Manipur); Burma (Sagaing)

4
73-DDA-ba anal India (Manipur); Burma (Sagaing)
73-DDA-bb namfau India (Manipur); Burma (Sagaing)
73-DDA-bc mulsom India (Manipur); Burma
73-DDA-bd moyon India (Manipur) 2
73-DDA-be monshang India (Manipur) 3
73-DDB KOM+ KOLHRENG
net
73-DDB-a Kom+ Kolhreng India (Manipur) 3
73-DDB-aa kom kom-rem India (Manipur) 3
73-DDB-ab kolh-reng India (Manipur) 3
73-DDC PURUM+ AIMOL net "old" 'kuki'-C.
73-DDC-a Purum Burma (Sagaing or Chin) 2
73-DDC-aa purum puram Burma (Sagaing or Chin) 2
73-DDC-b Aimol+ Langrong India (Assam; Manipur) 2
73-DDC-ba aimol (Assam; Manipur) 2
73-DDC-bb langrong (Assam; Manipur)
73-DDD FALAM+
HRANGKHOL net
"old" 'kuki'-W.
73-DDD-a Hrangkhol+ Biete "old" 'kuki'-NW. India (Meghalaya; Mizoram);
Burma-NW.
4
73-DDD-aa hrangkhol rangkhol, hrangkhawl, hrangkhwal India-NE.; Burma-NW. 3
73-DDD-ab hadem India-NE.
73-DDD-ac biete bete, biate, baite India (Meghalaya; Mizoram) 4
73-DDD-b Falam+ Laizo "old" 'kuki'-SW. Chin hills (Falam district) Chittagong lowlands Burma (Chin); India (Tripura; also
Assam); Bangladesh (Chittagong)

5
73-DDD-ba falam halam, fallam, hallam, halam-'chin', falam-'chin', hallam-'chin', tripura
Chin hills: Falam district Latin script
Burma (Chin); India (Tripura)
73-DDD-bb zahao+ lyen-lyem Burma (Chin) 4
73-DDD-bba zahao zahau, yahow, zahau-shimhrin Burma (Chin)
73-DDD-bbb lyen-lyem Burma (Chin)
73-DDD-bc zanniat Burma (Chin) 4
73-DDD-bd tashon+ shunkla Burma (Chin) 3
73-DDD-bda tashon tashom Burma (Chin)
73-DDD-bdb shunkla sunkhla Burma (Chin)
73-DDD-be laizo laiso, laizao, laizo-shimhrin Burma (Chin) 4
73-DDD-bf khualshim kwelshin Burma (Chin) 3
73-DDD-bg lente lyente Burma (Chin) 3
73-DDD-bh chorei Burma (Chin); India (Tripura)
73-DDD-bi chari-chong India (Tripura)
73-DDD-bj kaipang kaipeng India (Tripura)
73-DDD-bk kalai India (Tripura)
73-DDD-bl khelma India (Tripura)
73-DDD-bm mursum molsom India (Tripura)
73-DDD-bn rupini India (Tripura)
73-DDD-bo shekasip India (Tripura)
73-DDD-bp luhuppa-S. luhupa, luhuppa 2 India (Tripura)
73-DDE VAIPHEI net
73-DDE-a Vaiphei vaiphei-'kuki' India (Assam; Manipur) 4
73-DDE-aa vaiphei vaipei, veiphei, bhaipei India (Assam; Manipur) 4
73-DDF KYAO net
73-DDF-a Kyao kyao-'kuki' India-NE. 3
73-DDF-aa kyao India-NE.
page 544 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
73-DE MARA+ NGAWN
chain
'kuki+ chin'-S.
73-DEA KHUMIAWA+ KHAMI
net
Latin script
73-DEA-a Khumiawa khumi-awa-'chin' Burma (Arakan) 4
73-DEA-aa khumi-awa-E. Arakan hills Burma (Arakan)
73-DEA-ab khumi-awa-W. Arakan coast Burma (Arakan)
73-DEA-b Khami+ Khumi khumi-'chin' Burma (Arakan; Chin); also
Bangladesh (Chittagong)
5
73-DEA-ba khumi khuni Burma (Arakan) 4
73-DEA-bb khimi khweymi Burma (Arakan 4
73-DEA-bc yindi yindu Burma (Arakan) 4
73-DEA-bd khami kami Burma (Arakan) 4
73-DEA-be ngala Burma (Arakan) 4
73-DEA-bf matu matu-chin Burma (Arakan) 4
73-DEB MARA+ TLONGSAI
net
73-DEB-a Mara+ Tlongsai lakher, mara-'chin' India (Manipur; Mizoram); Burma
(Sagaing; Chin)
4
73-DEB-aa mara maram, mira Lushai hills India (Manipur)
73-DEB-ab zao zou* India (Manipur)
73-DEB-ac tlongsai Burma-NW.; India (Manipur)
73-DEB-ad hlawthai hawthai Burma-NW.; India (Manipur)
73-DEB-ae sabeu Burma-NW.
73-DEC MN net
73-DEC-a Mn mun-'chin' Burma-NW. 4
73-DEC-aa mn 'chin-bok', 'tsin-bok', 'chin-me', 'chin-be' Burma-NW.
73-DED DAAI net
73-DED-a Daai daai-'chin', dau, m'kaang, "pseudo"-mn Burma (Chin) 4
73-DED-aa kanpetlat Kanpetlet & environs (Chin)
73-DED-ab paletwa Paletwa & environs (Chin-S.)
73-DED-ac matupi Matupi & environs (Chin-S.)
73-DEE ASHO net
73-DEE-a Asho* asho-'chin', sho, qin Chittagong. Lushai+ Chin hills Irrawaddy
upper basin Yunnan-W. highlands Burmese script
Burma; Bangladesh; India
(Mizoram); China (Yunnan)
4
73-DEE-aa chittagong-asho Chittagong district Bangladesh-W. 3
73-DEE-ab shendu khyeng 2, khyen, khieng, shandu, sandu Lushai hills Chittagong
foothills
India-NE. (Mizoram); Bangladesh
(Chittagong)
3
73-DEE-ac asho-A. ashu, shoa, ash Burma-C. 4
73-DEE-ad sandoway Arakan coast Burma-C. (Arakan)
73-DEE-ae thayetmyo thayetmo Irrawaddy central valley: Thayetmyo Burma-C. (Magwe)
73-DEE-af minbu Irrawaddy central valley: Minthu Burma-C. (Magwe)
73-DEE-ag lemyo Burma-C.
73-DEE-ah khyang khyeng, kyang Burma-N.
73-DEE-ai saingbaun saingbaung-chin Irrawaddy upper basin Burma-N. (Sagaing)
73-DEE-aj asho-yunnan perhaps including the following ethnic communities: behma
bupeng busa chama chidi duchi eechi longren
sharen woma Yunnan highlands
China (Yunnan-W.)
73-DEF CHITBON+ NG'MEN
net
73-DEF-a Chitbon+ Ng'men chitbon-'chin', chinbon, sho 2 Burma (Chin) 4
73-DEF-aa chitbon Paletwa+ Seidoutia+ Yaw+ Kanpetlet & environs, Chin-S. hills Burma (Chin) 4
73-DEF-aaa chitbon-A. Burma (Chin)
73-DEF-aab chindwin chindwin-chin Burma (Chin)
73-DEF-aac tb chinbon, sho 2 Burma (Chin)
73-DEF-ab ng'men +transition to [73] Mn Burma (Chin)
73-DEG NGAWN net
73-DEG-a Ngawn ngawn-'chin' Latin script Burma (Chin) 4
73-DEG-aa ngawn ngorn Chin hills: Falam district Burma (Chin) 4
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 545
73-DF LEPCHA chain
73-DFA LEPCHA net
73-DFA-a Lepcha Lepcha script India (Sikkim; West Bengal);
Bhutan; Nepal; also Bangladesh.

5
73-DFA-aa lepcha-llammu lapcha, rong, rong-ke, rong-pa, nun-pa India (Sikkim; West Bengal);
Bhutan
5
73-DFA-aaa lepcha-L. "archaic literary" lepcha India (Sikkim; West Bengal);
Bhutan
73-DFA-aab lepcha-F. "modern literary" lepcha India (Sikkim; West Bengal);
Bhutan
73-DFA-aac lepcha-'sikkim' India (Sikkim)
73-DFA-aad lepcha-kalimpong Kalimpong environs India (West Bengal)
73-DFA-aae lepcha-'bhutan' West Bhutan lower valleys Bhutan
73-DFA-ab ilam-mu Ilam environs Nepal-E.
73-DFA-ac tamsang-mu India (Sikkim); Bhutan
73-DFA-ad rengjong-mu India (Sikkim); Bhutan
page 546 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
74= MIRIC phylozone
covers the "Mirish" or Nisi+ Miri set, part of the "Tibeto-
Burman" affinity, within the "Sino-Tibetan" ("Sino-Indian")
continental affinity; comprising a grouping of 1 set of
languages (= 6 outer languages) spoken by communities in
the mountain-valleys and highlands north of the middle
Brahmaputra:
74-A NISI+ MIRI
India; China (Tibet)
6
74-A NISI+ MIRI set "mirish"
74-AA NISI+ MIRI chain
74-AAA NISI+ APATANI net
74-AAA-a Nisi+ Apatani India (Arunachal Pradesh; also
Assam)
5
74-AAA-aa nisi nissi, nishi, nishang, nyising, nissi+ dafla (Arunachal Pradesh) 4
74-AAA-aaa nisi-A. (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAA-aab dafla daphla (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAA-aac bangni (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAA-ab aka-lel aka, lel (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAA-ac apatani apa (Arunachal Pradesh) 4
74-AAA-ad tagen tagin (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAA-ae tanang adi-tangam* (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAA-af sulung* (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAB MIRI+ ADI net
74-AAB-a Miri arbor, ashing -bilingual in [59] Axamiya Latin script
Brahmaputra upper plains & northern highlands
India (Assam; Arunachal Pradesh);
China (Tibet)
5
74-AAB-aa mishing (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAB-ab miri-N. "hill" miri (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAB-ac miri-S. "plains" miri (Assam)
74-AAB-b Adi 'abor', adi-milang #'abor' (discontinued official name) =unruly
including up to 6 further idioms
India (Arunachal Pradesh); China
(Tibet)
5
74-AAB-ba adi-pasi India (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAB-bb adi-milang India (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAB-bc adi-minyong India (Arunachal Pradesh) 3
74-AAB-bd adi-galong adi-galo, galo, gallo, gallong India (Assam; Arunachal Pradesh) 4
74-AAC YANO* net "yanoic"
74-AAC-a Yano India (Arunachal Pradesh*) 3
74-AAC-aa yano India (Arunachal Pradesh*) 3
74-AAD LHO-BA* net
74-AAD-a Lho-ba India (Arunachal Pradesh); China
(Tibet)
5
74-AAD-aa luo-ba lho-pa, hlopa, luoba, yidu India (Arunachal Pradesh); China
(Tibet-SE.)
5
74-AAD-aaa luo-ba-W. (Arunachal Pradesh-NW.)
74-AAD-aab mailing Mailing county China (Tibet)
74-AAD-aac luozha Luozha county China (Tibet)
74-AAE DIGARU+ IDU net MISHMI
74-AAE-a Digaru+ Idu Mishmi hills India (Arunachal Pradesh) 4
74-AAE-aa digaru digaru-mishmi (Arunachal Pradesh) 4
74-AAE-aaa digaru-A. digaro (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAE-aab taraong taraon, taaon (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAE-aac taying (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAE-ab miju miju-mishmi (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAE-aba miju-A. miji, midu, midhi (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAE-abb kaman (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAE-abc sajalong (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAE-ac idu ida, idu-mishmi Sikang valley (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAE-aca chulikata (Arunachal Pradesh)
74-AAE-acb mithun (Arunachal Pradesh)
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 547
75= KACHINIC
phylozone
covers the "Kachin+ Luish" or Jingpho+ Kado grouping, part
of the "Tibeto-Burman" affinity within the "Sino-Tibetan"
("Sino-Indian") continental affinity; comprising 2 sets of
languages (= 3 outer languages) spoken by communities in
continental Southeast Asia, between the middle Brahmaputra
and the middle Mekong basins:
75-A JINGPHO+ TAMAN 75-B KADO+ GANAAN
Burma; China; India; Laos
5
75-A JINGPHO+ TAMAN
set
"WIDER"-KACHIN
75-AA JINGPHO+ TAMAN
chain
75-AAA JINGPHO+ DZILI net
75-AAA-a Jingpho+ Dzili Latin script (Yunnan) Dai-Jingpo autonomous county Burma (Kachin); China (Yunnan);
also India (Arunachal Pradesh;
Assam)
5
75-AAA-aa jing-pho jing-po, kachin "proper", ching-paw, jingh-paw, ching-po, marip,
dashanhua
Burma (Kachin); China (Yunnan);
also India (Arunachal Pradesh;
Assam)
5
75-AAA-aaa jingh-paw "burma" jingpho (Kachin)
75-AAA-aab jing-pho-V. "vehicular burma" jingpho (Kachin)
75-AAA-aac sing-pho "assam" jingpho, singpo; including dowaniya community (Arunachal Pradesh; Assam) 2
75-AAA-aad enkun "standard china" jinghpo, part of "china" jingpho (Yunnan)
75-AAA-aae shidan part of "china" jingpho Yingjiang county (Yunnan)
75-AAA-ab hka-ku hka-hku China (Yunnan)
75-AAA-ac kauri hkauri, gauri China (Yunnan)
75-AAA-ad dzili jili China (Yunnan)
75-AAB TAMAN net
75-AAB-a Taman Burma 4
75-AAB-aa taman Burma-NW. 4
75-B KADO+ GANAAN set LUISH
75-BA KADO+ GANAAN
chain
75-BAA KADO+ GANAAN
net
75-BAA-a Kado+ Ganaan China (Yunnan); Burma (Shan);
also Laos
5
75-BAA-aa kado kadu, katu, kato, kudo, gadu Burma (Shan); China (Yunnan);
also Laos-N.
