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Food Safety

Microbiological Hazards
(bacteria)
Food Safety
Microbiological hazards include:
1 The contamination of food by
Bacteria
Viruses
Moulds
Parasites
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2 The multiplication of
bacteria within food

3 The survival of bacteria
or other pathogens
because of inadequate
cooking or
processing
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If we are to control these hazards we need
to understand bacteria:

Where to find them
How they get into food
How they multiply
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Bacteria
are microscopic organisms
GERMS
found everywhere including on
and in people, on food, in water,
soil and air
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Most bacteria are harmless and some
are essential to the food industry:
Cheese Making and Yoghurt

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A small number of bacteria known as
SPOILAGE BACTERIA
cause food to spoil or become unfit to eat
Food will smell or be slimy
Other bacteria such as food poisoning
bacteria are known as
PATHOGENS
Have no effect on food and cannot be seen
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If PATHOGENS get into food they make
people ill

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Bacteria responsible for causing
food poisoning need the following
conditions to multiply and produce

TOXINS
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Warmth
The best temperature for most food
poisoning bacteria is 37C (body temperature)

DANGER ZONE
They can multiply quickly between
20 50C

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Food and Moisture
Bacteria like:
raw and cooked meats and dairy foods
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Time
Given the right conditions of food, moisture
and warmth some bacteria can divide into
two every ten minutes
This process is known as BINARY FISSION

In 1 hour and 40 minutes 1,000
bacteria can become 1,000,000+
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High Risk Foods
Are ready to eat foods which support the
multiplication of harmful bacteria and are
intended for consumption without treatment
such as cooking, which would destroy the
organisms.
These are usually proteins.
They must be protected from contamination
and stored in a fridge.
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They must be kept separate from raw
foods:
Cooked meat and poultry
Meat pies
Pate
Milk, cream, custard and dairy products
Eggs, mayonnaise
Shellfish
Cooked rice
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Low Risk Foods
Bacteria are not able to multiply in dry food or food
containing high concentrations of sugar, vinegar or
salt. Foods include
Cereals
Dried pasta
Bread
Biscuits
Canned Foods
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Ready to eat raw food
Raw foods such as lettuce or fruit may be
contaminated with bacteria and viruses
which only need to be present in low
numbers to cause illness.
They must always be washed in running
water before eating.
Tomatoes, melons, raspberries, lettuce etc
Food Safety
Learn about BACTERIA
Protect food from CONTAMINATION
Food Safety

Next lesson

Food poisoning and its control