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Editors

Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
SoWLiquid Separation Lexicon

@WlLEY-VCH
SolidLiquid
Separation Lexicon
Editors
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh

Scientific Advisor
Harald Anlauf

Authors
Harald Anlauf
Reinhard Bott
Thomas Langeloh
Bernhard Hoffner
Klaus Julkowski
Franz Meck

@WlLEY-VCH
Reinhard Bott
Thomas Langcloh
BOKELA lngenieurgesellschaft fur Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik mbH
Gottesauer StraBe 28
D-76131 Karlsruhe

This hook was carefully produced. Nevertheless. editors, authors and puhlisher do not warrant the informa-
tion contained therein to be free of errors. Readers are advised to keep in mind that statements, data.
illustrations procedural details or other items may inadvertently be inaccurate.

Library of Congress Card No. applied for.
A catalogue record for this book is available from the British Library.

Die Deutsche Bibliothek - Cataloguing-in-Publication Data
A catalogue record for this book is available from Die Deutsche Bibliothek

ISBN 3-527-30522-X

0Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH, Weinheim. 2002
Printed on acid-free paper.

All rights reserved (including those of translation in other languages). No part of this book may be
reproduced in any form - by photoprinting, microfilm, or any other means - nor transmitted or trans-
lated into machine language without written permission from the publishers. Registered names, trade-
marks, etc. used in this book, even when not specifically marked as such, are not to be considered unpro-
tected by law.
Composition: Stefanie GroB, Steinweiler
Printing: Strauss Offsetdruck GmbH. Morlenbach
Bookbinding: Wilh. Osswald + Co. KG, Neustadt

Printed in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Editors
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
BOKELA Ingenieurgesellschaft fur Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik mbH
Gottesauer StraRe 28
D-76131 Karlsruhe
Germany
Tel: +49 721 96 456-0
Fax +4972196456-10
E-Mail: bokela@bokela.com
www.bokela.com

Scientific Advisor
Dr. Harald Anlauf
Institut fur Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik (MVM)
Kaiserstralje 12
Universitat Karlsruhe (TH)
D-76128 Karlsruhe
Germany

Authors
Dr. Reinhard Bott
Dr. Thomas Langeloh
Franz Meck
BOKELA Ingenieurgesellschaft fur Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik mbH
Gottesauer StraBe 28
D-76131 Karlsruhe
Germ any
Dr. Harald Anlauf
Bernhard Hoffner
Institut fur Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik (MVM)
Universitat Karlsruhe (TH)
D-76128 Karlsruhe
Germany
Dr. Klaus Julkowski
KJJ Filter Engineering
PO. Box 907
Coventry, CT 06238
USA

Graphics and Layout
Stefanie Grolj
Am Dorfgraben 18
D-76872 Steinweiler
Germany
Preface

Our partners and clients in more than ruhe' on the one side and BOKELA
30 countries are frequently confronted engineers on the other. Here we pay
with specific 'Solid/Liquid Separation' tribute to Professor Dr. Werner Stahl as
process terms and definitions they are the fountain well and spiritual rector of
not used to in their normal way of doing the Karlsruhe School.
business.Veryoften they are looking for
a reference book with explanations BOKELA has been active in the process
and interpretations that are readily industry for more than 15 years with high
understandable. The present BOKELA expertise services, R & D, and innovati-
SLS LEXICON aims to fulfil this need. It ve separation equipment. We are also
makes use of the definitions, termi- recognised as equipment supplier and
nology and concepts of the Karlsruhe designer of comlete SLS systems. Evol-
School for 'Solid/Liquid Separation' (for ving from a typical start-up company,
short: SLS), as they are widely used as a BOKELA has had company growth that
standard and are meanwhile accep- culminated in an award in 1999 by the
ted to a large degree in the scientific German President Roman Herzog for a
community. science/technology product. Now-
adays, the enterprise is considered a
SLS forms an unique discipline with high tech group with global reach and
regard to process technological, following clearly defined goals.
equipment and scientific know-how.As
a cross-sectional unit operation it is
ubiquitous in all segments of the process Our mission: To optimise the value
industry as well as in the environmental of our clients through
protection. Hence its specialised and competence, creativity,
highly diversified terminology needs to reliability, speed and glo-
be made accessible. bal coverage.
For more than 20 years, BOKELA's
experts have been strong exponents of Our vision: To advance solid/liquid-
the so-called 'Karlsruhe School for separation through leader-
Mechanical Separation Technologies', ship in technology and
which in turn is the result of an unique, marketing.
very intensive and synergetic co-
operation between the different de-
partments of the 'Institute of Mecha- Driven b y these goals, our experts are
nical Process Engineering and Mecha- looking for both the ordinary and the
nics of the UniversityFridericanaof Karls- more demanding challenges to en-
Prefuce

gineer them into tailor-made solutions. tailor-made solutions for our clients,
combining in-depth know how, wide
The activities of numberless projects- ranging experience, and a thorough
starting with basic lab tests to market analysis of the components of an
analyses and marketing plans for our application, its pocess conditions and
clients on to the design of turnkey objectives. From this point of view, we
systems based on an unique process are guided in all of our activities by the
philosophy - give us the opportunity to following motto:
increase our competence and to
collect important practical experience We, the BOKEIA-Team, strive to provide
on an on-going basis. At the same time, our clients products and services of the
our engineers form trustful and valuable highest value and the best quality
relationships with men and women at based on the latest state of technology.
customers' sites all over the world.The- We are committed to have long-term,
se experiences and relationships, but trusting and constructive relationships
also the continual co-operation with with our cllients, partners and suppliers.
our academic colleagues, are foun-
dations for being a comprehensive
innovation power. Backed by this inno- Karlsruhe,April 2001
vation power we are convinced to BOKELA GrnbH

Pgr-
keep on our responsibility for our clients
and partners, but especially also for our
employees.

The wonderful team atmosphere - the
'Spirit of BOKELA - creates superior
performances.And we at BOKEIA are Dr g.Rein rd B

proud to be part of this team where
everyone is taking care of each other.
This is not only a social responsibility, but
also an obligation to perform at the
highest quality level.Our quality policy
is backed by I S 0 9001 and proclaims:
BOKEIA approaches solid/liquid sepa-
ration as a process technology in a
comprehensive form. Integrated Engi-
neering is the basis for the most suitable,
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Abrasion

A brusion Activuted Curbon (Churcod)
Wear and tear on walls or pipes inside Activated carbon is made from wood,
of equipment due to friction of moving peat, hardened coal or fruit shells by
solid particles; specially in areas where carbonization in an oven. They are
flow direction changes or velocity highly porous with a large 3 specific
increases.Reduction is possible through surface area and have excellent
smooth transitions or the application of 3 adsorption properties. Activated
a protective coating. The protective carbon is used for liquids as a 3 fi/ter
layer on the blades of a 3 conveyor media in 3 deep bed filtration for
screw is called armoring. clarification, decolorization, and for
flavor adjustment.
Absolute Filtration
means that a specified minimal particle Additives
size has to be retained with absolute Foreign matter added to a partially
certainty. demoistured 3 bulk, in order to
maintain a specified mean 3 product
moisfure.Oneemploys this method e.g.
Absorption
in the processing of municipal sewage
+
The transport of gases by dimsion into that must be deposited in dry form,
a condensed phase (i.e. a liquid or a however, this method may lead to a
solid) and forming homogeneous technical success but is not desirable
solutions. The gas-specific equilibrium because additional material is needed
concentration as determined by for deposition.
temperature and pressure limit the
amount absorbed.
Adhesion
Adherence of solids caused by
ACTD- Testdust
molecular attraction forces. Originates
Common test material for the from 3 adsorption.
evaluation of a 3 filter media.Arizona
Control Test Dust is available in two
relatively narrow fractions, i.e. Fine Adhesionul Friction
(0 - 80 pm) and Coarse (0 - 200 pm). 3 Friction

1
Adhesive Liquid

Adhesive liquid separation of solids by Increasing their
sedimentation velocity, and often
The liquid portion in the bulk of a improve the permeability of a filter cake
suspension that is still bound b y by increasing its porosity.
+ adhesion after mechanical de-
moisturing.The adsorbed quantity is a
function of the solids specific surface, Alpha-Value
the type of liquid and its structure, Factor characterizing the filter cake
respectively, reaching up to 10 permeability as derived from the
molecule diameters, i.e. about +Darcy equation.Typical alpha values
30x10-@ cm. This liquid cannot b e of cakes range from 10” m-2to 10l6m-*.
removed by mechanical means. They represent an integral mean over
the entire + cake thickness. Individual
Adsorbates alpha values can be estimated for

+ Adsorption instance by the + Karman & Kozeny
equation. However, it can be done
quantitatively only experimentally
Adsorption (+ Filtratesf).

An enrichment of gases and dissolved
substances (+ adsorbates) due to Ampholyfe
molecular forces (+ Van-der-W a d s Chemical compound,which can react
+
forces, electrostaticforces)at phase both as an acid or a base, for instance
boundaries, e.g. a solid surface aluminum hydroxide. or amino acids.
(adsorbens) or a liquid surface. The
larger the interface the more can be
adsorbed. The adsorption is normally
limited to a mono-molecular surface Chemical compounds behave in an
layer. An adsorption process is usually amphoteric manner when they
accompanied by a release of energy respond against stronger acids as
(adsorption energy). The so-called bases, or against stronger bases as
adsorption isotherm correlates the acids; e.g. oxides and hydroxides of
concentration of adsorbate in the fiuid aluminum, zinc or lead, or amino acids.
around the boundary with the amount
already adsorbed.
Anaphoresis
Agglomerate + Electrophoresis
Binding of solid particles by adhesive
forces which in turn can be generated Angle of Wetting
+ +
by Van-der-Wmls forces, hydrogen + wetting + contactangle
bridges,or + cross-linking polyfneriCS,
such as +tlocculants.Agglomerates
formed like + flakes enhance the

2
Asymmetrical Membrane

Angular Press + Stokes' law can not readily b e

+
Special design of a double beltpress
applied.The dimensionless Archimedes
number (Ar) containingthe particle size
by the BELLMER company, featuring a x on the ordinate is plotted against the
+
vertical wedgezone (angle) after the Omega number (R) involving the
horizontally arranged pre-demoisturing settling velocity w, as follows:
or +draining zone. Subsequently, the
+ sludge is further demoistured by
pressing and shearing between the filter
belts as they are guided around rollers.

where g = earth's gravitational
Anion
acceleration, x = particle diameter,
A molecule with either a single or multi- p, = solids density, pL= liquid density,
ple negative charge. Salts can v = kinematic viscosity. Starting with a
dissociate in a solution into anions and particle diameter x. the Ar number is
positively charged + cations. In an calculated and the R number is read
electrolyte, anions travel to the positive from the diagram, from which the
terminal under the application of a settling velocity can be calculated.
direct current. Anionic + flocculaffon
agents or anionic + tensides carry
Armored Braid
functional groups with a negative
charge. 3 Lace Weave

Apex Nozzle Asymmetrical Membrane
Discharge outlet located at the bottom Type of + membrane wlth an
of a cyclone with either fixed or asymmetric pore structure across its
adjustable cross section. The apex thickness. Generally, the smallest pore
nozzle generally allows a much smaller +
size structure is facing the suspension
volume stream than the fiow of +
fines while the larger pores face the
that is discharged through the +vortex + permeate.AsymmetricaI membranes
finder at the top of the cyclone. are preferably employed in + ultra-
filtration.The fine pore size membrane
should be minimized in thickness to
Archimedes Number
reduce flow resistance; a coarse pore
.) Archimedes-Omega Diagram size membrane layer serves as
mechanical support underneath.
Alchimedes-Omega Diagram
Diagram used for estimating the
.) seffling velocify of particles in
+ +
sedlmenfaffonwhen the Reynolds
Number is unknown and therefore

3
Automatic Filter

Automutic Filter
Solid-liquid separation apparatus
employing candle-shaped sieves that
are cleaned in-place by periodic
+ back flushing, or with a mechanical
device.

Automatic Filter Press
+ Press filter
Autopress
Special plate filter press by the BHS
company, featuring a compressible
plate packing and hermetic closure of
the system with a membrane around
the plate package.

Auxiliur y Luyer Filtration
+ Precoat-Filtration
Axiul Control Heud
+ ControlHead

4
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Bag Filter

Back Cloth to a 3 frame filferpresswith slot-shaped
suction devices that are moved
A robust coarse mesh cloth placed periodically through the filter chambers
between the filter cloth and the cell to to back flush gel-like or soft substances
prevent deformation of the cell insert from the media.
under differential pressure which
otherwise can increase wear and
produce irregular cake formation. Backing Fabric
3 Back Cloth
Back Flushing
Technique for the cleaning of 3 filter Bacteria Retaining Test
mediaor filter section of a 3 depfh filter, With a bacteria-retainingtest, the germ
initiated when a preset pressure drop load limit of a microfiltration membrane
through the filter cake is attained. can be established for the + deger-
minuting filtration.A known area of a
Back Flushing Filtration porous + membrane is coated with a
suspension of test germs and the
is employed in 3 surface lilters for the
number ratio of the organism in the
separation of difficult to filter materials.
starting solution and in the filtrate is
determined (titer reduction). A
capacity of l o 7 germs /cm2 is the
minimum for a 3 filter medium to be
called a 3 sterilizing filter (test germ:
pseudomonas diminuta).

Bag Filter
Bag filters belong to the discontinuously
working 3 cake filters. A filter bag,
hanging in a perforatedsupport basket,
is fed with a pressurized 3 suspension
BOKELA RSF back flush f i k r with periodically or and the 3 filtrate is collected in the
permanently working reject shoe
containing pressure tank from which it
exits.When the bag is full with solids or if
A novel variant representsthe patented an upper pressure loss is reached the
BOKELA RSF back flush filter that is similar solids are often disposed of together

5
Burometric Leg

with the filter bag. Generally, bag filters the product to be separated. A con-
are employed to clean up liquids with tinuous manner of operation can be
low contamination. Parallel bag filters realized by a time-delayed parallel
are often set up in large units to pattern of discontinuously working
increase + throughput or to operate machines.
continually.
Butch Process
Burometric Leg Discontinuously operating + batch -
Attachment at continuous 9 wcuum wise separation.
fiibrs to discharge the filtrate from the
vacuum system without the need of a
+filtrate pump. It is a dip tube that
Beuker Centrifuge
when completely filled with filtrate and Discontinuously working + centrifuge,
immersed deep enough into the filtrate used mainly in the laboratory for
pool equalizes with its suction pressure + design experiments,for preparative
the vacuum applied on the filter. purposes, or for preparing small and
Additionally produced filtrate can difficult to separate product quantities,
therefore drain off freely through the e.g. in biotechnology. Beaker centri-
lower outlet. The installation of a fuges with a horizontally rotating axis
barometric leg requires a sufficient feature beakers rigidly mounted to the
overhead height, e.g. at least 8m to rotor. In those with a vertical axis, the
produce a vacuum of 0.8 bar. beakers are mounted vertically on a
pivoting joint at the end of the rotor,and
only move under the influence of the
Busket Weave centrifugal force into a horizontal pla-
+ Wain Weave ne. The beakers can b e equipped
+ +
either for sedimentallonor filtration.
Beaker centrifuges offer only very small
Butch Sepurution filter areas of a few square centimeters
+ Batchwise Separation but can be accelerated up to 10,OOOg.
The warming up of bucket and product
caused by the air friction at high
Butchwise Sepurution numbers of revolutions and long
Discontinuous processing of a given + centrifugation times, can b e
quantity of suspension. During the controlled in+ cooling centrifuges,A
batchwise separation the individual special design of the beaker centrifuge
steps of the separation process,such as +
is the iong arm centrifuge.
+ +
cake formation, cake washing, or
+ cuke demoisturjng are not synchro-
Belt Control
nized with each other and are
independently and individually ad- Attachment in continuous filter
justable. In this manner one is flexible +
machines with circulating filtermedia
to meet the specific requirements of to ensure straightness.It usually consists

6
Blaine Number

of a sensor for registering lateral belt B8dOniteS
deflections and a deflection roller
are clay minerals(hydrous silicate of Mg
correcting the belt position.Belt controls
+ +
are used in belt filters, drum filters and Al; main constituent mont-
with + leaving filter belt + sieve belt morillonite) with a high capacity for
+
+
presses, and press filter machines.
swelling and adsorption.Bentonites
are employed among other uses in the
clarificationof beverages as well as the
Belt Filter de-colorization of oils and fats from
Continuously or quasi-continuously animal and vegetable sources.
operating, horizontal + vacuum filter.
Belt filters are offered with filter areas Betu Vulue
ranging from 1m2up to over 100m2.They
The Beta value is a frequently used term
occupy large floor spaces and are
relatively expensive comparedto other for the + filter cloth resistance. It can
continuously working vacuum filters. be established on the basis of
They are especially suited for easy permeation experiments with a
particle-free liquid. or directly from a
filtering products that require an inten-
+
sive cake washing,since the washing + filter experiment via the + Darcy
medium can be applied on the filter Equation.
cake from the top as a pool. The field
of applicationsof belt filters is extremely Binding
broad and reaches across many
Type of crossing of weft and warp
industries from chemicals to mineral
threads in a + weave. One classifies
processing I

three basic bindings: +
linen or plain
weave, +twill weave and +
satin
Belt Filter with Reversing weave.
Vucuum Truys
+ Vacuum belt filter with periodically Blude
interrupted + vacuum,in order to either 9 Knife
advance the +filter medium a step, or
to retract the filtrate suction trays, that
are roller-mounted below the filter Bluine Number
medium, by one step. The ability to cut measures according to the Blaine
the vacuum eliminates in these filters procedurethe volume- or mass- based
the need for a dragging seal and a surface of a granular substance.The
circulating carrier belt. However, they principle of the Blaine measurement is
consume more energy due to the based on the gas permeation of a
periodic cell ventilation. specified tablet manufactured of the
solid to b e investigated, and the
evaluation of pressure-dependent gas
Belt Press
volume flow according to the
+ Double-Belt Press
7
Blinding

3 Carman & Kozeny-equation. The improve its filterability. Generally, they
density of the solids, the 3 poroslty of consist of fibrous or granular substances,
the briquette, the pressure applied, the which open up the pore structure of the
volumetric flow rate of the gas, and its developing 3 filter cake and thus
3 viscosity all have to be known. It is increase its 3 permeability. It can also
important to recognize that with this be a coarse fraction of the solids
measurement only the outer, wetted already in the suspension called a
surface of the particles is taken into supporting grain. Body-feed filtration is
account, and that the numerical value an alternative to 3 precwt filtration; it
obtained has to be understood less as is employed in vacuum as well as in
an absolute value but more for 3 overpressure filtersand 3 press fi/ters.
comparing different kinds of solids. In
mineral processing, for example, the
Bond Curve
Blaine Number correlates with the
filterability of a suspension.Thusa Blaine Special interpretationof the 3 capillary
number of 2000 cm-' characterizes a curve, frequently applied in centri-
product principally well suited for fugation to characterize the 3 product
vacuum filtration. moisture that can be attained when
the forces are at equilibrium.Theplot of
a Bond curve shows the moisture,
Blinding expressed as the 3 saturation degree
The progressive clogging of the or the 3 residual moisture. against the
3 pores in a 3lllter medium with 3 Bond number, which is the ratio of
particles from the 3 suspension. The the respective forces expelling and
free cross-sectional flow area retaining the pore liquid. A Bond curve
decreases through particles pene- fails into four characteristic sections.The
trating the pore structure of the filter first describes the conditions before
medium, and consequently its reachingthe 3 capillary entry pressure,
.) pressure loss increases. If a critical the second the region where the
blockage value is exceeded and the capillary rise still exists, the third is the
filter medium cannot be regenerated so-called 3 Bond plateau, and the last
it has to be replaced. refers to the 3 demoisturing of inter-
stitial liquid.

Blockage
Clogging of the 3 pores of a 3 filter
medium by particles that penetrateout
of the 3 suspension into its structure.

Body-Feed Filtration
Special type of +cake filtration utilizing
a filter aid that is admixed to the I Log Bond number 1-1
3 suspension to b e processed to Bond Curve
Boozer Filter

Bond Number Boozer Filter
A non-dimensional characteristic num- A high performance type of 3 disc filter
ber in centrifugationdescribing the ra- of the BOKELA company. These
tio of the forces expelling and retaining continuously working 3 vacuum filters
the pore liquid, respectively.The Bond are especially suited for large
number is displayed together with throughput performance, obtained by
the 3 residual moisture in the optimizing design and process know-
3 Bondcurve. Different Bond numbers how.Contrary to standard disc filters the
Bo can be defined for the 3 coarse Boozer filter can rotate even at 5 rpm
capillary system and for the region of due to the excellent hydraulic
the 3 interstitial water. characteristics leading to a significantly
Bo, is valid for the region of the coarse increased throughput performance,
capillary liquid: The Boozer belongs to the BOKELA
rotary vacuum filter family consisting of
+disc filters, 3 drum filters and 3 pan
Bo, = dhh' PI SC
yl. cos s filterswhich are of an innovative design
and represent a new generation of
d , 3 hydraulic pore diameter, hi rotary filters.
3 cake thickness,pL3 liquid density,g
3 earth's acceleration,C 3 C-value,yL
3 surface tension and 6 3 wetting
angle.
In the region of the 3 interstitial liquid
the Bond, number is valid:

Bond Plarteuu
Special section of the 3 Bond curve
where the freely flowing capillary liquid
in coarse pores has been completely
removed from the 3 bulk whereas
3 interstitial liquid, 3 adhesive liquid,
and 3 inner liquid still are remaining.
Depending on the 3 surface roughness
of granular solids, the Bond plateau is
flat for smooth particles, and it declines
for rougher particles towards a lower
residual moisture with increasing Bond BOKEIA Boozerdlsc Wer(L-typewith 2 discs and
numbers. 80 m2fllter area)

9
BoHleneck

generally so large that a considerable
share of the particles to be separated
A narrowing in a flow conduit that
could principally traverse through them.
limits the throughput of a separation
+
Therefore.depending on the suspen-
machine.Such constrictionsoften result
+
from undersized filtrate pipes.
+
sion concentraHonas well as ff/htion
pressure,solid particle bridges have to
be built across the pores of the filter
Bowl Filter +
medium in the first phase of the cake
Continuously working + vacuum filter
formation. These bridges by themselves
act then as a filter medium and can
with a circular, horizontally segmented
+ fi/fersurlace.Thebowl filter differsfrom
retain extensively the subsequently
+
the similar looking table filter by the
entering solids.Bridging thereby directly
influences the rate controlling + filter
fact that the outer flange is flrmly
cloth resistance.
attached to the filter disc and rotates
with it. The demoistured + filter cake
has to be lifted over the flange with a Browniun Motion
+
special discharge screw.This type of Stochastic movement of extremely
solids discharge requires that a
protecting product layer has to remain
+
small particles in suspensionscaused

+
on the filter medium.The bowl filter is
by impacts from surrounding liquid
molecules. Brownian motion is
specially suited for coarse crystalline especially of relevance in the particle
and rapidly settling materials, e.g. fine size region below 1 pm.Thusfor example
sands, or aluminum hydrates. in + gravity sedimentation particles
with below approx.0.5pm diameter do
Breuthing Filter Curtridge not settle in water due to the Brownian
Special filter cartridge development by
+
motion and thermal convection but
instead remain suspended.
the Brieden company on the basis of a
+ wedge wire filter whose filter
openings can be widened during back Brutsuert Equution
flushing to remove stuck particles. Approximation for describing the relati-
+
ve liquidpermeability P,~,,~ +
of filter
Bridge luyer +
cakes, defined according to Wyckoff
& Bofset, as a function of the relative
Thin layer of particles generated in the
first phase of + cake formation
+ saturation degree S. The saturation
+
producing bridgingacross the pores
degree herein refers to the region
+
of a filter medium.
accessible for mechanicaldemoisturing
and therefore excludes the +
residual
saturation S,:
Bridging
The pore openings of many +filter
media used in +
cake filtration are

10
Bulk Density

The exponent n in this exponential designated for air blowing at low
equation depends on the product and pressure from the inside of the filter cell
has to be determined by measure- through the filter medium. The air blow
ments. At each 3 saturation degree S creates strong turbulences and loosens
the equation describes the relative up contaminants in the 3 pores and
portion of the total permeability of the on the surface of the filter medium.
filter cake that is available during
demoisturing for liquid flow in com-
petitionto the co-currently flowing gas.
Buchner Funnel
Simple 3 vucuum filter device for
laboratory use, often manufactured of
Bubble Point china or glass, with filter areas of a few
Term originating from the pore size cm2up to several 100cm2.The Buchner
analysis of + filter medlo. The bubble funnel is generally circular and has a flat
point characterizes the largest 3 pore filter support that is covered with filter
in a filter medium. A filter medium paper as a 3 filter medium. The
completely wetted with a liquid of 3 suspension to be separated is poured
known surface tension yL, is subjected from above into the open funnel and
to a gas pressure on one side which is filtrates into the direction of gravity.
increased in steps. As soon as the Often a water jet pump below serves
3 capillary pressure p, of the largest as a vacuum generator.
pore is exceeded, the first gas bubble
breaks through the medium. From this
bubble point pressure the diameter of
Bucket Centrifuge
a circular capillary of the same pressure 3 beuker centrifuge
can be calculated with the 3 Lupluce-
equation,thus defining a pora s i z e
Bulk
Discrete. disperse aggregate of
d 4Y
=1 .
particles, touching bodily and forming
hp Ap a porous 1ayer.A bulk can develop due
to 3 filtration or 3 sedimentation;one
The measuring technique is simple, taiksabouta3 filtercukeora 3 sedi-
quick and physically definite and ment depending on how they are
applicable in the pore size region formed.
between 0.1 and 1OOpm.

