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Inflammation

Inflammation is the reaction of vascularizd living tissue to local injury. It is evoked by microbial infections,
physical agents, chemicals necrotic tissue and immunologic reactions. Inflammation and repair may be potentially
harmful.

Major event in inflammation:
Acute Inflammation:
1. Alteration in vascular caliber that lead to an increase in blood flow.
2. Structural changes in microvascular that permit the plasma proteins and leukocytes to leave the circulation
to produce inflammatory exudates.
3. Emigration of the leukocytes from microcirculation.

Classic clinical sign of acute inflammation:
Four cardinal signs of inflammation:
1. Heat (color)
2. Redness(rubor)
3. Edema(tumor)
4. Pain(dolor)

Exudation:
The escape of fluid, proteins and blood cells from vascular system into the interistial tissue or body cavities.
Exudates:
It is an inflammatory extra vascular fluid that has a high protein concentration much cellular debris and high
specific gravity about (1.020).
Transudate:
It is a non inflammatory fluid with low protein content and specific gravity less than 1.012. It is essentially and
ultra filtrate of blood plasma and results from by drostatic imbalance.
Edema:
It is an excess or abnormal accumulation of fluid in the interistial tissue or serous cavities. It can be either
Exudate or Transudate.
Pus:
It is a purulent inflammatory exudate rich in leukocytes and cell debris.

Factors controlling escape of fluid:
1. Capillary hydrostatic pressure increase.
2. Capillary permeability increase.
3. Tissue osmotic pressure increase.
4. Lymphatic flow prevents escape.
5. Colloidal osmotic pressure increase.
6. Tissue hydrostatic pressure increase.

Function:
1. Dilution of irritant.
2. Transport of protective antibodies.
3. Transport of micro-organisms and toxins.
4. Fibrin formation.
5. Transport of nutrient to the cell thus helping regeneration.
Systemic effect of inflammation:
1. Fever
2. Sleepiness, poor appetite and increased muscle protein catabolism.
3. Blood changes.
a. Leukocytosis.
b. Neutrophilia.
. E leukocytosis
. Lymphocytosis.
c. Leucopenia
d. Leaku reaction.
. Thrombocytopenia
. E.S.R.
. Anemia.

Difference between Acute & Chronic Inflammation
Causes Acute inflammation Chronic inflammation