5
75-BAA-aaa kado-A. Burma (Shan); China (Yunnan)
75-BAA-aab asak sak (Shan) and/or (Yunnan)
75-BAA-aac thet that (Shan) and/or (Yunnan)
75-BAA-aad mawteik (Shan) and/or (Yunnan)
75-BAA-aae puteik (Shan) and/or (Yunnan)
75-BAA-aaf woni (Shan) and/or (Yunnan)
75-BAA-ab ganaan ganan China (Yunnan); Burma (Shan) 4
75-BAA-ac andro China (Yunnan) and/or (Shan)
75-BAA-ad sengmai China (Yunnan) and/or (Shan)
75-BAA-ae chakpa China (Yunnan) and/or (Shan)
75-BAA-af phayeng China (Yunnan) and/or (Shan)
page 548 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
76= RUNGIC
phylozone
covers the "Rung" reference area, part of the "Tibeto-Burman"
affinity within the "Sino-Tibetan" ("Sino-Indian") continental
affinity; comprising 4 sets of languages (= 9 outer languages)
spoken by communities in continental Southeast Asia,
between the upper Brahmaputra and upper Salween basins:
76-A NUNG+ NORRA 76-B JIARONG
76-C QIANG+ DZORGAI 76-D P'UMI
China; Burma; India
5
76-A NUNG+ NORRA set NUNGISH
76-AA NUNG+ NORRA
chain
76-AAA NUNG+ RAWANG*
net
nung+ rawang, ganung+ rawang, hka-nung, kha-nung, ganung an
extended continuum of progressively divergent idioms, treated
provisionally as 2 outer-languages
76-AAA-a Nung+ Tulung* China (Yunnan); Burma (Kachin;
Shan)
4
76-AAA-aa nung anung, anoong, nong, anu, nu, noutzu, nusu, lu, lutzu, lutze Nu-
jang Salween valleys list of dialects to be completed (up to 16)
China (Yunnan); Burma (Kachin;
Shan)
3
76-AAA-aaa nung-A. (Yunnan); (Kachin; Shan)
76-AAA-aab khupang Salween valley: Chunpang (Shan; Yunnan frontier)
76-AAA-aac kwingsang (Kachin and/or Shan)
76-AAA-aad khanung (Kachin and/or Shan)
76-AAA-aae fuchye (Kachin and/or Shan)
76-AAA-aaf cholo (Kachin and/or Shan)
76-AAA-aag gwaza (Kachin and/or Shan)
76-AAA-aah miko (Kachin)
76-AAA-ab tulung trung, drung, dulung, dulong speakers divided ethnically between
Drung and Nung communities ("nationalities")
China (Yunnan) 3
76-AAA-ac kwinpang kwingsang transitional to [76] Rawang China (Yunnan)
76-AAA-b Rawang* Ch'opa, in [79] Hanyu (Chinese): kiu-tze, chiu-tse, qui-ze, in [77] Lisu-
W.: ch'opa; including krangku including up to 100 idioms (to be
ascertained), in a continuum with [76] Nung+ Tulung Latin script
Burma (Kachin); China (Yunnan;
also Tibet); India (Arunachal
Pradesh)
5
76-AAA-ba mut-wang rawang-C., including "literary" rawang list of dialects to be confirmed
and extended, and perhaps to be partially re-allocated among the other
three inner-languages of the Rawang outer-language
Burma (Kachin); China (Yunnan;
Tibet); India (Arunachal Pradesh)
76-AAA-baa krangku (Kachin) and/or (Yunnan)
76-AAA-bab agu (Kachin) and/or (Yunnan)
76-AAA-bac hpungsi (Kachin) and/or (Yunnan)
76-AAA-bad htisel-wang (Kachin) and/or (Yunnan)
76-AAA-bae matwanly (Kachin) and/or (Yunnan)
76-AAA-baf melam (Yunnan)
76-AAA-bag metu (Yunnan)
76-AAA-bah tamalu damalo (Yunnan)
76-AAA-bai tukiumu (Yunnan)
76-AAA-baj serhta (Kachin) and/or (Yunnan)
76-AAA-bak wadamkong watamkaung Watamkaung (Kachin)
76-AAA-bal wahke (Kachin) and/or (Yunnan)
76-AAA-bam taron (Kachin) and/or (Yunnan)
76-AAA-ban zithung (Kachin) and/or (Yunnan)
76-AAA-bao kunglang kunlang (Arunachal Pradesh)
76-AAA-bb longmi lungmi (Kachin) and/or (Yunnan)
76-AAA-bc serwang (Tibet) frontier; Burma
76-AAA-bd tangsarr (Kachin) and/or (Yunnan)
76-AAB NORRA+ LAMA net
76-AAB-a Norra+ Lama Burma (Kachin); China (Tibet) 4
76-AAB-aa norra nora, nurra, noza Burma (Kachin); China (Tibet)
frontier
4
76-AAB-ab byabe Burma (Kachin)
76-AAB-ac kizolo Burma (Kachin)
76-AAB-ad lama Burma (Kachin); China (Tibet) 3
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 549
76-B JIARONG set
76-BA JIARONG chain #indigenous names for component languages to be ascertained
76-BAA JIARONG-
NORTHEAST net
76-BAA-a Jiarong-N. jarong-N., jyarung-N., gyarong-N., gyarung-N., chiarong-N.
Ma'erkang, Barkam county: Ribu Caotang Mu'erzi
China (Sichuan) 5
76-BAA-aa pati China (Sichuan)
76-BAA-ab wassu China (Sichuan)
76-BAA-ac suomo China (Sichuan)
76-BAA-b Jiarong-E. Li Wenchuan Xiaojin, Zainiha Ma'erkang, Barkam Jinchuan,
Quqn counties
China (Sichuan) 5
76-BAA-ba jiarong-E. jarong-E., jyarung-E., gyarong-E., gyarung-E., chiarong-E. China (Sichuan) 5
76-BAB JIARONG-WEST net
76-BAB-a Jiarong-W. Jinchuan, Quqn counties Danba, Rongshag Daofu, Dawu
counties
China (Sichuan) 5
76-BAB-aa jiarong-W. jarong-W., jyarung-W., gyarong-W., gyarung-W., chiarong-W. China (Sichuan) 5
76-C QIANG+ DZORGAI
set
"wider" qiang, "dzorgaish", part of qiang+ p'umi grouping
76-CA QIANG+ DZORGAI
chain
76-CAA QIANG+ DZORGAI
net
76-CAA-a Qiang+ Dzorgai "wider" qiang China (Sichuan) 5
76-CAA-aa mawo "non-tonal" qiang, qiang-N., ch'iang-N., jiang-N. Heishuihe basin China (Sichuan) 4
76-CAA-ab taoping "tonal" qiang, qiang-S., ch'iang-S., jiang-S. Minjiang basin: Songpan
(Zhenjiangguan) Wenchuan+ Li Beichuan counties
China (Sichuan) 4
76-CAA-ac lofuchai China (Sichuan)
76-CAA-ad wagsod China (Sichuan)
76-CAA-ae dzorgai China (Sichuan)
76-CAA-af kortse China (Sichuan)
76-CAA-ag pingfang China (Sichuan)
76-CAA-ah thochu thouju*, ersu* China (Sichuan)
76-D P'UMI set PRIMMI, part of qiang+ p'umi grouping
76-DA P'UMI chain
76-DAA P'UMI net pumi, primmi, pruumi, p'mi, ch'rame, taoba, including jing-hua
76-DAA-a P'umi-N. Muli Yanyuan Kulong also Ninglang counties China (Sichuan; also Yunnan);
Myanmar*
4
76-DAA-aa p'umi-N. including 5 idioms; perhaps also including reclassified [77] Muli (at
present classified under [77] Hsifan)
China (Sichuan; also Yunnan);
Myanmar*
4
76-DAA-b P'umi-S. Lanping Weixi Yongsheng Lijiang also Ninglang counties China (Yunnan) 4
76-DAA-ba p'umi-S. including 5 idioms China (Yunnan) 4
page 550 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
77= IRRAWADDIC
phylozone
covers the "Burmese+ Lolo" or Bama+ Nas grouping, part of
the "Tibeto-Burman" affinity within the "Sino-Tibetan" ("Sino-
Indian") continental affinity; comprising 3 sets of languages (=
27 outer languages) spoken by communities in continental
Southeast Asia, centered on the Irrawaddy river and its
tributaries:
77-A BAMA+ LAWNG 77-B NAS+ AKHA
77-C BAI+ DALI*
Burma; China; Laos; Thailand
7
77-A BAMA+ LAWNG set "WIDER"-BURMESE, "burmish", "burman"
77-AA BAMA+ LAWNG
chain
77-AAA BAMA+ LAWNG net
77-AAA-a Bama+ Arakan "burmese"-S. +influenced by [46] Mon Burmese script Burma; Bangladesh; also
migration> India (Andaman &
Nicobar)
7
77-AAA-aa bama burmese-C., bama-chaka; including literary, formal myan, myen, mian
+influenced by [59] Pali
Burma
77-AAA-aaa myan-L. "pre-modern literary burmese" Burma
77-AAA-aab myan-F. "modern literary burmese", "standard burmese" Burma
77-AAA-aac bama-G. yangon "colloquial", rangoon "colloquial", "generalised burmese"
Yangon, Rangoon with vehicular extension throughout Burma
Burma
77-AAA-aad irrawaddy-S. "lower" irrawaddy Irrawaddy lower valley Burma (Pegu)
77-AAA-aae irrawady-N. "upper" irrawaddy, mandalay Irrawaddy upper valley: Mandalay Burma (Mandalay)
77-AAA-ab arakan+ maghi "arakanese", "burmese"-W. Arakan Yoma highlands plus 19
th
cent.
migration> Chittagong lowlands
Burma-SW.; migration>
Bangladesh (Chittagong)
5
77-AAA-aba arakan Arakan Yoma highlands Burma (Arakan)
77-AAA-abb rakhaing rakhain, rakhine, yakhaing, yakan Burma-SW.
77-AAA-abc maghi maghi-magh, morma, marma, mash, mogh, bomang, "bangladesh
burmese"
Bangladesh (Chittagong)
77-AAA-ac intha inntha, inle Inle lake Burma (Shan) 5
77-AAA-ad toru+ danu taruw +influenced by [47] Shan Burma (Tenasserim) 5
77-AAA-ada taungnyo taungyo Taungnyo mountains (Tenasserim-N.) 2
77-AAA-adb toru taruw (Tenasserim-N.)
77-AAA-adc danu (Tenasserim-N.)
77-AAA-ae tavoya "tavoyan", tavoy, tawe, dawai, daw Heinze Chaung cost Tavoy
valley Tavoy, Dawei coast Bodaungseik coast
Burma (Tenasserim)
77-AAA-af palaw Palaw coast (Tenasserim-S.)
77-AAA-ag baik beik, myeik, "wider" mergui Pasul Mergui Burma-S. (Tenasserim)
77-AAA-aga mergui "merguese" Mergui coast (Tenasserim-S.)
77-AAA-agb tenasserim Tenasserim town & valley (Tenasserim-S.)
77-AAA-agc lenya Lenya Kadin coast (Tenasserim-S.)
77-AAA-ah yangbye yanbe, yangye, yanbye, yabein Burma 5
77-AAA-ai chaungtha* #chaung-tha=people of the valley Burma 5
77-AAA-b Hpon+ Megyaw* part of "burmese"-N. Burma (Kachin; also Shan
adjacent); China (Yunnan)
3
77-AAA-ba hpon+ megyaw hpn, phun, phn, phon, phu, aphu, jing-po 2 Burma (Kachin); China (Yunnan)
77-AAA-baa hpon-A. (Kachin)
77-AAA-bab megyaw (Kachin)
77-AAA-bac samong (Kachin)
77-AAA-bad "china"-jingpo-2 part of "pseudo"-jingpo distinct from [75] Jingpho (Yunnan)
77-AAA-c Achang+ Maingtha part of "burmese"-N. China (Yunnan); Burma (Kachin)
frontier
4
77-AAA-ca achang Dehong Dai autonomous prefecture: Tengchong Lianghe to
Burmese frontier (enclaves)
China (Yunnan) 4
77-AAA-caa achang-A. ahchan, achung, atsang, acang, ach'ang (Yunnan)
77-AAA-cab ngachang ngac'ang, ngacang, ngatsang, ngo-chang (Yunnan)
77-AAA-cb maingtha mnghsa, "burma" achang Burma (Kachin) 3
77-AAA-d Lawng+ Lashi Maru, mulu, malu, matu; part of "burmese"-N. Burma (Kachin); China (Yunnan)

5
77-AAA-da lawng Burma (Kachin); also China
(Yunnan)
5
77-AAA-daa lawng-waw laungaw, lang, lawng, lang-wa (Kachin)
77-AAA-dab dago'-lawng-bit (Kachin)
77-AAA-dac lawng-hsu lansu (Kachin)
77-AAA-dad zagaran-mran (Kachin)
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 551
77-AAA-dae gawan-naw' (Kachin)
77-AAA-daf hlo'lan (Kachin)
77-AAA-dag laking (Kachin)
77-AAA-dah wa-khawk (Kachin)
77-AAA-dai diso (Kachin)
77-AAA-db lashi lashi-maru, part of "pseudo"-jingpo Burma (Kachin); also China
(Yunnan)
4
77-AAA-dba lashi-kwaw lasi, letsi, lechi, leqi, lachi-kwaw, lashi, ac'ye (Kachin)
77-AAA-dbb cha-shan (Kachin)
77-AAA-dc zaiwa+ polo atsi, atsi-maru, atzi, szi, atshi, aci, azi, part of "pseudo"-jingpo
-bilingual in [75] Jingpho
China (Yunnan); Burma (Kachin) 4
77-AAA-dca zaiwa tsaiwa, tsaiva Luxi county: Longzhun (Yunnan); (Kachin)
77-AAA-dcb langwa (Yunnan); (Kachin)
77-AAA-dcc polo (Yunnan); (Kachin)
77-B NAS+ AKHA* set "WIDER"-YI, "wider" 'lolo', 'loloish'
77-BA NAS+ THONGHO*
notional chain
"NARROW"-YI, nyi, gni, i, ichia, manchia, mantzu; including socially
(but not linguistically) distinct "black" yi (no-su, of 'free'-status)
"white" yi (of former 'serf' status) #Yi is a generic term in [79] Han-yu,
now accepted also by speakers of all or some of the languages
concerned notional chain, based on application of the name Yi
traditional Yi syllabic script(s), used for ritual texts
77-BAA THONGHO+
LIANGSHAN* net
sichuan-yi, yi-N., "independent" yi, 'lolo'-N.