Bulk Density
Bubbling Zone
The mean specific density p, of a
Special facility in 3 drum filters for 3 bulk. calculated from the density of
regenerating and cleaning of the the solids psand the density of the fluid
3 filter medium.A small section in the
+ control head of the filter at the
pL in the voids, according to their
respective volume fractions (3porosify
immersion point of the 3 filter cell is E) :

11
Bulk Material

with a force component on its surface
per-pendicular to the flow direction.

If the fluid is gaseous, the gas density
can be neglected compared to the By-pass
solids density and the bulk density results A branching off of a partial flow from
in: the main flow; e.g. for collecting
samples or for a measurement. Unde-
P,” = P A -4 sired by-passes can appear through
leaks in pipelines or after + crack for-
Bulk Material
mafion in + f i b r cakes. In the latter
flows of unutillzed washing liquid de-
+ Bulk velop during 3 cake washing or of
wasted gas during + cake demoi-
Bulk Multilayer Filter +
sturing.In vacuum fi/trafiona by-pass
can be employed for regulating the
Special form of + deep bed filter or filter pressure, where a controlled
+ packed bed fi/terwhere the active +
amount of secondary air is permitted
filter layer has at least two layers of dif- into the low-pressurezone.
ferent granularity arranged on top of
each other. Generally, the liquid to be
purified flows first through a coarser-
grained layer and then a more finely-
grained layer.Toavoid mixing of the dif-
ferent filter layer materials during back
rinsing or regenerating, a fine-grained
material of high density (e.g. sand) is
combined with a coarse-grained
material of lower density (e.g. filter
coke).Animportant applicationfield for
these filters is the water treatment.

Buoyancy
The static buoyancy of a particle
immersed in a fluid acts on the fluid
volume that is displaced by the particle
in opposition to the acceleration field
formed by the pressure gradients in the
fluid. The dynamic buoyancy occurs if
an asymmetric flow develops around
a particle due to its shape or if the
particle is rotating. It also acts due to
the asymmetrical pressure distribution
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Cake Formation Equation

Cuke Cuke Formution Angle
+ Filter Cake Angular sector available for cake
+ +
formation in a drum filter, disc filter,

Cuke Demoisturing
or + table filter. The cake formation
angle a,is connected by the number
+ Demoisfuring of revolutions n with the cake formation
time t. as follows:
Cuke Filtrution
is a surface filtration process repre-
senting the third basic filtration type,
beside + deep bed filtration and
3 crossflow filtration, respectively. Its A cake formation angle starts the
objective is to retain the solids in a +
earliest at the position where the filter
+ +
suspension as a bulk on the upper cell is completely immersed into the
side of a + fi/termedium. Both liquid or + suspension, and it ends obviously
solids can principally be the desired where the cell emerges out of the
product. Cake filtration requires a suspension.
certain critical solids concentration in
the feed to build a +bridge layer Cuke Formution Equution
across the + pores of the + filter
Relation for the description of the filter
medium,which then acts as the active
filter medium. The driving potential for cake formation derived by combining
the cake filtration can be a gas diffe- the 3 Darcy equation with a mass
rential pressure, a mechanical or balance.For constant filtration pressure
hydraulic pressing power, or a centri- the following expression applies:
fugal pressure. Hence the spectrum
of cake filtration equipment is wide.The
cake filtration allows + washing of
the + bulk and its mechanical de-
moisturing after the cake formation
process.Theformation of filter cakes can For constant feed flow rate it has the
+
be described by the cake formation form below:
equation.

13
hc= cake thickness, r, = specific cake predetermined pressure and measuring
resistance, Rm = filter cloth resistance, the rate. From the resulting two
IC = +Kappa-Facfor, Ap = pressure equations the filter cloth resistance can
difference, t, = cake formation time, be eliminated. Normally, the cake
A = filter area, qL= dynamic viscosity resistance is determined directly by the
+ f/V=f(V)-mefhod.

0 /
Cake thickness
c
v)
v)
/
/
+
as producedby cake fiifration equip-
a, / ment can range from a few mm up to
c /
1m height.Both filterability of the 3 sus-
Y

rl
/
.-
V / pension and design features play
/
importantparts.The cake thickness can
/
a,
Y / be described with the 3 cake foma-
fion equation.

Cake Washing
Cake formation t i m e 6
Method for the removal of + mother
/iquor and dissolved substances from a
Cake thickness as function of cake formation
time + filter cake with a liquid. mostly
miscible with the + mother /iquor.One
+
differentiatesbetween displacement
Cake Permeability washing and + dilution washing; the
The cake permeability p, is the latter involves re-suspending of the filter
reciprocal of the +
cake resistance r,: cake in the wash liquor.Quality criteria
for displacement washing are a high
p, = -
1
+ wash degree, and low consumption
rc of wash liquid which can be expressed
by the 3 wash mflo.
The cake permeability is quoted in the
unit +
Darcy [ern?. It can be directly
determined by means of the f/V= + Calendering
f(V)-mefhodfrom a filter experiment. is a thermal-mechanical surface
treatment process for smoothening of

Cake Resistance
woven surfaces. A +wmve made of
thermally workable material is treated
Specific permeation resistance rcofthe with pressure in a calender roller to give
+ filter cake. It is independent of the a smooth surface to a +
iilfer medium.
cake thickness and can be directly which for example facilitates cake
determined via +
Darcy’s law by discharge. It should be noted that the
flowing a particle-free liquid through +
resulting pore size of the filter surface
two filter cakes of different heights at a is decreased by calendering.

14
Capillary Diameter

Candle Filter CAP is continuously pressed out
betweentwo sieve belts on a press roller.
Discontinuouslyworking filter equipment At area pressures of up to 30bar it is
designed as either +cake filter or used for example to produce paper
d deep bed fflter. Often, cylindrically slurries.
shaped filter elements are manifolded
together in large number in a pressure
tank to house an economically reason- Capillarity
able + filter area in a given vessel The behavior of liquids caused b y
volume. Candles covered with a fi/ter + + interfacial tension.
cloth are applied in conventional
d cake filtration or in +
precoat fil-
Capillary
tration.They can discharge a dry cake
after gas pressure demoisturing or a (fr. L capillaris: hair). Fine pore channel
highly thickened +suspension after in a porous + bulk or in a + filter
dropping it in the surrounding heel (e.g. medium.
+ Fundabac filter). if candle filters are
employed as deep bed filters they
serve the purificationof liquids polluted Capillary Belt Filter
with small amounts of contaminants. So- Filter machine in which the liquid flows
called + rolled candles and elements out of a + bulk materia/ through the
made from sintered materials are also +
openings of a vibratingscreenwhere
employed in candle filters. it is received by an absorbing belt
underneath, circulating against the
solids transport direction.The absorbent
Candle Press Filter
medium is then squeezed betweentwo
+
Specialtype of membrane fflterpress, press rollers and available again for a
at which the press membrane is liquid intake upon return.
arranged in a circuiar, cylindrical
manner around a + filter candle. This
Capillary Condensation
special design variant allows pressing
forces of considerably exceeding denotes liquefaction of vapors in fine
1OObar; it is used in extremely difficult to + pores (+ capillaries)of a porous so-
filter products, e.g, in the field of bio- lid material. There is a strong physical
technology. relationship between the +capillary
pressure in such a pore and the relati-
ve humidity in the surrounding gas
C.A.R
Dhase.
The Continuous Area Press of the
BOKELA company represents a con-
tinuously working post-demoisturing Capillary Diameter
+
machine for compressible sludges + is an + equivalent diameter dcapfor
that are pre-demoistured. The feed +
circular and cylindrical capillariesas
after spreading to uniform height in the +
determined by the Laplace equation

15
Cupillarry Entry Pressure

from a + capillary pressure p,: larger density. Therefore, the capillary
pressure of a liquid droplet in a gaseous
4y,* cos 6 environ-ment is negative, whereas the
dcap= capillary pressure of a gas bubble in a
P C
liquid would be positive.
y = interfacial tension, 6 = wetting angle.
This value is derived from a + Bubble Capillary Pressure Curve
Point Test.
is a function that describes the
+ capillary pressure distribution within
Capillary Entry Pressure a + bulk due to the underlying pore
+
size distributlon via caplllarypressure
As capillary pressure is indirectly propor-
tional to the diameter of a + capillary, +
against SufuraHon degree.This func-
the pressure of the largest capillary in tion defines what minimum saturation
the + bulk that bubbles first is called degree can be reached at equilibrium
for each pressure difference that is
the capillary entry pressure.This is the
minimum gas pressure to be applied +
constantly applled on the bulk from
from the outside to demoisture the the outside.
largest capillaries.

Capillary Liquid
denotes in general the liquid contained
+
in the poresof the +
bulk which are
hydraulically connected to each other
and thus accessible to mechanical
demoisturing (+ coarse capillary li-
quid).

Capillary Module
+ Hollow Fiber Module
Caplllory Pressure Curve
Capillary Pressure
is the + pressure difference across a Special values of the capillary pressure
c ur ve d ga s- Iiq uid phase bound a r y, curve are the +capillary enfrypressure
which is compensated by the +
inter- and the + remanent saturation. The
facial tension. The capillary pressure in capillary pressure curve can be
+ +
the pores of a filter cake holds the determined for an applied gas
liquid in it.A capillary pressure can have difference pressure or for a centrifugal
positive or negative values.Accordingly, field; both measurements results should
a capillary pressure is positive if a lower be theoretically the same.Thecapillary
pressure exists in the phase with the pressure curve in homogeneous

16
Cell Insert

3 bulks does not depend on the precisely by a calibration measurement.
physical height of the +
bulk. The equation emphasizes the strong
influence porosity has on the per-
meability of 3 bulkmaferials. A similarly
Capillary Pressure Distribution structured relation is given by the
3 Capillary Pressure Curve + Gupfe-Equation.

Capillary Rise Cataphoresis
Height of a liquid column in a wetted + Electrophoresis
3 capillary or in a +
bulk. adjusting
itself against the hydrostatic pressure
in equilibrium:
Cation
A positively charged ion in a solution
+
(comp. anion)

Caulking Thread
y = interfacial tension. 6 =wetting angle, used for fastening the + filfer cloth on
p,= capillary pressure,g = gravitational the cells of a + drum IIMer. For this the
acceleration, pL = liquid density, +
filter cloth is wrapped around the filter
dcap= capillary diameter cellwith the aid of the caulking thread
in dovetail grooves.
Capillary Suction Draught
+ Capillary Pressure Cell
3 Filfer Cell
Cafman & Kozeny-Equation
is used to quantify the permeation Cell Belt Filter
+
velocity v in bulk solids analogous to + Tray Belf Filter
+ Darcy’s law, however, it explicitly
describes the influences,respectively,of
the porosity F, the volume specific solids Cell Drum Filter
surface S,, the fluid viscosity qLthe driving + Drum Filter
pressure difference Ap, and the filter
layer thickness h,:
Cell Foot
Transitional section of a + filtercellin a
+ disc filfer into the 3 filfrafe pipe.

The value of k(E) is constant at around 4 Cell Insert
in the porosity region of 0.3 5 E < 0.65 in Structure, usually made of plastic, to
the equation.k(E) has to be determined

17
Cell less Drum Filter

stabilize the cells interior against the lative to the drum.The separation con-
acting differential pressure and to ditions have to be adjusted in such a
simultaneously enhance 3 filfrute manner that the heavy solids settling out
drulnage. Cell inserts have different of the 3 suspension can be conveyed
geometric shapes in order to optimize and discharged in one direction while
mechanical stability, costs, and light solids floating up in the suspension
3 permeability.respectively. liquid in the other dlrection. The main
field of application is for sorting of
plastics.
Cell Less Drum Filter
3 Drum filter with a non-partitioned
interior that is completely exposed to a
Centrate
3 vacuum.For the cake removal a so- Cleared liquid evolving from a
called control shoe with sllding seals is 3 centrifuge.
pushed in the removal zone against the
drum's Inner wall for cake removal by
Centridry
3 compressed alr buckpulse. The
3 filtrate in turn is withdrawn from the Process from the KHD company for
base of the drum's internal space by a complete drying of sludges. A combi-
filtrate suction pipe. nation of 3 cenfripress + decanfer
cenfrlfuge, conceived for maximum
mechanical demoisturlng, and a ther-
Cellulose mal flow dryer. A predemoistured
3 Filfer aid manufactured from coni- sludge ejected from the centrifuge
ferous or deciduous trees, or other re- discharge at a high kinetic energy is
newable resources(e.g.3 Rebecel)by finely dispersed in a hot gas stream and
cooking, bleaching, and grinding. Cel- thermally dryed in an extremely short
lulose is often offered as mixture with period of time. The main applications
3 diatomaceous earftr. are waste sludges.

Celtic-Weave Centrifugal Extractor
3 Plain Weave Special design of a 3 disc stuck se-
parofor, used for the separation of two
immiscible liquidswith different densities.
Censor The heavy phase is discharged with a
Special development of a 3 decunfer 3 peeling disc by adding extraction
centrifuge b y the KHD company for agents into the mixing chamber. A
separating solids with different densities. complete and spontaneous mixing of
The centrifuge rotor has a double the extraction agent is achieved
conical shaped drum and a trans- through the peeling disc.
porting conveyor screw, that transports
from middle in both directions. This
screw turns with a differential speed re-

18
Centrifuge Rotor

Centrifugal Filter Centrifugal Value
Filter centrifuge with a perforated 3 C-value
3 drum that is covered with a 3 filter
medium. Centrifugal filters can de-
Centrifugution
moisture cake solids to a great extent
by removal of the fluids that are held Solid-liquid or liquid-liquid separation
by capillary forces, and can produce a process in a 3 centrifuge.
free-flowing solid product.
CentrifugutionSuperimposed
Centrifugal force by Overpressure
A particle in circular motion strives to Design of 3 siphon peeler centrifuges
leave the circle in the direction of the (Krauss-Maffei company) as well as in
tangent to its path accordingto the law 3 inverting filter centrifuges (Heinkel
of inertia. A force has to be exercised company), where the interior space of
on it constantly, pointing to the center the drum is put under a gas over-
of the circle, called the centripetal pressure, so that during the 3 filtration
force. According to the counter effect not only the centrifugal pressure but
principle the centrifugal force also a Qaspressure is utilized.Beneficial
corresponds to this as an oppositely for products with a high 3 capillaryrise
directed, equal-sizedforce. It represents of the cake water. Overpressures of up
the inertial resistance with which the to 6 bar are applied.
moving particle opposes the constant
change of the direction of its path.
Centrifuge
Rotating separation apparatus em-
Centrifugal Machine ploying centrifugal forces as driving
3 Centrifuge potential. Mass forces are produced
that act both on the particles to be
separated as well as on the liquid
Centrifugal Mixer
contained in the centrifuge. Centrifuges
A rotating mixing chamber fed centrally are used for 3 sedimentation and
through concentric pipes with liquid 3 filtration.The range of 3 C-values in
components and equipped with a commercial centrifuges starts in the low
stationary + peeling disc for the 100’s and can go up to several 10,000.
discharge of the mixed liquid.

Centrifuge Rotor
Centrifugal Time
The machine component of a 3 centri-
Residence time of solids to be se- fuge in which a separation process is
parated out of a 3 suspension in the performed at high speeds by 3 sedi-
process chamber of a 3 centrifuge. mentation or 3 filtration.

19
Centrifuge Value

Centrifuge Value BOKELA company for filtration and
sedimentation experiments. It is a
3 C-value + quick sfarf cenfrifuge for C-values
between 0 and 6,0009 with a rotor
Centripetal Force diameter of 580mm.The kinetic course
as well as the equilibrium states in
3 Cenfrifugal Force
separations can be monitored with
telemetric data transfer and a com-
Centripetal Pump puter-aided data analysis. Optionally,
the centrifugation can be super-
3 Peeling Disc
imposed by a pressure filtration, either
with a gas pressure difference of up to
Centripress 7 bar or by a steam pressure filtration.
3 Decanter centrifuge developed by
As a 3 quick sfart centrifuge the
Centritest is also well suited for the scale-
the KHD company for maximal sludge
demoisturing. A high pressing of the up of continuous working screen centri-
fuges with a very short residence time
sludge Is achleved in this centrifuge by
specially high damming of the sludge of the product.
bed and a special design of the 3 con-
veyor screw.This mode of operating a
decanter centrifuge necessitates
producing extremely high 3 forques,
which in turn requires special gears and
drives. It also applies for comparable
machines of other manufacturers.Main
application for this type of centrifuge is
processingof municipal sewage sludge.

Centrisizer
3 Decanter centrifuge developed by BOKEL4 Cenfrltesf
the KHD company for 3 classifying a
3 suspension into two grain fractions. Ceramic Disc Filter
This centrifuge dischargesboth fractions
A continuously operating vacuum filter
in sludge forms through nozzles to
by the OUTOMEC company based on
minimize any turbulence in the
a 3 disc filter.In place of conventional
processing space, which would other-
wise reduce the + separation selec-
3 filter cells the filter elements are
ceramic plates filtering on both sides.
w. The microporous filter plates have
approx. 1 pm pore size, are each several
Centritest mm thick, and therefore impose a high
+ laboratory beaker centrifugeof the flow resistancethat controls the filtration
process. The minute pore width is ad-
Clarifying

vantageous for producing 3 filtrates can be that residualvolume filtration will
free of particles and without gas flow in not be possible, if the suspension feed
the vacuum region. The 3 capillary stops when the chambers filling has not
pressure of the 3 hydrophilk ceramic been completed. In this regard the
media is larger than the applied 3 membrane fflfer presses are clearly
3 pressure difference, so that the at an advantage.
d pores remain always wetted.
Chunneling
Chuin Assisted Cake Removal Phenomenon observed during sedi- +
Special type of filter cake removal in mentation of particles in the region of
3 drum filters where parallel running + swarm sedimentation. At certain
chains or strings (string assisted cake concentrations ( 3 intermediary sus-
removal) are guided around the filter pensions) hydrodynamic instabilities
drum and are led away from the drum can occur that form particle-freeliquid
in the cake removal sector.Following a channels parallel to the sedimentation
sharp deflection by a roller system the direction. Similar effects are known for
chains are routed back to the drum.The the flow through fluidized beds.
d filter cake consisting of mostly fibrous
solid particles builds up around the
chains.Thereforethe cake Is picked up
Churcoul
in the removal sector of the drum by + Activated Carbon
the chains like a d fleeceand is thrown
off at the sharp chain deflection. Chemisorption
d Adsorption
Chumber Filter Press
The most common design variant of the
Chitosan
+ filter press filter where two
neighboring filter plates with a one- Food-suitable d flocculation agent
sided cavity face each other to form produced from shells of crustaceans.
a filter chamber. The 3 filter medium
is stretched over each plate and is Circulur Thickener
pressed into the chamber during the
process.Thedischarge of the cake from 3 gravify thickener
chamber filter pressescan be executed
far more beneficially and simpler than Cluriiying
from 3 frame filter presses. However,
since the cake discharges due to its has the process-related objective of
weight by dropping out of the removing solid particles or 3 colloids,
chambers, a certain cake thickness of respectively, from a liquid b y 3 sedi-
several centimeters is required, which mentation or 3 filfration.
tends to lengthen the cycle. In addition
to this disadvantage, a further problem

21
Clarifying Filtration

C/arifyingFl/tration the separated liquid is taken off with
an overflow.
is defined as the complete separation
of all particles from a dilute suspension
(e.g. beverage), most frequently done Clear Run
by + deep bed fihation. Phase in the + cake filtration process
after the formation of solid bridges over
C/ar/tyingSeparator the + pores of the + filter medium
+
when the solidslossends and a clear
Special design of a + disc stack se- + filtrate begins to flow.
parator for separating solid particles
+
and liquids.Herein the discpackage
+
does not contain any risingchannels, Clogging Layer
as in the disc stack separators, which Phenomenon in the + cake filtration
are conceivedfor the separation of two under the influence of gravitational or
non-miscible liquids with different centrifugal forces, observed as a
densities and potentially solids, too. partition of the +suspension with re-
Clarifying separators are designed with spect to its + particle size. The larger
respect to the feed solids content as solid particles settle quickly on the
+ +
nozzle-type separators or as self- +
3 fi/termediumaccordingto Stokes’
cleaning separators.They are able to law, whereas the smaller particles are
+
reach C-voluesof more than 15,000 deposited later on the cake surface
+
and have equivalent clarifyingareas forming a so-called clogging layer.
of up to 100,000 m2 Clarifying Separa- Often, this clogging layer is highly imper-
tors are employed for the separation of meable and it will then increase the
extremely small particles down to the + capillary entry pressure and thus the
sub-pm region. + residual moisture of the resulting
+ filter cake.
Clussifying
Separation of a particle collective into
+ +
fractions of different particle sizes. + Critical Micelle Concentration
+ Micelles
Clear Liquid
commonly refers to the overflow of Coagulation
+ gravity thickeners with as few + Agglomeration of fine-grained
particles as possible. particles by the + destabillzafion of a
+ suspension, due to a change in the
ionic make-up, which leads to a
Clear Liquid Zone
dominance of the attracting +Van-
Nearly particle-freezone developing in der- Wads forces.
the upper section of a sedimentation
tank (9 gravity thickeneo,from where

22
Colloid

Coarse Capillary to shrinking.

3 Coarse Capillary Liquid
Cocurrent Flow Decanter
Coarse Capillary liquid Special flow distribution of the centrate
in a 3 decanter centrifuge.The feed
is defined as the major portion of liquid 3 suspension enters at the cylindrical
in a saturated 3 bulk that is held end of the centrifuge, so that solids and
between the particles in hydraulically
3 cenfrafecan move together towards
inter-connected voids. The coarse
the conical end. From there the cent-
capillary liquid is readily accessible to rate is returned by channels attached
mechanical demoisturing by gas diffe- along the structure of the +transport
rential or centrifugal pressure.Beside the screw for discharge from the cylindrical
coarse capillary system exists also a
end. The purpose for this design is to
3 fine capillary system.
disturb the settling process of the solids
as little as possible. It affords readily a
Coarse Capillary System high separation degree, i.e.avery clear
centrate, with solids that tend to get re-
3 Coarse Capillary Liquid
suspended easily by eddies.

Coarse Material Co-current Washing
When a 3 suspension or a + bulk
is the simplest way of carrying out
material displaying a 3 particle size
+
distributionis separated into two frac-
3 displacement washing or 3 dilution
washing where the wash liquid is
tions of different grain size, the fraction
brought only once into contact with the
containing the larger ones is called the
particle system to be washed. This
coarse material.
method consumes more washing liquid
than 3 countercurrent washing. The
Coarse Screen latter, however, is not feasible with all
types of separation equipment. In
Equipment employed in sewage treat-
3 centrifugesfor example only the co-
ment for the screening of coarse par-
current washing method can be em-
ticles in the cm-size region, such as
ployed due to a lack of possibilities for
paper, wood, plant refuse, plastics. The
segregating the centrate.
screen is periodically cleaned off the
accumulateddebris with an automatic,
comb-like device. Coiled Candle
3 string- wound cartridge

Soaking of weaves in boiling water, Colloid
applied as pre-treatment, e.g. with
So-called colloidal disperse systems are
cotton fabrics to render them resistant
aggregates of molecules, comprised

23
Combination Arrangement

lo3 up to lop molecules; they would Compressed Air Blow Back
have a diameter of 10-7to 10-4cm if they
The energy source for detaching a
assumed a spherical shape. Colloids
assume an intermediate position 3 filter cake from a 3 fiifer clofh at the
between the molecular disperse and 3 solids discharge of 3 drum, 3 disc.
3 candle and 3 leaf filters. After
the coarsely disperse systems.They are
difficult to separate in stable 3 dis- demoisturing a sudden increase of
pressure is generated on the filtrate side
persions and cause turbidity in a
behind the 3 filter medium, in order to
separated 3 clear liquid.
break the cake up or cast it away. A
critical point with pressurized air blow
Combination Arrangement back is the potential for filtrate residues
In-series arranged solid-liquidseparation remaining in the cloth or in the -+ filter
machines for dividing the separation cell, which can consequently cause
process into sections of different liquid 3 re-moisfurizing of the filter cake.
content. A typical combination may
consist of a pre-thickener (e.g. static Compressibility
3 circular thickener).followed by a
mechanical demoisturing apparatus The property of a 3 bulk to decrease
(e.g.3 vacuum drum fiitei),and last, a its void space due to a load acting from
thermal drying step (e.g. spin flash- the outside. The dimensionless com-
dryer). Through proper serial combi- pressibility degree U is used to quantify
nation of separation equipment a compressibility. U relates the difference
desired separation can be technically between the original layer thickness L,
realized and at the same time eco- and a present layer thickness L to the
nomically optimized. maximum compression (L, 4). which
in turn is the difference between origi-
nal layer thickness L, and the layer
Composite Membrane thickness reachable at equilibrium L_:
3 Membmne consisting of at least two
different materials which are solidly
attached to each other. Composite
membranes are employed especially in
3 ultrafilfrafion which demands
extremelysmall membrane poresfor the Compression
material retention.Theyconsist of a flne
Process employed in solid-liquid
porous, very thin cover layer with high
separation technology for the 3 de-
flow resistance and a large-pored,
moisfuring of 9 bulk maferials, which
mechanically stable support layer
do not have a rigid pore matrix.The Ii-
underneath. 3 Weaves and 3 fleeces
quid is squeezed to the outside by
are often used as a support layer.
decreasing the pore volume, so that the
+dry substance content increases.
Compression is technically preferably
Condensate Front

+
achieved with the aid of press filters.
During + sedimentation, the de-
+
veloping bulk is furthermore subject
to compression by the acting mass
forces. Compression does not only
occur with elastic but also with rigid
particles.Thereare four different modes
Concentrute
of compression: first, the particles
approach each other; secondly, they Term used especially in the region of
glide past each other; third, further the + +
micro- and crossflow filtration
compression can be achieved to a for the resulting + suspension, after
certain extent by rearranging the +permeate is drained off through the
particles, and fourth, a particle fracture + membrune.Theconcentrate is in any
occurs. +
case still a free-flowing sludge.

