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Performance Expectations:

Biology
LS1: From Molecules to Organisms: Structures
and Processes
LS2: Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and
Dynamics
LS3: Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of Traits
LS4: Biological Evolution: Unity and Diversity
ESS1: Earth Science
ESS2: Biogeology
ESS3: Human Impacts on Earth Systems
ESS3: Global Climate Change

* Interpretations aligned to more than one Performance
Expectation are highlighted in coordinating colors *

HS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms:
Structures and Processes
HS-LS1-1. Construct an explanation based on evidence for
how the structure of DNA determines the structure of
proteins which carry out the essential functions of life
through systems of specialized cells.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can explain that cells are
specialized to carry out specific
functions that are coded within
DNA gene regions for the formation
of protein

2. I can give examples of how systems
of specialized cells perform
essential functions of life

3. I can explain the structure and
function of DNA, genes, and
proteins in carrying out most of the
work in cells

4. I can use evidence to support how
proteins carry out most cellular
work





HS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms:
Structures and Processes
HS-LS1-2. Develop and use a model to illustrate the
hierarchical organization of interacting systems that provide
specific functions within multicellular organisms.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can explain and give examples of
how multicellular organisms have a
hierarchical organization in which
one system is made up of numerous
parts and is itself a component of
the next level

2. I can identify the hierarchical
organization from cells to systems
in living things

3. I can explain how one piece of the
hierarchical organization is related
to the next






HS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms:
Structures and Processes
HS-LS1-3. Plan and conduct an investigation to provide
evidence that feedback mechanisms maintain homeostasis.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can explain how feedback
mechanisms maintain a living
systems internal conditions in
order to mediate behaviors and
maintain limits despite changes in
external conditions

2. I can identify and give an example
of a feedback mechanism

3. I can differentiate between feedback
mechanisms that encourage or
discourage processes within living
systems

4. I can analyze a scenario and
describe how it illustrates a
feedback mechanism (heart rate
response, stomate response, root
development does not include
cellular processes)





HS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms:
Structures and Processes
HS-LS1-4. Use a model to illustrate the role of cellular
division (mitosis) and differentiation in producing and
maintaining complex organisms.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can describe the overall process of
mitosis and relate it to the process
of differentiation and the
production/maintenance of
complex organisms

2. I can explain the significance of
mitosis in unicellular and
multicellular organisms

3. I can explain how cellular division
results in the production of complex
organisms (levels of organization
cells, tissue, organs, etc)

4. I can describe how different levels
of organization function together to
meet the needs of an organism





HS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms:
Structures and Processes
HS-LS1-5. Use a model to illustrate how photosynthesis
transforms light energy into stored chemical energy.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can explain how light energy is
converted into chemical energy in
the process of photosynthesis.

2. I can identify the products and
reactants of photosynthesis (CO2 +
H2O sugars + released O2)

3. I can follow the path of carbons
from the beginning and end of
photosynthesis







HS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms:
Structures and Processes
HS-LS1-6. Construct and revise an explanation based on
evidence for how carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen from sugar
molecules may combine with other elements to form amino
acids and/or other large carbon-based molecules.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can model the breakdown of sugar
(using a molecular model) and use
the hydrocarbon backbone to
reform amino acids and other
carbon molecules.

2. I can identify the molecular
structure of sugar.

3. I can use a model to construct and
explain how chemical elements are
recombined to form different
products.






HS-LS1 From Molecules to Organisms:
Structures and Processes
HS-LS1-7. Use a model to illustrate that cellular respiration
is a chemical process whereby the bonds of food molecules
and oxygen molecules are broken and the bonds in new
compounds are formed resulting in a net transfer of energy.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can explain how energy is
transferred from one molecule to
another in the process of aerobic
and anaerobic cellular respiration.

2. I can identify the reactants and
products of aerobic and anaerobic
cellular respiration.

3. I can give examples of how the
energy obtained from cellular
respiration is used (maintenance of
muscles, body temp).

4. I can explain how, in energy
transfer, some energy will always be
lost to the surrounding
environment (inefficient process)





HS-LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and
Dynamics
HS-LS2-1. Use mathematical and/or computational
representations to support explanations of factors that affect
carrying capacity of ecosystems at different scales.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can evaluate how living and
nonliving (abiotic and biotic)
factors limit population growth
within ecosystems of different
scales

2. I can identify living (predation,
competition, disease, stress) and
nonliving factors (sunlight, water,
temp, natural disasters, human
activities) in an ecosystem and
explain how they may limit a
population

3. I can provides examples of other
limits to population growth
(predation, competition, disease)

4. I can define carrying capacity
5. I can hypothesize what will happen
to a population when limiting
factors are not present