77-BAA-a Thongho+
Liangshan
Dau He valley: Ebian Yi autonomous county Liangshan ("Cool
Mountain") range with expansion (often as slave-raiders) into
Guizhou (Bijie Qianxi Guiyang) component idioms to be
confirmed and located
China (Sichuan; also Tibet;
Yunnan; Guizhou)
6
77-BAA-aa thongho China (Sichuan)
77-BAA-ab paki-shan China (Sichuan)
77-BAA-ac kang-siang-ying China (Sichuan)
77-BAA-ad kiao-kio China (Sichuan)
77-BAA-ae nee China (Sichuan)
77-BAA-af laichau China (Sichuan)
77-BAA-ag tudza China (Sichuan)
77-BAA-ah nuoku China (Sichuan)
77-BAA-ai liang-shan Liangshan range China (Sichuan)
77-BAA-aj p'ou-la China (Sichuan)
77-BAB DIAN-DONGBEI* net part of yi-E., 'lolo'-N. 5
77-BAB-a Dian-Dongbei China (Yunnan)
77-BAB-aa dian-dongbei China (Yunnan)
77-BAC DIAN-QIAN+ PAN*
net
part of yi-E. China (Yunnan; Guizhou;
Guangxi); perhaps also Vietnam
5
77-BAC-a Dian-Qian+ Pan Weining Yi-Hui-Miao autonomous county Dafang autonomous
county Hezhang county Pan county Baise county
China (Yunnan; Guizhou; Guangxi)
77-BAC-aa dian-qian China (Yunnan; Guizhou; Guangxi)
77-BAC-ab pan Pan county: Pan-Xian China (Guizhou)
77-BAD DONGSHAN+
DAYAO* notional net
yi-C.+ yi-W. notional net, pending further data -bilingual in [79]
Han-yu
5
77-BAD-a Dongshan+ Xishan yi-W. including Chuxiong Yi autonomous prefecture* China (Yunnan)
77-BAD-aa dong-shan Dongshan (location near Cheng-Hai lake to be confirmed) China (Yunnan)
77-BAD-ab xi-shan Xishan (Kunming>W. or an identical place-name elsewhere?) China (Yunnan)
77-BAD-b Dayao+ Nanhua yi-C. Dali Bai Chuxiong Yi autonomous prefectures Simao
district
China (Yunnan) 5
77-BAD-ba da-yao China (Yunnan)
77-BAD-bb nan-hua China (Yunnan)
77-BAE NAS+ AXI*
notional net
yi-S.+ yi-SE. notional net, pending further data
77-BAE-a Nas+ Luquan China (Yunnan) 4
77-BAE-aa nas shui-nosu, nosu, nasu including Kunming: Hetaojing (Walnut-
Basket) village
China (Yunnan) 3
77-BAE-aaa ko-p'u kopu (Yunnan)
77-BAE-aab ulu (Yunnan)
77-BAE-aac weining (Yunnan)
77-BAE-ab luquan Luquan county (Yunnan)
page 552 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
77-BAE-b Axi+ Lolopho* yi-SE. Qujing district Honghe Hani-Yi autonomous prefecture
Wenshan Zhuang-Miao autonomous prefecture
China (Yunnan) 5
77-BAE-ba chk China (Yunnan)
77-BAE-bb axi ahi, mile Kunming>SE.: Lunan Yi autonomous county Mile county China (Yunnan)
77-BAE-bc sani yi-liang Kunming>E.: Yiliang county China (Yunnan)
77-BAE-bd awu China (Yunnan)
77-BAE-be axhebo China (Yunnan)
77-BAE-bf huami* China (Yunnan)
77-BAE-bg wenxi* China (Yunnan)
77-BAE-bh lolopho China (Yunnan)
77-BAE-bi phupha China (Yunnan)
77-BB NAXI+ LISU* chain
77-BBA NAXI net
77-BBA-a Naxi nahsi, nasi, nakhi, 'moso', 'mosso', 'mussoh' Jinsha, Yangtze upper
valley: Lijiang Naxi autonomous county Weixi Zhongdian also
scattered in Sichuan (Yanyuan; Yanbian; Muli counties) also in Tibet
(Mangkang county) Naxi pictographic proto-writing; Naxi syllabic
script
China (Yunnan; Sichuan; also
Tibet)
5
77-BBA-aa naxi-W. "standard" naxi within Yangtze loop: Lijiang Naxi autonomous county
(Dayan)
(Yunnan)
77-BBA-ab naxi-E. inclusion of the following dialects to be confirmed (Yunnan; Sichuan)
77-BBA-aba lichiang* (Yunnan and/or Sichuan)
77-BBA-abb lapao* (Yunnan and/or Sichuan)
77-BBA-abc lutien* (Yunnan and/or Sichuan)
77-BBA-abd lomi* (Yunnan and/or Sichuan)
77-BBB LISU+ TAKU net
77-BBB-a Lisu+ Taku China (Yunnan; Sichuan); Burma
(Upper Shan; Wa); Thailand-N.;
Laos frontier
5
77-BBB-aa lisu 'lisu-S.', 'lisu-C.', lissu, lisaw, li-shaw, li-hsaw, lu-tzu, lesuo, li, lishu,
leisu, leshuoopa, loisu, luizu, lusu Fraser's syllabic script; Wang
Renbo's syllabic script; Latin script (Yunnan) Salween, Nu
Mekong, Lancang valleys: Gongshan Drung-Nu autonomous county
Fugong Luku; Jiang, Yangtze upper right-bank enclaves; (Yunnan+
Kachin frontier) Taiping headwaters; (Shan) Mng Hawm Mng Si;
(Thailand-N.) Ping headwaters Kok valley enclaves; Ping+ Wang
confluence>W.
China (Yunnan); Burma (Kachin;
Shan: Upper Shan, Wa); migration
>Thailand-N.
5
77-BBB-aaa yao-yen yaw-yen, yaw-yin, yeh-jen, yaw-gin (Yunnan)
77-BBB-aab chung (Yunnan)
77-BBB-aac cheli chedi (Yunnan)
77-BBB-aad khae (Yunnan)
77-BBB-aae lip'o (Yunnan)
77-BBB-aaf hua-lisu hwa-lisu, "flowery" lisu (Shan)
77-BBB-aag pai-lisu "white" lisu (Shan)
77-BBB-aah lu-shi-lisu (Shan)
77-BBB-aai tangsir (Shan)
77-BBB-aaj hkwin-hpang (Shan)
77-BBB-ab taku lisu-E., lisu-taku, he-lisu, "black" lisu Pollard's syllabic script China (Yunnan)
77-BBB-ac jino jinuo, youle Youle mountains Laos+ Burma frontier; China
(Yunnan)
4
77-BBC SAMEI* net provisional classification; perhaps to br reclassfied with [77] Nas+
Thongho (Yi)
77-BBC-a Samei China (Yunnan) 2
77-BBC-aa samei China (Yunnan) 2
77-BC AKHA+ PHUNOI
chain
77-BCA AKHA+ LAHU net
77-BCA-a Akha+ Kaduo* Hani, hanhi, haw between Yuan Nanpan valleys: Honghe Hani-Yi
autonomous prefecture Mojiang Hani autonomous county
Jiangcheng Hani-Yi autonomous county
China (Yunnan); Burma
(Kengtung Shan); Thailand; also
Vietnam
6
77-BCA-aa menghua mehua, menghwa, mengwa Dali>S. China (Yunnan)
77-BCA-ab asong Burma (Kengtung Shan-E.)
77-BCA-ac akha+ phusang Mekong middle valley (scattered enclaves) Latin script Burma (Kengtung Shan-E.); China
(Yunnan); Thailand-N.; Laos-N.;
also Vietnam
5
77-BCA-aca akha ako, aka, ko, ekaw, kaw, ak'a, kha-ko, ekwa, ikho, ikor Burma (Kengtung Shan-E.) 5
77-BCA-acb chaecung China (Yunnan)
77-BCA-acc luma China (Yunnan)
77-BCA-acd nu-guei nu-quay China (Yunnan)
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 553
77-BCA-ace buli China (Yunnan)
77-BCA-acf mucchi China (Yunnan)
77-BCA-acg oma China (Yunnan)
77-BCA-ach o'pa China (Yunnan)
77-BCA-aci phusang China (Yunnan)
77-BCA-ad phana phana', pana', bana' China frontier; Laos-N. 3
77-BCA-ae kaduo kado Mong-ou-tay China frontier Laos-N.; China (Yunnan) frontier 3
77-BCA-af pudu putu China
77-BCA-ag sansu Burma-E.; China (Yunnan)
77-BCA-ah mahei mahe, mabe Burma-E.; China (Yunnan)
77-BCA-ai biyo bio, biyua China (Yunnan) 5
77-BCA-aj honi* woni, uni, ho, ouni, aini, yani Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous
prefecture
China (Yunnan) 5
77-BCA-ak sang-kong* Xishuangbanna Dai autonomous prefecture China (Yunnan) 3
77-BCA-b Lahu scattered enclaves from Dawang range (Mae Klong headwaters) to
Wuliangshan range (Lishehe valley) severely affected by cross-
frontier movement of refugees in late 20
th
cent. Pinyin Latin script
Thailand; Laos; Burma (Shan);
China (Yunnan)
5
77-BCA-ba lahu-A. lahuna, laku, lohei, kaixien, namen, mussar, mussuh, musso, moso 2,
muhso
China (Yunnan); Burma (Shan);
Thailand-N.
5
77-BCA-bb kutsung "yellow" lahu, shi, lahu-shi, kucong, kui, kwi China (Yunnan); Burma (Shan);
also Thailand-N.
4
77-BCA-bc na "black" lahu, musseh-dam, lahu-N., lohei, loheirn #na=black China (Yunnan); Burma (Shan);
Thailand-N.
77-BCA-bd nyi "red" lahu, musseh-daeng, luhishi, luhushi, lahu-S. China (Yunnan); Burma (Shan);
Thailand-N.
77-BCA-be shehleh China (Yunnan); Burma (Shan)
77-BCA-bf laopang laopa China (Yunnan); Burma (Shan)
77-BCA-bg laba China (Yunnan); Burma (Shan)
77-BCB PHUNOI+ BISU net
77-BCB-a Phunoi Laos; Thailand 4
77-BCB-aa phunoi-A. 'kha-punoi', cng Phong-saly environs Laos-C.; also Thailand 4
77-BCB-ab 'black'-khoany Laos-C.
77-BCB-ac 'white'-khoany Laos-C.
77-BCB-ad mung Laos-C.
77-BCB-ae hwethom Laos-C.
77-BCB-af khaskhong Laos-C.
77-BCB-b Bisu+ Mpi Thailand; Laos; Burma 3
77-BCB-ba bisu mbisu Thailand (Chiangrai-SW.;
Lampang-N.)
2
77-BCB-bb mpi mpi-mi Phrae Phayao Thailand 3
77-BCB-bc pyen Kha river Laos frontier; Burma (Shan) 2
77-BCC SILA net
77-BCC-a Sila Laos 4
77-BCC-aa sila Muong-hai>N. Laos-N. 4
77-BCD LOPI net
77-BCD-a Lopi Burma (Shan); also China
(Yunnan)*
4
77-BCD-aa lopi Burma (Shan) 4
77-BD HSIFAN chain part of 'declining lolo', 'residual lolo'
77-BDA HSIFAN net
77-BDA-a Hsifan "wider" hsifan Burma; also China (Sichuan)* 4
77-BDA-aa hsifan-A. hsifan "proper" Burma
77-BDA-ab manyak Burma
77-BDA-ac horpa Burma
77-BDA-ad menia Burma
77-BDA-ae muli* or to be classified with [76] P'umi Burma; also China (Sichuan)*
77-BE UGONG chain part of 'declining lolo', 'residual lolo'
77-BEA UGONG net
77-BEA-a Ugong Kanchanaburi Uthai-thani Suphanaburi -bilingual in [47] Thai Thailand 3
77-BEA-aa ugong lawa 2 Thailand 3
77-BEA-aaa 'ugong ugong Thailand
77-BEA-aab kok-chiang Thailand
77-BEA-aac suphanaburi Suphanaburi Thailand
page 554 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
77-BF NU+ ZAUZOU chain
77-BFA NU+ ZAUZOU net "pseudo" nung, nung 2 distinct from [76] Nung
77-BFA-a Nu Nu Jiang Lisu autonomous prefecture: Nu Lancang valleys China (Yunnan) 3
77-BFA-aa nu anu, noutzu, nutzu, lutze, lu, lutzu; kiutze; nu-su community China (Yunnan) 3
77-BFA-aaa nu-NW. Nu valley: Bijiang Fugong>N. (Yunnan)
77-BFA-aab nu-SE. Lancang valley (Yunnan)
77-BFA-b Zauzou China (Yunnan) 3
77-BFA-ba zauzou China (Yunnan) 3
77-BG TUJIA-NORTH*
chain
provisional classification
77-BGA TUJIA-NORTH net
77-BGA-a Tujia-N. Yingjiang Yanhe counties: Yongshun China (Hunan; Hubei; Guizhou) 5*
77-BGA-aa tujia-N. tuchia-N., pitsikha-N. China (Hunan; Hubei; Guizhou)
77-BH TUJIA-SOUTH* chain provisional classification
77-BHA TUJIA-SOUTH net
77-BHA-a Tujia-S. Jishou environs China (Hunan; Hubei; Guizhou) 3
77-BHA-aa tujia-S. tuchia-S., pitsikha-S. China (Hunan; Hubei; Guizhou)
77-C BAI+ DALI* set provisional classification as sinicised 'Loloish'-related set
77-CA BAI+ DALI chain
77-CAA BAI+ DALI net
77-CAA-a Bai+ Dali +hybrid outer-language, heavily influenced by [79] Han-yu China (Yunnan) 5
77-CAA-aa bai pai, minkia, minjia, minchia; including eryuan labbu nama leme
Dali-Bai autonomous prefecture: Dali plain, between Lancang
Jinsha, Yangtze rivers
China (Yunnan) 5
77-CAA-aaa heqing bai-C., heqing-jianchuan, hoking-jianchuan (Yunnan)
77-CAA-aab kowan (Yunnan)
77-CAA-aac 'mountain'-minchia "mountain" bai (Yunnan)
77-CAA-ab lanbi bijiang-lanping, lanping-bijiang China (Yunnan)
77-CAA-ac dali tali, tali-xaingyun China (Yunnan)
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 555
78= KARENIC
phylozone
covers the "Karen" or Pwo+ Sgaw set, part of the "Sino-
Tibetan" ("Sino-Indian") continental affinity; comprising 1 set
of languages (= 12 outer languages) spoken by communities
in central Southeast Asia:
78-A PWO + SGAW
The Karen set constitutes an independent component of the
"Sino-Tibetan" affinity, and is no longer considered part of the
intermediate "Tibeto-Burman" affinity.