Compression Luyer Concentrution
Term used in the field of +
sedimen- + Solids Content
tation. The compression layer in a
+ thickener defines the region where Condensute Front
the settled particles at the bottom of
the tank approach each other to such +
Phenomenomat the Steam Pressure
an extent that they are capable of Filtration on + Hi-Bar Fllters which
transferring mechanical forces among provides for excellent filter cake
each other.The sediment in this region demoisturing and filter cake washing. A
is compressed due to its weight. The condensate front is formed when a
higher the layer and the longer the time "cold" and saturated + filter cake
spent the stronger the compression, enters the hot atmosphere of
overheated or saturated steam in a
+ steam cabin. Then, the steam
Compression Work condenses on the surface of the cake
Energy W, which has to be applied for and the condensation enthalpy heats
the compression of a gas with the the cake surface up to the condensate
volume V,, (air) by the pressure p,,, temperature. While the pressurised
in order to generate and maintain a steam forces the + mother liquor and
pressure difference (Ap = pg2- p,,), the condensatethrough the cake, cold
necessary for vacuum or overpressure regions of the filter cake come in con-
filtration.It is calculated for an isentropic tact with steam and further condensate
change of state with the isentropic isformed.Thisleads to a sharply defined
coefficient K: and evenly developed condensate
front which moves through the cake as
a homogenous conden-sate layer
preventing a + fingeflng. Thereby,

25
Concentrution Polurizution

the mother liquor is displaced and the Contuct Angie
cake is completely heated up to the
temperature of the condensate. This The contact angle 6 characterizes the
mechanism combines heat and mass 3 wemngof solids by a liquid.One talks
transfer between filter cake and steam. about wetted conditions, if the contact
angle, measured always in the fluid
phase with a higher density, is < 90": is it
Concentrution Poiurizution > 90" one talks about non-wetted
Term out of the field of 3 crossflow conditions.
l9/tration.At the permeation of the filter
a convectivetransport of the materials Contuct Point Number
to be retained develops in the direction
of the membrane due to the Count of contact points a particle has
+ pressure dlfference across the with neighboring particles in a 3 bulk
material. In regular packages, exactly
membrane. In the course of this de-
defined in geometric terms, the contact
veloping concentration gradient, a
diffusive back transport into the core number is fixed.Thus a particlein densest
flow results. In the stationary case an possible sphere package possesses 12
equilibrium between these two pro- contact points to its neighboring
particles. The contact point number
cesses is reached.
influences the + bulk properties,
especially in the region where the liquid
is bound essentially only in the form of
The changing of the properties of a 3 liquid brldges. It influences the
+ +
suspension, a 3 sludge, or a filter +
3 tendle strength and the saturation
cake. Suspension conditioning is +
degree of the moist bulk.
defined as a pretreatment for the
improvement of the separation Contibuc
characteristics.Thiscan be for example
Special-design 3 candle filter by the
a 3 flocculation by addition of a poly-
DrM, Dr. Muller company for the quasi-
mer. The sludge conditioning can also
include an agglomeration process for continuous 3 fhlckenlng of difficult to
filter 3 suspensions of catalyst slurries,
the improvement of additional de-
molsturing steps. Slurries or + filter +
dilute solids, and crystals ( Fundabac
cakes can be conditioned with nlteo.
+ addltives, such as lime, to increase
their dry substance content as required Continuous Areu Press
for landfilling, for example.
+ C.A.F!
Consolidation Continuous Phuse
+ Compresslon In a mixture out of solids and liquid for
example one of both substances re-

26
Conveyer Screw

+
presents depending on the concen- zone, + compressed air blow back
trationthe continuous and the other the zone, cloth cleaning zone).
+
discontinuous or disperse phase.The
continuous phase is connected to-
gether and encloses the discontinuous
Control Heud
phase. in a + suspension the liquid Interface between the stationary and
presents the continuous phase, whereas the rotating part during the draining off
the dispersed solids forms the dis- of flltrate at + rotary filters. A control
continuous phase. By comparison at a head is divided into different control
+ filter cake the connected solids zones, in order to adjust independently
structure forms the continuous phase and separately from each other the
and the liquid is distributed as a + pressure difference in the cake-
discontinuous phase in the +pores of formation and demoisturing region, as
the + bulk. +
well as the compressedairblowback
for the cake discharge, and possibly a

Continuous Sepurution
+ bubbling zone. Respective to their
design, one can differentiate between
Appurutus axial and radial control heads. In the
axial type the division into zones is
Separation apparatus which is
equipped with a constant feed for the performed by the so-called + control
suspension and steady discharges of disc. It is a plastic disc into which the
separated liquid and moist solids. The slot-shaped control zones are cut. The
individual steps of the separation control head sits flat with seals against
the rotating counter part of the
process therefore are synchronized in
terms of transport velocity and the integrated + filtrate pipes. In a radial
geometry of the apparatus and are not control head, the rotating part moves
independently adjustable.Continuously concentrically in a stationary ring with
working machines are typically a channel,which can be divided b y so-
employed for large mass flows and called separation plugs into separation
continuous production processes. zones. The sealing is with gland
+ decanter centrifuges or +drum filters packages. In industrial practice the
axial control head is preferred due to
are examples for continuously working
separation apparatus. its easier sealing and lower design
complexity.

Control Disc
Control Valve
A disc made often out of plastic,
employed at the + control head at + Control Head
+ rotary filters, into which the control
zones are cut as slots.Thecontrol disc is Conveyer Screw
stationary while the + filtrate pipes
+ Discharge Screw
move from control zone to control zone
(e.g.cake formation zone, demoisturing

27
Conveyor Chute

Conveyor Chute betweenthe cylindrical and the conical
end of the centrifuge. Solids and
Discharge device for solids (+ dis-
charge chute), usually designed in the
+ centrate stream then in a counter
flow. While the .) transport screw
form of a pipe, through which the conveys the solids into the direction of
separated and demolstured solids the conical end, the centrate flows in
leaves the process chamber of the the opposite direction to the cylindrical
separating apparatus under the end, where it leaves the centrifuge for
influence of the gravitational force.The
requirement for the functioning of a
+
example over a weir disc.

conveyor chute isa sufficient pourability
of the product.If this tends to stick, then Counter Ions
one selects a +dischargescrew instead Layer of ions, relative strongly bound to
of a conveyor chute. a charged particle surface, out of the
surrounding liquid with a particle surface
Cooling Centrifuge of opposing charge. With increasing
distance from the particle surface the
Discontinuously working laboratory concentration of the counter ions,
centrifuge with integrated cooling of compensating the surface charge, de-
the beakers.Especially with high speed
+ centrifuges in the region of several
creases. According to the + DLVO-
Theory the compensation of the
thousand g the rotor is heated by the particle charge by the counter ions
friction of surrounding air. If a constant determine to what extent particles are
temperature is desired,for example due capable of agglomeratingdue to their
to probable product destruction other-
wise, the rotor has to be cooled.
+
attracting Van-der-Waa/sforces.

Countercurrent Wushing
Coriolis Force
Process for the removal of unwanted
is acting during a relative movement of
a particle against a rotating reference
solutes from + suspensions or + filter
cakes, especially for saving washing Ii-
system in the centrifugal field. It is an quid. The countercurrent washing can
+ inertia force usually possessing a +
be applied in displacement washing
negligibly small value. +
as well as in dilution wash/ng.Thefresh
washing liquid is added at the end of
Coulomb’s Friction Law the separation process in order to clean
the already almost completely cleaned
+Friction product.Thewashing liquid by this now
+
already enriched with some moftrer
Counter Flow Decanter liquor is then utilized for the purification
of the even stronger contaminated
Conventional and simple design of a
+ decanter cenir/fuge.The 3 suspen-
product located further in the direction
of the process beginning. Finally, the
sion is fed approximately in the middle
highly enriched wash liquid is dis-
cut-off

charged out of the process. (+ sterile filtration) from suspensions
with often extremely low particle
concentrations in the pm- and sub-pm
Cricket-Filter region and poor filtration behavior is
Discontinuously,in a pressuretank under +
characteristic.Both pre-coat filtration
overpressure working + cake filter by and + disc stack separators are in
the AMAFILTER company. The filter competition with crossflow filtration.
elements are similar to + filter candles
but however display a flattened shape.
They thus represent a connecting link
Cushion Module
+
between candle filters and leaffilters. Special packaging of a membrane filter
Several filter elements are comprised in medium in a micro- or ultra filtration unit.
a register. In a pressure tank several Here two membrane discs are welded
register are arranged parallel. Cricket together at the outer edge. Between
filters are suited for dry- and wet- both membrane discs a + spacer is
discharge of a product and can be situated through which the + per-
employed as a + precoat filter. The meate is discharged by means of a
cricket filter is a typical representative permeate drain off pipe. connected
of a + fine filter for +suspensions tightly with the membrane cushion.
difficult to filter. Designs with circular or rectangular
membrane cushions are known. In the
case of a circular membrane cushion
Crossflow Filtrution the permeate flows to a centered
comprisesall filtration techniques, where discharge pipe. Several membrane
the+ suspension to be separated is cushions are combined in a pipe-
lead under a pressure in parallel flow to shaped casing to a membrane module.
a + filtermedium, in order to prevent
the deposition of solids on the filter
medium as much as possible. Due to a Cut Point
pressure difference, the + permeate + CutSize
penetrates the filter medium. The
+ concentrate leaves the process
Cut Size
chamber highly concentrated but still
free flowing. The shear flow at + dyna- + Particle size, which is found in equal
mic crossflow filterscan additionally be amounts in the + fines and in the
increased by additional stirring + coarse materials following a sepa-
elements (DYNO-Filter of the BOKELA ration process.
company). 3 Microporous membranes
are usually employed as filter media.The
cut-off
field of application for crossflow filters is
vast and reaches from upgrading of + Cut Size
sewage to product isolation at bio-
technological productions. The pro-
duction of extremely pure liquids

29
Gvalue

C-value
+
states by how many times the centri-
fugul uccelerution in a + Centrifuge
surpassesthe gravitational acceleration
g:

r = centrifuge radius, w = angular
velocity, n = revolution number of the
centrifugal drum, d = centrifuge
diameter. C-values at industrial
centrifuges can reach values of several
100 UD to several 10,000.

Cyclone
+ Hydrocyclone

30
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Dead Flux

Mass unit, named after the physicist
Dalton, which is defined as a mass of a
hypothetical atom with the atomic Rm denotes therewith the +
filter
weight of 1. As mass unit the decimal medium resisfance. If one applies
multiples are applicable, for example Darcy's law to a compressible fluids,
instead of 1000 Dalton 1k-Dalton.At the +
such as air or to a two phase tlow,the
+ +
ulfrafilfrationthe cut-ofis referred equation has to be adjusted according
to the molecular mass instead to the to the respective circum-stances.
particle size.This"molecular weight cut-
off" (+ MWCO) is quoted in the unit
"Dalton".
Dead End Filtration
Discontinuous process variation of

Damper
+ microfilfrafion or + ulfrafilfrafion.
With the dead end filtration the filtration
.) VibrationDamper process through a + microporous
membrane is continued until a given
upper value of the pressure loss is
Darcy reached, due to depositing of retained
One "Darcy"is the unit for measuringthe suspension contents. The filtration
permeability of a cube (side length process has to be interrupted and the
1 cm) of a porous body at a pressure of membrane has to be regenerated, e.g.
lbar and a liquid + viscosity of through a periodic flow reversal.At very
1 mPa s. Dimension of the unit "Darcy" is large volume flows, as in water
[cm2). treatment plants,the dead end filtration
represents, in contrast to the + cross-
flow filtration with its necessarily large
Darcy's Low
pump performances, the more feasible
Fundamental equation for describing variant in terms of energy consumption.
the laminar permeation of a porous
layer with a Newtonian, incompressible
fluid.The flow velocity v (+ empty pipe Dead Flux
ve/ocify)caused by the driving pressure The flow of fine particles, smaller than
difference Ap, through a + bulk the + cut size, discharged with the
maferial with the thickness h, and the +
coarse underflow in a hydrocyclone.
specific + cake resisfance rc with a Ii-
quid of the + viscosity qLamounts to:

31
Debye Length

Debye length + classifying (+ Centrisizer) and for

Term of the + DLVO theory for the
sorting (+ Censor).Furthermore de-
canters in a special design are also
description of the characteristic suited for the separation of three-phase
penetration depth IDof an electrical mixtures (+ rrlcanter),consisting of two
field, caused by surface charge on a liquids, incapable of mixing with each
suspended particle.into the surrounding other (i.e. water and oil), and solid
+ electrolyte: particles.Decanters are build with drum
diameters of up to 2m and are
operated with a number of revolutions
of up to 10,000rpm. Large numbers of
revolution per minute are applied with
E = dielectric constant, k = Boltzmann- small rotor diameters for reasons of
constant, T = absolute temperature, material strength. For the improvement
e = elementary electronic charge, of the sedimentation of difficult to se-
n = density of the charge carrier, parate substances the particles, to be
z = valence of the charge carriers. separated in decanters, are often
agglomerated as a preparative
Decanter
measure by means of + polymeric
Ilocculanfs.Decanters are utilized in dif-
Continuously working solid bowl ferent industrial sectors and thus sepa-
centrifuge in which a 3 suspension is rate different products, such as granular
+
separated through sedimentaffon of PVC and compressible sewage sludge.
the solids in the centrifugal field. The
settled solids are removed out of the
process room, which is conical tapered, Decanter Centrifuge
+
b y means of a conveyorscrewat one 3 Decanter
end of the cylindrical drum. Hereby it
turns with a differential number of
revolutions compared with the main
Deep Bed Filtration
number of revolutions of the solid bowl Filtration process at which the particles
drum.The exceedingclear liquid drains to be separated accumulate inside a
off over a usually adjustable weir at the coarse-pored layer. Deep bed filtration
opposite end of the solid bowl drum. should only be realized in the region of
Decanter centrifuges are offered in extremely low + suspension concen-
extremely different varieties, which traffons to prevent an early blockage
conform according to the respective of the filter surface.They typically serve
separation tasks. Thus decanter in the purification of minutely polluted
centrifuges exist for the pre-thickening liquids. Water and beverage filtration
of sludges (+ Sedicanter). for the present large fields of application.
maximum demoisturing of settled
sludge (+ Cenfrlpress). for the
Deep Cone Thickener
separation of granular products, for
Continuously working cylindrical or
Demoisturing Equilibrium

conical gravitational thickener, cha- Demoisturing
racterized by construction heights of up
Common expression in the solid-liquid
to 30m. which are capable of pro-
ducing high compressionlayers or com- separation for the removal of liquids out
of a porous solids system capable off
pressionpressures, and thus high under-
flow concentrations for thickened intra-particleforce transmission due to
close proximity.By comparison the rem-
sludges.
oval of a liquid out of a +suspension,
where the particles can still be moved
Degerminating Filtration against each other, is called
+ Sterile Filtration + thickening. Solids systems, as pre-
+ +
sented by liHercakesor sediments,
can be demoistured either by gas
De-grifting displacement of the pore liquid or by
Pre-separationof coarse particles from the reductionof the void space through
+
a suspension,which could upset the compression. The mechanical de-
following separation process, done for moisturing is never complete as it ends
example with a + hydrocyclone or a at a + mechanical demoisturing
+ sieve. bOUfldUW.

Delayed Cake Filtration Demoisturing Angle
+ Crossffow Filtration Expression from the field of + rotary
+ Dynamic Crossffow Filter +
filters and here especially the drum-
+disc- and + table filters. The de-
moisturing angle %describesthe sector
Demixing +
in which the filter cakethat is formed
Non-homogeneousdistribution of solids +
in the suspension,emerges out of the
in a + suspension or in a + bulk. liquid and where it is exposed to a
Demixings can show up in terms of + gas difference pressure. In special
+ particle size, particle shape and cases the filter cake can also be
composition (density).The mass forces, demoistured by a +press beltor belt +
such as gravity, are responsible for this, rollers. The demoisturlng angle ct2 is
leading to different +
sedimentation connected over the filter number of
velocities of the particles. Counter- revolutions n with the demoisturing time
measures against unwanted demixing t, as follows:
can be a stirring apparatus or an in-
crease of the + suspension concen-
(, =--a? 1
tration.High suspension concentrations 360" n
lead, however, to +
swarm sedimen-
tation.
Demoisturing Equilibrium
State during the mechanical demois-
turing of a porous solids system, estab-

33
Defining

+
lishing after the completion of the de- A large quantity of liquid is removed at
moisturing kinetics. At the equilibrium, the onset, then the liquid outflow
the liquid retaining forces, such as the decreases due to the increasing
3 capillary forces, compensate the Ii- influence of the liquid retaining forces,
quid removing forces, for example the +
and finally it ends at the demdshrrlng
+ centrifuga/ forces. Any further me- equilibrium.
chanical demoisturing can b e
achieved only by increasing the driving
potential. All this is iimited by the
Design Experiment
+ mechanics/ demoisturing boundary. Testing on the laboratory or pilot scale
for equipment scale-up. The design
experiment has to simulate the
Defining separation process as planned in the
Removal of the fine grain fraction of a full-size equipment, carried out with a
+ paMc/e size distribution In a +sus- representative product sample as
pension, for example with a + hydro- realistic as possible.
cydone.Purpose of the defining Is either
an improvement of the product's filtra-
bility as it will be coarser then, or the
liberation of the product from conta- Detachment of substances (adsor-
minants, which dominantly are in the bates) attached on a surface (adsor-
fine grain region bent), by superceding the active forces
(opposite of + adsorption).

Demoisturing Kinetics
Time dependent, degressive course of
Destubilizution
liquid removal from a porous solids A suspension in which particles exist
system. individually and separate from each
other is called a + stable suspension.
Destabilization is understood to be a
t change of the electrical charges in a
suspension in such a way, that the
F suspended partlcles can be agglo-
c

c
c
a,
C
merated. Thus, the + electrostatic
0 repelling of the particles has to be
0
a, reduced to an extent that the + Van-
+ der-Waa/s attraction, which is always
s
.-
v)

present as a material-constantvalue,
b becomes dominant.This can be done
Cake Dewatering Time t, for example b y increasing the ion
concen-tration or by changing the
Filter cake moisture content as function of the 3 pH-va/ue.In water treatment, FeCI, is
dewatering time often added for this purpose.

34
Dilution Washing

Detergents mining in up to several 1OOm thick layers,

3 Tensides
+
processed and offered in fractions of
different granularity respective to the
application. Due to its inert behavior
Diufiltrution diatomaceous earth is very often em-

Special processingtechnique in +ultra-
+
ployed for the filtrationof beverages
such as wine, beer, or fruit juices.
filtration where for example salts are
separated from higher molecular
solutions by adding new solvents Differentiul Speed
commensurate with the flow rate of
+ permeate, thus effecting a washing
Difference in revolutionsgenerated with
gears and drives b y two co-axially linked
process. running rotors. In several centrifuge
types the solids are discharged from the
D i d ysis process chamber with the aid of a

is a membrane separation process.Low
+ conveyer screw that is rotating with
a differential speed in the direction of
molecular side products (e.g. salts) are
the centrifuge drum. Examples are the
removed out of a solution of highly
molecular substances (e.g. albumen,
+ decanter and the + worm screen
centrifuge.
starch).

Diffuse Double Luyer
Diuphrugm
Porous separator wall used for example
+ Electric double layer
in electrolysis between the cathode
and anode cells. In the solid-liquid Diffusion
separation technology a diaphragm is The spontaneously occurring mixing of
understood to be a + membrane that substances,especially gases and liquids,
is not only capable of retaining solid that are directly in contact, and the
suspension components. For instance a equalization of their concentration
+ +
hydrophilic and 9 wefted mem- differences in solutions.Thisis caused by
brane can prevent the penetration of the thermo-kinetic movement, whereby
+
gas up to its capillary entry pressure. molecularly one substance penetrate
into the other, i.e.they diffuse.
Diutomuceous Eurth
is employed as a + filtering aid. As a Dilutuncy
natural product diatomaceous earth
consists of finely granular skeleton
+ Shear Thickening
fractions of diatoms and is charac-
terized by a very large specific surface, Dilution Wushing
therefore is capable of bonding turbid +
Processfor the washing of a filfercake
substances. It is extracted by open-pit by + re-mashing in + washing liquid
Dipole Force

and subsequent + filtrafion. Dilution + suspensions and larger amount
washing can be realized for example suspension flows.The radially sectioned
with in-series operating + drum lilters. filter discs are arranged on a horizontal
By .) re-suspending a + filter cake filter shaft and often filter on both sides.
with a dry mass m,. with a load w, Each of the sectional + lilter cells is
(w,=m,/mJ and a contaminant content covered with a tightly stretched d ffltef
X, (based on dry mass), in an amount bagand connected at the cell foot with
m, of washing liquid and subsequent +
a pipe to the control head, which
filtration to a new load of w,. the controls the applied + vacuum.The
amount X, of contaminant in the new discs rotating at 0.5t2rpm dip into a
filter cake Is: + filter trough filled with suspension,
where the + f//ter cake is formed. AS
x, = x , w2
m
soon as the cake emerges from the
+suspension, it is demoistured and
w ,+-x dried with alr. Flnally, the cake is blown
off b y + pneumatic repulsion and
discharged over a deflection plate.
Dipole force Alternatively, a basic + scraper dls-
charge is used. Disc filters can have up
d Hydrogen Bridge
to several 1Wm2filter area in a single
machine.
Directed flow Screen
Centrifuge Disc Puckuge
Continuous +screen Centrifuge with a Assembly of separating elements in
conically widening rotor where the
descending force component of the
+ disc stack separators.The circular-
conlcai metal-sheet discs are stacked
centrifugal forces acting on the with bumper rods for a gap widths of
particles convey them into the direction approx. lmm. In this manner the
of the rotor outlet. Ring shaped effective sedimentation area in the
assembled elements divide the glide centrifuge can be increased signifi-
path into guiding channels for better cantly. For separating immiscible fluids
control as well as for lengthening of the the disc package is equipped
path.Ajagged edge on these channels addltionally with vertical bore holes.
continuously mixes the particles. which are called .) rrslng channels.
Directed flow screen centrifuges are
applied for + suspensions of higher
.) concenfrations and coarser granu- Disc stuck sepurutor
larity (x<500pm). Continuously working sedimentation
centrifuge where the avallable
Disc Filter separatlon area is drastically increased
through the installation of a d disc
Continuously working d vacuum or package into the centrifuge drum. In
+ pressure filter for relatively easy to filter combination with extremely high d C-
Displucemenf Washing

values up to 15,000, some disc stack of solids particles in a liquid for the
+
separators can realize an equivalent production of a + suspension is an
clarifying area of several 1 00,000m2. example for this.
The discharge of the settled sludge
through nozzles at the outer circum-
ference of the dual-conical designed
Disperse Phase
drum is either continuously ( + nozzle is a phase distributed as individual ele-
separator) or periodically ( + self- ments in another, contiguous surroun-
cleaning separator ). Disc stack ding phase (+ continuous phase.
separators can be employed for solid- Examples for disperse phases are solids
liquid. liquid-liquid, or solid-liquid-liquid +
particles in suspensions, gas bubbles
separation, as well as for + extraction. in liquids, or liquid droplets in gas (mist).