6. I can explain why resources are
finite




HS-LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and
Dynamics
HS-LS2-2. Use mathematical representations to support and
revise explanations based on evidence about factors affecting
biodiversity and populations in ecosystems of different
scales.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can explain how living and
nonliving factors affect the
abundance and biodiversity of an
ecosystem

2. I can define species abundance

3. I can define biodiversity

4. I can give examples of and explain
how factors can alter abundance
and biodiversity






HS-LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and
Dynamics
HS-LS2-3. Construct and revise an explanation based on
evidence for the cycling of matter and flow of energy in
aerobic and anaerobic conditions.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can explain that aerobic
environments will cycle matter and
process energy differently from
anaerobic environments








HS-LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and
Dynamics
HS-LS2-4. Use mathematical representations to support
claims for the cycling of matter and flow of energy among
organisms in an ecosystem.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can explain how photosynthesis
and cellular respiration provide
most of the energy for life
processes. (flow)

2. I can explain how photosynthesis
and cellular respiration interact at
the ecosystem level. (flow)

3. I can explain and interpret food
chains and food webs to show how
energy moves through an ecosystem
(flow)

4. I can use the 10% rule to trace the
flow of energy through an
ecosystem and explain that
although all of the energy that
enters the ecosystem is conserved, it
is ultimately converted into heat as
it transfers to the environment.
(flow)

5. I can describe how the chemical
elements that make up the
molecules of organisms are
conserved as they cycle through the
ecosystem. (cycling)

6. I can describe how photosynthesis
and cellular respiration are involved
in cycling carbon. (cycling)

7. I can describe the nitrogen cycle
and highlight the role bacteria play
in the cycling of nitrogen.
(cycling)

8. I can describe the cycling of water in
an ecosystem. (cycling)

HS-LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and
Dynamics
HS-LS2-5. Develop a model to illustrate the role of
photosynthesis and cellular respiration in the cycling of
carbon among the biosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere, and
geosphere.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can describe how the chemical
elements that make up the
molecules of organisms are
conserved as they cycle through the
ecosystem. (cycling)

2. I can describe how photosynthesis
and cellular respiration are involved
in cycling carbon. (cycling)

3. I can describe the nitrogen cycle
and highlight the role bacteria play
in the cycling of nitrogen.
(cycling)

4. I can describe the cycling of water in
an ecosystem. (cycling)





HS-LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and
Dynamics
HS-LS2-6. Evaluate the claims, evidence, and reasoning that
the complex interactions in ecosystems maintain relatively
consistent numbers and types of organisms in stable
conditions, but changing conditions may result in a new
ecosystem.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can describe how the stability of
an ecosystem determines how it will
respond to a natural or human
induced disturbance.

2. I can define stability.

3. I can identify factors that can affect
the stability of an ecosystem (size,
frequency of disturbance,
proximity to humanity, presence of
invasives) and describe how they
affect stability

4. I can compare and contrast how
modest biological or physical
disturbances (moderate hunting or
seasonal flood) and extreme
fluctuations (volcanic eruption or
sea level rise) can alter an
ecosystem.

5. I can describe how human
(anthropogenic) activities can
disrupt an ecosystem and threaten
the survival of some species.
(urbanization, building dams,
invasives, habitat destruction,
pollution, overexploitation, climate
change)


HS-LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and
Dynamics
HS-LS2-7. Design, evaluate, and refine a solution for
reducing the impacts of human activities on the environment
and biodiversity.*
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can describe how the stability of an
ecosystem determines how it will
respond to a natural or human
induced disturbance.

2. I can define stability.

3. I can identify factors that can affect
the stability of an ecosystem (size,
frequency of disturbance, proximity
to humanity, presence of invasives)
and describe how they affect stability

4. I can compare and contrast how
modest biological or physical
disturbances (moderate hunting or
seasonal flood) and extreme
fluctuations (volcanic eruption or sea
level rise) can alter an ecosystem.

5. I can describe how human
(anthropogenic) activities can disrupt
an ecosystem and threaten the
survival of some species.
(urbanization, building dams,
invasives, habitat destruction,
pollution, overexploitation, climate
change)

6. I can describe how biodiversity is
increased by the formation of new
species (speciation) and decreased by
the loss of species (extinction)

7. I can describe how maintaining
biodiversity is important for
sustaining and enhancing all life on
Earth including humans, and
describe how human activity has
impacted biodiversity of life on Earth

HS-LS2 Ecosystems: Interactions, Energy, and
Dynamics
HS-LS2-8. Evaluate the evidence for the role of group
behavior on individual and species chances to survive and
reproduce.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can describe how behavioral
adaptations of organisms increase
their chances of survival