Burma; Thailand
6
78-A PWO+ SGAW set karen Burmese script
78-AA PWO+ SGAW chain kayin, yang
78-AAA PWO+PA'O net
78-AAA-a Pa'o Burma (Shan; Kayan; Kawthoolei;
Tenasserim); Thailand
5
78-AAA-aa pa'o pa-u, taungthu, "black" karen, pa'o-karen Burma (Shan; Kayan; Kawthoolei;
Tenasserim); Thailand
5
78-AAA-aaa pa'o-N. Burma (Shan-SW.)
78-AAA-aab pa'o-S. Burma (Tenasserim-C.)
78-AAA-aac pa'o-E. Thailand enclave Thailand
78-AAA-b Pwo+ Phlong Burma; Thailand 6
78-AAA-ba pwo pho, talaing-kayin,"white" karen, "plains" karen, pwo-karen Burma; Thailand
78-AAA-baa pwo-F. "literary pwo" Burma; Thailand
78-AAA-bab mae-sarieng Mae-Sarieng Thailand-N
78-AAA-bac hod hot Mae-Sarieng environs Thailand-N.
78-AAA-bad mae-ngaw Salween river Thailand-N.
78-AAA-bae omkoi Thailand
78-AAA-baf mae-sot Thailand
78-AAA-bag ubong Thailand
78-AAA-bah chiang-rai Chiang-Rai Thailand-N.
78-AAA-bai mae-sai Mae-Sai Thailand-N.
78-AAA-baj mutheit* Thailand or Burma
78-AAA-bak shu* Thailand or Burma
78-AAA-bb leke Burma; Thailand
78-AAA-bc phlong phlon, pholong, hpalone Burma; Thailand
78-AAA-bd pwo-hua-hin hua-hin-pwo Hua Hin Thailand
78-AAA-be pwo-kanchana-buri pwo-uthai-thani Bangkok>N.: Kanchana Buri Thailand-C.
78-AAA-bf pwo-phrae phrae, prae Phrae Thailand-CN.
78-AAB SGAW+ BWE net
78-AAB-a Brek Kantarawady+ Kybogi mountains Burma (Kayan) 4
78-AAB-aa brek brec, brek-karen Burma (Kayan) 4
78-AAB-b Bwe-W. part of bwe-karen Burma 4
78-AAB-ba geba kaba, karenbyu, kayinbyu, "white" karen 3 Burma (Kayan-N.; Moby) 4
78-AAB-bb blimaw Burma
78-AAB-c Bwe-C. part of bwe-karen Burma; Thailand 4
78-AAB-ca bghai bwe, baghi, bghe, bwe-karen, "red" karen Burma; Thailand 4
78-AAB-caa kybogi Kybogi Burma (Kayan)
78-AAB-cab bghai-thailand Thailand enclave Thailand
78-AAB-cb gekho gek'o, gheko, ghekhol, ghekhu, keku, kekhong, kekaungdu
Yamethin Toungoo
Burma (Moby) 4
78-AAB-d Bwe-E. part of bwe-karen Burma; Thailand 4
78-AAB-da pa-daung padaung-karen, kayam Burma; Thailand 4
78-AAB-daa pa-daung-moby Phekon Burma (Moby)
78-AAB-dab pa-daung-thailand Thailand enclave Thailand
78-AAB-db lahta lahta-karen Mobye district Burma (Shan)
78-AAB-e Kayah+ Yinbaw Burma; Thailand 5
78-AAB-ea kayah kayinni, kayin, karennyi, kayay, "red" karen 2, "hills" karen 2, kayah-
karen
Burma; Thailand 5
78-AAB-eb yinbaw yinbaw-karen Burma 3
78-AAB-eba plateau-yinbaw Shan plateau: Mobye district Burma (Shan)
78-AAB-ebb bawlakh Bawlakh Burma (Kayan)
page 556 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
78-AAB-f Sgaw+ Paku Burma (Kayan); Thailand 6
78-AAB-fa sgaw sgau, yang khao, "white" karen 2, "plains" karen 2, sgaw-karen
Irrawaddy delta Tanen-taung-gyi mountains
Burma (Kayan); Thailand 6
78-AAB-faa pa-ganyaw pwakanyaw, kanyaw (Kayan); Thailand
78-AAB-fab pa-napu (Kayan)
78-AAB-fac pa-lakhi palachi, palaychi (Kayan)
78-AAB-fb pa-ku Taungoo>E. (Kayan) 3
78-AAB-fba pa-ku-A. paku, pagu (Kayan)
78-AAB-fbb bilichi (Kayan)
78-AAB-fbc dermuha (Kayan)
78-AAB-fbd mopwa monebwa, monnepwa (Kayan)
78-AAB-fbe thalwepwe (Kayan)
78-AAB-g Manumanaw Burma (Kayan) 3
78-AAB-ga manumanaw monu, manumanaw-karen Burma (Kayan) 3
78-AAB-h Yintale Bawlakhe district Burma (Kayan) 3
78-AAB-ha yintale yintalet, yintale-karen Burma (Kayan) 3
78-AAB-i Zayein Mobye Phekon Burma (Shan) 3
78-AAB-ia zayein zayein-karen Burma (Shan-S.) 3
78-AAB-iaa zayein-A. Burma (Shan-S.)
78-AAB-iab khaungtou gaungto Burma (Shan-S.)
78-AAB-j Wewaw Burma 3
78-AAB-ja wewaw wewaw-karen Burma 3
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 557
79= SINITIC
phylozone
covers the "Chinese" or Han-Yu set, part of the "Sino-Tibetan"
("Sino-Indian") continental affinity; comprising 1 set of
languages (= 16 outer languages) spoken by communities
throughout East Asia, centered on the Huang-He ("Yellow
River") and Yangtze basins:
79-A HAN-YU
including 3 arterial languages: Putonghua (Mandarin); Wu;
Yue (Cantonese)
The English term "dialect" has in the past been used
inappropriately to describe the major components of "Wider
Chinese", which are here classified as a net of 16 outer-
languages, divided into 69 inner-languages (and subsequently
into 429 "dialects", in the Register's usage of that term and on
the basis of presently limited knowledge).
Although degrees of spoken inter-intelligibility vary greatly
within each outer-language, and are generally low among
outer-languages, communication within China is facilitated by
a common writing system and by the universal teaching of
Putonghua (the standard form of "Mainstream Chinese" or so-
called 'Mandarin') as the language of national education.
Mainstream Chinese, or Putonghua in the wider sense, is the
language with the largest number of primary speakers in the
world, serving as the official national language of the most
populous nation-state. At the end of the 20
th
century, the title
of "most spoken language in the world" can be taken to
alternate between Mainstream Chinese and English within
each 24-hour cycle, depending on whether China is "asleep"
or "awake". Mainstream Chinese is one of two languages in
the world to have reached an estimated total of one billion
primary plus alternate voices by the end of the 2
nd
millennium.
Bangladesh; Bhutan; Burma; India;
Japan; Laos; Kazakhstan;
Kirghizstan; Malaysia; Nepal; North
Korea; Pakistan; Singapore; South
Korea; Thailand; Vietnam; plus
worldwide diaspora, including:
Australia; Brazil; Brunei; Canada;
Colombia; Costa Rica; Cuba; Fiji;
France; French Guiana; French
Polynesia; Guam; Guatemala;
Guyana; Indonesia; Jamaica;
Kazakhstan; Kirghizstan;
Madagascar; Mauritius; Mexico;
Mongolia; Mozambique; Nauru;
Netherlands; New Zealand /
Aotearoa; Panama; Papua New
Guinea; Paraguay; Peru;
Philippines; Portugal; Runion;
Samoa; Seychelles; South Africa;
Surinam; Trinidad; United
Kingdom; USA; Vanuatu;
Venezuela
9
79-A HAN-YU set "WIDER"-CHINESE, "sinitic"
79-AA HAN-YU chain
79-AAA HAN-YU net #in language-names below, -hua =language
79-AAA-a Wen-li Classical-Chinese written from c.1800 in Chinese script China; Korea; Vietnam (former
Annam); Japan
79-AAA-aa wen-li wen-yen, veng-yi, "high" wenli, "classical+ pre-classical literary
chinese"; including "pre-classical literary chinese" (from c.1800)
"classical literary chinese" (from c.200):
China
79-AAA-b Pu-tong-hua Mainstream-Chinese, han-yu-N., pei, bei, bai, "wider" mandarin,
"chinese"-N. #putong-hua, potin-hua, p'u-t'ung-hua =commonly
understood language. This term has become established in 20th
century communist China to describe the official northern Chinese
language (hitherto known in English as Mandarin) which is the national
language of education and administration in China. The term
Putonghua is applied here in a wider sense to describe the northern
Chinese language in general, i.e Northern Han-yu (replacing the wider
use in English of the term Mandarin)
China (Mainland; Taiwan;
Macao; Hong Kong); Singapore;
Malaysia (peninsula); United
Nations; migration>North Korea,
South Korea, Singapore, Malaysia,
Indonesia, Guam, Australia, Brazil,
Paraguay
9
79-AAA-ba guan-hua Mandarin "Proper", kuan-hua =official's language, traditional
"imperial mandarin", "post-classical literary chinese", "vernacular
literary chinese", part of "low" wenli from c 650: Chinese script
China
79-AAA-bb bei-jing-hua modern popular pei-ching-hua, bei-hua, pei-hua, bai-hua; hua-yu; han-
yu "proper"; including guan-hua 2, kuan-hua 2 = "standard & near-
standard chinese", "beijing mandarin", "modern literary chinese", part
of "low wenli" #beijing-hua, peiching-hua =Peking language; bei-
hua, pei-hua =north language; bai-hua = plain language
China 8
79-AAA-bba guo-yu kuo-y, biaozhun-yu, "pre-communist standard chinese"+ taiwan
"standard chinese" Chinese script: Bai-hua popular literary model;
pre-communist Sino-Latin script, Zhu-yin, Chu-yin phonetic script
#kuo-y =national language; biaozhun-yu = standard language,
China
79-AAA-bbb hua-yu singapore "standard chinese" Chinese script Singapore
79-AAA-bbc pu-tong-hua-F. potin-hua, p'u-t'ung-hua, "official chinese", "communist standard
chinese" Chinese script: Putonghua popular literary model;
communist Sino-Latin script, Pinyin, Pinyin-wenzi (= sounds
spelling)
China
79-AAA-bbd pu-tong-hua-V. po-tin-hua "vehicular", p'u-t'ung-hua "vehicular", "vehicular chinese",
"vehicular mandarin"; formerly dazhong-yu -including translingual
voices in [79] Jin, [79] Xiang, [79] Wu, [79] Gan, [79] Min, [79] Hakka,
[79] Yue, [79] Pinghua, and bilingual voices in [44] Mongolian, [44]
Manchu, [44] Tungus, [45] Korean, [46] Mon-Khmer, [47] Tai, [48]
Miao+Yao, [58] Tajik, [70] Tibetan #dazhong-yu = mass language
China (including migration>
Xinjiang); migration> Singapore;
Korea; Malaysia; Indonesia; Guam
island (Agana City); Australia
(Sydney); Brazil (So Paulo);
Paraguay (Asuncin)
page 558 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
79-AAA-bbe bei-jing-hua-F. peking "cultivated urban" (Beijing)
79-AAA-bbf bei-jing-hua-U. peking "popular urban", "inner" bei-jing-hua (Beijing)
79-AAA-bbg jing-shi part of "outer" bei-jing-hua Peking City periphery (Beijing-shi-S.)
79-AAA-bbh huai-cheng part of "outer" bei-jing-hua Langfang Bai-he river Luan-he upper
river Dolonnur
(Beijing-shi-N.; Hebei-C.; Hebei-N.;
Neimenggu Zizhiqu-SE.)
79-AAA-bbi chao-feng part of "outer" bei-jing-hua +transition to [79] Dong-bei Daling-he
upper basin Yin-he+ Xibo-he basin Hexigten Banner
(Liaoning-W.; Neimenggu Zizhiqu-
SE.)
79-AAA-bc dong-bei-hua "mandarin"-NE., manchurian "settlers' mandarin", northeast "mixed
chinese"
China-NE. 7
79-AAA-bca chang-jin part of ha-fu Xiliao-he river Changchun Baicheng+ Ulanhot (Liaoning-NW.; Neimenggu
Zizhiqu-SE.; Jilin-W.)
4
79-AAA-bcb zhao-fu part of ha-fu Songhua-jiang middle river (Jilin-N.; Heilongjiang-S.)
79-AAA-bcc tong-xi part of ji-shen (Liaoning-E.; Jilin-S.)
79-AAA-bcd yan-ji part of ji-shen Yanji (Jilin-E.)
79-AAA-bce jiao-ning part of ji-shen (Jilin-NE.; Heilongjiang-SE.)
79-AAA-bcf jia-fu part of hei-song (Heilongjiang-E.)
79-AAA-bcg nen-ke part of hei-song Hulan-he+ Tongken-he rivers Nen-jiang basin
Heilong-jiang upper right-bank tributaries Hailar-he basin
(Heilongjiang; Neimenggu Zizhiqu-
NW.)
79-AAA-bch zhan-hua part of hei-song spoken by former frontier garrison Zhaozhou>N. (Heilongjiang-NW.; Heilongjiang-
SW.)
79-AAA-bd jiao-liao-hua jiaoliao "mandarin" Outer Bohai Sea coasts China (Heilongjiang-E.; Liaoning-
S.)
7
79-AAA-bda qing-zhou qing-lai, qing-dao (Heilongjiang-E.)