Discharge Chute Dispersion
Simple duct or pipe, through which the A system, consisting of two or more
separated solid leaves the separation phases, in which one phase (+ disper-
equipment under the influence of se phase) is evenly distributed in the
gravity. For solid products that tend to dispersion medium (+ continuous
adherence in the course of time a phase).
+ discharge screw is recom-mended
because they can clog over time.
Dispersivity
Term in the particle measuring tech-
Discharge Screw nology, characterizing the physical
A transporting device, which removes property that is utilized for measuring.
by force a separated solid out of a Thus the dispersivity characteristic can
separation apparatus.Dischargescrews be a settling rate, a scattered light
are employed especially when the distribution, an attenuation, a voltage
solids are sticky, due to insufficient impulse,or similar phenomena.Through
+
demoisturing.and a discharge chute +
a physical relationship an equivalent
would foul up. diameterof particlecan be determined
out of such a dispersivity characteristic.
An example would be the calculation
Discontinuous Separation of a particle diameter based on the
Apparatus +
settling velocity according to Stokes’
+
Employedfor batch wise separation, law.
meaning a complete processing of
individual volumes of +
suspension. Displacement Washing
denotes the cleaning of +filter cakes
Disperse by feeding a washing liquid.Under the
Distribution of the + dispersed phase influence of the driving potential,which
in the+ continuous phase. The mixing can b e either vacuum, gas over-

37
pressure, hydraulic pressure, or centri- + suspension Is fed by means of a
fugal pressure, the washing liquid is speclal device alternating to the front
passed through the filter cake. The re- and backside of the pusher plate. The
sulting removal of the + mother /iquor produced fllter cake is transported by
occurs in two different mechanisms.For axially oscillating movements to the
one, the main amount of the + pore solids discharges at both drum ends.
liquid is displaced in plug-flow. The still +
A cake washingwith this design type
remaining residualsof the substances to is partially restricted. The special
be removed are added to the flowing advantage of this machine is the large
washing liquid by + difYudon, which is throughput capacity.
considerably more time intensive.
Quality criteria for displacement was-
hing are a high + wash degree and a
Double Belt Press
low consumption of washing liquid, Continuously working + press fl/fer,In
which is expressed by the + wash rotlo. which a + Is/fer cake Is pressed out
An alternative process to the displace- between two filter belts. A pressing
ment washing is + dilution washing, power in the magnitude of 2+4bar can
where the filter cake Is re-suspended in be applied via press and deflection
the washing liquid and subsequently rollers, whereby the press belts are
filtered again. guided. Double belt presses can reach
worklng lengths of several meters and
are employed for the separation of
DLVO-Theory difficult to filtrate and extremely
named after Derjaguin and Landau compressible sludge. The feed slurries
(Russia, 1941) as well as Verwey and that are normally strongly flocculated
Overbeek (Holland, 1948). is used for have to b e predemoistured by
+
describing the stability of suspensions +
gravitational filtration in the sfraining
+
from a balance of the attracting km- zone so that they can b e drawn
+
der- W a d s forces and repelling elec- between the belts. In the wastewater
hosfcrffc forces.This theory is important sector they compete mainly with the
for the solid-liquid separation tech- + decanfer and the + Islfer press for
nology as it allows to describe the state sewage sludge separation.
of suspensions, and agglomeration as
well as + floccu/afionof particles.
Double Filter

Double Acting Pusher
Discontinuous.candle shaped sieve +
filfer for the purification of liquids with
Centrifuge mlnor amounts of particulate contami-
Special construction of a continuously nation. Double filters are mainly em-
working, single stage 3 pusher cenfri- ployed in the main flow with up to 100%
tuge by the Escher Wyss company, at filter area on stand-by.This can be by a
+
which the pusher p/ab is located in put on flow by a three-way valving. An
alternative to double filters present the
the middle of the sieve drum. The
+ automafic tilters.
Drum Filter

Double-Flup Sluice Gutes liquid overflowing the sediment causes
a stirring up of already settled particles
Attachment employed in the solid-liquid and carries them away.
separation for the discharge of
demoistured solids from a continuous
pressure filter system like the BOKELA Driving Potentiul
+Hi-Bar-Filter. Generally,the cylinder of Force effect utilized for the separation
double-flap sluice gates is filled first of particles from of liquids, coming from
under the acting internal pressure of the
filter apparatus with a closed outer
+ vacuum,gas overpressure, or hydro-
static or centrifugal pressure, hydraulic,
gate; then the cylinder is isolated by the
inner gate from the pressure chamber
mechanical or + capillary pressure.

of the filter. It is emptied after the
pressure has been released by opening Drum
the outer gate to atmospheric pressure. Rotating,cylindricalelement of a sepa-
A special locking technique has to pre- ration apparatus that is perforated and
vent that both gates opened simul- generally made from metals. In its
taneously with the filter vessel still under interior or on its outer mantel area the
pressure. solids are separated from the +
sus-
pension. However, the drum used in
Double Luyer sedimentation processes is impermea-
ble and always fed in the interior.
+ Hectrlc double layer of +
counter
ions, surrounding an electrically
charged surface of suspended solid Drum Filter
particles. Continuously working rotary vacuum
filter with a cylindrical, horizontal filter
Double Weuve +
drum, often with filter cells arranged
coaxial on its mantel covered with a
Weaves with different separation pro- + filter cloth and connected through
perties, strongly connected together. a filtrate pipe with the + control head.
Double weaves display usually a fine- The drum, rotating with approx. 0.212
pored upper side facing the + sus- rpm, is immersed up to half of its
pension to ensure the retention of solids, +
diameter in a fi/ter trough,where the
and coarse underside lending stability feed + suspension is contained. The
to the media. + filter cake forms on the filter cell while
it moves through the suspension.When
Drug Effect the cell emerges with the cake out of
the suspension the cake is demoistured.
observed especially with +
decanter +
providedthat the capillarypressure,
centrifuges: particles are discharged acting in the pores of the cake can be
with the clear liquid although they
should have settled according to
overcome b y the applied + pressure
difference. Then the cake is removed
+ Stokes’law.Instead, the drag by the from the drum either with a + scraper,
Dry Substance

by 3compressedairrepulsion.or similar
facilities. Drum filters are built with sizes
up to 100m23 filter area.

Dynamic Buoyancy
3 Buoyancy

Dynamic Crossflow Filter
3 Crossflow-filter with a shear flow,
adjustable independently from the
pump-pressure.Theflow is generatedby
a rotor-stator system, where the
suspension is processed in its annulus.
Rotor as well as stator or both can be
designed for filtering.Thereare axial and
coaxial dynamlc crossflow filters. The
3 DYNO-Filterofthe BOKELA company
represents a special form of the radial
dynamic crossflow filters.

Dynamic Filtration
BOKELA drum fllterwithexchangeable fliter cells
Alternate expressionfor the 3 crossflow
(equipped with steam cabin for Hi-Bar Steam
Pressure flltration) filtration, whereby the feed suspension
flowstangentially to the 3 fihrmedium.
A special design in dynamic filtration is
Dry Substance +
the DYNO-Filterbythe BOKELA com-
Mass related definition of the d r y Paw.
substance content in a 3 bulkfollowing
the separation process. The determi-
Dynumic Sieve Filtration
nation of the dry substance DS is simple
and is performed by weighing, Innovative process of + sieve filtration
respectively, the moist and the dry by the BOKELA company based on the
3 cakes.Themass of the solids m, is then principle of 3 dynamic filtrafion with
related to the total mass of the moist the 3 DYNO-Filter. At dynamic sieve
3 bulk qo,, made up of the solids mass filtration the DYNO-Filter is used for a
m, and the liquids mass mL.The dry continuous separation of coarse
substance is quoted in weight per- particles from suspensions. The fine
centage. Substances of different den- 3 parHcle fraction and the 3 mother
sities cannot be compared on the basis liquor pass the sleve medium while the
of their dry substance values. coarse fraction is held back by the sieve
and discharged as highly concentrated

40
residual suspension.

Dynumic Viscosity
refers to the viscousness or internal
friction of a fluid. It characterizes a
material property, according to which
tangential forces appear, acting
against a parallel displacement of liquid
or gas layers relative to each other.The
dynamic viscosity is measured in (N/m2)
or [Pa),It is the force required to flow for
a thin layer of gas or liquid of unit size
DYNO-Filter with 12m2filter area
area with a velocity that is lm/sec
higher than that of a layer l m away.
Viscous substanceshave high viscosities,
and low-viscous ones have lower
viscosities.The dynamic viscosity
of water is q=O,OOl kg/ms.
q(Pa,s = N,s/m2= kg/m,s = 103cP)

DYNO-Filter
+ Dynamic filtration machine by the
BOKELA company featuring up to 12 mz
filter area for the dynamic + crossflow
filtration across discs. It is employed for Schematic sketch of the DYNO-Filter
+ thickening, + crassifying (+ sieve
+
fi/tration) and washing of suspended
particles. The modular structured
machine comprises a sequence of disc-
shaped filter chambers, with stirring
elements inside on a common central
shaft that rotates to prevent cake
formation.

41
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Electroosmosis

Electric Double Luyer particles move in a suspension, then it is

An electric double layer around
called + electrophoresis. The move-
ment of liquid inside of a solids structure
suspended particles exists due to the under the influence of an electricalfield
fact that the particle surfaces carry an
electric charge.To this surface adheres
+
is called elecho-osmosis.

a respectively opposing, loaded ion
layer (+ Stern's layer). compensating Electrolysis
the particle charge extensively but not is the decomposing of electrically
totally. Complete neutralization is conductive liquids (+ electrolyte) by
achieved through a diffuse,further liquid current flow into their constituents.
layer, displaying a slight excess of the
respective counter-ions.Only outside of
this "double 1ayer"arethe charges in the Electrolyte
+ suspension balanced again. Collective term for liquids, which are
conductive due to molecules dis-
sociated into ions.
Electro-cougulution
+
Processfor the agglomerafion of tine-
grained particles that carry a surface Electroosmosis
charge in liquids and therefore form at Electro-kinetic phenomenon by which
first a stable+ suspension. By appli- water can be removed from a porous
cation of an electricalfield the particles solids system, if this is in contact with an
are moved respective to their charge electrical field. A mechanism for the Ii-
to the opposing electrode, where they quid transportderivesfrom the fact that
are then discharged and subsequently the ions contained in the liquid, can
are capable of agglomerating due to form hydrate shells and in this manner
+ Van-der-Waals forces.The process is carry water to the electrodeduring their
especially of interest when additional migration. Electroosmotic effects have
substances, such as + tlocculation been or are currently applied in the
agents,are disallowed in the system. desalinization of water, demoisturing of
peat, pigments, or colloids (e.9. latex,
glue), for the cleaning of clay, sllicic acid,
Electrofiltrution
or for the desiccation of moist brick
includes as a collective term various walls.
electro-kinetic effects that are pro-
+
duced when a suspension is exposed
to an electrical field. If charged solids

43
Hectrophoresis

Electrophoresis Emulsion
Process,at which molecular disperse or 3 Disperslon made of two immiscible
3 collolddisperse particles of a solution liquids, where one is distributed in form
migrate in an electrical field, i.e. re- of small, stable drops in the other liquid.
spective to their charge to the cathode
(cataphoresis) or to the anode
(anaphoresis). Subsequently, they can
EndUfUnCe
be separated from each other. + service life
Electrostatic Repelllng Entry Cross Section
If suspended solid particles carry an Area in the feeding device of a sepa-
electrical charge then the particles, ration apparatus that is perpendicular
often charged with the same polarity, to the flow direction of the suspension.
will repel each other. Therewith the
electrical potential shields off so
Equilibrium load
effectively the 3 Van-der-Waals forces
originating from the particles, that the 3 Equilibrium Moisture
moving particles are prevented from
adhering to each other and the Equilibrium Moisture
3 suspension remains stable.
An equilibrium moisture of a 3 filter
cake or of a 3 sediment is established
Emergency-OH when, following the completion of the
Safety switch installed in the working 3 dernoisturing kinetlcs, the driving
area of an operator for activating an potential such as a gas difference or a
immediate stand still (3 shut down) of centrifugal pressure is in equilibrium with
the apparatus in the case of the opposing potential, i.e. the
emergency. 3 capillary pressure or the solids
pressure. The equilibrium moisture
represents for a given demoisturing
Empty Pipe Velocity potential the physically minimally
Flow velocity of a fluid, establishing reachable moisture of a product.
before and behind a + bulk, if one Respectively to the definition of the
assumes the cross-sectional area as moisture degree in the 3 bulk one talks
being perpendicular to the flow either about equilibrium residual
direction. The mean flow velocity in the moisture, equilibrium saturation, or
3 bulk is enlarged by the contraction equilibrium load. In the course of a
of the cross sectional area and can be technical demoisturing process there is
found by dividing the empty pipe generally not enough time available to
velocity by the bulk porosity. reach this equilibrium. The equilibrium
moisture,however,that is determined in
the laboratory indicates the physically

44
Extrucfion

possible demoisturing potential at a which can be realized inside the centri-
certain pressure. fuge in question.

Equilibrium Residuul Moisture Equivulent Diumeter
+ Equilibrium Moisture The equivalent diameter of a particle
or a pore is a measure of a particle or a

Equilibrium Suturution
+ pore with defined geometricalshape
(e.g.circle)with the same characteristic
+ Equilibrium Moisture property (e.g. area) as the observed
characteristic of the investigated
particle or pore. The settling velocity-
Equivulent Cake Thickness
equivalent diameter of a particle of any
Term originating from + cake filtration. shape for example corresponds to the
The equivalent cake height hCR diameter of a sphere with the same
characterizes the applied + filter + settling velocity.
medium with a cake layer of the same
flow resistance. It is calculated, re-
spectively, as the product of the specific Excess Pressure
+ +
cake permeability p, and the filter + Overpressure
medium resistance Rm or as the quotient
of filter medium resistance Rm and
+
specific cake resistance rc:
Extruct
In .) extraction selectively enriched
R component from a + suspension in a
h,, = p,R, =
rc
+
dissolution process with an extraction
agent that is not miscible with the
suspension liquid.
Equivulent Clurifying Areu
+
Term applied in sedimentafion centri- Extruction
fuge technology. The equivalent
Process for the complete or partial
clarifying area 1 of a sedimentation
separation of a liquid or solid substance
centrifuge indicates how many m2
mixture by means of a solvent or
clarifying area A in the earth's
gravitational field can be substituted by
+ extraction agent that is not miscible
it, if one applies + Stokes' law for
with the suspension liquid. The com-

+
expressing the seming velocityof the
ponents of the substance mixture to be
removed must have different solubilities
particles:
in the solvent and the + extraction
E=AC agent. The extraction is a selective
process,i.e.the extraction agent has the
+
C is herein the C-value,indicating the capability to accept only certain
preferred substances.
multiple of the earth's acceleration g.

45
Extraction Agent

€xtrucfionAgent
A liquid capable of incorporating
certain substances selectively by
+
solution during exhacfion.

46
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Filter Cundle

Feed Cross Section includes only that part of the filter cloth
that is on the upper side of the filter,
Opening area of the feed device for the whereas the other half is out of use as it
3 suspension to be separated, in a is led back on the underside of the belt.
separation apparatus.

Filter Bug
Feed Muteriul
3 Fllfer medium tailored as a bag, as
Generalizingterm for 3 suspensionsfed employed in 3 bag filters or 3 disc
into process equipment. filters. Depending on the design of a
filter apparatus, filter bags are flown
Felt through from the inside to the outside
or from the outside to the inside.
3 Needled Felf

Filter Cuke
Film Flow Model
A porous layer of solids particles formed
The film flow modelwas conceptualized on the surface of a 3 filter medium. In
for the centrifugal demoisturing of a order to generate a filter cake, 3 solids
3 bulk, especially those with a coarser bridges have to develop over the
granularity. This model distinguishes media openings thus blocking the
between a 3 plug flow mode and a following solids. Filter cakes are formed
subsequent film flow of the liquid in 3 vacuum fi/fers,3 pressure filters,
remaining on the particle surfaces. It 3 press fi/ters,and 3 filter centrifuges.
was inspired by the image of a plate, This can occur discontinuously or con-
that when pulled out of an oil bath tinuously, and under a constant or
shows an oil film varying locally and with changing driving potential. Filter cakes
time in thickness until an even flow is are subjected in general to an extensi-
established. ve mechanical 3 demoisturing after
3 cake formafion,and as the case may
Filter Areu be are liberated of still remanent
3 mother /iquor by 3 washing.
is the active area in a filtration process,
which is covered with a 3 filter cloth.In
a + drum filter, for example, the entire Filter Cundle
surface area covered with filter cloth is Cylinder-shaped filter element of a
active as filter area. In a 3 vacuum belt 3 candle filter, mostly consisting of a
filter with a 3 rubber conveyor belt it

47
Filter Curtridge

perforated internal pipe and a filter different materials, different thread or
medium placed on top. As a rule filter respectively yarn quality as well as
candies are permeated from the extremely different weave structures.
outside to the inside. Respective to the The filter cloth represents the critical
type of filter medium filter candles can interface between separation equip-
be employed for 3 cake filtration or ment and suspension. It must be
3 deep bed filffuffon.The 3 ff/ffaffon selected carefully for each individual
on a filter candle normally is a discon- application to meet the process,
tinuous process. mechanical, and chemical demands,
respectively.Theselection of a filter cloth
should never occur solely by theory, but
Fllter Carfridge instead has to be supported experi-
Changeable, finite filter element, mentally.
preferably employed for + deep bed
filtration and/or membrane filtration
that is replaced after reaching a critical Filter Cloth Blockage
contamination. + Filter Cloth Clogging
Filter Cell Filter Cloth Clogging
The filter surface in continuously working A media-fouling mechanism in + cake
3 rofaryfi/fersis divided into single cells, filfraflon. where over the course of
each separately connected to the operation more and more solids pene-
3 filfrate pipe system. The filter cells in trate the structure of the weave and
3 drum filtersure flat, rectangular pans deposit in it. Such cloggings are some
with a plastic 3 cellinlayon which the times partially reversible and can be
3 filfef cloth Is attached, often with a undone by 3 filter regeneration, or if
3 back cloth between.In 3 dlsc filters they are Irreversiblewill render the filter
the filter cells are shaped as circular cloth unusable, as evidenced by a loss
segmentsand designed to filter on both +
of permeablllty.
sides. Usually, they have a perforated
metal over which the filter cloth is pulled
as a tailored bag and attached. The
Filter Cloth Resistance
3 filfrate is drawn off at the narrow end Flow resistance Rmofa 3 filter cloth. It
of the cell, which is called the cell foot. can be determined directly by
3 Dorcy’s/uw,if one permeates the filter
cloth with a particle-free liquid at a
Filter Centrifuge specified pressure and measures the
3 Centrifugal Filter flow. However, this value is invalid for
predicting the filtration performance
with a 3 suspension, because the
filter Cloth
interaction proper between filter cloth
Special type of 3 filfer medium, con- and suspension with particles settling in
sisting of weave. There is a plethora of in the cloth structure and especially with
a 3 bridge layerforming leads to a rele- Filter Medium Resisfunce
vant filter cloth resistance.Thus, it can
3 Filter Cloh Resistance
only be measured in conjunction with
the actual suspensionand be estimated
for example by the 3 t/V= Filter Optimizufion
f(V)-Method.
3 Revamping

Filter Fineness
Filter Puper
Data about the separation efficiency of
A 3 filter medium, that is preferred in
a 3 filter medium at 3 liltration.The
the laboratory for preparative purposes.
nominal fineness notes the particle
On the other hand, a technical filter
percentage of a certain size that is
medium is recommended for industrial
retained by the medium. However,test
filter tests, since the filter medium can
materials and experimental conditions
influence the filtration process signi-
influence strongly this value so that no-
ficantly.
minal filter fineness data from different
filter manufacturers are difficult to
compare. Information about the test Filter Performunce
material and experimental conditions
3 Throughpuf
has to be included when stating a no-
minal filter fineness.
Filter Press Membrune
Filter Medium Plastic or rubber membranes, encased
in a special membrane plate and
Porous layer, through which during the
+ fi/frationthe 3 filfrafe permeates due
applied in 3 membrane filter presses.
The membrane is pressed with a
to an acting 3 pressure difference,
pressing liquid,which is pumped into the
while the solids in the original suspension
empty space between membrane and
are retained on its surface or in its
plate wall, against the 3 flltercakeand
structure, respectively.Filter media can
squeezes it mechanically.
be of very different types: metallic
sieves, textile fabrics, fiber 3 fkeces.
felts, paper, membranes, sintered Filter Press
materials, 3 bulk layers, and a host of One of the most commonly used solid-
others are employed. An optimal filter liquid separation machines for the
media has maximum separation discontinuous 3 cake filtration and
efficiency, minimal flow resistance, and demoisturing of difficult to filter 3 sus-
a long service life. In actual operation pensions.A filter press has a frame with
a supportable compromise has to be a stack of filter plates packed between
found among these contradicting ob- head and end piece, which are pressed
jectives for each individual separation together for sealing. In the case of a
task. 3 chamber filterpresses rectangular or

49
Filter Reuctor

square plates with a side length of up Filter Regenerution
to 2m. form filter chambers, lined with a
Term used for all types of 3 fiitrafion to
3 lllter medium, into which the feed
describe the restoration of a 3 filter
+
suspension is pumped.In a frome filter
medlum’s ability to perform after
pfesesthe filter chambers are created
getting clogged with partlcle deposits
b y alternating speclal frames alter-
or crystallized products. Back flushing,
nating with the filter plates in the plate
application of ultra sound, blasting with
package. The cake of 3 membrane
high-pressurewater, chemical cleaning
filter presses can be squeezed
with acids, or washing with hot water are
mechanically by a rubber membrane
some of the measures applied.In extre-
on one side. A filter cycle can take
me cases filter regeneration can mean
anywhere from of a few minutes up to
replacing the filter medium, i.8.when it
several hours. Filter presses have areas
cannot be cleaned.
of up to 1,000m2andoperate generally
with pressures of up to 16 bar. High-
pressure filter presses are applied with Filter Trough
up to 60bar. Due to their almost
Tub-shaped container filled with a
universally applicability for difficult to
suspension wherein the filter cells of
filtrate suspenslons fllter presses have an
3 drum fllters or 3 disc filters are
extremely large field of operation.
periodically immersed in order to form
a 3fihrco&e.Thefilter trough generally
Filter Reuctor has either a pendulum-type agitator, a
propeller, or a paddle agitator to
Discontinuouslyworking 3pressurefiibr
capable of performing,next to the pure
homogenize the + Suspension and to
keep the particles in suspension.In disc
separation task, also such unlt
filters extremely narrow troughs are
operations as reaction, crystallization,
known, where a mechanical stirring
extraction, thermal drying et al.
apparatus can be omitted, as the
Generally,an agitator is installed in filter
rotational movement of the discs often
reactors.Some filter reactor types can
provides enough mixing of the sus-
be also rotated or tilted for the
pension.
beneficial execution of a specific
processing step. Filter reactors offer
great advantage If a contaminationof Fllter Segment
the products or an exposure to the
expression for the 3 filter cells of a
environment has to be avoided,
because all the different steps take
+ disc filter
place in a minlmized and also well-
isolated space. An example for a filter Filterability
reactor is the Titus-Filter-Dryer by the Evaluation criterion for separating of a
KRAUSS MAFFEI company. suspended solid by 3 fiitrafion. Often
employed for this is the specific 3 filter
coke reslstonce as determined by a

50
Filtratest

filtration test with the 3 t/V-over-V limited by an undersized filtrate pipe
method. system dimensioned too narrowly.

Filter Aids Filtrute
Additives to enhance the filterability of The liquid, separated by a filtration
3 suspensions. Filter aids can be process, previously having permeated
applied as a + precoat layer on the the + filter medium.
filter medium prior to the actual filtration,
+
or as bodyfeedfihtionadmix to the
Filtrutest
suspension to be separated. Common
filter aid materialsare: 3 diafomaceous Portable laboratory pressure filter
+
earth, 3perlite, wood flour, activated apparatus of the BOKELA company for
carbon, cellulose fibers and others.They investigating vacuum, overpressure,
are beneficial for suspensions that form and press type filtrations. It is based on
extremely difficult to permeate 3 filter the principle of the discontinuously
cakes. Major application areas are working 3 monoplate filter, has a filter
water treatment and beverage puri- area of 20 cm2and can be pressurized
fication. up to 1 1 bar. All process steps of the
+ cake filtrationlike the cake formation,
cake washing, cake demoisturing can
Filtrute Collector be investigated.An electronic measure-
3 Receiver ment data registrating and processing
system records the filtration data and
issues them in the form of an experimen-
Filfrute Pipe
tal test protocol.
Pipe for the discharge of a liquid se-
parated by 3 filtration out of an 3 sus-
pension.

Filfrute Pipe System
for transferringthe 3 filtrateout of a filter
apparatus. In a more specified usage it
refers to the filtrate pipes in + rotary
filters, that exist in various manifolded
designs for connecting individual
+
3 filtercellswith a single contrdhead
of the filter. When sizing the filtrate pipe
system the minimization of its pressure
loss has priority,as this share of the acting
3 pressure difference is excluded from
the actual filtration process. The FlMratest
performance of many filters, however, is

51
Filtration

The apparatus corresponds to the VDI- system. It should be pointed out that he
guideline No. 2762. Furthermore, it can term "fine capillary system" can mean
be employed for measurements different things, i.e.the pore structure of
according to DIN 38409, ASTM F317-72 + agglomerates, the pores in a solids
and ASTM F 1 170-88. particle, or the + interstifial liquid
remaining in the + bulk after a me-
chanical demoisturing process.
Filtration
In the field of solid-liquid separation
filtration is defined as the segregation
Fine Filter
of a + suspension into solids and +
Class of filters belongingto deep bed
+ filfrate volumesby meansof a porous filters characterized b y solid, porous
+ fflter medium. Both solids and liquid bodies made of sintered metal, plastic,
are moved by a driving pressure or ceramic powder.They typically have
gradient in co-current flow towards the a mean pore size far below 1mm.so that
filter medium. The liquid is able to they are suitable for deep bed filtration
penetrate the filter medium, while the of extremely fine particles down to the
solids are retained.Filtrationis next to the + +
um region. Leaf filfers and candle
+ sedimenfation one of the basic filters with + precoat layer are also
principles applied in solid-liquid sepa- employed as fine fi1ters.A distinguishing
ration. According to the mode of performanceobjective of fine filters is a
execution, one distinguishes further + Illtrafe as particle-freeas possible.
between + cake,+ crossflow, and
+ deep bed liltroHonmodes.