2. I can distinguish between group and
individual behavior

3. I can describe how living with
genetic relatives can increase the
chances of survival of an organism







HS-LS3 Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of
Traits
HS-LS3-1. Ask questions to clarify relationships about the
role of DNA and chromosomes in coding the instructions for
characteristic traits passed from parents to offspring.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can describe the structure and
function of DNA, genes, and
chromosomes and summarize how
expression in different cells varies
(Inheritance)

2. I can describe the structure of DNA
(Inheritance)

3. I can identify the relationship
between DNA, genes, and
chromosomes (Inheritance)

4. I can explain how the structure of
DNA encodes the instructions for
the formation of species
(Inheritance)

5. I recognize that DNA contained
within the cells of an organism is
identical but the genes used
(expressed) within each cell are
different (Inheritance)

6. I can examine the different roles of
DNA. Including coding for proteins,
regulatory or structural function,
and unknown functions
(Inheritance)

7. I can explain the role of DNA and
chromosomes in creating genetic
variation and new genetic
combinations (Variation)

8. I can explain how the process of
meiosis leads to new genetic
combinations and variation in
organisms (Variation)

9. I can describe how errors in DNA
replication result in mutations and
cause new genetic variation
(Variation)

10. I can identify environmental
factors that cause mutations in
genes and explain how these
mutations affect species
(Variation)











HS-LS3 Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of
Traits
HS-LS3-2. Make and defend a claim based on evidence that
inheritable genetic variations may result from: (1) new
genetic combinations through meiosis, (2) viable errors
occurring during replication, and/or (3) mutations caused by
environmental factors.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can describe how environmental
factors affect the probability and
expression of traits in a population

2. I can explain how environmental
factors affect the overall expression
and occurrence of traits in a
population

3. I can generate data to determine the
probability of the occurrence of
traits in a population (not Hardy
Weinberg use math)






HS-LS3 Heredity: Inheritance and Variation of
Traits
HS-LS3-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to
explain the variation and distribution of expressed traits in a
population.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can describe how environmental
factors affect the probability and
expression of traits in a population

2. I can explain how environmental
factors affect the overall expression
and occurrence of traits in a
population

3. I can generate data to determine the
probability of the occurrence of
traits in a population (not Hardy
Weinberg use math)








HS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and
Diversity
HS-LS4-1. Communicate scientific information that common
ancestry and biological evolution are supported by multiple
lines of empirical evidence.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can describe and explain the
different lines of evidence used to
support the process of natural
selection and descent with
modifications, including DNA
sequences, anatomical structures,
and embryological evidence

2. I can describe how similarities in
DNA and amino acids provide
evidence of evolution

3. I can infer/interpret branching lines
of evidence produced by comparing
DNA sequences of different
organisms

4. I can identify anatomical evidence
for evolution and describe how it
provides evidence for evolution

5. I can define embryology and explain
how it provides evidence for
evolution




HS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and
Diversity
HS-LS4-2. Construct an explanation based on evidence that
the process of evolution primarily results from four factors:
(1) the potential for a species to increase in number, (2) the
heritable genetic variation of individuals in a species due to
mutation and sexual reproduction, (3) competition for
limited resources, and (4) the proliferation of those
organisms that are better able to survive and reproduce in
the environment.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can explain how population
genetics provides a foundation for
studying evolution.

2. I can explain the 4 process
components of natural selection and
how those factors can change a
population over generations:

a. The potential for a species to
increase in number

b. The genetic variation of
individuals in a species due
to mutation and sexual
reproduction

c. Competition for limited
resources

d. Reproduction of best fit
organisms in that
environment



HS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and
Diversity
HS-LS4-3. Apply concepts of statistics and probability to
support explanations that organisms with an advantageous
heritable trait tend to increase in proportion to organisms
lacking this trait.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can explain how population
genetics provides a foundation for
studying evolution.

2. I can explain how traits that
promote survival have greater
fitness, and thus become more
common in a population over time.

3. I can define adaptation

4. I can identify and track
advantageous heritable traits in a
given scenario

5. I can analyze a shift in numerical
distribution of traits to support an
explanation showing how
organisms with advantageous traits
may increase in number and how
organisms without these traits may
decrease in number over
generations

6. I can use data to provide evidence
for how specific biotic and abiotic
differences in an ecosystem
contribute to change in gene
frequency over time, leading to
adaptations (biotic and abiotic
differences may include: ranges of
seasonal temp, long-term climate
change, acidity, light, geographic
barriers, or evolution of other
organisms)


HS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and
Diversity
HS-LS4-4. Construct an explanation based on evidence for
how natural selection leads to adaptation of populations.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can define adaptation

2. I can identify and track
advantageous heritable traits in a
given scenario

3. I can analyze a shift in numerical
distribution of traits to support an
explanation showing how
organisms with advantageous traits
may increase in number and how
organisms without these traits may
decrease in number over
generations