79-AAA-bdb deng-zhou deng-lian, yantai Shandong-bandao-E. peninsula Liaodong-
bandao peninsula Hulin enclave Ertun enclave
(Heilongjiang-E.)
79-AAA-bdc gai-huan Liaodong bay Yingkou+ Xiuyan Kuandian+ Huanren (Liaoning-S.)
79-AAA-be ji-lu-hua jilu "mandarin", beifang "mandarin", "great-wall"-E., Hebei+
Shandong river-plains
China (Hebei; Shandong) 7
79-AAA-bea fu-long part of bao-tang, part of jilu+ beijing "transitional" Qinglong+
Qinhuangdao
(Hebei)
79-AAA-beb luan-chang part of bao-tang, part of jilu+ beijing "transitional" Luan-he delta (Hebei)
79-AAA-bec ji-zun part of bao-tang, part of jilu+ beijing "transitional" Luan-he middle
river: Qianxi-Qian'an Dou-he river: Tangshan Tiyun-he basin:
Nighe+ Ji-xian+ Zunhua Liu-he upper river: Xinglong
(Shandong)
79-AAA-bed tian-jin part of bao-tang, part of jilu+ beijing "transitional" "Grand Canal":
Tientsin, Tianjin city Hai-he river-mouth
(Tianjin)
79-AAA-bee ding-ba part of bao-tang, part of jilu+ beijing "transitional" Juma-he basin
Tang-he+ Zhulong-he basin "Grand Canal": Yongqing+ Jinghai+
Daicheng environs
(Hebei)
79-AAA-bef lai-fu part of bao-tang, part of jilu+ beijing "transitional" Huliu-he upper
river: Guangling+ Yu-xian Juma-he upper river: Lai-yuan Dasha-
he upper river: Fuping+ Quyang
(Shandong)
79-AAA-beg huang-le part of chang-hui Ziya-he confluence: Suning+ Xian-xian "Grand
Canal": Botou+ Cangzou Majia-he lower river Huang-he delta:
Zhanhua
(Shandong)
79-AAA-beh yang-shou part of chang-hui Huang-he left-bank: Binzhou+ Yangxin Huang-he
right-bank: Boxing+ Kenli Mi-he river: Shouguang+ Weifang
(Shandong)
79-AAA-bei zhang-huan part of chang-hui Huang-he delta: Lijin Zhanghuan upstream:
Zouping+ Huantai
(Shandong)
79-AAA-bej ju-zhao part of chang-hui, jilu+ jiaoliao "transitional" Ju-xian+ Rizhao (Shandong)
79-AAA-bek zhao-shen part of shi-ji inter-riverine Dasha-he+ Huaisha-he, Jingxing+
Shijiazhuang+ Wuqiang,
(Hebei)
79-AAA-bel xing-heng part of shi-ji Fuyang-he middle river: Xingtai+ Hengshui (Hebei)
79-AAA-bem liao-tai part of shi-ji, jilu+ zhongyuan "transitional" Linqing+ Jinan+ Xintai
"Grand Canal": Dezhou+ Linqing+ Liaocheng Huang-he lower river:
Jinan+ Pingyin Boshan+ Lushan+ Yishan hills Dawan-he upper
basin: Tai'an+ Laiwu+ Xintai Dongwen-he river: Mengyin+ Yinan
(Shandong)
79-AAA-bf zhong-yuan-hua zhongyuan "mandarin" Huang-he+ Wei-he rivers China (Shandong; Jiangsu
westward)
8
79-AAA-bfa zhongyuan+ jilu +transitional to [79] Jilu "Grand Canal": Dongping Pingyi (Shandong-C.)
79-AAA-bfb cailu-NE. part of cai-lu "Grand Canal": Zhaoyang-hu lake (Shandong-S.)
79-AAA-bfc zheng-cao-N. Huang-he lower river: Zhengzhou Puyang Heze (Henan-N.; Shandong-S.)
79-AAA-bfd zheng-cao-E. "Grand Canal": Zaozhuang Ganyu Zuqian (Shandong-S.; Jiangsu-N.)
79-AAA-bfe zheng-cao-C. Shangqiu Fuyang Suzhou (Henan-E.; Anhui-NW.)
79-AAA-bff zheng-cao-W. Nanyang Xuchang (Henan-SW.)
79-AAA-bfg xin-beng Xinyang+ Jinzhai+ Huoqiu Bengbu+ Sixian (Henan-SE.; Anhui-W.)
79-AAA-bfh cailu-SW. part of cai-lu Fugou+ Runan+ Huaibin Yingshang (Henan-CE.; Jiangsu-W. )
79-AAA-bfi luoxu-E. part of luo-xu Xiayi+ Feng-xian+ Xuzhou+ Huaibei (Henan-E.; Anhui-N.; Jiangsu-NW.)
79-AAA-bfj luoxu-C. part of luo-xu Lankao+ Cao-xian Taikang Yanling (Henan-CE. )
79-AAA-bfk luoxu-W. part of luo-xu Luo-he+ Yi-he basin (Inner Henan-NW. )
79-AAA-bfl hai-zhou xie-zhou, part of fen-he Huang-he river-bend, including Qin-he upper
river (Anze) Yicheng Puxian+ Xiangning hills Sushui-he lower river
(Yuncheng+ Yongji) Huang-he right-bank (Lingbao+ Sanmenxia)
(Shaanxi-SW.; Henan-NW.
adjacent)
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 559
79-AAA-bfm ping-yang Fenhe middle river (Fenxi+ Linfen) Qinshui Sushui-he upper
river (Wenxi)
(Shaanxi-SW. )
79-AAA-bfn jiang-zhou part of fen-he lower river (Fenhe Jishan+ Houma) Zhongtiao-E.
highlands (Yuanqu)
(Shaanxi-SW. )
79-AAA-bfo guan-zhong Wei-he+ Luo-he confluence (Dali+ Huayin) Huang-he right-bank
(Hancheng) Yichuan+ Heyang hills Luo-he lower basin
Tongchuan Jing-he+ Wei-he confluence (Xianyang+ Weinan)
Qinling-shan-E. highlands Dan Jiang upper river Chenggu+ Yang-
xian; also Jingyuan enclave (Ningxia-Huizu far-south)
(Shaanxi-W. )
79-AAA-bfp qin-long Middle Han-shui basin (Zhashui+ Ankang+ Baihe) Yan-he+ Luo-he
lower rivers (Yan'an) Bayushan highlands (Dingbian) Huan-jiang
river (Huan-xian+ Qingyang) Qingshui-he upper river (Ningxia-
Huizu-SE.) Pingliang Baoji Huang-he upper river Jingtai+
Jingyuan Xining valley Laji-shan mountains Dunhuang
(Shaanxi; Gansu; Qinghai-E.)
79-AAA-bfq long-zhong Hulu-he upper river (Haiyuan+ Xiji, Ningxia-Huizu-SW.) Zuli-he
upper river (Huining) Wei-he+ Hulu-he confluence (Zhuanglang+
Tianshui) Qinling-shan-W. highlands (Tongren+ Kangle) Xiqing-
shan-W. foothills Ledu valley Datong valley
(Gansu; Qinghai-E. )
79-AAA-bfr nan-jiang zhong-yuan "settlers"-N. Hotan (Xinjiang-S.) Artux+ Kashi
(Xinjiang-E.) Aksu+ Yining+ Korla (Xinjiang-N.)
(Xinjiang)
79-AAA-bfs zhong-yuan-'settlers'-S. spoken by settlers from Henan (Anhui-E.; Zhejiang-NW.)
79-AAA-bg lan-yin-hua lanyin "mandarin", "great wall" China (Gansu; Xinjiang) 6
79-AAA-bga yin-wu Huang-he upper river (Ningxia Huizu): Shizuishan+ Yinchuan+
Zhongwei
(Ningxia Huizu)
79-AAA-bgb jin-cheng Huang-he+ Zhuanglang-he confluence: Yongdeng+ Lanzhou (Gansu)
79-AAA-bgc he-xi Gansu-NW. corridor: Anxi+ Jiyayuguan+ Jinchang+ Wuwei (Gansu)
79-AAA-bgd bei-jiang-N. Karamay-Fuyun Wenquan Shihezi Bosten-hu lake (Xinjiang-N. )
79-AAA-bh xinan-guan-hua "mandarin"-SW., "upper-yangtze mandarin" China (Hubei; Hunan; Sichuan;
Hubei; Anhui; Zhejiang; Shaanxi;
Yunnan; Guizhou); also Burma
8
79-AAA-bha wu-tian +transition to jiang-huai "mandarin" Chang-jiang lakes (Wuchang
Wuhan+ Tianmen) Hunan right-bank enclave (Linxiang-N. county)
(Hubei-S. )
79-AAA-bhb e-bei Han-shui river: Shiyan+ Suizhou Qianjiang; plus settlers in Anhui &
Zhejiang
(Hubei-C.; settlements in Anhui-S.;
Zhejiang-NW.)
79-AAA-bhc chang-he Li-shui river (Jinshi+ Cili) Yuan-jiang east river (Changde) (Hunan; Hubei border)
79-AAA-bhd chengyu-C. part of cheng-yu Chang-jiang upper river: Chang-jiang Hubei left-
bank (Yichang+ Jingmen) Chang-jiang right-bank (Enshi-Fuling)
Chang-jiang Sichuan left-bank Wanxian+ Dianjiang Chongqing,
Chungking city Tua-jiang middle river (Chengdu+ Yongchuan) Fu+
Jialing+ Qu-jiang basin (Nanchong+ Daxian) Micang+ Daba-shan
mountains; plus Shaanxi enclaves (Liuba+ Shiquan)
(Sichuan-E.; Hubei-W.; also
Shaanxi enclaves)
79-AAA-bhe chengyu-SE. part of cheng-yu Sichuan-S. mountains: Litang-he upper river
(Yanyuan) Jinsha, Yangtze+ Yalong-jiang river-bend (Dukou+
Dechang+ Huidong)
(Sichuan-S.)
79-AAA-bhf minjiang-C. part of guan-chi Chang-jiang upper river: left-bank+ Min-jiang river
right-bank upstream from Jiangjin
(Sichuan-S. )
79-AAA-bhg minjiang-N. part of guan-chi Yanting+ Shehong enclave (Sichuan)
79-AAA-bhh minjiang-E. part of guan-chi Wuchuan+ Yinjiang enclave (Guizhou)
79-AAA-bhi minjiang-SW. part of guan-chi Xichang enclave (Sichuan-S.)
79-AAA-bhj renfu-NE. part of guan-chi Neijiang+ Zigong (Sichuan-CE.)
79-AAA-bhk renfu-S. part of guan-chi Yanjin (Sichuan-SW.)
79-AAA-bhl renfu-W. part of guan-chi Mianning (Sichuan-SW.)
79-AAA-bhm ya-mian part of guan-chi Ya'an+ Baoxing valley Dadu-he middle valley (Sichuan-SW. )
79-AAA-bhn li-chuan part of guan-chi Yunnan-NW. mountains: Lijlang Jianchuan
Yunlong Eryuan Binchuan Lishe-he upper river (Dali)
(Yunnan-NW.)
79-AAA-bho bao-lu part of dian-xi Yunnan-NW. mountains Burma frontier Daying-
jiang valley (Yingjiang ) Tengchong+ Luxi highlands (Nu-jiang valley:
Changputong to Lushu) Burma enclave (Khugaung, Nmai-hka
middle river) Nu-jiang valley (Luku downstream to Burma frontier)
Burma enclave (Salween river-bend, west of Liangshan mountain)
Lanchang-jiang upper valley (Weixi+ Shuijing) Lanchang-jiang right
bank (Baoshan+ Yun-xian) Laobie-shan highlands (Zhenkang+
Yongde) Nanding-he valley
(Yunnan-NW.); Burma enclaves
79-AAA-bhp yao-li part of dian-xi Yunnan-NW. mountains: Lanchang-jiang upper valley
(Chinese Mekong: Dqn to Weixi) Lanchang-jiang left-bank
(Yongping to Yanglie) Zhongdian Maer-shan mountains
Xiangyun+ Yongren
(Yunnan-NW.)
79-AAA-bhq kun-gui Kungui-NW. (Yongsheng) Lanchang-jiang lower valley Babian-
jiang valley West Yuan-jiang valley Lzhi-jiang valley Chuxiong+
Yuanmou valley Dian-chi lake (Kunming+ Jinning) Fuxian-hu
lake Luliang+ Qujing valley Niulan-jiang valley Ningnan valley
Zhaotong highlands Xuanwei left-bank highlands Nanpan-jiang
lower river Beipan-jiang Anshun+ Guiyang highlands Ziyun
foothills
(Yunnan; Guizhou-SW. )
79-AAA-bhr qian-bei Weixin highlands Zhonghe+ Weining highlands Lupanshui
valley Liuchong-he Bijie+ Dading highlands Zheng'an valley
Wu-jiang upper river Songtao+ Tongren Huaihua
(Guizhou; Yunnan-NE.; Hunan-
NE.)
page 560 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
79-AAA-bhs qian-nan Miao-ling highlands (Duyun+ Kaili) Hongshui-he upper river
Dushan+ Libo
(Guizhou)
79-AAA-bht cen-jiang Wu-ling-S. highlands: Qingshui-jiang middle river (Liping+
Rongjiang) Tongdao Jing-xian valley
(Guizhou-SE.; Hunan-SW.)
79-AAA-bhu gui-liu Tuoniang-jiang river Napo-Jingxi highlands river You-jiang
upper river Hongshui-he lower river Hongshui-he river Long-
jiang river Rong-jiang Liuzhou+ Wuxuan Luoqing-jiang river
Gui-jiang, He-xian
(Guangxi-N.)
79-AAA-bhv xiang-nan Xiao-shui river Xintian Chenzhou (Hunan-S.)
79-AAA-bi jiang-huai "lower+ middle yangtze mandarin" Chang-jiang, Yangtze lower &
middle river
China (Hubei; Jiangxi; Anhui;
Jiangsu)
79-AAA-bia huang-xiao-W. part of huang-xiao Zhuxi Zhushan enclave (Hubei-W. )
79-AAA-bib huang-xiao-NE. part of huang-xiao, "left-bank" huang-xiao Chang-jiang, Yangtze
middle river: Yingshan Xiaogan Macheng Yingshan
Huanggang Huangmei
(Hubei-E.)