Particle collective formed during the
Filtration Pressure +
separation of a feed maferialwith a
is the active driving pressure gradient +
certain particle size dlstribunon: fines
during a + filfration. The filtration entail the fraction with the smaller size,
pressure can be generated by a hydro- +
and the coarse materialcon-taining
static head, centrifugal forces, applying the larger particles. The particle size at
a vacuum, charging a gas overpressure, the boundary between fines and
the head of a slurry pump, or the +
coarse material is called the cufslze.
pressure of an impermeable press
membrane. The filtration pressure is
Fingering
either kept constant during filtration, or
is increased proportional to the pressure is a phenomenon in + cake filtratfon
loss increase caused by the cake often occurring during the + washing
formation. or the + demoisturing. The washing Ii-
quid, or the gas, respectively, does not
progress in a uniformly even front
Fine Capillary System through the cake, but preferentially
In a + bulk one typically differentiates penetrates the larger 3 pores, that are
between a coarse and a fine capillary always present in normal particle size

52
Flocculation Agents

distributions due to their lower resis- Fleece
tance.This can lead to fingering, i.e.over
parts of the filter area there is a pre- + Filter medium made of compressed
mature and unwanted break through fiber layers. A fleece compacted by
of the washing liquid (or gas) through
needling is also called +needle felt.
Fleeces are low cost media, with
the 3 filter medium.Counter measures
relatively low strength, however, and
are limited: an equalization of the cake
lack a regular pore shape or precisely
structure and secondly as high as
adjustable pore size in contrast to a
possible a viscosity of the washing fluid
compared to the + mother liquor can + weave.
reduce the fingering effect. + Steam
pressure filtration has shown to alleviate Flocculution
the fingering when through conden-
Process for the aggregation of
sation of the pressurized steam the liquid
+primary particles to more or less
in the advancing, large pores can be
loosely constructed particle collectives
replenished.
+
named flocks.Flocculation improves
the separation behavior of finely
Fixing Wire granular + suspension through an
serves as an additional attachment of increase of the sedimentation velocity
the + filter cloth on + drum filters. of the solids or by forming more per-
meable + filter cakes. For the floccu-
wrapped spiral-likearound the cylinder,
specially when a + compressed air lation of a suspension, a parent solution
has to be produced at first from a
repulsion is utilized.
3 polymeric flocculanf,diluted to the
operational concentration, and is then
added to the suspension to be floccu-
.) Flock
lated. A rapid and thorough admixing
is required to bring the polymers
uniformly into contact with all particles.
Flut Bottom Cyclone A flocculation holding period follows, in
Cylindrically shaped + hydrocyclone which the actual joining of primary
with a flat, non-conicalbottom wherein particles takes place under low stress.
an induced convective flow carries the
solids into the center of the flat bottom, Flocculution Agents
from where they can be removed as a
thickened + sludge. By controlling the Chemicals, which upon addition to a
+ suspension lead to the aggregation
sludge height in the cyclone the desired
+ cutsizecan be freely adjusted within of individual particles to larger particle
collectives, also called + flocks.
certain limits.Flat bottom cyclones can
classify solids up to a cut size of 500pm. Flocculation agents mostly are long-
chained polymers which carry electric
charges which are either neutral
(nonionic), anionic, or cationic with

53
Flocculation Aids

respect to the solids to be flocculated. flock is, the higher is its strength against
Polymeric flocculants are supplied in mechanical stress. For this reason the
form of powders or concentrated sob- flock density of a flocculatedsuspension
tions. Generally, they can’t be applied is increased prior to feeding into a
in the food sector. Flocculation agents + centrlfuge by a shearing pre-
are a significant operating cost factor treatment, e.g. in a cylindrical stirrer.
in wastewater treatment. They are
+
applied in particular with thickeners,
+ +
decanter centrifuges, sieve belt
Flock Factor
presses, and + fllter presses. Many used in the + Richardson & Zaki-
applications are also found in the area equation to determine the volume
of continuous vacuum filtration. fraction of + flocks in a flocculated
+ suspension.Thevolumetric flock con-
centration c, is derived as the product
Flocculation Aids of + solids volume concentration c,
+ FlocculafionAgents and flock factor k:

Flocculation Holding Period cvF= kc,
+ Flocculation
Flow Moisture Point
Test method for estimating the stability
+
is an aggregatecollectiveof primary
of a wet + bulk material under an
particles. The + adhesion of the
alternating load. A semi-spherically
shaped test sample of moist material is
particles in a flock is effected by either
exposed to defined vibrations on an
influencing the electric surrounding of
oscillating table. At some moisture
the particles (+ agglomeration).or by
adding + polymeric flocculating
+
content the bulkstarts to deform and
begins to flow. This test method serves
agents (+ flocculation). A fiock does
the purpose to assure stable storage
sediment faster than the single particles
conditions during the transport of moist
would, ties in the finest, suspended mat-
ter, and produces during +cake fll-
+ bulk materials by truck, train, or ship.
tration a cake structure with a higher
permeability. + Sediments, produced Fluid
out of flocks or+ fllter cakes are con-
General term for a liquid or a gas.
siderably more compressible than
structures, formed out of comparable
single particles Forced Discharge
through a special discharge device for
Flock Density demoistured solids to guaranty the safe

Packing density of +
primary parffcles
removal of the product under any cir-
+
in a + flock. The more compacted a
cumstance, e.g. a discharge screw.

54
Fundabac Filter

Forwurd Edge
The forward edge of + filter cells at
+ rotary filters in the direction of the
rotation, characterized by the fact that
it has the shortest cake formation time, Frume Filter Press
i.e.the + cake thickness there is at its
Oldest design of a + filter press
lowest value. If the filter cells are not too
wide this effect is not significant. At characterized by the feature, that the
+ disc filters with relatively few cells, chamber for holding the 3 filter cake is
formed by a frame, which constitutes
however,the zone of the forward edge,
that is close to the cell foot, can cause the plate package, together with alter-
a problem during the demoisturing as nating filter plates between frames. A
more than 50% of the total amount of disadvantageof the frame filter press is
air can penetrate this extremely small the solids discharge, which has to be
filter area. manually performed by breaking the
cake out of the frame. An automation
of this step was initially introduced with
Fouling the + chamber filter press.
Dirt layer, formed by biological activity,
on 3 membranes.Fouling can lead to Friction
a cloggingof the membrane pores and
therewith to a decrease of the +
per- Force of resistance, counteracting the
movement of one body along the
meate flow. Fouling can be abated by
different chemical, physical and me- surface of another one. According to
chanical regeneration measures. Coulomb’s law, the frictional force F
depends on the coefficient of friction ~1
and the normal force N, with which the
Fruction surfaces in contact press against each
Clearly differentiated subset in a other. However, it is not dependent on
particle collective defined by their the size of these surfaces:
+ particle size or type of particle.
F=pN
Frucfionul Grude Efficiency As long as there is no movement, i.e.at
Term for describing the separation adhesive friction, p is larger than after
characteristic T(x) of a separation the onset of sliding, i.e. during sliding
apparatus also called Tromp curve. It friction.
represents the particle amount M,(x)
with the defined particle size x as
percentage of the total amount M,(x)
Fundubuc Filter
of a particle collective, which is dis- Special design of a discontinuously
+
charged in the coarsematerialof the working +
cake filter by the DrM, Dr.
separating apparatus. Muller company. The +
filter candles
consist of six perforated tubes surroun-
ding a central dip tube. The sock
shaped filter media attached to both
ends of the candle retains the solids on
the outside while the filtrate is guided
to the bottom of the outer tubes and
upward through the dip tube. The
candles are manifolded to registers in
a pressure tank with typical differential
pressures of 4 - 5 bars. Fundabac filters
are suited for wet as well as dry dis-
charge of a product and can also be
employed as + precoat lilfers, with in-
situ cake blow back and sock cleaning
by automatic sequencing. The design
without a tubesheet offers in addition
heel filtration and cake washing, and
the Contibac design variant is for qua-
si-continuous processing. Both filter
types, offered with up to 1,700 sq.ft.filter
+
area, are representativesof h e lilten
for dilute, difficult to filter +suspensions.

56
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Gruvity

Gus Throughput Grude Efficiency
Term from 3 cake filtration.During the Share of percentage of a substance
demoisturing process under the influ- having been separated following the
ence of the gas difference pressure and separation.The 3 total degree ofsepa-
following the demoisturing of the largest ration for a solid substance out of the
3 pores a gas throughput through the 3 suspension includes the separated
respectively demoistured pores of the amount in percentage share of the
3 f i h r cake occurs. With decreasing entirely available solids, while the
product moisture the gas throughput 3 fractionalgrade eMciency describes
increases.It has to be sustained by the the percentageof the separatedshare
gas compressor, in order to maintain the of a solids fraction.The fractional grade
driving pressure for further cake de- efficiency is displayed by the +Tromp
moisturing.Thegas throughput is not the curve.
cause but instead the undesired effect
of the demoisturing.Thegas throughput
Grain
determines essentially the operational
costs of the filter apparatus. 3 Patficle

Gus Throughput-Free Filtrution Gruin Fruction
Process developed in Karlsruhe, Ger- 3 Particle Fraction
many for 3 cake filtration based on a
3 membrane 3 filter cloth with a high Gruin Size Distribution
3 capillary entry pressure as 3 filter
3 Particle Size Distribution
medium (BOKELA patent).The process
avoids through the structure of this
3 filter medium the 3 gas throughput, Gruin Size
normally occurring at the cake de- 3 parficle Size
moisturing through the already emptied
cake pores. Furthermore particle-free
3 filtrates are produced. The filtration Gruvity
free-of-gas throughput can be em- The gravity measured on the earth's
ployed for all cake filtration machines surface is derived as the resultant out
due the flexibility and process-tailored of the mass attraction and the 3 centri-
fabrication of the filter medium. fugal force caused by the earth's
rotation, which in general can be ne-
glected.

57
Gruvity Filtrution

Gruvity Fiitrutlon
The hydrostatic pressure of a liquid
column is utilized here as the driving
potentialfor the liquid transport.Thiscan Ap = pressure difference, p = fluid density,
be realized by a n over-the-dam height v = mean (average)flow velocity,
on the surface of a 3 deep bed filter d = characteristic length, h, = cake
(9 sand fiHerfor water purification), or thickness, E = porosity, Re + Reynolds
by the liquid column in a .) bulk Number

Gruvity Thickener
Mostly round tank in which a feed
.)suspension is separated by + gravlfy.
Round thickeners are built with dia-
meters of up to 200m and are operated
continuously.The diluted, often floccu-
lated, suspension is fed centrally. Below
the clear liquid zone in the upper
thickener section whose outer edge
includes the overflow for the clarified Ii-
quid, is the interface level where the so-
called .) swarm sedimen-fation zone
begins. This separating zone changes
into the + compression zone in the
lower part of the tank. Here the particles
approach each other so closely that
they are capable of exerting mechani-
cal forces on each other.The achieved
thickening degree depends on the
thickness of the compression layer and
the compression time. The thickened
sludge is conveyed from the bottom of
+
the thickener by a slowly rotating rake
to the central sludge outlet. Very high
thickening is achieved in so-called
.) deep cone ihlckeners.

Gupte-Equution
Permeation equation for porous .)bulk
with a similar structure as the .)Carman
& Kozeny-equation:
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Hindered Settling

HBF High Intensity Press
+ Hyperbar Filter Post-demoisturing apparatus, by the
ANDRITZ company, for mechanically
pre-demoistured, compressible mate-
Helmholh Vortex rials. The high intensity press works
+ Potential Vortex completely continuously on the prin-
ciple of the .) double belt press, how-
ever without the common multiple belt
Hi-Bar Filtration
reversings.Area pressures of up to 8bar,
Development b y the BOKELA company. applied by pressurized water cushions,
Continuously working pressure filter can be realized in this machine at
system according to the principle of the product residence times of several
+ Hyperbar tilter.The Hi-Bar-Filtercan minutes.Thepressure can be increased
+
also be designed as a steam pressure sectionwise through isolated chambers
filtration. A special variant of Hi-Bar in order to maintain the inlet conditions
fiiltration is the +Oyster Filter. of the moist sludge and therewith to
prevent it from being pushed back.The
high intensity press is employed, for
example, after +decanter centrifuges
or + double belt presses.

Hindered Sedimentation
One speaks of hindered sedimentation
if the particles in a fluid, i.e.a liquid, are
not able to settle entirely on their own,
but being influenced by each other.
Resulting effects start already at a few
volume percent + solids content in a
suspension.

Hindered Settling
BOKELA Hi-Bar Filtration pilot plant with 2
shipping containers + Swarm Sedimentation

59
HIP

HIP bination of +filter presses and thermal
demoisturing is realized when after a
9 High-lntensity-Press
conventionaldemoisturing step a small
amount of heat is transfered and the
Hollow Fiber Module press chamber is evacuated (e.g.Rollfit
of the BERTRAMS company). In this
Special arrangement of 9 membrane
application the drying process takes
in modules for 9 cmssfiowfiltration.The
several hours compared to one hour in
membrane consists of hollow fibers with
the previously mentioned equipment.
a diameter of less than 1mm, arranged
as a bundle in a pipe.Thesehollow fibers
are flown through by the liquid to be Hydraulic Diameter
concentrated,leaving the module as a The characteristic mean 9 pore dia-
9 concentrate. The 9 permeate flows meterd, of a 9 bulk, that would apply
radially through the membrane walls of if one permeated a bundle of
the hollow fibers, and is collected inside cylindrical capillaries instead of the
the enclosing pipe.Hollow fiber modules
+
are utilized for the micmfflfmtion, but
investigated solid system at hand.
Analogous to fluid mechanics the
also specially for 9 ultrafllfration,be-
cause they clog easily
following can be defined for a +
bulk:

Homogeneous d, = 4- E l - 2 E
- -- d 32
Through and through the same likeness,
I-ES, 3q1-E
without distinct places (9 isohpic).
d, = 9 Sauter diameter, S, = specific
surface, E = porosity, 'p = form factor. For
Hop Sack-Weave sand applies for example: 'p c 1.4,E z 0.4
+ Plain Weave 3 dhz0.33d,,

Hot Filter Press Hydrocyclone
Combined mechanical-thermal de- Cylindric-conical, non-moving sepa-
moisturingprocessfor industrial +steam ration device, into which a 9 suspen-
pressure filtration. It is a special type of sion is pumped under pressure
9 membrane filterpress,equipped with tangentially into the cylindrical part.The
alternating heating and membrane liquid develops a potential vortex fiow,
filter plates.Theheating plates produce wherein the particles in the flow are
a filtrate steam cushion.Thissteam then exposed to a centrifugalforce. Particles
displaces mechanically the main +
up to a certain cut size are spun out
portion of the liquid in the filter cake. to the wall and leave the hydrocyclone
Following this the cake can be more at the lower, conical end through the
efficiently thermally contact dried. A 9 apex nozzle.Themajor liquid volume
similar, however, not as powerful com- flow including the fine particles is
Hyperbar Filter

extracted upwardly through a central Water-attracting wetting behavior of
+ vortex finder. These machines are water against a solid, where the
especially suited for the classifying of + welting angle has to be 6 < 90". An
suspensions.Theycan be operated with example for a hydrophilic system is
pressures of up to 4bar and cut sizes of water and glass.
from 5 - 5 0 0 ~ mHydrocyclones
. are
+
employed for enrichment, hickening,
Hydrophobic
+ de-gritting, 3 classifying, and de-
sludging. Due to their simple design they (fr. Gk: hydr- + phobia fear of water).
can be manufactured readily in Water repelllng-wetting behavior of
extremely different materials of water against a solid, where the
construction as required by the process. + wetting angle has 6 more or equal
90". An example for a hydrophobic
system is water and Teflon.
Hydrogen Bridge
Hydrogen molecules for example, due
to their extremely strong polar covalent
Hydrostutic Cuke Formution
bond, are definite permanent dipoles Phenomena appearing especially at
that strongly attracting each other. + disc filters with large disc diameters.
These dipole forces are considerably Due to the depth of immersion of the
+
larger than the Van-der-Waalstbrces, +
disc into the suspensiona hydrostatic
because their charge distribution is pressure is created, which in combi-
contrary to induced dipoles per- nation with the atmospheric pressure on
manently asymmetrical. Frequently the 3 filter cell builds up a+ pressure
such dipole forces can evolve when a difference,that starts a cake formation
hydrogen atom is bonded with a on the + filter medium before the
stronglyelectron-attracting ( i e electron actual vacuum build-up in the cell be-
negative) atom like F, 0, or N. The gins. As the hydrostatic cake formation
subsequently positively polarized increases with progressing depth, the
hydrogen atom acts because of its commonly occurring problem of un-
extremely small size especially strong even cake formation on the filter cells
attracting upon another, negatively also increases.
polarized atom. The resulting bond is
called a hydrogen bridge.
Hygroscopic
(i.e. water attracting). Hygroscopic
Hydrolysis substances (e.g.sulphuric acid, calcium
(fr. Gk: hydor = water, /yein = dissolve). chloride) attract humidity out of the
Hydrolysis is the splitting of a chemical surrounding air.
bond by the addition of water.
Hyperbur Filter
Hydrophilic Class of continuously working over-
(fr. Gk: hydor = water, philos = friend). pressure cake filters, developed in Karls-

61
ruhe, Germany. Hyperbar filters are
characterized by a + drum Wter or
9 dIsc filter, which is mounted complete
with its drive in a man-sized pressure
vessel. There is a manhole for
maintenance and service. Detail
consideration has to be given to the
safe discharge of the moist solids
concerning the operation of the system.
Hyperbar filters are preferably em-
ployed in the mineral, ore, and coal
processing industries, as well as in the
food and chemical sector.They operate
with pressure differences of up to dbars
and can hold more than loom2filter
area in a single pressure chamber.
Hyperbar filters are built by a number
of manufacturers, among others by the
BOKELA company with their 9 HI-Bar-
F/Itraffontechnology.

Hyperbar filter wlth unlocked pressure vessel
(view on a BOKEM HI-Bar drum filter)
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

lnner Liquid

Idle Time Incompressibility is exhibited especially
with coarser particles in the region over
The unproductive time of a + discon- 100pm.Very small particles or + flocks,
finuously working separation process. however, tend to form + bulks with a
This includes e.g.times for the filling with distinct + compressibilify. Incom-
suspension, for the solids discharge and
for the preparationof the apparatus for
pressible+ bulks cannot be demois-
tured by press filters, and the entrained
a new filling. The total batch time then liquid has to be removed by over-
results out of the sum of idle time and coming the capillary pressure by means
separation time. of gas or centrifugal pressure.

Impact Ring Centrifuge Inert Gas
Continuously working centrifuge with is a gas concerning the solid-liquid se-
vertical rotation axis and a drum that paration that does not react with the
opens conical upwards and is divided mixture to be separated. Generally, this
into annular segments for the +
de- is a nitrogen or helium atmosphere,
moisturing of coarse-grained plastic which requires an enclosing of the
materials. The product is fed highly separation machine. An inert gas
concentrated into the lower central atmosphere is especially necessary if
part of the rotating drum. The oxidation processes ranging up to
granulated particles are accelerated explosions by atmospheric oxygen in
there and move from one annular the air are to be avoided.
segment to the next in the direction of
the solids discharge. Upon impact on
the respective next ring the adhering Inlet Cone
water is separated from them and exits Form of feed distributor, frequently used
through narrow slots in the drum to the in filtering+ cenfrifuges, for the even
outside. charging of the + suspension into the
centrifuge drum. If the inlet cone rotates,
lnclined Plate Clarifier then it serves simultaneouslyfor the pre-
acceleration of the suspension to the
+ Lamella Clarifier rotationaldrum speed.

Incompressibility lnner Liquid
refers to a +
bulk's behavior of not is the liquid bound in fine hair cracks or
getting compressed by pressure.

63
Integrity

inside isolated voids of particles in a definition only to the surface of a sub-
+ bulk. The volume share of this intra- stance against a vacuum. In view of
particle liquid is extremely high in measuring accuracy these agree most-
biological cells, which for the largest ly with surfaces against their own re-
part contain water isolated from the spective steam or a gas.
outside by the cell membrane.Theinner
liquid is not accessible for mechanical
demoisturing without particle de-
lnferior Drum Filter
struction. + Drum filter with the + filter area
located on the interior. The 3 suspen-
don is retained in the drum with a flange
lntegrify ring. Such filters are suited for products
is the qualitatively unimpaired condition with a stronger tendency for + sedi-
of a filter element, ensuring a safe mentation. Nowadays, they are rarely
functioning of the element in critical employed in Europe.
filtration processes, such as are de-
manded in the pharmaceutical indus-
try.
lntermediute Suspensions
Suspension concentration region within

lnterfuciul Tension
+
the range of hinderedsedimentation
where instabilities of the settling process
Reversible, isothermal work that is can appear in the form of + channel
necessaryat constant temperature and formation.
mole number to enlarge an interfacial
boundary surface A by the amount dA.
As the molecular attractionforces at the
lnferstithl Liquid Demoisfuring
boundary of two immiscible substances While it is not possible with a gas diffe-
(at least one liquid) do not compensate, rential pressure field to demoisturing the
but form instead a resulting force + interstitial liquid held at the contact
pointing to the inside of the homo- points of particles in the + bulk due to
geneous phase, work is necessary to pressure compensation around the
transport additional molecules into the contact points, a certain part of the Ii-
interface. Surface-active substances, quid still can be removed b y inertia
also called + fensides, reduce the force demoisturing in + centrifuges
interfacial tension. It also decreases by operating at extremely high
a temperature increase.The interfacial + C-wlues. The demoisturing of inter-
tension is measured as force per unit stitial liquid is characterized as the so-
length and is quoted in N/m or mN/m, +
called 4th region of the Bond-curve.
resp. Water at 20 O C possesses an
interfacial tension of 72mN/m.Often the
Interstitid Liquid
commonly valid term of interfacial
tension is synonymously used with the +
remains due to attracting capil/ary
expression 'surface tension". However, forcesat the contact points of particles
the latter applies according to its strict after a mechanical demoisturing pro-

64
cess. Depending on the geometric lsokinetic Sumpling
conditions and the 3 weflabilifyof the
refers to taking a fluid sample with mini-
solids, the fraction of interstitial liquid
held in the 3 bulk can reach &20% of mal interference by the sampling
device on the flow.It has to be designed
the 3 saturation.
in such a manner that the flow velocity
at its intake corresponds exactly to the
lnverting Filter Centrifuge one of the fluid surrounding the device.
A discontinuously working 3 filter centri-
fuge, with a drum insert where the lsotropic
3 filter cloth is attached to at one end
like a cuff.After the cake demoisturing +
A bulk materialis defined as isotropic
if the center of gravity of each particle
process, this drum is hydraulically
pushed out of the drum in axial has the same probability to be located
direction. This turns the filter cloth inside at any random location in the 3 bulk
at any random point in time. An iso-
out and the 3 filter cake that had
formed on its inside, is now on the out-
+
tropic bulk material is entirely evenly
side and can be cast off the filter cloth. mixed and does not display any
An advantage here is the complete re- predominant direction.
moval of the filter cake without a re-
maining cake layer, as required with
3 peeler centrifuges.Also, it cleans the
cloth extremely well. As the sieve basket
rotates in an enclosed housing, the
centrifugation can also b e super-
imposed by a + pressure filtration
or 3 steam pressure filtration by
pressurizing the drum’s internal space.
This internal space is sealed against the
housing by the front plate of the drum
insert.The main field of application of
this relatively complicated machine is
in fine chemicals and pharmaceuticals.

lsoelectricul Point
In 3 colloidal 3 ampholytes the
mobility caused by 3 electrophoresis
drops to zero and the zeta potential
disappears. The ability of suspended
particles for 3 agglomeration reaches
a maximum.