4. I can use data to provide evidence
for how specific biotic and abiotic
differences in an ecosystem
contribute to change in gene
frequency over time, leading to
adaptations (biotic and abiotic
differences may include: ranges of
seasonal temp, long-term climate
change, acidity, light, geographic
barriers, or evolution of other
organisms)




HS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and
Diversity
HS-LS4-5. Evaluate the evidence supporting claims that
changes in environmental conditions may result in: (1)
increases in the number of individuals of some species, (2)
the emergence of new species over time, and (3) the
extinction of other species.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can explain how changes in the
physical environment, naturally
occurring or human induced, have
contributed to the expansion of
some species (increase in number of
individuals)

2. I can explain how changes in the
physical environment, naturally
occurring or human induced, have
contributed to the emergence of
new distinct species as populations
diverge under new conditions.

3. I can explain how changes in the
physical environment, naturally
occurring or human induced, have
contributed to the decline and
sometimes extinction of some
species

4. I can explain why species become
extinct

5. I can explain what happens when a
species can no longer survive and
reproduce in its altered
environment

6. I can explain why if a change is too
fast or too drastic, a species may go
extinct


HS-LS4 Biological Evolution: Unity and
Diversity
HS-LS4-6. Create or revise a simulation to test a solution to
mitigate adverse impacts of human activity on biodiversity.*
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can describe how maintaining
biodiversity is important for
sustaining and enhancing all life on
Earth including humans, and
describe how human activity has
impacted biodiversity of life on
Earth








HS-ESS1 Earth Science
HS-ESS1-5. Evaluate evidence of past and current
movements of continental and oceanic crust and the theory
of plate tectonics to explain the ages of crustal rocks.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can distinguish between
continental and oceanic crust and
explain their role in the theory of
plate tectonics

2. I can distinguish between the
characteristics of continental crust
and oceanic crust.

3. I can explain the theory of plate
tectonics.

4. I can analyze data on past and
current movement of continental
and oceanic crust to explain the
ages of crustal rock.








HS-ESS1 Earth Science
HS-ESS1-6. Apply scientific reasoning and evidence from
ancient Earths materials, meteorites, and other planetary
surfaces to construct an account or Earths formation and
early history.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can describe the role of lunar
rocks, asteroids, and meteorites in
the early and current formation of
the earth

2. I can differentiate between
characteristics of lunar rocks,
asteroids, and meteorites.

3. I can sequence evidence within the
solar system to reconstruct the early
history of Earth.
Examples of evidence include the
absolute ages of ancient materials,
the sizes and compositions of solar
system objects, and the impact
cratering record of planetary
surfaces.






HS-ESS2 Biogeology
HS-ESS2-7. Construct an argument based on evidence about
the simultaneous co-evolution of Earths systems and life on
Earth.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can explain how feedback between
the biosphere and other Earth
systems causes continual co-
evolution of Earths surface and life
that exists on it.









HS-ESS3 Human Impacts on Earth Systems
HS-ESS3-3. Create a computational simulation to illustrate
the relationships among management of natural resources,
the sustainability of human populations, and biodiversity.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can describe how humans impact
the sustainability of natural
resources and biodiversity.

2. I can give examples of how humans
have impacted the sustainability of
natural resources and diversity.
(resource extraction, waste
management, per capita
consumption, development of new
tech and natural resource mgmt.)

3. I can identify the importance of
responsible mgmt. of natural
resources and biodiversity to the
sustainability of human societies.

4. I can explain how and give
examples of how scientists and
engineers have made major
contributions be developing
technologies that produce less
pollution and waste that decrease
ecosystem damage. (agricultural
efficiency, levels of conservation,
and urban planning)




HS-ESS3 Human Impacts on Earth Systems
HS-ESS3-4. Evaluate or refine a technological solution that
reduces impacts of human activities on natural systems.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can describe how humans impact
the sustainability of natural
resources and biodiversity.

2. I can give examples of how humans
have impacted the sustainability of
natural resources and diversity.
(resource extraction, waste
management, per capita
consumption, development of new
tech and natural resource mgmt.)

3. I can identify the importance of
responsible mgmt. of natural
resources and biodiversity to the
sustainability of human societies.

4. I can explain how and give
examples of how scientists and
engineers have made major
contributions be developing
technologies that produce less
pollution and waste that decrease
ecosystem damage. (agricultural
efficiency, levels of conservation,
and urban planning)




HS-ESS3 Global Climate Change
HS-ESS3-6.Use a computational representation to illustrate
the relationships among earth systems and how those
relationships are being modified due to human activity.
Standard Interpretation Dates Taught Mastery
1. I can collect evidence that new
discoveries are being made about
how the oceans, atmosphere, and
biosphere interact and are modified
by human impacts.