79-AAA-bic huang-xiao-SE. part of huang-xiao, "right-bank" huang-xiao Chang-jiang, Yangtze
middle river: Ezhou town & lakes Jiujiang riverine lakes & islands
between Wangjiang & Hukou
(Hubei-E.; Jiangxi-N.; Anhui-SW.)
79-AAA-bid hong-chao-N. part of hong-chao, "left-bank" hong-chao "Grand Canal", Chang-jiang
lower river: Lu'an Anqing Chaohu Hefei Huainan
Chuzhou Yangzhou Huaiyin Shuyang Lianyungang
Binhai Yancheng
(Anhui-C.; Jiangsu-C.)
79-AAA-bie hong-chao-S. part of hong-chao, "right-bank" hong-chao "Grand Canal", Chang-
jiang lower river: Zhenjiang Nanjing, Nanking city Ma'anshan
Wuhu Nanyi-hu lake Langxi+ Xuancheng Xikou Tianmu-shan
mountains Nanling+ Qingjiang right-bank & islands (Wuhu to
Shengjin-hu lake)
(Anhui-SE.; Jiangsu-SW.; Zhejiang
border)
79-AAA-bif tairu Chang-jiang-N. estuary: Taixing Taizhou Dongtai Nantong (Jiangsu-E.)
79-AAA-bj nanping-hua nanping "mandarin" Nanping city China (Fujian-C.) 6
79-AAA-bk jun-hua hainan "mandarin" Hainan-W. island China (Guangdong) 4
79-AAA-bka changcheng Changcheng (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-bkb dongfang Dongfang (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-bl hui-zu hui, xui, hyatad, dzhun-yan, dungan, tungan, "persianised mandarin",
"muslim mandarin"
China (Xinjiang); Mongolia;
Kirghizstan; Kazakhstan; also
Uzbekistan
5
79-AAA-bla hui-F. "literary" hui, gansu model Cyrillic script (Xinjiang); Mongolia
79-AAA-blb shensi "kazakhstan muslim mandarin" Kazakhstan
79-AAA-blc gansu "kirghizstan muslim mandarin" Frunze Kara-su Kirghizstan
79-AAA-bld yage Kirghizstan
79-AAA-ble khoton chotan, hoton, xoton, "mongolia muslim mandarin" Mongolia
79-AAA-blf xinjiang-hui (Xinjiang)
79-AAA-bm 'judeo-mandarin' "hebraicised mandarin" Kaifeng city China (Henan) 2
79-AAA-c Jin China (Shaanxi; Neimenggu;
Zizhiqu; Hebei)
7
79-AAA-ca jin-hua "great wall"-C. Huang-he middle river China (Shaanxi-N.; Neimenggu;
Zizhiqu; Hebei-W.)
7
79-AAA-caa zhi-yan +transition to [79] Putonghua Luo-he basin Yan-he upper river
Qingjian-he lower river
(Shaanxi)
79-AAA-cab xingxi-S. part of lliang Daning+ Xi-xian valley Jiaokou highlands Shilou+
Yonghe
(Shaanxi)
79-AAA-cac fen-zhou part of lliang Huang-he right-bank (Qingjian Jia-xian+ Wubu)
Sanchuan-he river Lin-xian Luliang-shan highlands Fenyang
(Shaanxi)
79-AAA-cad xingxi-N. part of lliang Xiang-xian Lan-xian Jingle (Shaanxi)
79-AAA-cae wutai-S. part of wutai Jingbian Qingjian-he upper river Middle river
Wuding-he
(Shaanxi)
79-AAA-caf wutai-C. part of wutai river Kuye-he (Shenmu) Huang-he left-bank Luya-
shan mountains Pianguan+ Dai-xian "Great Wall" Huto-he upper
river Wutai-shan mountains
(Shaanxi)
79-AAA-cag wutai-NW. "up-river" wutai Huang-he river settlements (Linhe to Wuhai) (Neimenggu; Zizhiqu) 3
79-AAA-cah dabao-NW. part of dabao, "up-river" dabao Mu-us desert fringes Dongsheng+
Uxin Banner Huang-he river settlements "Great Wall" to Linhe
(Neimenggu; Zizhiqu)
79-AAA-cai dabao-SE. part of dabao Yangquan+ Xiyang Heshun+ Zuoquan (Shaanxi)
79-AAA-caj zhanghu-NE. part of zhang-hu Sangan-he+ Yang-he lower basin (Huailai +
Zhuolu) Yang-he upper river Zhangjiakou Zhangbei Bai-he
upper river Guyuan+ Kangbao Zizhiqu
(Hebei-NW.; Neimenggu; Zizhiqu-
SE.)
79-AAA-cak zhanghu-E. part of zhang-hu Hutuo-he middle river Zhanhuang (Hebei-E.)
79-AAA-cal bing-zhou Xizhou-shan mountains Taiyuan+ Yuci+ Qingxu environs
Pingyao+ Lingshi valley
(Shaanxi)
79-AAA-cam shang-dang Huo-shan mountains Zhuozhang-he upper river Shangdang-C.
(Changzhi+ Pingshun) Taihang-shan mountains Gaoping
(Shaanxi)
79-AAA-can ci-zhang part of han-xin Fuyang-he upper river Qingzhang-he lower river
Lin-xian
(Hebei-SE.; Henan-N.)
79-AAA-cao huo-ji han-xin Anyang + Hebi Wei-he lower river Jiaozuo Qin-he
lower river
(Henan-N.)
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 561
79-AAA-d Wu China (Anhui; Jiangsu; Shanghai;
Zhejiang; Jiangxi)
7
79-AAA-da hui-hua part of hui transition to [79] Putonghua (Anhui-S.; Zhejiang-W.; Jiangxi-E.) 6
79-AAA-daa jing-zhan sanxi+ jingde (Anhui)
79-AAA-dab ji-she Jinsha Jixi Tangkou Xin'an-jiang river (Shexian+ Jiekou) (Zhejiang)
79-AAA-dac yan-zhou Xin'an-jiang reservoir Fuchun-jiang reservoir (Zhejiang)
79-AAA-dad xiu-yi Yi-xian Tunxi Wucheng Fufeng Qinghua Wuyuan (AnhuiJiangxi)
79-AAA-dae qi-de Qimen Jinggongqiao Yaoli Fuliang (Jiangxi)
79-AAA-db tai-hu wu-N., "mandarinised" wu, kiang-che, tang-yang, #known as head of
Wu tail of Chuu "Grand Canal" waterway
China (Anhui; Jiangsu; Shanghai;
Zhejiang)
7
79-AAA-dba pi-ling including "remnant-wu" tai-hu (Lang-xi county) Yangtze-N. estuary
(Jinsha+ Lsi Jingjiang) Shazhou Changzhou Danyang
Jintan Yixing Liyang
(Anhui-E.; Jiangsu)
79-AAA-dbb su-hu-jia including shanqhae, "shanghainese" Yangtze-N. estuary (Halmen+
Qidong) Chongming-dao island Changxing-dao island Heng-sha
island Changshu Wuxi Suzhou, Soochow city Shanghai
city Nanhui Jiaxing
(Jiangsu-S.; Shanghai; Zhejiang-
N.)
79-AAA-dbc tiao-xi including "remnant"-wu tai-hu (Guangde county) Changxing
Huzhou Yuhang Dongtiao-xi river Xiaofeng
(Zhejiang-N.; Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-dbd hang-zhou comprising 2 idioms Hang-zhou, Hangchow city (Zhejiang-N.)
79-AAA-dbe lin-shao Changhua Lin'an Fuyang Tonglu Zhuji Xiaoshan
Shaoxing Shangyu Cixi Xinchang
(Zhejiang)
79-AAA-dbf yong-jiang-'mainland' part of yong-jiang Yong-jiang lower river (Ningbo-Zhenhai) Yong-
jiang upper river Ninghai+ Chalu Xiangshan bay
(Zhejiang)
79-AAA-dbg yong-jiang-'insular' part of yong-jiang Yong-jiang offshore islands: Niutou-shan island
Tantou-shan island Jiu-shan island Zhoushan-qundao
archipelago Shengsi-qundao archipelago
(Zhejiang)
79-AAA-dc tai-gao part of "remnant"-wu-W., xuan-zhou China (Anhui) 4
79-AAA-dca tai-gao-N. Shijiu-hu lakes Gucheng-hu (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-dcb tai-gao-SE. Jialu Meicun (Anhui+ Zhejiang border)
79-AAA-dcc tai-gao-SW. Huangshan (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-dd tong-jing part of "remnant"-wu-W., xuan-zhou China (Anhui) 6
79-AAA-dda tongling Tongling (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-ddb fanchang Fanchang (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-ddc shuiyang Shuiyang-jiang river (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-ddd qingyi Qingyi-jiang river (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-dde hui-shui Hui-Shui lower river (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-ddf shu-xi Shu-xi river (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-ddg qidu Qidu (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-ddh maijie Meijie (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-ddi dunchang+ maya Dunshang+ Maya (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-de shi-ling part of "remnant"-wu-W., xuan-zhou China (Anhui) 5
79-AAA-dea shi-dai Shidai (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-deb qing-yang Qingyang-SE. county (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-dec jing-xian Jingxian-SW. county (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-ded huang-shan Huangshan-NW. county (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-dee gui-chi Guichi-S. county (Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-df wu-zhou part of wu-S. China (Zhejiang) 6
79-AAA-dfa lanxi Lanxi (Zhejiang-C.)
79-AAA-dfb jinhua Jinhua (Zhejiang-C.)
79-AAA-dfc pujiang Pujiang (Zhejiang-C.)
79-AAA-dfd yiwu Yiwu (Zhejiang-C.)
79-AAA-dfe dongyang Dongyang (Zhejiang-C.)
79-AAA-dff pan'an Pan'an (Zhejiang-C.)
79-AAA-dfg wuyi-shui Wuyi-shui river (Zhejiang-C.)
79-AAA-dfh niutou-shan Niutou-shan highlands (Zhejiang-C.)
79-AAA-dg tai-zhou part of wu-S. Zhejiang coast China (Zhejiang) 6
79-AAA-dga xian-ju Yong'an-xi river: Xianju (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dgb tian-tai Shifeng-shi river: Tiantai (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dgc san-men Sanmen (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dgd lin-hai Linhai (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dge huang-yan Huangyan (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dgf jiao-jiang Jiaojiang (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dgg wen-ling Wenling (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dgh yu-huan Yuhuan (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dgi tai-zhou+ ou-jiang "mixed insular" wu Tai-zhou+ Ou-jiang offshore isles: Pishan+
Dalushan islands Taizhou+ Xiadachen islands Zhujia-jian island
Shengsi-quindao islands
(Zhejiang-S.)
page 562 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
79-AAA-dh qing-jiang+ ou-jiang part of wu-S. +transition to [79] Min-bei Zhejiang-S. coast & islands China (Zhejiang) 6
79-AAA-dha qingjiang Qingjiang (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dhb yueqing Yueqing (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dhc yong-jia Nan-xi river: Yongjia (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dhd wenzhou Wenzhou (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dhe wencheng Wencheng (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dhf pingyang-2 Pingyang (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dhg pumen Pumen (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-dhh ou-jiang Ou-jiang offshore isles Luxi-dao island Damen-dao island Niyu-
shan-W. island Dongtou-shan-W. island Beiji-shan island
(Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-di chu-qu part of wu-S. +transition to [79] Min-bei China (Fujian; Jiangxi) 6
79-AAA-dia long-qu long-qu "rural" Majin-xi river (Kaihua) Changshan-gang river
Xin-jiang upper river Qu-jiang middle river Jiangshan-gang river
Wuxi-gang river Zhengzhuang mountains Songxin-xi river
Longquan-xi upper river Baishan-zu-W. mountains Qingyuan
Pucheng
(Fujian-SW.)
79-AAA-dib long-qu-U. long-qu "urban", "taihu-ised" chuqu Quzhou city Shangrao city (Jiangxi-E.)
79-AAA-dic chu-zhou Xao-xi river Xuanping Da-xi river (Lishui-Qingtian) Longquan-
xi lower river Xiao-xi river Baishan-zu-E. mountains Taishun
(Fujian-SW.)
79-AAA-e Xiang Hunanese China (Hunan; Guangxi) 7
79-AAA-ea xiang hsiang China (Hunan; Guangxi) 7
79-AAA-eaa chang-yi Zi-shui lower river (Yiyang) Xiang-jiang lower east river
(Changsha) Xiang-jiang middle east river (Xiangtan+ Zhuzhou)
Xiang-jiang upper east river (Hengyang) Hongjiang
(Hunan)
79-AAA-eab lou-shao xiang-C., 'old' xiang Shuangfeng+ Loudi Zi-shui upper river
Fuyi-shui river as far as Ziyuan Xiang-jiang upper west river
(Guanzhou) Guan-jiang river (Wenshi)
(Hunan)
79-AAA-eac ji-xu xiang-NW. Yuanling Xupu+ Shenxi Jishou (Guangxi-NE.)
79-AAA-f Gan China (Anhui; Jiangxi; Fujian;
Hunan; Hubei)
7
79-AAA-fa gan kan China (Anhui; Jiangxi; Fujian;
Hunan; Hubei)
7
79-AAA-faa huai-ye shanbei Dabie-shan-S. mountains Yuexi+ Yuantan Gaohebu
"South" Qian-shui river Wan-shui river Chang-he lower river
(Huanggang+ Taihu) Chang-he upper river (Longwan+ Hetupu)
Lake district (Long+ Daguan+ Po+ Wuchang-hu) Chang-jiang right-
bank Yinjiahui+ Dongzhi+ Zhaotan environs
(Anhui-SE.)
79-AAA-fab ying-yi Chang-jiang right-bank (Langxigang+ Pengze) Chang-jiang lower
river Le'an-jiang lower river Xin-jiang river
(Jiangxi-NE.)
79-AAA-fac fu-guang Fu-he basin (Fuzhou+ Nanfeng) Taining (Jiangxi-E.; Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-fad chang-jing Nanchang Yongxiu Xiu-shui river Pingjiang highlands between
Mufu & Jiuling-shan mountains
(Jiangxi-N.; Hunan-E.)
79-AAA-fae da-tong Yangxin Xianning Puqi (Hubei-S.; Hunan-NE.)