65
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Krumer Filter

Kappa-Factor pensions one can work with + filtering
aids.
A connection between cake thickness
hc,filtrate volumeV and filter area A can
be derived out of a mass balance of Kieselgur
+ +
the filtercakeand the filtrate,aside + Diatomaceous Earfh
from this being dependent on the
porosity E and the densities of the solids
and the liquid: Kinematic Viscosity
+
The kinematic viscosityv is expressed
in Stokes (1 St = 1 cm*/sec).It is related
to the + dynamic viscosity q via the
fluid density p:

As can be recognized out of the v = -r7
formula, the kappa-factor is to be inter- P
pretedalso as a concentration measure
Knife
+
in dependence of the solids volume
+
concentration c, of the suspension. +
Device for removal of filter cake after
the demoisturing step. The knife can
actually have a cutting function, such
Kelly Filter + +
as the peeler knife in peeler centri-
Old design of + leaf filters (1905). uges, or only function as a deflecting
+
employed for fine ff/trationand usually + +
plate,as in drum filterswith scraper
works with overpressure. The Kelly filter discharge.
possesses vertical, rectangular filter
blades,which are installed in sequence
Konfiltro
in a lying pressure tank. For the + fil-
tration it will be filled entirely with the A joint development for a +
belt filter
+ suspension to be separated. The by the BAYER company and the BHS
filtrate discharge is performed for each company with a heatable and per-
filter element through the lid. After the meable pressing device that is placed
ending of the filter process the filter on the cake.
container is pulled away from the plate
package, which is to be cleaned. The
Kramer Filter
overpressure in Kelly filters lies usually at
several bars. At difficult to filter sus- Combination of + crosstlow filter and
67
+ pfess filter comprising disc shaped
filter membranes that are mounted on
a rotating shaft in a horizontal pressure
+
tank.Filter cake formation on the f f h f
a m is prevented through crossflow, so
that the + suspension is highly
thickened. After the rotation is stopped
the press membranes demoisture the
remaining + sludge extensively. The
demoistured solids are subsequently
discharged.The field of application for
this mechanically relatively complex
machine is mostly in the recovery of high
value pharmaceuticals or fine
chemicals.
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Laminar Flow

Luborufory Appurutus
Small scale equipment like the +Filtra-
test or +Centritest for simulating solid-
liquid separation process in the labo- Lumellu Clurifier
ratory.Objective is to obtain data con-
cerning the separation behavior of the Apparatus for gravitational sedimen-
+ suspension and the dimensioning of tation. The clarifying area is increased
full-scalescale equipment.Sincecertain with tilted, parallel plates separated by
machine parameters of the envisioned only a small distance of several mm up
large scale apparatus cannot b e to a few cm between each other. The
simulated in a laboratory apparatus, like gap width determines the sedimen-
a special agitator machine, testing with tation path of the particles on the plate
a so-called + pilot plant is frequently beneath it.The clarified liquid rises over
special rising channels and exits on the
conducted on semi-technical scale for
proper plant dimensioning. upper side of the apparatus.If a lamella
clarifier is applied as a + thickener, a
sludge collecting space beneath the
Luce Weuve plate assembly is required with sufficient
+ Weave in +
linen or +
twill weave height for the formation of a +com-
where the warp and weft threads, cros- pression layer. Lamella clarifiers can be
sing at right angles, have different operated in co-current flow (particle
diameters. and liquid) or in countercurrent flow. In
addition, they can be employed in
special designs for the separation of a
Lumbdu Value second liquid phase (e.g.oil and water).
The term lambda value h is used in the
modeling of the + demoisturing of
Luminur Flow
+ filter cakes in the centrifugal field. It
is defined as a dimensionless kinetic A laminar flow is defined as the move-
parameter taking into account the ment of a liquid or a gas, where lndi-
cake thickness hc.the liquid viscosity rlL, vidual volume elements move past
the liquid density pL, the + centrifugal each other without mixing.This flow type
value C, the earth's acceleration g, the +
is stable only up to a certain Reynolds
mean +hydraulic radius of the cake number.In the laminar flow of particles
pores r,and the demoisturing time t,: in+ sedimentation for example the
particle Re number is made up of its
settling velocity w, the particle diameter

69
x, the liquid's density pLand dynamic Leaching Out
viscosity qLas follows:
3 Fxtraclion

Resed= W X P L
~

Leading Edge
+ Forward Edge
UL

If this value is < 0.2, which is the so-called
Stokes' region, the flow is laminar. Leaf Filter
Collective name for discontinuously
LuplaceEquation worklng, cake forming + overpressure
The Laplace-equation describes the fllters with leaf shaped, sequentially
+ capillary pressure p, of a system arranged filter elements with up to
several square meters of filter area.The
consisting of two non miscible fluid
phases (at least one liquid) by linkage filter leafs are made out of several layers
+
of the interfcrcial tension of the llquid of wire cloth.The outer layer is a closely
+
meshed,woven fihrclolh,the middle
yL,and both main curvature radiuses of
the liquid surfaces R, and R,: layer a coarse + weave, in order to
drain the filtrate. Leaf filters are usually
operated with pressures of up to 6 bar
and used in the separation of difficult
to filter 3 suspensions. The solids dis-
charge can be carried out either as an
extremely thickened suspension or a
For a cylindrical 3 capll/ary with the
+ + filter cake breaking in lumps. Leaf
radius r and the contact angle
+
filters are also being operated as fine
6 results the following:
+
filters with precoat as well as 3 deep
bed f/Ners.A well-known example for a

P, =
2yLcos6 +
leaf filter is the so-called NiagafaffNer.

Leakuge Air
Lay UP + Secondary Air
+ Shutdown
Leaving Filter Belt
~uyerThickness A 3 fflter cloth for the discharge of a
Thickness of a +
bulk formed in a filter cake from a +drum filter that is
separation apparatus.Thiscan be either guided away from the drum around a
+ +
a f i k r cake or a sediment. small diameter spindle.Thecloth returns
to the drum via tension and deflection
rollers.A running cloth is typically used
for strongly adhesive and cloth conta-

70
Long Arm Centrifuge

minuting 3 filter cakes, as the sharp linen Weave
deflection around the spindle breaks off
the cake. The cloth can be washed
3 Plain Weave
subsequently on both sides with high-
pressure nozzles before returning to the liquid Bridge
drum.
3 /nterst/t/a/Liquid

level Controller
liquid load
Sensor in vertical and horizontal discon-
A measure for the liquid amount remai-
tinuous filter centrifuges for controlling
ning in the solid bulk after separation.
of the filling process with 3 suspensions.
Generally, the load B is defined as the
Generally, the level controller employs
ratio of liquid mass mLand solid mass
a water ski-like sensor, that is mounted
mS:
on a pivot and that glides on the surface
of the rotating drum while pressed on m
B =L(-)
by a spring.The pivoting caused by the
increase in fill height can be measured
m,
by an electronic position sensor and
utilized for the regulation of the filling long Arm Centrifuge
valve.Objective is to avoid overtilling of
Special laboratory 3beakercenirituge,
filter drum.A novel development by the
whose beakers are so far extendedfrom
KRAUSS MAFFEIcompany combines the
the rotationalaxis that a single average
basic level indicator with a thermal
can be assigned for the layer to be
sensor capable of registering
centrifuged concerningthe centrifugal
differences in frictional heats between
acceleration.
suspension and solids, respectively, and
thus is able to indicate when the
demoisturing step of the cake begins.

light Weight Segment
Special designed 3 iiMer segment by
the BOKELA company for the 3 Boozer
FiMers.The weight reduction from 28 kg
down to 18 kg per disc filter segment
makes maintenance work easier
especially at large diameter disc filters.
Comparedto a standard filter segment
the light weight segment has even a
better rigidity.

71
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Mechunicul DemoisWring Boundur y

Muchine Pcrrumeter specific solids mass throughput is stated
in (kg/m*h).
Design dimension characteristic for the
geometry of the separation apparatus
that influence the process directly. Muteriul Feeder
Examples for machine parameters are The purpose of a material feeder is the
the 3 cake formafion angle at 3 rotary even distribution across the separating
filters, or the drum length of a 3 decan- surface of the 3suspensionto be sepa-
ter centrifuge. rated. Material feeders can be a diffu-
ser like distribution metal plate, groove
Mushing like distribution facilities with a paddle
discharge, and distribution or floating
The mixing of a particular dry solid into
dam plates, respectively. Applications
a liquid to produce a 3 suspension.For for such devices can be found e.g. in
example, the suspension prepared for strongly flocculated suspensions in the
alcoholic fermentation during the wine
or beer making is called mash.
+ straining zone of 3 double belt
presses.

Muss Concentrution Mechunicul Demoisturing
The mass concentration states the Boundury
3 solids content in a 3 suspension.
Commonly, the mass concentration is The mechanicaldemoisturing of porous
quoted in [g/lsulP).and can be readily solids systems is subject to certain limits.
determined gravimetrically, but causes In the demoisturing of 3 bulk solids, the
problems when comparing suspenslons mechanical demoisturing boundary is
made from different compounds whose reached when the + coarse caplllary
densities do not correspond. For these liquidis removed due to exceeding the
cases the + volume concentration is 3 capillary pressure by the differential
gas pressure. Then the liquid in the
better suited.
3 bulkexistsonly in form of 3 interstitial

Muss Throughput
+
liquid, 3 adhesive liquid, inner liquid,
and isolated liquid regions. In the
Mass transported or separated in a centrifugal field one can still remove
separation apparatus per time unit.The certain portions of these liquids by the
mass throughput refers mostly to the acting mass force. In the demoisturing
solids mass throughput. It is often b y mechanical pressing, a limit is
correlated to a +filter area The area- reached when the solid particles get

73
Mechonicd Demoisturing

destroyed by the compacting pressure. +
producing particle-free fflfrafes,the
membrane filter cloth has the special
advantage of complete suppressionof
Mechunicu/ Demoisturing the gas breakthrough during the de-
In the solid-liquidseparation technology moisturing phase which is unavoidable
one principally differentiates between in conventional cake filtration. The
mechanicaland thermal demoisturing. principle of this + semi-permeability
While at the thermal demoisturing a lies in the fact that + hydrophilic
phase transition of the liquid into the + membranes have to have such small
gaseous state is always included, the + +
pores that their caplllarypressure
mechanical demoisturing is achieved cannot be surpassed by the acting gas
by displacement of the liquid at pressure difference (e.g. vacuum with
constant temperature.The mechanical 0.8 bar). The filter cake on the other
demoisturing occurs under the hand has to be capable of being
influence of either the earth’s gravi- demoistured at this + pressure
tational or a centrifugal field, a hydro- difference. Membrane filter cloths
static head, a hydraulic or mechanical display pore sizes between 0.2pm and
pressure, or a gas difference pressure. up to about lpm. Cake formatlon
performance and final residual moisture
correspond in general to those attained
Membrune in conventional filtration with a common
(Latin: membrana = skin). Membranes + fflfer cloth.
are used in solid-liquidseparation in two
different manners. For one, impermea-
ble rubber or plastic membranes are Membfune Filter Plutes
employed in the mechanical press Special filter plate for a + membrane
+
demoisturing of sludges in membrane fflferpress,which is equipped with press
filter presses. Alternatively, permeable membranes.Thesemembranes can be
membranes are used as porous fflter+ hydraulically stretched to the outside to
medium in + microfiltration and +
push out the filfercukefromthe filter
+ ultrafiltration. The+ pore size is chambers.
generally located In the sub-pm region.
Filtration membranes are offered in a
large variety of materials and have to
Membrune Filter Press
be carefully adjusted to the product to Further development of a +
chamber
be filtered, in order not to clog too early fffferpmss.In membrane filter pressesthe
and thus become inoperable. + fflter cake can be squeezed in the
filter chamber from one side by a press
membrane. Filter- and membrane
Membrane Filter Cloth plates alternate with each other.
+
A microporous membranefor+ cuke Advantages of this design are that the
filfratlon integrated in a technical +
feed pressure of the suspension can
+ +
weave or a fleece (patent of the be kept low and for this a high pressure
BOKELA company). Aside from pump is not needed anymore, that a

74
Moisture Measurement

3 residual volume filtration can be clearly defined.Mostly, it is perceived as
achieved without difficulties, and last the diameter of a sphere capable of
the filter cake can be uniformly com- passing through a medium sized mesh.
pressed. Mesh widths in a technical 3 weaveare
principally size distributed, aspiring a
3 pore size distribution as narrow as
Membrune Fouling Dossible.
3 Fouling
Micelles
Mercury Intrusion Molecular aggregates of for example
3 Mercury-Porosimetrics a 3 fenside that form on the surface
of a liquid which had been prior
saturated upon further addition of
Mercury-Porosimefrics
tenside. If the surface is capable of
A technique for measuring the 3 pore adsorbing more tensides again for
size distribution in porous systems. First, instance through area enlargement, the
the evacuated voids of a porous system micelles disappear. The tenside
are filled under pressure with mercury. concentration in a liquid at which a
This procedure is also called mercury micelle formation begins is called the
intrusion. The filling of the+ pores is ”critical micelie concentration”(cmc).
performed with continuously stepwise
increasing pressure. Following each
pressure increase one waits until the Microfilfrution
equilibrium of the mercury-absorption A type of 3 surface filtration where
in the specimen is reached. Then, porous 3 membranes, generally with a
according to the 3 Laplace-equation 3 pore diameter of less than 5pm. are
a 3 pore diameter can be assigned to employed either in + crossflow or
each pressure level. The distribution 3 deadendmode of operation.Micro-
results from the respective quantity of filtration is applied in polishing and
the intruded mercury. concentrating of 3 suspensions, that
contain a large amount of submicron
size particles.
Mesh
Number of openings per linear inch in
filter weaves. So. for example 5 Mesh Microporous
correspondsto a 3poresizeof 4000pm; Pore structure with 3 pore sizes of 5pm
50 Mesh correspond to 297pm. and 5OOO and smaller.
Mesh correspond to 2.5pm.

Moisture Meusurement
Mesh Width 3 Residual Moisture Measurement
Opening cross section of 3 pores in a
filter weave. The term mesh width is not

75
Moisture

ment, even continuously working ones.

3 Residual Moisture
Monoplute Pressure Filter
Monofilument Discontinuouslyoperating 3 cake fi/ter
with horizontally arranged filter area
Weave, which is woven from endlessly and flowing in the direction of gravity.
spun individual threads.Monofil weaves A driving overpressure is generated by
+
are extremely adjustable in poresize, either a pressurized gas or from the
and are often applied in the +cake
head of the 3 suspension pumped into
filtration.A lower pore size limit is around the filter chamber.Pressuresuction filters
5um. are ubiquitous in industry, have less than
10m2 filter area, and are usually
Monolayer Filter operated with pressures less than 1Obar.
The thickness of the filter cakes, formed
Apparatus of the +deep bed filtraf/on
in the monoplate pressure filters, can
type with a homogeneous bed
exceed 0.5m.Monoplate pressure filters
structure operated as +quick filterwith
with a few cm2fllter area are popular
a highly porous layer of 3 filter aid. The
for laboratory testing experiments
layer is supported on a perforatedhori-
concerning the characterization of the
zontal filter floor onto which the feed
filtration behavior of suspensions, and
flows in the direction of gravity. The filter
the sizing of 3 cake filters (3 Flltratesl).
is regenerated by changing the layer
or by a momentary flow reversal and
3 backflushing.Their main application Mother Liquor
is the field of water wrification. A liquid originally contained in the
3 suspension to be separated that
Monoplute Filter remains in the 3 bulk following the filter
cake formation. This mother liquor,
Discontinuously operating filter
however, can be displaced or diluted
apparatus for 3 vacuum or 3 pressure
in a following processstep with a 3 was-
filtration with a typically horizontal filter
hing liquid.
surface and flowing in the direction of
gravity.Theyusually produce thick cake
layers up to 0.5m or even higher from Multifllument
granular, often crystalline substances.
3 Weave woven from endlessly spun
They are popular due to their simple threads and twisted into a twine.
design in the laboratory; the 3 Biich- Multifilament weaves due to the thread
ner funnel as a vacuum filter and the structure display a certain deep bed
3 Nutsche fiiter as a pressure filter filter characteristic which can lead to
examples for this. Filtration charac- 3 blockage, but they are more stable
teristics derived with these apparatus against thread breakage than a
are quite useful for predicting the 3 monofilament weave.
performance of other filtration equip-
Multilayer Cartridge Filter
Candle shaped filter element flowing
from the outside to the inside and
working as a + deep bed filter. A
multilayer cartridge works like a +bulk
multilayer filter, but with a filter layer
made up of several layers of differently
fine porous + filter media (e.g.
+ fleeces) instead of +bulk ma-terial.
+
Again the pore size decreases in the
direction of the flow.Multilayer cartridge
filters are used in the purification of
liquidswith extremely low solids contents
+
(pulp colloids).

Multi-Pass Test
This test was developed in the first place
for the examination of hydraulic liquid
+
filters similar to the Single-fuss Test.
Here the + suspension is recirculated
+
through the tested filtermedium in a
large number of passes. A particle
measuring device registersthe amount
and size of the particles before and
after the filter during the test period.

Descriptionfor the filtration efficiency in
+ ultrafiltration.Molecular Weight Cut
Off is quoted in (+Dalton).

77
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Nonle-Type Sepurutor

Needle Felt The 3 viscosify of Newtonian liquids is
constant at all shear strains in contrast
3 Filter medium for surface filtration to 3 shear thickening or 3 shear
made of a compacted 3 tongledfiber fhinning liquids.
felt,The fibers of the 3 fleece,bedded
horizontally at first, are looped by
punching needlesvertically through the Niagara Filter
3 fleece.Throughthis felting processthe Discontinuouslyworking 3 leaf filter for
fiber structure receivesa greater stability. overpressureoperation.The rectangular
Needled felts have a random pore filter leafs, usually covered with metal
structure which can be varied over a weaves, hang vertically on a common
wide range as to their retention header in a vertical pressure vessel.The
properties,but exhibit due to their three- filtration pressure normally does not
dimensional structure a distinct deep- exceed 6bar. Niagara filters are well
bed behavior, which can lead to irre- suited for both dry and wet discharge
versible blockage of the pore structure of 3 filter cakes. Furthermore, they
by intruding particles. operate as 3 precoat filters with a
3 precoat layer consisting of 3 filter
Newtonian Flow aids. Niagara filters possess a wide
range of application in many industries.
3 Newtonian Liquid

Nominal Filter Fineness
Newtonian Liquid
3 Filter Fineness
In Newtonian liquids a flow sets in
immediately when a force is applied:
they have no 3 yield point. In laminar Nonionic
flow parallel liquid layers slide along Molecules that certainly are soluble in
each other which generate a shear liquids, but do not dissociated as
stress between the layers.The following negatively charged anions and
linear relationship exists between the positively charged cations.
shear stress 5, the viscosity q, and the
velocity gradient (slope) dv/dy across
the layers: Nozzle-Type Separator
dv Special design of a 3 disc stack
,t = v,.dY
- separator, named for the solids
discharge system. Permanently open

79
Number of Revolutions

nozzlesare installedat the largest radius allows a multitude of additional
of the double conical separation space operations,which can entail a chemical
with an opening width adjusted for the reaction. crystallization, as well as
specific separation task, through which 3 wshing and drying of the product.
the settled and highly thickened Those nutsches are then called 3 filfer
+ sludge is continuously discharged. reactors.
The yeast separator used in food
processing is a typical example for a
nozzle-typeseparator. In order to safely
establisha 3 compressionzoneand to
prevent a loss of the 3 suspension into
the sludge discharge, the + solids
concenfrafion in the 3 feed material
must have a certain minimum value. If
this cannot be done a 3 seHcl6aning
separator can be chosen as an alter-
native.

Number of Revolutions
Number of rotations of a centrifuge
drum or a filter element of a 3 rotary
filter. generally expressed in rotations per
minute (rpm). While the number of
revolutions of 3 cenfrifuges can vary
from 100 up to several l0,000rpm, it lies
in the range of 0.1 to lOrpm for filters.

Nutsche Filter
Simple, discontinuously working
apparatus for the + cake tlltraffon.A
nutsche filter consists in its basic form of
a vessel, closed at the bottom by a
3 filter surface that is filled with a
+
3 suspensionfor ff/fmtlon.Depending
on design, the suspension will then be
filtered elther under 3 vacuum or wlth
overpressure in the direction of gravity.
Agitators are frequently integrated into
nutsche filtersto improvethe separation,
which then are called agitated
+monoplafe pressure filfers.Thestirring

80
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Oyster Filter

Operating Parameters overflow rim where the clear liquid
evolves. For constant liquid discharge
are understood as all + variable the weir is often toothed or serrated.
parameters suitable of being altered
during the operation, e.g the number
of revolutions for a rotating centrifugal Overpressure
+
rotor, or the immersion depfhof a filter Absolute pressure acting against the
drum, or the + pressing power of a surrounding atmospheric pressure.
+ filter press membrane.

Overpressure Filter
Osmosis
Enclosed filter apparatus, working with
Selective passage of liquid components an increased gas pressure in relation to
through .) membranes due to a the surrounding atmosphere. Over-
concentration difference. If a liquid pressure filters work with +
pressure
permeates a semi-permeabie mem- differences up to around lobar:
brane under the force of an outer hydraulic or mechanical pressure filters
pressure and the solutes (e.g. ions) are are employed for larger pressures.
retained on the wall in this manner then
it is called reverse osmosis (saltwater
desalination). Oversize Parficles
have a considerably larger diameter
than the average solids and appear
Overflow
sporadically as a contamination in a
limits the fluid level: for example a + suspension. Oversize particles often
+ peeler centrifuge can be operated have to be separated before the actual
with an overflow, meaning the + sus- separation process, in order not to
pension drains off over the flange ring impair the function of the following
during the cake formation and the separation equipment.
maximal centrifugal pressure acts. In
+ drum or + disc filters the +tilter
trough level can be adjusted with a Oyster Filter
height-variable overflow pipe. The Oyster Filter is a special variant of
the BOKELA + Hi-Bar Filtration tech-
nology especially developed for the
Overflow Weir
+ filtration, + wahshing and 3 de-
Term often used in connection with moisturing of + suspensions in the
+ clarifiers and +
thickeners for the

81
chemical, pharmaceutical and food
industry.The Oyster Filter Is mounted in
a shell-like opening pressure vessel
which provides for a good accessibility
of the filter. A special feature of this
innovative pressure drum filter are the
individually exchangeable +drum lWbr
cells.

The BOKELA Oyster filter with steam cabin

82
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Purticle Fruction

Puddle Wusher extensively mixed with the washing Ii-
quid and conveyed from cavity to
developed by the BOKELA company for cavity upward the channel, The was-
3 countercurrent washing of granular hing liquid leaves highly enriched the
substances.
apparatus at the lowest point.The was-
hing can be controlled by adjustments
to the channel slope, the number of
paddle revolutions, and the solids and
wash liquid feed rates, respectively.

Pun Filter
3 Table 1Slter

Purullel Connection
Parallelarrangement of multiple units of
processing equipment when an
individual unit is too small to process the
total feed, or when quasi-continuous
operation has to be realized in the case
of discontinuously working units.For the
latter, each individual machine is
operated in a time-shifted manner for
continuous processing of the feed
stream.

BOKELA paddle washer Purficle
Equivalent term for solid particles of
The material to be washed is fed at the small dimension in the mm or pm range.
low point of a sloped flow channel.
which has semicircular troughs in the
bottom.Slowly rotating paddles mix the Purticle Fruction
suspension and convey the solids up the Particle collective with a defined
channelLThewashing liquid Is added at property. This can refer to either the
the high point of the channel for particle type or a certain particle size
countercurrent flow. The solids are range.

83
Particle Size Analysis

Particle Size Analysis Particle Size Measurement
Measurementof a 3 particlesize distri- 3 mriicie Size Analysis
bution. There is a host of different
techniques in use that can vary in their
3 dispersity charctersticsas well as in
Patfern Repeat
their 3 quantitative aspects. An Term applied in characterizing a
example would be a sieve analysis 3 woven cloth. The pattern repeat
where the dispersity characteristic is the entails the minimum number weft and
sieve hole diameter and the warp threads cross each other in an
quantitative aspect is respectively the uninterrupted sequence when
volume or the mass of a particle arranged side by side in the weft- and
fraction. warp direction.

Particle Size Distribution Peeler Centrifuge
Result of a 3 particie size anaiysis.The Discontinuously working 3 filter centri-
particle size distribution is expressed fuge with a horizontally rotating axis. Its
either as sum or density distribution.The name is derived from the solids dis-
particlesum distributionQ(x) states how charge knife that touches the 3 niter
many percent of the total particle cakedurlngthe drum rotation.Thispeels
amount are smaller than the examined the cake off the drum down to a 3 re-
particle size x. At the maximum particle sidual product layer, that is left on for
size xmaxthe particle sum is assigned the the protection of the + filter medium.
value Q(xmax)= 1 . At the minimum The solids are ultimately discharged via
particlesize xmlnthe particlesum has the a 3 conveyor chute or a 3 conveyor
value Q(xmln)= 0. The particle density screw. Additionally, peeler centrifuges
q(x) is the particle amount in a differen- can perform Intensive3 cake washlng.
tial particle size interval dQ(x) over the These centrifuges have diameters of
differential particle size interval dx. Both approximately 0.5m to 2.0m, can
distributions are related as follows: operate at + C -values of approx.
400 4 3000,and have a throughput of
approx. 0.1 t 50m.tJhr.

