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COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
PUTRAJAYA CAMPUS
FINAL EXAMINATION

SPECIAL SEMESTER 2013 / 2014

PROGRAM : Bachelor of Mechanical Engineering (Honours)
PROGRAM

KOD MATAPELAJARAN : MEHB223
SUBJECT CODE

MATAPELAJARAN : Mechanics of Fluids 1
SUBJECT

TARIKH : April 2014
DATE

MASA : 3 Hours
TIME

I nstructions to candidates:

1. Write your student ID, section and table number on the answer script.

2. This paper contains FIVE (5) questions in THIRTEEN (13) pages.

3. Answer ALL questions.

4. Write all answers in the answer booklet provided.

5. Write answer to each question on a new page.

DO NOT OPEN THI S QUESTI ON PAPER UNTI L YOU ARE I NSTRUCTED TO DO SO

THI S QUESTI ON PAPER CONSI STS OF 13 PRI NTED PAGES I NCLUDI NG THI S
COVER PAGE.
MEHB223, Special Semester, 2013/2014

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QUESTION 1 [15 marks]

a) i) Write the equation relating the shearing stress and rate of shearing strain of any
Newtonian fluid.
[1 mark]
ii) Give two examples of Newtonian fluids.
[2 mark]
b) A pivot bearing used on the shaft of an electrical instrument is shown in Figure 1.
A uniform 0.025mm gap between the rotating shaft and the stationary base is
filled with oil that has a viscosity of = 0.479 N.s/m
2
. Determine the frictional
torque on the shaft when it rotates at 4,500 rpm.
[12 marks]

Figure 1

4500 rpm
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QUESTION 2 [15 marks]

A homogeneous, 1.2-m-wide, 2.4-m-long rectangular gate weighing 3.6 kN is held in
place by a horizontal flexible cable as shown in Figure 2. Water acts against the gate
which is hinged at point A. Friction in the hinge is negligible. (Use
H2O
= 9790 N/m
3
)

a) Determine the hydrostatic force, F
R
exerted on the gate.
[5 marks]
b) Determine the inclined distance of the hydrostatic force from the hinge.
[4 marks]
c) Determine the tension, T in the cable.
[4 marks]
d) Draw the free-body diagram (FBD) of the gate.
[2 marks]

Figure 2

T
1.8 m 2.4 m
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QUESTION 3 [20 marks]

Figure 3 shows the schematic diagram of a draining tank.
a) By referring to Figure 3, show that the velocity at the circular exit (v
exit
) of the
cylindrical tank is gh 2 , where g is the gravitational acceleration and h is the
instantaneous water height measured from the bottom of the tank.
[8 marks]

b) Determine how long it will take for the water level in the cylindrical tank
(illustrated in Figure 3) to drop to 2m (measured from the bottom of the tank)
from the initial water height h
0
of 4m. Assume D
exit
= 0.5m and D
tank
= 3.0m.
[12 marks]

Figure 3
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QUESTION 4 [15 marks]

Water flows through a nozzle shown in Figure 4 at a rate of 0.5 m
3
/s and discharges into
the atmosphere. The diameter of the nozzle at point (1) and at the nozzle exit are D
1
= 40
cm and D
2
= 15 cm respectively. The flow is assumed to be irrotational flow and the
gravitational effect is neglected.
(Use
H2O
= 1000 kg/m
3
, g = 9.81 m/s
2
)

a) Using continuity equation, calculate velocity V
1
and V
2

[5 marks]
b) Using Bernoulli equation between point (1) and (2), find pressure p
1
. Assume z
1

equals z
2
.
[4 marks]
c) Using linear momentum equation, determine the magnitude and direction of the
force (in kN) required at the flange to hold the nozzle in place.
[6 marks]

Figure 4

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QUESTION 5 [35 marks]

A differential mercury manometer is connected to two pressure taps in an inclined
commercial steel pipe as shown in the Figure 5. The inclined distance between the
pressure taps is 2 m and the diameter D of the pipe is 20 mm. Kerosene ( = 1.910
3

N s/m
2
) is flowing through the pipe and the deflection of mercury in the manometer is 5
cm. (Use
H2O
= 1000 kg/m
3
,

H2O
= 9810 N/m
3
)

a) Show that the difference in piezometric pressure between the two pressure taps in
the pipe is:

[7 marks]
b) By using suitable charts and tables, find the velocity and direction of the flow in
the pipe. Justify your answer.
[28 marks]

Figure 5

END OF QUESTION PAPER
Kerosene
SG = 0.81
Mercury (SG = 13.6)
2 m
D = 20 mm
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APPENDIX A: SUPPLEMENTARY DATA AND FORMULA

1. Atmospheric Pressure = 1.0135 bar

2. Pressure distribution in a rotated inviscid fluid

t Cons
r
z p tan
2
2 2
= +
e

3. The constant pressure line in a rotated mass of fluid is given by:
g
r
z z
o
2
2 2
e
=

4. Bernoullis equation H z
g
V p
= + +
2
2

5. Stagnation pressure
2
2
1
V p p
s
+ =

6. General Mass Conservation :

- -
= out in
c
m m
dt
dm

7. General Force Momentum Equation :

- -
+ = xout xin
x
xc
M M F
dt
dM

8. General Energy Conservation Equation :

- -
+ = out in
c
E E W Q
dt
dE

9. Hydrostatic Force on Plane Surface : A h g F
_
= ;
A y
I
y y
xx
cp
_
=

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10. Hydrostatic Force on Curved Surface :
v
v
_
h
A h g F = ;
A h
I
y
v
_
xxv
cpv
=
V g F
v
=

11. General Single Pipeline Energy Equation :

+ + + + + = + + +
or length all
t p
g
V
k
g
V
d
f h z
g
V
g
P
h z
g
V
g
P
min
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
1
2
1
1
1
2 2 2 2

o

12. Friction factors.

2
9 . 0
10
Re
74 . 5
7 . 3
log
25 . 0
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
=
D
k
f
s
;
Re
64
= f

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Appendix B: Moody Chart

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Appendix C: Dynamic Viscosity of certain gases and liquids

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Appendix D: Pipe fitting loss tables

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