79-AAA-faf yi-liu Gan-jiang middle river Pingxiang+ Yichun Jin-jiang river (Jiangxi-W.)
79-AAA-fag ji-cha Gan-jiang+ He-shui upper basin Chaling
79-AAA-fah lei-zi Lei-shui river Chongling-shui river (Hunan-SE.)
79-AAA-fai dong-sui (Hunan-W. enclave)
79-AAA-g Hakka+ Ting-Zhou kejia+ ding-zhou China (Mainland; Taiwan);
Malaysia; Singapore; Indonesia
7
79-AAA-ga hakka hokka, kejia, ke, kek, kechia China (Jiangxi; Fujian-W.;
Guangdong-E.)
7
79-AAA-gaa hakka-F. "literary" hakka Meixian model: Chinese script; also Latin script China
79-AAA-gab tong-gu Jiuling-shan mountains (enclave) (Jiangxi; Hunan-E.)
79-AAA-gac yu-gui Wugong-shan-C. mountains Luoxiao-shan mountains Dayuling
mountains Zhang-shui river Shangyou-shui river Sui-jiang
river Gan-jiang upper river Ping+ Mei+ Tao-jiang lower basin
(Jiangxi; Hunan-E.)
79-AAA-gad ning-long Ningdu+ Shicheng highlands: Gu+ Ping+ Mei+ Qin-jiang upper
rivers Huichang+ Ruijin highlands: Gong+ Mian-shui rivers Lian-
jiang river Dingnan+ Xunwu-shui rivers Tao-jiang upper river
Jiulian-shan-E. mountains
(Jiangxi-SE.)
79-AAA-gae yue-bei Wu-shui+ Zhen-shui rivers Lian-jiang upper river Wengjiang
river Jiulian-shan-W. mountains
(Guangdong)
79-AAA-gaf shao-nan part of yue-tai Zhen-shui lower river Bei-jiang valley Lian-jiang
lower river
(Guangdong)
79-AAA-gag xinhui-N. part of yue-tai Xinfeng-shui river (Guangdong)
79-AAA-gah yue-zhong Dingnan-shui river Dong-jiang river (Guangdong)
79-AAA-gai hui-zhou huizhou-hakka Huizhou city (Guangdong)
79-AAA-gaj bendi hui-zhou "transitional" Huizhou city +transition to [79] Yue-C.
(Cantonese)
(Guangdong)
79-AAA-gak xinhui-S. part of yue-tai Xijiang river Hakka coast (Daya+ Honghai-wan
bays) Lianhua-shan-S. mountains
(Guangdong)
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 563
79-AAA-gal xing-hua xingning, wuhua, part of yue-tai Lianhua-shan-N. mountains
Xingning-jiang (Xingning) river Mei-jiang upper river (Wuhua
upstream) Zijin hills Han-jiang upper river
(Guangdong)
79-AAA-gam jia-ying meixian, meixien, meihsien, meishan, hakka "standard", part of yue-tai
Meixian city
(Guangdong)
79-AAA-gan hakka-SW. hakka "southwest enclaves", including jiulong (at Kowloon) He-jiang
river Kowloon "New Territories" Mong-cai>W. (Vietnam frontier)
(Guangxi; Guangdong); Vietnam
adjacent
79-AAA-gao hakka-NW. Tongjiang+ Bazhong Dianjiang>W. Tuo+ Min+ upper rivers
Fu-jiang Yalong-jiang valley Xichang>E.
(Sichuan)
79-AAA-gap hakka-taiwan taiwan "insular" hakka, tao-yuan, "insular" yue-tai Taiwan island:
Xinzhu+ Miaoli Nanzi-Xi middle river Taiwan-SW. foothills
China-Taiwan
79-AAA-gaq hakka-hainan hainan "insular" hakka Hainan island: Limuling foothills Nandu-
jiang middle river
(Hainan)
79-AAA-gar hakka-'migr' Malaysia; Singapore; Indonesia;
India (Calcutta); Australia
(Darwin); Samoa; French
Polynesia (Tahiti); USA (Hawaii);
Panama; Jamaica; Trinidad;
Surinam; Guyana; French Guiana;
South Africa; Mozambique;
Mauritius; Seychelles
79-AAA-gb ting-zhou tingchow, minxi-hakka, hakka-E. +transition to [79] Min-bei China (Fujian; also Guangdong)
79-AAA-gba ming-xi (Fujian)
79-AAA-gbb jiulong-xi Jiulong-xi upper river (Fujian)
79-AAA-gbc huo-xi Huo-xi upper river (Fujian)
79-AAA-gbd han-jiang Han-jiang upper basin (Fujian)
79-AAA-gbe boping-ling Boping-ling-W. highlands (Fujian)
79-AAA-gbf she-hua variety of Hakka spoken by She community (former speakers of [48]
She)
(Fujian; Guangdong) 5
79-AAA-gbg sanrao* "undetermined" hakka (Fujian; Guangdong boundary)
79-AAA-gbh pitou+ hepo* "undetermined" hakka Lianhua-shan mountains south-slope (Guangdong-SE.)
79-AAA-h Min-bei+ Min-zhong "inland" min, part of min-NE. China (Fujian) 6
79-AAA-ha min-bei #min-bei =north min Jian-xi basin between Shan-mo & Donggon-
shan mountains
China (Fujian-N.) 6
79-AAA-haa jianyang+ huangkeng Jianyang+ Huangkeng valley (Fujian-N.)
79-AAA-hab chongyang-xi Chongyang-xi river (Fujian-N.)
79-AAA-hac nanpu-xi Nanpu-xi river (Fujian-N.)
79-AAA-had song-xi Dong-xi, Song-xi river (Fujian-N.)
79-AAA-hae zhenghe Zhenghe (Fujian-N.)
79-AAA-haf jian-xi Jian-xi river (Fujian-N.)
79-AAA-hag jin-xi Jin-xi lower river (Fujian-N.)
79-AAA-hah min-jiang Min-jiang upper river (Fujian-N.)
79-AAA-hb min-zhong Sha-xi river China (Fujian-C.) 5
79-AAA-hba shaxian Shaxian (Fujian-C.)
79-AAA-hbb sanming Sanming (Fujian-C.)
79-AAA-hbc yong'an Yong'an (Fujian-C.)
79-AAA-i Min-dong+ Pu-xian "coastal" min, part of min-NE. China; China-Taiwan; Malaysia;
Singapore; Indonesia; Philippines;
Brunei.
7
79-AAA-ia man-hua "border" min-N. China (Zhejiang extreme south) 5
79-AAA-iaa qingcao'ai-W. Qingcao'ai-W. mountain (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-iab qingcao'ai-E. Qingcao'ai-E. mountain (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-iac sixitou Sixitou-S. (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-iad yishan Yishan coast (Zhejiang-S.)
79-AAA-ib min-dong-N. fu-ning #min-dong(-N.) =(north)east Min Chang-xi+ Mu-shui basin
& adjacent China Sea coast
China (Fujian) 6
79-AAA-iba shouning Shouning (Fujian-NE.)
79-AAA-ibb zhouning Zhouning (Fujian-NE.)
79-AAA-ibc fu'an Fu'an (Fujian-NE.)
79-AAA-ibd zherong Zherong (Fujian-NE.)
79-AAA-ibe xiapu Xiapu (Fujian-NE.)
79-AAA-ibf fuding Fuding (Fujian-NE.)
79-AAA-ic min-dong-S. hou-guan, "wider" fuzhou, "wider" foochow", "foochaw" min #min-dong
(-S.) = (south)east Min Min-jiang lower basin & adjacent Taiwan
Strait coast
China (Fujian) 6
79-AAA-ica pingnan Pingnan (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-icb ningde Ningde (Fujian-E.)
page 564 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
79-AAA-icc luoyuan Luoyuan (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-icd lianjiang-N. Lianjiang (Fujian) (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-ice fuzhou Fuzhou, "Foochow'" city (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-icf minhou Minhou (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-icg minqing Minqing (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-ich gutian Gutian (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-ici youxi Youxi (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-icj daiyun-shan Daiyun-Shan mountains (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-ick yongtai Yongtai (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-icl changle Changle (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-icm fuqing Fuqing (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-icn pingtan Pingtan, Haitan islands (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-ico matsu ma-zu Matsu islands (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-id pu-xian hinghua-min, xinghua-min Mulan-xi basin & adjacent Taiwan Strait
coast
China (Fujian) 6
79-AAA-ida xianyou Xianyou, 'Hsienyu' (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-idb putian Putian (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-idc pinghai-wan Pinghai-wan bay: Nanri+ Meizhou-dao offshore islands (Fujian-E.)
79-AAA-j Min-nan Fujianese, min-S., "fukkienese", "fukienese" #min-nan =south Min
Fujian coast Guangdong coast Taiwan island
China (Zhejiang; Fujian;
Guangdong); China-Taiwan
7
79-AAA-ja datian-min datian Xinqiao-he+ Jun-xi headwaters (Fujian-C.)
79-AAA-jaa datian Datian (Fujian-C.)
79-AAA-jab wenjiangban Wenjiangban (Fujian-C.)
79-AAA-jb quan-zhang-N. quan-zhang "outliers", "outlying" min China (Zhejiang; Fujian)
79-AAA-jba cangnan+ qianqi Cangnan Qianqi (Zhejiang; Fujian border)
79-AAA-jbb quan-zhang-NE. Fujian-NE. coast (Fujian-NE.)
79-AAA-jc quan-zhang-CN. dehua min, dazi-xi Dazi-xi headwaters, Dehua China (Fujian)
79-AAA-jd quan-zhang-CE. quanzhou min Dong+ Xi-xi basin & adjacent Taiwan Strait coast China (Fujian)
79-AAA-jda hui'an Hui'an (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jdb quanzhou Quanzhou (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jdc jinjiang Jinjiang (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jdd nan'an Nan'an (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jde anxi Anxi (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jdf xi-xi Xi-xi upper river (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-je quan-zhang-C. amoy-min China (Fujian); also migration by
sea
7
79-AAA-jea jinmen-dao Jinmen-tao, Chinmen-tao, Quemoy island (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jeb xiamen Xiamen, Amoy city prestige idiom (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jec longhai Longhai (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jed zhangzhou Zhangzhou (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jee pinghe Pinghe (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jef nanjing Nanjing (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jeg changtai Changtai (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jeh hua'an Hua'an (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jei zhangping Zhangping (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jej longyan Longyan (Fujian-SE.)
79-AAA-jek min-nan-'migr'* +relationships with other metropolitan idioms of Min-nan to be
established, including convergence with [79] Quan-zhang-Taiwan and
[79] Chao-shan
migration> Thailand; Laos; Burma;
Singapore; Malaysia (Mainland;
Sabah); Indonesia (Sumatra;
Kalimantan; Bali; Flores; Sumba;
Timor-W.; Sulawesi); Philippines;
Japan (Osaka city)
7
79-AAA-jf quan-zhang-CS. yunxiao min Hutou+ Zhao'an-xi rivers China (Fujian)
79-AAA-jfa zhangpu Zhangpu (Fujian-S.)
79-AAA-jfb yunxiao Yunxiao (Fujian-S.)
79-AAA-jfc dongshan Dongshan (Fujian-S.)
79-AAA-jfd zhao'an Zhao'an (Fujian-S.)
79-AAA-jg quan-zhang-penghu part of "insular" quan-zhang, pescadores min P'enghu-liedao,
Pescadores archipelago
China (Fujian)
79-AAA-jh quan-zhang-taiwan taiwanese, part of "insular" quan-zhang, taiwan min China-Taiwan 7
79-AAA-jha tai-bei t'aipei "urban", tai-bei "urban" Taibei, T'aipei (Taiwan)
79-AAA-jhb tan-shui t'aipei "rural", tai-bei "rural" Taipei periphery, Tan-shui estuary &
environs
(Taiwan)
79-AAA-jhc jilong Keelong (Taiwan)
79-AAA-jhd yilan Ilan (Taiwan)
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 565
79-AAA-jhe taizhong Taichung (Taiwan)
79-AAA-jhf nantou (Taiwan)
79-AAA-jhg yunlin (Taiwan)
79-AAA-jhh jiayi Chiayi (Taiwan)
79-AAA-jhi tainan (Taiwan)
79-AAA-jhj gaoxiong Kaohsiung (Taiwan)
79-AAA-jhk pingdong (Taiwan)
79-AAA-jhl taidong Taitung (Taiwan)
79-AAA-jhm hualian Hualien (Taiwan)
79-AAA-jhn chunyang-shanmo Chunyang-shanmo mountains (Taiwan)
79-AAA-ji chao-shan swatoese, chao-zhou, teo-chiu, tiu-chiu, teo-chow, techu, tae-ciw,
"swatow" min, Han delta & adjacent coastal plain between Lianhua-
shan mountains & China Sea coast
China (Guangdong) 7
79-AAA-jia nan'ao Nan'ao-dao island (Guangdong-NE.)
79-AAA-jib raoping Raoping (Guangdong-NE.)
79-AAA-jic chaozhou Chaozhou, Teochiu city (Guangdong-NE.)
79-AAA-jid jieyang Jieyang (Guangdong-NE.)
79-AAA-jie chenghai Chenghai (Guangdong-NE.)
79-AAA-jif shantou Shantou, "Swatow" city (Guangdong-NE.)
79-AAA-jig chaoyang Chaoyang (Guangdong-NE.)
79-AAA-jih puning Puning (Guangdong-NE.)
79-AAA-jii huilai Huilai (Guangdong-NE.)
79-AAA-jij lufeng Lufeng (Guangdong-NE.)
79-AAA-jik haifeng Haifeng (Guangdong-NE.)
79-AAA-jj lei-zhou lei-zhou min Leizhou-bandao peninsula & adjacent coast China (Guangdong)
79-AAA-jja haikang leizhou "standard" Leichang township (Guangdong-SW.)
79-AAA-jjb longmen Longmen (Guangdong-SW.)
79-AAA-jjc dongli Dongli (Guangdong-SW.)
79-AAA-jjd xuwen Xuwen (Guangdong-SW.)
79-AAA-jje wushi Wushi (Guangdong-SW.)
79-AAA-jjf jianghong Jianghong (Guangdong-SW.)
79-AAA-jjg beipo Beipo (Guangdong-SW.)
79-AAA-jjh suixi Suixi (Guangdong-SW.)