Peeler Knife
Particle Size
Cake removal device in 3 peeler
refers to a geometrical particle centrifuges. A standard peeler knife
dimension.Often a definite description reaches across the entire depth of the
is impossible due to an irregular particle drum; alternatively, a short knife with
shape and one uses a so-called axially oscillating movement is used.The
statistical particle diameter or an peeler knife is either radially pivoted
3 equivalent diameter. against the cake on the rotating drum
or vertically driven against it.To protect

84
Permeubilify

+
the filter medium against damage a Pendulum Centrifuge
thin product layer remainson the drum.
The cake discharge with peeler knives Disc ont i nuously operating 9 filter
at 9 centrifuges is roughly equivalent centrifuge with a vertically rotating axis.
The drum is rigidly mounted to an
to the 9 scraper discharge used in
9 drum and 9 disc filters if reverse
oscillating housing,supported by three
pneumatic pulsing is not considered. telescope-type spring legs.Therefore a
special foundation for the absorption of
vibrations is eliminated.Solids discharge
Peeling Disc can be performed in conformance to
Stationary double disc with curved flow product requirements, e.g. 9 peeler
channels in the gap leading to the knife, 9 peeling pneumatics, detach-
center of the disc. The rotating liquid able filtering bags, or manual removal.
surroundingthe disc enters into the flow Pendulum centrifuges work in the rpm
channels and drains through the center range of 200 to 3,000, and have drum
of the disc at a high velocity. Such diameters of 0.3 to 2.0m. Suspension
discharge devices are found in 9 disc throughputs of approx. 0.1+20m.t./hr
stack separators and 3 decanter can be realized.Theyare easy to clean,
centrifuges as well as 9 centrifugal flexible in operation, and therefore well
mixers. suited for a quick product change.

Peeling Pipe Perlite
+
used in cenffifugestotransfer clarified are fused, ground, and classifiedswelling
clays of volcanic origin.Their structure is
liquid from the process chamber. The
peeling pipe dips into the rotatingliquid leaf shaped and can be chemically
and as the kinetic energy of the liquid is grouped as silicates of sodium,
sufficiently high an external pump is potassium, calcium, or aluminum. They
eliminated. Hence a peeling pipe or a are extracted from open pit mines.
9 peeling disc is also dubbed a centri- Perlites are used as 3 filtering aids to
fugal pump. render dense bulk structures more
porous.

Peeling Pneumatics
Permeability
(also known as the Titus-System) is an
aspirating pipe used in 3 peeler is the flow resistance of a porous system,
centrifuges for the solids discharge. termed 3 cake permeabllity. The
Located directly behind the + peeler specific permeability of a + bulk is in-
knife this pipe pneumatically takes the dependent from the layer thickness and
peeled solids out of the centrifuge drum. determined by the geometry of the
The peeling pneumatics can be pore system. It can be measured in a
especially beneficial for subsequent filter test via the 3 Darcy equation.
thermal drying operations.

85
be processed due to their relatively
large cross-sectional flow area.
The clear liquid produced b y
+ microfl/fraffon and +
u/tr~/iraffon;
equivalent terms are 9 fl/iraie in filter PistonSpring Model
apparatus and 9 centrate in centri- is used conceptually for describing the
fuges. + consolidation of + compressible
9 bulk maferials. Accordingly, if a
pH Value bulk is compacted by pressing the
structural pressure and the liquid
Negative common logarithm of the
pressure change inversely in the bulk.
hydrogen ion concentration used to
The structural pressure rises from zero to
quantify the hydrogen or hydroxyl ion
the level of the pressing force, whereas
concentrationin aqueous solutions.pH-
the liquid pressure declines from the
values of < 7 are described as sour or
value of the pressing force at the
acidic, pH-values > 7 as alkaline or basic.
beginning of the consolidation process
At the pH of 7 a solution is neutral, down to zero at the equilibrium state.
because the concentrations of
hydrogen and hydroxyl ions are equal.
Plain Weave
Pilot Plant Special pattern for a + weuve repre-
senting the tightest and strongest inter-
Experimental equipment for testing on lacing of warp and weft threads. In
a serni-technical scale. A pilot plant
earlier times, it was named calico or
should be as small as possible in order
muslin weave for cotton, cloth weave
to minimize the operational efforts, but
for wool, and taffeta in silk weaving,
large enough to provide realistic data
respectively.Weaves in plain weave
for the design of a full scale machine.
texture show the same appearance on
Especially important is the investigation
both sides as one weft thread interlaces
of operational parameters, such as
a warp thread. By interweaving two or
suspension homogenization or solids
more weft threads with two or more
discharge behavior. warp threads a rib- or basket weave is
formed.
Pipe Module
Membrane filter medium assembled in Pleating
a pipe of several mm or cm diameter
for 9 crossflow fl/trafion. They offer in
Accordion-style folding of a + filter
med/a for 9 carfridge fl/fers.Through
comparison to other module designs pleating a filter cartridge with a large
only a small membrane area per surface area is produced, enabling in
module volume, but are well suited for return large throughput performances
applications in 9 microffltrotionas they with a low starting pressure loss.
do not make high demands on the
+
pretreatment of feed suspens/ons to
Plug Flow as solid granulates or liquid concen-
trates and have to be conditioned prior
+
in a 3 bulk is, in contrast to fingering, to use.
characterized by a uniformly pro-
gressing liquid front. One differentiates
in the modeling of the displacement of Pore Diumeter
liquid in a 3 capillary by centrifugation 3Pore
between plug and 3 fflm ffow.

Pore Flow
Plunger
relates to the flow of a fluid in the
Accessory for 3 bog filters.Plungers are 3 pores of a 3 filter medium or a
inserted in a bag to reduce dead space 3 bulk. The 3 empty pipe velocity of
(e.g. glue filtration). They are hollow the pore system is calculated as the
bodies, which are adjusted in their size product of the mean pore flow velocity
to the bag’s interior to reduce the loss and the mean 3 porosity. Known
of product. equations for describing the pore flow
in 3 bulk materials are respectively the
Police Filter 3 Carmanit Kozeny equation and the
3 Gupte equation.
Generally, a discontinuously operating
filter located downstream of a sepa-
ration processfor trapping particles that Pore
inadvertently can appear in the primary In solid-liquid separation a pore
filtrate. 3 Candle and 3 bag filters are describesthe void space surrounded b y
typically used as police filters. solids in a 3 fflfer media or in 3 bulk
materials. The geometry of such pores
Polishing Filter is often quite complex and exact
description can not be given. Hence,
3 Police Filter the pore size, i.e. the pore diameter, is
often represented by substitute values
Polymeric Flocculunt such as the circle equivalent to the pore
cross sectional area. A measuring
High molecular-weight polymers, such
method for the determination of pore
as polyacrylamides, with molecular
sizes in filter media is the 3 bubblepoint
weights in the magnitude of 107g/mol.
test.
One classifies according to their
dissociating groups between cationic,
anionic and nonionic polymers. Pore Size
Polymericflocculants cross-link particles +Pore
in a 3 suspension that form 3 flocks
which enhances their separation in
settling as well as in filtrating processes. Pore Size Distribution
Polymeric flocculants are offered either The pores in a 3 filter media or in

87
Porosimetrics

+ bulks are always more or less a size cycloneswithin the so-called .)primary
distributed that can be approximated vortex.The rotationalvelocity increases
in the same form as a +parf/cle size radially inwards up to a maximum. For
distribution, as a pore sum distribution, such a flow the momentum equation
or pore density distribution as a function based on the tangential velocity v and
+
of the pore size. the radius r yields the following relation
for different radii:
Porosimetrics v,r,"' = vzr;"
Measurement techniques for the
.)pore size or the + pore size dlstribu- For frictionless flow the exponent m
tion in .) filter media or + bulks. In equals 1 . For the frictional flow of
.) mercury porosimetrics the evacu- suspensions in .)hydrocyclonesa value
ated structure of a porous system is of m = 0.5 is often used.
successivelyfilled.With the bubble point
procedure a porous body filled with a
Precipitution
.) weffingliquid is stepwise demoistured
by application of a steadily increasing Solidification of dissolved compounds
gas pressure differential. Both pro- by adding a suitable substance (i.e.
cedures utilize the connectionbetween precipitation agents). The insoluble so-
+ capillary pressure and + pore size lid precipitates can then be removed
given by the .)Laplace equation. by a solid-liquid separation.

Porosity Precout
The porosity E of a .) bulk is defined as .) Precwt t9ltmffon
the ratio of void volume Vv and total
volume V, of a .) bulk, which in turn is
Precout
the sum of void- and solids volume Vs:
.) Precoat Layer
vv
&=-=-
vv
v,,, vv+vs Precout Filtrution
Another term for .) clarifying fi/frafion
The porosity is directly connectedto the where a coarse porous layer of a filter
+ vold run0 e: aid is filtered first on a cake-forming
.) vacuum or .) overpressure filter.
&=-
e Through this auxiliary layer the actual
I+e suspension is then filtered. Aside from
.) surface filtration there is also a

Potentid Vortex .) deep bed filtratlon component.
Generally, .)precoat filjrafion is applied
Flow form (also known as 9 Helmholfz when a clear llquid product with as few
vortex) which develops in .) hydro- particles as possible is needed.

88
Press Filtration

Importantfields of application are in the rollers.As long as the press belt seals on
beverage and food industries,as well as the edge of the filter cake, the existing
in biotechnology. Discontinuous gas pressure differential can also be
+ +
candle filters, leaf fflters, as well as utilized for pressing, thereby acting not
+
continuous drumffMersareemployed. only linearly but also uniformly over the
The + disc stack separator and the entire surface. Such a pre-press system
+ crossflow filter equipped with is of advantage when the filter cake has
membranes are competing separation a tendency for + shrinkage crack
options. formation as it can be stabilized by a
certain pre-compression.
Precoat Layer
+
A filter layer, formed by cake ffltraffon Press Filter Automat
from a + filter aid, through which the Special design of a + membrane filter
process suspension is filtered during a press, with a vertically plate package
+ precwt ffltration. Precoat materials and horizontal filter chambers. The
+ +
are diatomaceous earih, activated + filter cloth is continuous that zig-zags
+
carbon, perlite, wood flour et al; they through all chambers.After the opening
usually offer a large specific surface for of the plate package the cloth is
stopping large amounts of pollutants. transported by one plate length
Aside from the purely mechanical re- forward, and the cakes are safely
+
tention, adsorptioncan be utilizedto discharged to the sides of the
remove compounds that are dissolved chambers. Filter cakes can be washed,
or form + colloids in a liquid pressed and demoistured with gas
pressure. Press filter automated
machines are build with up to 150m2
Pre-Filter
filter area and work with gas pressures
Apparatus employed for screening of of up to approx. 6bar. The horizontal
+ oversize grain to protect the subse- position of the filter plates promotes the
quent separation equipment.Pre-filters consistent product distribution in the
are installed upstream of +disc stack filter chamber as a well as the efficient
separators and + hydrocyclones to + washing of the cake.
prevent potential blocking of their dis-
charge nozzles.
Press Filtration
Press Belt
+
A process,where the filter cake after
formation is either compressed by the
employed on + drum filters or+ belt + suspension,or undergoes additional
filtersto cover partially the demoisturing pressing (+ filter press), or by a
section of the + filter cake for me- mechanically applied pressing power
chanical compression. The press belt, (+membrane filter press), for subse-
usually designed as a rubber belt, is quent demoisturing. Dependingon the
guided over a roller system to the filter filter design, pressing powers of a few
cake, where it is pressed on by press bars up to high pressures of 1Wbars are

89
Press Roller

applied. Press filtration is obviously Pressure Drop
applicable only if the filter cakes display
a distinct + compressibility.This is
+Pressure Loss
especially the case with extremely fine
grained (x<l Opm), non-rigid (organic Pressure Fllter
substances), or strongly flocculated
particles. This + compression is also
Filters where the driving potential is a
pneumatic or hydraulic pressure above
called consolidation.
atmospheric pressure.Pressurefilters are
employed as + cake or+ deep bed
Press Roller filters for both discontinuous and con-
tinuous operation.The term is physically
Device to apply pressing power on
+
demoistured flltercakes.In double+ not clearly specified, as for example
+ crossflow filters are usually not
belf presses, the cake which is held
characterizedas pressure filters.
between two filter belts moves through
a narrow slot formed by rollers facing
each other, alternatively a pressure is Pressure Leui Filter
created b y winding the belts around a
+ +
roller.On drum fflfers and belt filfers,
+ leaf Filter
press rollers are installed as an additio-
nal facility for the post-demoisturing of Pressure Loss
the cake durlng the vacuum filtration. The loss of pressure caused b y fluid
Often they are combined with a friction in a permeated system, such as
+ press belt which they press onto the +
a pipe or a filfer cake.
cake.

Pressure Nufsche Filter
Pressure
Physical parameter, defined as the
+ Monoplate Pressure Filter
quotient of a force and the area, on
which this force acts against the area's Pressure Rotary Filter
normal line.The pressure is expressed in
the following units:1Pa =1 N/m2=105 bar
+ Hyperbar Filfer
= 7.5 l o 3 mmHG (Torr) = 1.45 104psi
= 9.869 10datm. Pressure Siphon Peeler
Centrifuge
Pressure Difference + Slphon Peeler Cenfrltbge
Notion in solid-liquid separation for the
acting pressure difference across a Pre-Thickening
+ fi/fermed/um,representingthe driving
The pre-treatment of a suspension,
+
potential for the separation of a sus-
where as much as possible of the
pension that is supplied by an outside
particle-free liquid is removed from a
Dressure source.

90
Pull Action Centrifuge

+
diluted suspension by relatively sim- increases towards the inside. The
ple means, in order to reduce the maximumflow velocity is attained at the
burden on the often considerably more radius of the vortex finder, where also
complex equipment for the following the +cut size is determined.
mechanical demoisturing, or to allow
their application in the first place. For
instance, + Pusher centrifuges require
Product Moisture
a certain minimum feed concentration Amount of liquid which still remains in
for proper operation, i.e.to prevent an the separated solids after the solid-liquid
excessive increase of the + solids loss separation. It is reported, respectively, as
through the sieve as well as to be able + residual moisture, as + dry sub-
to form and demoisture the + cake in stance content, or as + saturation
the relatively short residence time. degree.
Gravitational + thickeners, +decan-
+
ters, thickening filters, and + cross-
Product purumeters
now filters are used as thickeners. The
thickening process is often combined are intrinsic product properties that
+
with a t7ocCulatiOnto ease the sepa- influence the separation process.
ration of the mostly extremely small Product parameters are for instance the
particles. dynamic + viscosityq, of the liquid or
+
its sudace tension yL,the particle size
x and the + particle size distribution
Primury Purticles Q(x), and the + suspension concen-
When particles in a + suspension are tration c,.
present as solid + agglomerates,then
the originally individual particles that
Pseudoplastic
make up the agglomerate are called
primary particles. + Shear Thinning
Primury Vortex Pull Action Centrifuge
Flow in a + hydrocyclone developing Discontinuously working + filter centri-
immediately behind the suspension fuge, by the FERRUM company, with a
inlet. At the opposite end of the vertical rotation axis and a drum with
+
hydrocyclone, at the throttled apex an open bottom. After filtration and
nozzle,the flow direction is reversed,and cake demoisturing, the machine is
the liquid leaves the cyclone in a slowed down and the +filter cake is
+
secondary vortex through the vortex detached by stretching the + filter
finder. Coarse particles in primary cloth. This discharge is downwards out
vortices are separated onto the outside of the machine without a remaining
at the cyclone wall, while the fine + residual layer.
particles follow the liquid flow on the
inside.The primary vortex is a + pofen-
tial vortex, meaning the flow velocity

91
Pulp

Pulp
+ Suspension
Pulp Density
+ Suspension Densiiy
Pusher Centrifuge
Continuously operating, cantilevered
filter centrifuge with solids discharge by
means of an axially reciprocating
+ pusher plate. They are offered in sin-
gle- or multi-stage design with either
cylindrical or conic-cylindrical drums.
Pusher centrifuges are also suited for an
+
intensive washingof the product due
to the cantilevered support and the free
accessibility of the processing space.A
special design features the + double
acting pusher centrifuge. Pusher
centrifuges as a rule separate particles
with diameters larger than 80um. They
operate with C-values of 200+2500,
have drum diametersof 0.15+1.5m.and
can handle suspension streams of
0.5+100m.t/hr.To assure good filtrate
clarity, these machines require feed
concentrations of approx. 10+40%,
which is why they are often combined
+
with a pre-fhickener.

Pusher Plute
Axially reciprocating, circular transfer
+
device in pusher centrifuges.During
each forward stroke the previously
formed + f i h r cake is pushed a step
toward the open front end of the
centrifuge drum where the filter cake
ultimately breaks off.

92
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Quick-Sturt Centrifuge

Quuntity Aspect + 15ltercentrifugesthathave a product
residence time of only a few seconds
Term out of the particle measurement +
(e.g. pusher centrifuge, 3 vibratory
technology, describing a type of screen centrifuge >.
quantityof +pa~Wefmctionsonwhich
a measuring procedure is based. In
sieve analysis, for instance,the extracted
particle fractions are weighed, thus the
quantity type is the mass or the volume.
When using the Coulter Counter
principle, the particles of each fraction
are counted, thus the quantity is the
amount number.

Quick Filter
+ Deep bed filter with a filtration
velocity of approx. 10m/h. These filters
operate under a hydrostatic head, form
cake layers of approx. 0.5+2.5m
thickness, and use +filter aids with
approx. 0.5+4mm grain size. Quick
filtration is by far the most important
among all filtration techniques for the
processing of both potable and
industrialwater, as well as for the ensuing
wastewater treatment.

QuickstCrrt Centrifuge
Discontinuously working laboratory
centrifuge (+ Centritesf) characterized
by the short time required ( i e 1+2sec)
to reach the set number of revolutions
and the subsequent deceleration.The
reason for this operational charac-
teristic is to be able to perform realistic
design experiments for continuous

93
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Re-Moisturjzation

3 vacuum or 3 overpressure filters the
liquid-gas (air) mixture evolves from the
Plow-like transport implement located cake demoisturing zone while in
at the bottom of 3 circular thickeners, 3 cenfritbges it is the gas (air) carried
to convey the settled sludge to a sludge along with the centrate.
discharge opening in the center. The
rake rotates at an extremely low speed
to prevent a stirring up of settled Remanent Moisture
3 sludge. The liquid portion of a 3 bulk that can-
not be removed any further by me-
Radia/ Control Head chanical means.Essentially, it comprises
3 interstitial liquid, 3 ad-hesiveliquid,
3 Control Head and 3 inner liquid. Vacuum or over-
pressure filtration can also form
Ruffinate hydraulically isolated liquid regions in
the 3 bulk.
Original liquid or 3 suspension from
which during an 3 extraction an
3 extracfcan be made that is enriched Remanent Saturation
with a certain component, often with 3 Remnant moisturestated as 3 satu-
the aid of an extraction agent. ration degree

Rebecel Re-Mashing
A type of 3 filter aiddistributed by the 3 Mashing
BELLMER company based on cellulose
from renewable resourcesfor improved
cake drainability.The material is offered Re-Moisturization
in pellets that are admixed after Phenomena in filters observed during
dissolving them in water to a 3 sludge the cake removal step,when the driving
before pressing. 3 pressure difference is shut off. Some
of the liquid remaining in the structure
Receiver +
of the filfer medium or in voids of the
3 filter cell can be sucked back by
Commonly,a receiver is perceived as a capillary action in the demoistured filter
cylindrical container downstream of a cake.
solid-liquid separation process in which
gases are expelled from a liquid. In

95
Residual Moisture

Residual Moisture the + fflfer cake shall not be removed
completely, because a mechanical
Mass-related definition of the liquid
content in a 3 bulk following a sepa-
cake discharge device like a + screw
or a 3 peeler knife can destroy the
ration process.Thedetermination of the 3 filbrmedium.Therefore a several mm
residual moisture (RM) is simply thick product layer is left on the filter
performed by respective weighing of medium. Over the course of a number
the moist and dry cakes.The mas of the of filtration cycles. this can clog the
liquid mLis then relatedto the total mass medium with fine particles and render
of the moist 3 bulk mto, i.e. the sum of it impermeable, so it has to be
solids mass msand liquids mass m,. The regenerated periodically by +back
residual moisture is stated as (mass %). ffushing or removed. The existence of
The residual moisture of materials with the residual product layer is of
different densitiescannot be compared advantage for the extensive prevention
with each other: of 3 furbidify at the beginning of the
cake forming, since it acts as an addi-
tional filter medium.

Residual Volume Filtration
Residual Moisture In discontinuously working 3 candle
Measuremenf filfers or 3 lectffilfersthe problem arises
of how to process the residual suspen-
determination of the 3 resldual mols- sion volume left in the lower vessel
fure ofmolst materials(e.g.3fi/fercake, section after the main filtration phase is
3 sediment,3 bulk) is either performed
completed. One possibility is to let it
off-line or on-line. A representative drain off and filter it with the next batch.
sample is gravimetricolly analyzed. i.e. Another one is to fllter the heel, i.e.the
the moist material is weighed, then
residual volume, by spraying It onto the
dried, and weighed again, in the off-line already formed d filter cake via a
technique, while in on-line determi- recycle loop.
nation the residual moisture is measured
directly in the product flow. It should be
mentioned, that both the microwave Resistance Force
technique (i.e. integral residual The sum of pressure and friction forces
moisture) as well as the infrared exerted by a fluld flow on the surface of
absorption process(i.e. measurementof a particle. The component in flow
the surface moisture) have proven direction is called resistance force and
reliabilities. the one perpendicularto it as dynamic
+ buoyancy.
Residual Product Layer
In a number of filter types, such as the Re-suspending
3 fable filter or the 3 peeler cenffifuge, of a 3 filter cake by addition of liquid
Roller Discharge

and application of stirring energy. Rheopexy
Applications for this can be found in
+ dilution washing where a yet conta- is a non - +Newtonian flow behavior.
minated filter cake is resuspended in a The viscosity of a rheopex solution
pure 3 washing liquid and filtered increases with increasing duration of
anew. shear forces acting on it, i.e. the fluid
becomes thicker.

RefenM e
Richardson & Zaki Equation
+ Concentrate Equationdescribing the settling velocity
u of the suspensions separation zone in
+ hindered sedimentation where the
Revamping of filter plants is carried out + particre sizeand shape lose influence
to increase the filter capacity,to reduce +
on the settling rate and the concen-
the residual moisture of the filter cake tration of particles c, (volume concen-
or to improve the handling and tration) becomes the decisive factor:
availability of filters. According to a
special optimization program de-
veloped by BOKELA company filters like
+ + + +
disc, drum, pan, belt filters, Here us+is a fictitious settling velocity of
+ + +
filferpresses, Kelly filters, Niagaro a representative, average size particle.
The actual suspension settling velocity
filters, etc. can be upgraded in three
steps including first test trials to decreases rapidly with increasing
determine the optimization potentialup concentration.
to the start up of the modified filter.
Rip Weave
Reverse Osmosis + Plain Weave
+ Osmosis
Rising Channel
Reynold's Number +
A vertical bore hole through the disc
Most important dimensionless number package of + disc stack separators,
in viscous flow named after the English used for separating immiscible liquids
physicistReynolds.It is the ratio of inertial with different densities. The positioning
to frictional forces, and containsthe flow of the channels depends on the volume
velocity v, a characteristic length I, and ratio of the components to be sepa-
the +kinematic viscosity v: rated, and the degree of clarity required
of either component.
vl
Re = -
V
Roller Discharge
Special type of filter cake removal at

97
Rollfit

+ drum filters. It is applied with sticky, +
Ifugatlon.As soon as the first pores of
+
dough-like,andpasty f i h r cakes(e.g. the 9 filfer cake are de-moistured,
red mud in bauxite processing), where pressure compensation occurs and the
+
a scraper discharge with com- + siphon effect collapses.
pressed alr repulsion would not be
successful.Thefilter cake is taken up by
a roller of small diameter, rotating
opposite to the drum and pressing
against the filter cake, which then can
be cut away by a knife.Often a toothed
comb is utilized instead of a knife, in
order to give the cake remainingon the
roller a jagged structure.Thisleads to an
especially good connection with the
cake to be newly removed.

+ Hot Filter Press
Rofury Filter
+ Continuously worklng fi/ter with the
filter elements rotating at a specified
9 number of revoluHons on a hollow
9 filfer shaff through which generally
the + fllfrate plpes exit. Typical
examples for this are + drum filters,
+ dlsc Ip/fers and + table Iplters. The
+
rotary filters also include the beltfilten
that have a horizontal filter belt leading
running around two shafts.

Rofury Siphon Cup
A special 9 rofary cup in +
peeler
centrrtuges with a radius a few cm
larger than the 9 filter medlum. This
produces a liquid head of several cm
height behind the filter medium. Its
suction generates a +vacuum behind
the filter medium up to the vapor
pressure of the liquid, and a vacuum
filtration can superimpose the centr-
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Saturation Degree

Saber Shaped Cell prevent blocking of the 3 rake. The
design of these tanks is either circular
A special, saber-likedesign of the 3fifier or rectangular.
cellof a 3 discfi/fer,Afrequentproblem
with conventional 3 disc fi/fers is an
uneven 3 cuke thickness,resulting from Satin Weave
the differences in retention time of the Special design of a 3 weuvewhere the
3 suspension in individual area ele- weft threads and warp threads cross at
ments.To counter this effect, the saber right angles in an exactly determined
cell is bent at the cell foot in the manner.The resulting surface is smooth
rotational direction of the disc, so that and without any texture, either on one
the cell does no longer emerge out of side (i.e.single satin weave) or on both
the suspension solely with the innermost sides (i.e.doublesatin weave).The highs
point of the 3 lorwardedge,but instead and lows of the wefts and warps appear
with the entire cell. slightly on the surface and are po-
sitioned in a diagonal direction without
Sand Filter touching each other.