79-AAA-jji dong-shan Dong-shan island (Guangdong-SW.)
79-AAA-jjj naozhou Naozhou-dao island (Guangdong-SW.)
79-AAA-jjk dianbai Shuidong coastal enclave (Guangdong-SW.)
79-AAA-k Qiong-wen Hainanese, hainan min, qiongwen-hua, wen-chang Hainan island China (Guangdong) 6
79-AAA-ka changgan "hainanese"-W. China (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-kaa danxian Danxian-S. highlands (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-kab changjiang Dongfang Changjiang (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-kb yaxian "hainanese"-SW. China (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-kba yinggeha Yinggeha (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-kbb yachengzhen Yachengzhen (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-kbc yaxian-A. Yaxian, Sanya (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-kc wanning "hainanese"-SE. China (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-kca lingshui Lingshui (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-kcb wanning-A. Wanning (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-kd wenchang wenshang, "hainanese"-NE. China (Guangdong)
79-AAA-kda qionghai Qionghai (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-kdb wenchang-A. Wenchang (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-ke fu-cheng "hainanese"-N. China (Guangdong)
79-AAA-kea tunchang Tunchang (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-keb chengmai Chengmai (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-kec ding'an Ding'an (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-ked haikou Haikou, Hoihow city (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-l Shao-jiang Min-"Transitional" China (Fujian) 5
79-AAA-la shao-jiang min+ gan+ hakka transitional Wui-shanmo-C. mountains Futon-xi
basin Jin-xi middle river
China (Fujian) 5
79-AAA-laa guangze Guangze (Fujian-NW.)
79-AAA-lab shaowu Shaowu (Fujian-NW.)
79-AAA-lac jiangle Jiangle (Fujian-NW.)
79-AAA-lad shunchang Shunchang (Fujian-NW.)
page 566 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
79-AAA-m Yue net "tai-ised chinese", part of "wider" yue China-S. (Guangdong; Hong Kong,
Macau; Guangxi); migration>
{Pacific; Indian Ocean; Australasia;
Americas; Africa; Europe}
7
79-AAA-ma yue-C. guang-fou, guangzhou-hai, "wider cantonese", "china-S. counterstream
chinese" Pearl river estuary & delta (Guangzhou, Canton; Hong-
Kong; Macau) & hinterland; Xi+ Bei-jiang lower basin Chinese
script; Latin script
China-S.; migration> Malaysia;
Singapore; Indonesia
7
79-AAA-maa yue-F. "formal cantonese", "cultivated cantonese" Sanyi model China-S.
79-AAA-mab guang-zhou "canton urban chinese" Guangzhou, Canton city (Guangzhou)
79-AAA-mac xiang-gang heung-gong, "hong-kong cantonese" Hong-Kong, Heung-Gong
Kau-loong, Kowloon
(Hong-Kong)
79-AAA-mad aomen "macao cantonese" Ou-moon, Aomen, Macau, Macao city (Macau)
79-AAA-mae san-yi sham-yap, nanhai+ shunte Pearl River west-bank: Foshan+ Panyu+
Shunde
(Guangdong)
79-AAA-maf shi-qi sek-kei, shi-ch'i Pearl River west-bank: Zhongshan (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mag dong-guan tung-kwoon, tung-kuan, tung-kun, Pearl River east-bank: Dongguan (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mah shen-zhen sham-chan Pearl River east-bank (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mai jiu-long Pearl River east-bank: Kau-loong, Jiulong, Kowloon & hinterland,
"New Territories"
(Guangdong)
79-AAA-maj dahao Pearl River estuary: Dahao-dao island (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mak xi-jiang-NE. sai-gong, "up-river cantonese"-W. Xi-jiang river & tributaries:
Gaoming Zhaoqing Xinxing Yunfu Wuzhou enclave
(Guangdong)
79-AAA-mal bei-jiang bak-gong, "up-river cantonese"-N. Bei-jiang river & tributaries:
Sanshui Fogang Shitan Hanguang enclave Yingde enclave
Qujiang enclave Shaoguan enclave Lechang enclave
(Guangdong)
79-AAA-mam liuxi-he "up-river cantonese" Liuxi-he basin: Hua-xian Conghua Liangkou (Guangdong)
79-AAA-man zeng-jiang "up-river cantonese"-E. Zeng-jiang: Zengcheng Longmen (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mao cantonese-'migr'* provisional listing Australia; Vietnam; Malaysia
(Peninsula); Japan (Kobe,
Yokohama); Runion;
Madagascar; Guam; Nauru;
Vanuatu; Fiji; Papua New Guinea;
Australia; New Zealand / Aotearoa;
Canada (British Colombia;
Alberta); USA (Hawaii; California;
Washington; Texas; New England);
Mexico; Cuba; Guatemala; Costa
Rica; Panama; Colombia; Peru;
Venezuela; South Africa;
Mozambique; England (London);
Netherlands; France; Portugal
79-AAA-mb si-yi szui, sze-yap, sei-yap = four towns, taishan+ xinhui+ kaiping+
enping, part of "peripheral" yue Tan-jiang basin & adjacent coast
China (Guangdong) 6
79-AAA-mba jiangmen +transition to [79] Yue-C. Heshan+ Jiangmen+ Doumen (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mbb xinhui Xinhui, Hsinhui (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mbc taishan Taishan, Hoisan (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mbd kaiping Kaiping (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mbe enping Enping (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mbf dasha Dasha (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mbg shenjing+ chixi Shenjing+ Chixi coast (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mbh shangchuan+ xiachuan Shangchuan+ Xiachuan-dao islands (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mc gao-yang kao-lei, part of "peripheral" yue Moyang+ Jian-jiang basins China (Guangdong) 6
79-AAA-mca dongping Dongping coast (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mcb zhapa Zhapa peninsula (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mcc zhigong Zhigong (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mcd yangjiang Moyang-jiang lower river: Yangjiang (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mce yangchun Moyang-jiang upper river: Yangchun (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mcf sanjia Sanjia mountains & hinterland (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mcg xinyi Jian-jiang upper river: Xinyi (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mch gaozhou Jian-jiang middle river: Gaozhou (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mci maoming Maoming (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mcj wuchuan Jian-jiang lower river (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mck huazhou Huazhou (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mcl baoxu Baoxu (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mcm lianjiang-S. Lianjiang (Guangdong) (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mcn bohe Bohe coastal enclave (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mco zhanjiang+ chikan Zhanjiang+ Chikan coastal enclave (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mcp leizhou-NW. part of gaoyang minority: Leizhou-bandao-NW. peninsula (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mcq leizhou-S. part of gaoyang minority: Leizhou-bandao-S. peninsula (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mcr anpu Anpu coastal enclave (Guangdong)
7= SINO-INDIAN phylosector Observatoire Linguistique

Linguasphere Observatory page 567
79-AAA-md wu-hua part of "peripheral" yue Jian-jiang estuary, Huangpo China (Guangdong-SW.) 6
79-AAA-me gou-lou part of "peripheral" yue, kuei-nan Sui+ upper Xi+ Xun+ Nanliu-jiang
rivers
China (Guangdong-W.; Guangxi-
E.)
6
79-AAA-mea lian-jiang-N. Lian-jiang upper tributaries (Guangdong-NW. enclaves)
79-AAA-meb he-jiang-N. He-jiang upper river: Shanmatang-ding to Lianshan (Guangdong; Guangxi; Hunan
meeting-point)
79-AAA-mec lian-jiang-M. Lian-jiang middle river: Yangshan Hanguang enclave (Guangdong)
79-AAA-med sui-jiang Sui-jiang river & tributaries: Sihui Guangning Huaiji (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mee xi-jiang-SW. Xi-jiang upper river: Deqing+ Yunan+ Fengkai (Guangdong)
79-AAA-mef luoding Luoding-jiang river (Guangdong)
79-AAA-meg he-jiang-M. He-jiang middle river: Xindu (Guangxi)
79-AAA-meh maijang Gui-jiang lower river: Maijang (Guangxi)
79-AAA-mei xun-jiang Xun-jiang river: Teng-xian (Guangxi)
79-AAA-mej cenxi Yichang-jiang river: Cenxi (Guangxi)
79-AAA-mek beiliu Beiliu-jiang river: Rong-xian+ Beiliu (Guangxi)
79-AAA-mel yu-jiang Yu-jiang lower river (Guangxi)
79-AAA-mem nanliu-jiang Nanliu-jiang upper river: Yulin Bobai (Guangxi)
79-AAA-mf qin-lian part of "peripheral" yue, chien-lien Qinzhou+ Beihai coast &
hinterland
China (Guangxi) 6
79-AAA-mfa qinzhou Qinzhou (Guangxi-S.)
79-AAA-mfb beihai Beihai (Guangxi-S.)
79-AAA-mfc lingshan Lingshan (Guangxi-S.)
79-AAA-mg yong-xun part of "peripheral" yue Yu+ You+ Zuo-jiang basin enclaves China (Guangxi) 6
79-AAA-mga guiping Guiping enclave (Guangxi)
79-AAA-mgb pingguo Pingguo enclave (Guangxi)
79-AAA-mgc zuo-jiang-W. Zuo-jiang upper river: Daxin enclaves Longzhu enclaves
Pingxiang enclaves
(Guangxi)
79-AAA-n Zhangzhou+ Mai hainan yue, part of "peripheral" yue Hainan island China (Guangdong) 4
79-AAA-na zhangzhou-hua dan-zhou Hainan-NW. island China (Guangdong) 4
79-AAA-naa dan-zhou Dan county (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-nab nanluo Nanluo (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-nb mai-hua mai fisherfolk Hainan-S. island China (Guangdong)
79-AAA-nba sanya Sanya (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-nbb yinggehai yinggehai boat-community (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-nbc mai-S. Hainan-S. offshore-islands (Guangdong: Hainan)
79-AAA-o Ping-hua China (Guangxi) 6
79-AAA-oa gui-bei gui-N., part of ping-hua China (Guangxi) 6
79-AAA-oaa guilin Guilin enclave (Guangxi-NE.)
79-AAA-oab luoqing-jiang Luoqing-jiang basin (Guangxi-NE.)
79-AAA-oac fu-shui+ li-jiang Fu-shui+ Li-jiang middle basin (Guangxi-NE.)
79-AAA-oad luzhai Luzhai enclave (Guangxi-NE.)
79-AAA-oae yangshi Yangshup enclave (Guangxi-NE.)
79-AAA-oaf he-xian He-xian enclave (Guangxi-NE.)
79-AAA-oag yuantou Yuantou (Guangxi-NE.)
79-AAA-oah siqin-jiang Siqin-jiang upper river (Guangxi-NE.)
79-AAA-oai he-jiang He-jiang upper river (Guangxi-NE.)
79-AAA-oaj xindu He-jiang middle river (Guangxi-NE.)
79-AAA-ob gui-nan gui-S., part of ping-hua China (Guangxi) 6
79-AAA-oba rong'an Rong'an (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obb sanfang Sanfang (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obc rongshui-miao (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obd liucheng Liucheng (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obe long+ rong-jiang Long+ Rong-jiang confluence downstream to Liuzhou (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obf long-jiang-NW. Long-jiang upper river: Yishan to Desheng (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obg hongshui-he Hongshui-he lower river: Laibin+ Qidong Zouxu (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obh heng-xian Heng-Xian (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obi nanning Nanning city (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obj wuming-he Wuming-he river (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obk you-jiang You-jiang lower river (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obl zuo-jiang Zuo-jiang lower river (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obm bachi-jiang Bachi-jiang river (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obn xiaodong Xiaodong (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obo ming enclaves on Ming+ Zuo-jiang rivers (Guangxi-CW.)
79-AAA-obp bo'ai-he You-jiang upper river + Bo'ai-he river: Pinguo to Yunnan boundary (Guangxi-CW.)
page 568 The Linguasphere Register

1999 / 2000 edition
79-AAA-p Tu-hua-S.* (undetermined) "south-china chinese" #tu-hua=local, native speech
notional outer-language; classification to be revised
China (Guizhou; Hunan; Guangxi;
Guangdong)
6
79-AAA-pa miao-hanyu-W. "chinese-speaking miao"-W. China (Guizhou) 4
79-AAA-paa pu'an Pu'an (Guizhou-W.)
79-AAA-pab qinglong Qinglong (Guizhou-W.)
79-AAA-pb miao-hanyu-N. "chinese-speaking miao"-N. Tianzhu China (Guizhou-E.) 4
79-AAA-pc miao-hanyu-E. "chinese-speaking miao"-E. China (Hunan; Guangxi) 5
79-AAA-pca suining Suining (Hunan-SW.)
79-AAA-pcb chengbu Chengbu (Hunan; Guangxi)
79-AAA-pcc ziyuan Ziyuan (Hunan; Guangxi)
79-AAA-pcd longsheng Longsheng (Guangxi-N.)
79-AAA-pd xiang-hua xiang, waxiang-hua Yuanling hinterland China (Hunan) 5
79-AAA-pda you-shui You-shui middle river (Hunan-NW.)
79-AAA-pdb guzhang Guzhang hills (Hunan-NW.)
79-AAA-pdc wu-shui Wu-shui middle river (Hunan-NW.)
79-AAA-pdd yuan-jiang Yuan-jiang middle river (Hunan-NW.)
79-AAA-pde chenxi Chenxi hills (Hunan-NW.)
79-AAA-pe daoxian-hua daoxian, part of 'xiangnan tuhua' (Hunan-S.) 4
79-AAA-pf jiangyong-hua jiangyong, part of 'xiangnan tuhua' (Hunan-S.)
79-AAA-pg jiang-hua jiang, part of 'xiangnan tuhua' (Hunan-S.) 4
79-AAA-ph shaozhou-hua shaozhou China (Guangdong)
79-AAA-pha lianxian Lianxian (Guangdong-N.)
79-AAA-phb liannan Liannan (Guangdong-N.)
79-AAA-phc lechang Lechang (Guangdong-N.)
79-AAA-phd ruyuan Ruyuan (Guangdong-N.)
79-AAA-phe qujiang Qujiang (Guangdong-N.)
79-AAA-phf shaoguan Shaoguan (Guangdong-N.)
79-AAA-phg renhua Renhua (Guangdong-N.)
79-AAA-phh nanxiong Nanxiong (Guangdong-N.)