3 Deep bed filter use sand of a defined
grain size as a filter layer.Sand filters are Saturation
preferably employed in water 3 Jclturufion degree
purification to treat large volume flow
rates. Generally, sand filters work
discontinuously and have to be Saturation Degree
regenerated after reaching the dirt Normalized characteristic of the liquid
capacity of the filter layer. However, content in a porous 3 bulk. The
there are continuous sand filter saturation degree S is the ratio of liquid
variations where the sand layer is volume in the 3 bulkV, over the entire
continuously recirculated and void volume V ,
regenerated (Dyna-Sand Filter).

Sand Trap
A simple pre-separation tank for
If all 3 pores in the 3 bulk were filled
wastewater treatment, in which denser
sands are first removed by gravitational with liquid, then S = 1. If an entirely dry
3 bulk is present, then S = 0. The
sedimentation to reduce the burden on
the downstream clarythickener, i.e. to saturation degree of different bulks

99
Sauter Meun Diameter

made of different substances can be medium to prevent damage.
compared with each other as long as
the + porosity of different + bulks is
Screen Bowl Decanter
similar. This Is not possible with the mass
+
related residual moisfure. Centrifuge
features a cylindrical sieve section
Sauter Mean Diumeter added behind the solids cone to de-

presents the mean +particle size
water a granular solid by filtration; e.g.
fine coal after it has been pre-
corresponding to the specific surface S, concentrated out of a diluted + sus-
of the entire particle collective. If one
would divide the volume of the
pension by + sedimenfafion. These
special designs of a 3 decanter cenfri-
investigated substance into spheres of fuge are built with drum diameters of
uniform size, so that the sum of their
approx.0.2+1.8m,operate with C-values
surfaces would be as large as the total of approx. 300t6.000, and their
surface of the collective, then these suspension throughput can range from
spheres would have a Sauter mean
1+80m.t./hr. A broad particle size
diameter d3>:
spectrum of about 2t10.000pm can be
separated due to the sedimentation
prior to the filtratlon.
x' 6q
d,, = == - (9= form factor)
x 2 S"
Screenlng Filtration
+ Slew IYlfraflon
Scale-Up
+
Projecting the results of a lahrafory screw
+
experimenf or of a pilof experiment Discharge or loading device for
to full-scale size equipment.
transferring pasty solids in or out of the
process room of a separation appa-
Scoop Pipe ratus. Discharge screws are central
+ Peeling Pipe +
discharge organs of decanfercentri-
fuges, where they circulate with + dif-
ferenfial revolufions per minute to the
Scraper Discharge main number of revolutions of the
Speclaltype of cake removal at drum + centrifuge drum. They are also used in
+
+
filters and 3 disc IYlfers.The filter cake
peeler cenfrilvges.if the solids cannot
be demoistured sufficiently and thus
is either cut off in the removal section
with the scraper working as a knife, or
+
remain sticky and a discharge chute
discharged with compressed air and would get clogged. Screws have a
basic body on which the screw blades
the scraper serves as a deflector plate.
are welded on as spirals. The screw
In any case, the scraper must keep a
certain clearance to the + filter
blades display a gap or respectively a

100
Sedimentution Velocity

screw pitch.Theycan be equipped with short,steep cone.The settled sludge has
a single or double spiral, left or right to pass a barrier on the way to the
handed. The screw pitch can be discharge driven by hydraulic pressure.
constant or varies over its length. Screws This pressure is regulated by the liquid
with a diminishing screw pitch are level in the machine and is in turn is
employed at the + worm extruder. +
adjusted with a peeling disc.

Screw Blude Sediment
+ Discharge Screw A completely saturated + bulk of
particles formed during a settling pro-
cess in a gravitational or centrifugal
Secondury Air +
field.The bulk must display a greater
can influence the pressure level,leaking specific density against the surrounding
+
unintentionally through a by-pass, or liquid.
deliberately through a valve.The quality
of the vacuum in filters can be adjusted
by the latter in + vacuum filtration. Sedimentation
Secondary air flow can increase at the Settling process of particles in a + sus-
shrinkage crack forming point in filter pension in a gravitationalor centrifugal
cakes, so that the vacuum collapses field, if the solids have a higher specific
and the filtration process discontinues. density than the surrounding liquid.

Secondury Vortex Sedimentation Centrifuge
Flow towards the dip tube (+brtex fin- + SeMing Centrifuge
der) in hydrocyclones that evolves
behind the + primary vortex’s flow
+
reversal at the throttled apexnozzle.
Sedimentation Front
Fine particles in the secondary vortex, Clearly defined region below the
i.e. smaller than the + cut size, are + clear liquidzone, in which the entire
carried out with the cyclone overflow. particle collective settles at the same
velocity. It develops readily in
+ hindered sedimentation, which can
Security Filter +
occur once a critical suspension con-
+ Police filter centration is surpassed.

Sedicunter Sedimentation Tunk
Special design of the + co-current + Gravitational Thickener
decanter by the Flottweg company for
the thickening of dilute and difficult to
+
separate sludges. Solids discharge is
Sedimentation Velocity
through a double conical drum with a Rate at which an individual particle or

101
Sedimentutor

+
a sedimentoffon lronf settles in fluid. under extreme process conditions
In the laminar flow region the sedimen- (temperature and pressure).
tation velocity of individual particles
can be calculated via + Stokes’ law,
whereas the + Rlchardson & Zaki-
Segregution
+
equdon applies for a sedimentoffon +
De-mixingphenomenon in a suspen-
front. don. Often particles get classified
according to their + particle slze, like
for instance when a filtration process is
Sedimentator superimposed by a n undisturbed
Novel wash process of the BOKELA + sedimenfaffon caused by gravitation
company and the TICONA company. or centrifugation. The potential for
segregation is therefore especially high
in horizontal filters and filtrating
+ cenfrifuges. Due to this segregation
+
a bulkforms with an increasingly finer
structured layer. The + entry capillary
plessure in the so-called top + clogging
layer is considerably higher than In a
homogeneously structured cake.

Self-cleaning Separator
Special design of a +disc stack
separator with periodically opened
sludge discharge nozzles a t the
periphery of a dual-conical centrifuge
Schematic view of the sedimentator drum. After a critical solids pressure is
produced by the settled solids a
In the Sedimentator a continuous hydraulic piston slide moves through the
+ counfercurrenf wash of solids is settled solids and the discharge nozzles
realized which is based on a n open for a fraction of a second. This
advanced principle of + disprocernent discharge type is especially of
wash.In the contact zone of solids and advantage at low solids concentration
washing liquid the settling solids form an (e.9. milk skimming, beverage
expanded bed which enables that the +
purification),whereas the nozzle-type
+ mother llquor between the solids is separator is used for higher solids
displaced by the + washing llquld in a concentrations.
highly efficient way leading to high
+ wash degrees with a low wash liquid
Self-Suctioning Drum Filter
consumption. The novel apparatus is
built up like a sedimentation column in +
The pressure difference in drum Islfers
a vertical pressure vessel with numerous +
is produced by fact that the filfercells
stages and allows the washing of solids +
are connected with the Islfratepipes.

102
Series Connection

They lead downwards along the inner Sepurution Control Heud
wall of the drum and in the circum-
3 Control valve in a 3 cell-less drum
ferential direction against the rotational
direction for approx.1+15m with an Illter.Theseparation control head forms
open end in the drum's inner space.The the transition from the rotating to the
filtered liquid causes in such a pipe a stationary part of this filter type. It is
employed for the separation of filtrate
hydrostatic head of approx.O.1 +O. 1Sbar.
Self-suctioning drum filters are and suctioned gas (air).
employed for readily filtering
3 suspensions containing fibrous Sepurution Selectivity
particles, for which a low pressure
quantifies the loss of coarse grain in the
difference is sufficient.
3 fines and of fine grain in 3 coarse
material, respectively. The separation
Self-Trunsporting Centrifuges sharpness, i.e the steepness of the
Continuously working, cantilever 3 fractionalgrade eficiency curve can
supported 3 filter centrifuges with a be defined with characteristic values
conically expanding sieve drum. The from the fractional grade efficiency
driving force for the solids transport is the curve as follows:
surface-parallel component of the
centrifugal force reduced by the
adhesive friction force of the sieve.The
control of such machines (e.g.9 sliding
discharge centrifuge) is difficult, due to xZ5,,respectively x,~,, represent hereinthe
the fact that the 3 friction depends
3 parficle sizes that are separated at
partially upon the 3 residual moisture 25% and 75% respectively in the coarse
of the product, thus changing along the
material. In analytical separations the
path of the cone. These problems can
separation sharpness is 0.8<r<0.9, a
be alleviated through adequate fiow
sharp technical separation shows
guidance (3 directed flow screening 0.6<r<0.8and in common technical
centrifuge) or through pulsating
separations it is lower at 0.3-a~O.6.
acceleration ( 3 tumbler centrifuge).

Sepurutor
Semipermeubility
3 Disc Stack Separator
Selective or partial permeability in a
separating layer which only allows
certain components of a mixture to Septum
permeate.Membranes for the +
ultra- 3 Filter Medium
filtration pass only molecules of a
certain size, which correspond to their
3 MWCO. Series Connection
3 Combination of separation equip-
ment arranged in line in order to amplify

103
Serruted Weir

or optimize certain separation effects. Settling Centrifuge
it can involve similar or different
separation machines. A typical series 3 Centrifugebased on the separation
connection is the combination of a of the particle solids at an impermea-
3 thickener followed by a 3 filter. A ble wall by 3 sedimenfatlon.Primarily
to be mentioned here are the 3 de-
series connection can also be found at
the 3 dilution washlg with 3 drum canter, 3 disc stack separator, and
filters, or for the increasing of the 3 cut 3 tubularcentrlfugeThe multiple of the
point in 3 hydmyclones. earth’s acceleration, 3 the C-value,
attained in these Centrifuges ranges
usually from a few 1.000 up to several
Serruted Weir 10,OOO in extreme cases, due to the low
Liquid overflow edge with a jagged sedimentationvelocity of the extremely
profile. In this manner an even liquid small particles. Settling centrifuges are
draining can be achieved over the working discontinuously as well as
entire length of the weir edge, even if it continuously.
is not perfectly horizontal.
Settling Velocity
Service Liie Rate of settling of solid particles in a li-
Time periodduring which an apparatus quid under the influence of a gra-
or an apparatus element is available for vitational or a centrifugal force. The
normal operation.It can cause process description of the settling velocity of sin-
disturbances and influences the gle particles in the laminar flow region
economic efficiency. is based on 3 Stokes’lcrw while in the
sedimentation in concentrated 3 sus-
pensions ( 3 swarm sedimentation). the
Setting Purameters settling velocity of the mutually
3 Operuffon Paramefers hindering particles can be described
with the 3 Richardson & Zaki equatlon.

Settling Tank
Shew Thickening
Circular or square container in which
separation by sedimentation of solid Non 3 Newtonlan flow. The viscosity
particles and liquid occurs under the increases with increasing shear stress.
influence of gravity.The specific density
of the dispersed solids necessarily has Shear Thinning
to be greater than that of the con-
tinuous liquid phase. The settled solids Non 3 Newtonian flow behavior. The
are removed from the tank bottom in 3 viscosity decreases with an in-
the form of a thickened 3 sludge. creased shear stress.
Ideally, the particle-free liquid is
removed at the top of the tank by
means of an overflow.
Single-Pass Test

Sheet Filter Sieve Filtration
A 3 deep bed filter employed for the 3 Surface llltratlon for the purification
purification of liquids. e.g. beverages, of liquids contaminated with particle
with the outer appearance of a 3 lilter which does not necessarily have to
press. Instead of forming a cake in the produce a real 3 filter cake; rather flow
filter chambers, the diluted 3 suspen- is often interrupted at an early stage for
sion permeates under pressure the filter a 3 back-flushing, after attaining a
sheets, on which contaminants separa- preset pressure 1oss.A special variant of
te. These filter sheets have to be re- the sieve filtration is the 3 dynamic
placed once their absorption capability sieve liiltration with the 3 DYNO-Filfer.
is exhausted as generally they can not
be regenerated.
Single Filter
Candle shaped 3 sieve filter for the
ShriveFThickener cleaning of liquids with low particle
Crossflow-filter press that look like a contamination.They are typical by-pass
3 filfer press: the plates, however, are filters, because the changing of the filter
divided in so-called concentrate and elements is not possible without flow
permeate plates with a porous se- interruption. A possible solution to this
paration membrane between.The flow shortcoming are 3 double filters or
channel spirals from the outer edge of 3 aufomatlc filters.
the plates into the center. Along this
path an initially diluted + suspension
Single Particle Sedimentation
is thickened.
Sedimentation behavior of particles in
a 3 suspension with very low 3 solids
Shut Down concenfrafion. The particles settle
3 Shut down process of a separation independently without influencing
machine from an operational state to +
each other.Accordingto Stokes'law,
stand still. their 3 seming velocifydependson the
density difference between solids and
liquids, the liquid viscosity, a charac-
Shut Down Process
teristic particle diameter, and gra-
Operational phase of a separation vitational or centrifugal acceleration,
machine.One differentiates between a respectively. Single particle sedi-
normal turning off and an 3 emergency mentation is especially desired in
off, where the equipment has to be 3 particlesize analysis,for which actual
turned off immediately due to a production samples often have to be
disturbance. diluted.

Sieve Filter Single-Pass Test
3 Sieve Filfrafion Determination of the separation ability

105
Siphon-Peeler Centrifuge

of a + filter medium under realistic of solids and liquid, the moisture degree
conditions where a filter sample passes +
of the bulk, and the roughness of the
once. The test filter is fed with a nearly screen wall. Sliding discharge centri-
constant particle concentration until a fuges are generally employed in the
specified maximum + pressure separation of highly viscous materials.
difference is reached. A particle- such as molasses in the sugar industry.
measuring device monitors both Other designs try to control the transport
particle number and size in front and process by built-in devices such as at
behind the filter. the + direcfed flow screening
centrifuge,or by periodically changing
the centrifugal forces, such as in the
Siphon-Peeler Centrifuge + tumbler centrifuge.The sliding process
+
Special design of a peeler cenfrifuge can be influenced especially well if the
in which the + centrate is not freely surface parallel force alone is not big
ejected into the centrifuge housing, but enough for the transport and the friction
+
instead is collected in a rofarysiphon is surpassed by an axial oscillation,
cup and utilized to produce a adjustable in amplitude and frequency,
+ +
wcuum behind the filtermedium. of the screen basket like in the
The liquid ring in the rotary cup seals the + vibratory centrifuge.
space behind the filter medium against
the interior housing, so that an additio-
nal pressure filtration can be realized.For
Sliding Friction
this, the pressure gas that permeates + Friction
through the cake has to be removed
b y a duct in the Centrifuge shaft. A
peeler centrifuge of this design is called
Slow Bulk layer Filter
a pressure-siphon-peelercentrifuge. Sand filter from the field of water treat-
ment. Slow bulk layer filters are based

Sliding Discharge Centrifuge
+
on the principle of deep bedfiltrafion
and utilizefilter layerswith more than 1m
Special type of continuously working thickness.Thefilter velocity is about 0.05
screen centrifuges. Sliding discharge up to 0.1 m/hr and filter areas reach up
centrifuges belong to the so-called to 10,OOOmZ.Often a biological re-
+ self-fransportlng centrifuges.In these duction process for the organic
the solids are moved to the discharge substance to be separated is combined
solely b y the surface parallel with the mechanical separation
component of the centrifugal force because of the low filtration process.
surpassing the sum of adhesive and
sliding friction force along the conically
widening screen basket. Sliding
Sludgy
discharge centrifuges have a Highly concentrated +
suspension
problematic operation characteristic as whose particles are so close that
the sliding behavior of solids depends mechanical forces can be transferred
among other factors on the properties between each other, but which are on

106
Solids Flow

the other hand still free-flowing. tration cv:

Snap-Blow Valve C, =- v, loo[%]
Auxiliary device for improving the filter v, - VL
cake discharge in 3 disc filters and
A further relation for the description of
3 drum filters.It is essential for a good
the solids content in suspension presents
cake discharge that pressure builds up
the 3 suspension density.
in the 3 filter cell behind the 3 filter
medium as fast as possible. The inlet
cross section at the 3 control head Solids Discharge
opens only very slowly for compressed Every solid-liquid separation apparatus
air especially at low numbers of has discharges for respectively the
revolutions. Therefore, a quick-acting cleared liquid phase and the more or
valve is located in the compressed air less moist solid phase. In the case of
feed pipe that is only opened if the full sludge-like solids products, the solids
filtrate pipe cross section is exposed. discharge could be a valve or a pump,
a 3 discharge screw for very moist
Solid-Bowl Centrifuge solids, and in the case of powdery
material a 9 conveyor chute.
3 Decanter

Solids Flow
Solids Concentration
Term for the description of the settling
3 Solids Content
procedures in 3 gravity thickeners
when 3 swarm sedimentation occurs.
Solids Content The solids flow S is defined as the product
out of the settling velocity w and solids
Measure for the amount of solids in a
volume concentrationcvand possesses
solids-liquid mixture. For a mass-related
the dimension [m3/m2h]. The total solids
representation the solids mass ms is
flow S,o, in a gravity thickener consists of
referred to the total mass of the solid-
the solids flow due to the swarm
liquid-system ms+ mLand quoted in
sedimentation, ,S (settling velocity w-,
(mass %), Depending on whether the
concentration c,) and the solids flow
solids or the liquid present the
due to sludge removal (outlet) from the
continuous phase, this quantity is also
underflow In the thickener Su:
described as dry substance content DS
or solids mass concentration c:,

The sludge outlet velocity Vu is defined
Division by the respectivedensities leads as the quotient of the sludge volume
to the term of solids volume concen- stream in the underflow Vu and the
Solids loss

thickener cross sectional area A. As Solution
concentration and settling velocity
both change in opposition directions Homogenous mixture of different
over the height of a thickener, a critical substances In which the mutual diffusion
minimum of the solids flow develops at and division reaches down to the level
a certain point.This critical solids flow is of molecules, atoms or ions ( true
the basis for the thickener design. It has solutions).
to be determined by experiment.
Sorting
Solids Loss Segregation of a particlecollectiveinto
Amount of solids, passing through the + +
fracffonsof different particre types.
pores of the filter cloth at the very first
+
moment of cake fomaffon before a Spacer
+ bridge layer is formed on it which
Coarse-sized, meshed insert between
safely retain the following solids.Materi-
two microporous +membranes
al sizes, such as pore width of the filter
cloth in relation to the size of the
employed in the + ultru-filtration as
distance spacers to provide for the
particles to be separated, but also the
+ +
unhindered flow of respectively con-
+
adjustment parameters,such as the
+
centrate and permeate.Spacersare
+
suspension concentration or the
pressure difference significantly
+ +
found for instance in coil and spi-
ral modules.
influence the amount of the solids lost.

Solids Mass Concentration Specific Surface
+ Solids Content Surface area of a particle typically
relating to either volume or mass of the
solids. The volume related specific
Solids Throughput surface S, is connected with the
+
Amount of particlesolids in a suspen- + Sauter mean diameter of a particle
donthat can be processedper time unit collective d,, as follows:
by a separation apparatus.Thethrough-
+
put is additionally referred to the filter s, =-
6
area as the specific solids throughput. d32
For example, the speciflc throughput of
+
a rotary filter is quoted in (kg/m2h).
Spiral Module
Filter element design used in the
Solids Volume Concentration + crossllow Hltratlon, especially in the
+ Solids Content + ultrafiltration. Spiral modules are
+
rolled up alternating layers of mkm-
+
porous membranesand spacers.This
creates an extremely large membrane

108
Steam Pressure Filtration

area per module volume.Thefeed liquid Sturting Process
flows coaxially through the module
starting from the front end of the roll.The The start-up of the operation of sepa-
+ permeate, after evolving from the ration machines from a standstill to
stable and stationary operational
membranes, flows on a spiral-shaped
path to the center and is extracted conditions at the + operation point.
through a core pipe. Very often the start-up is understood to
be the initial taking into operation of a
new plant.
Stuble Suspension
+ Suspension whose particles are pre- Stutic Buoyuncy
vented from agglomerating by electro-
static repelling forces resulting from 3 Buoyancy
surface charges.
Steum Filtrution
Stuple Fiber + Steaming
Fibers(e.g.natural fibers such as cotton) + Steam Pressure Fiifration
made out of short fiber pieces by
twisting.In contrast to -9 monofiiamenfs, Steum Cubin
which are endless and smooth threads,
staple fibers possess a greater roughness
+
Special designed steam hood by the
BOKELA company for performing the
due to protruding fiber ends. This can
+ steam pressure fiifration process on
increase the separation efficiency of a
+ fiiter ciofh woven out of it, however,it
+ Hi- Bar Filters.
possibly complicates the cake dis-
charge due to larger adhesion forces Steum Hood
between cake and cloth.
Supplementary attachment on con-
tinuous + -
vacuum and +pressure
Stur Feeder filters for improving the cake+
Device for the discharge of + bulk
+
demoisiuringthrough steaming.
material from a pressure vessel. A rotor,
divided into individual pockets, rotates Steum Pressure Filtration
sealed inside a horizontal cylinder with
Innovativeand patented process by the
openings on the upper- and underside.
BOKELA company in form of the
The pockets are filled from above with
+ +
Hi-Bar-Filters for cake demoisfuring
product and emptied downwards into
the atmosphere.Theprinciple of the star
and + cake washing. An externally
supplied, saturated or overheated
feeder can only be employed for mildly
steam is used as the gaseous displace-
abrasive materials, because otherwise
ment medium in place of the traditional
the sealing will deteriorate due to the
air. The steam condenses on the cold
a brasion.
filter cake surface and forms a sharply

109
Steaming

defined and evenly developed 3 con- +
such as 3 belt Mfers, drum filters, or
densate frontwhich moves through the + fublefilfen.Saturated or over-heated
cake.Thus.the cake is heated up to the steam is applied via a + steam hood
condensate temperature and a on the previously de-moistured filter
+ fingering with a premature gas cake surface.While the steam is sucked
breakthrough is prevented which can through the cake, it transfers its heat into
occur when air is used as gaseous the cake and condenses there. The
displacement medium. The special heating leads to a reduction of the
advantage of this process rests on the filtrate viscosity and consequently to an
fact that the largest portionof the filtrate acceleration of the demoisturlng pro-
is removed from the cake mechanically, cess. Decreased +product moistures
and followed immedi-ately by this a are reached within the limited
thermal convection drying Is performed demoisturing time available in con-
leading to extremely low moisture tinuous filters. In addition to this, the
contents.Next to demoisturinga mxs-+ + surface tension of the 3 ffltfafe is
hing of the cake is also performed,due decreased and the + capillary
to condensation and thus a pure liquid pressure is slightly lowered. After dis-
input into the + bulk. Up to now the charge the heated cake can
processhas been realized on 9 hyper- additionally lose further liquid through
+
barfllferswith disc Mefsand drum + post-evaporation.
filters.
Sterile Filfrafion
Separationof all viable microorganisms
in the size range of O.l+lpm by
+ fllffafion. A separation below 0.1pm,
e.g. viruses, dissolved toxins, or pyroge-
nes. is performed by adequate filter
beds in an adsorptive manner. The
suitability of a 3 f l h r medium as a ste-
+
rile filter is examined by the bacteria
refunig fest.

Stern Layer
Mono-to blmolecular layer of adsorbed
BOKELA steam pressure drum fllter (Hi-Bar
Oyster Filter plant)
+ counter ions, solidly bonded on a
charged particle surface.

Steaming
Stirred Pressure Nutsche Fllfer
Measure supporting the +
cake de-
+ pmssurenutsche ffbrequipped with
moisfufing in the +
vacuum tilfrallon.
a stirring apparatus. The stirring allows
mainly employed for continuous filters,
the execution of a number of ope-

110
rations in the filtration space, which can must be verifled that + laminar flow is
range from homogenization of the still present.
+ suspension to re-suspending up to
solids discharge. The stirred pressure
nutsche filter in its most variable form
Strainer
+
develops into a fi/terrmcfor,in which A continuously rotating, drum-shaped
further operations can be performed. sieve, which is loaded on the inside with
such as chemical reaction, crystal- for example a strongly flocculated
lization etc. + suspension for pre-thickening under
the influence of gravity.

Stockpile Demoisturing
Special form of + gravity filfraflon.The
Straining Zone
demoisturing of liquid-saturated, Horizontal, pre-demoisturing zone of
granular + bulk mafer/a/ in a gravi- + doublebelfpremsin which a crossly
tational field is driven by the hydrostatic flocculated 3 suspension is thickened
head of the liquid itself.Thispressure has by gravitational demoisturing, so that it
to be larger than the + capillary can be drawn subsequently into the
pressure acting in the + bulk. During + wedge zone between the two filter
demoisturing the liquid column gets belts.
smaller and the hydrostatic pressure
decreases. respectively, until at
Strindlund Filter
+
equilibrium of the forces the capillary
+
rise of a bulk is reached. + sell-SucHoning Drum Filter
Stokes' Law String Removal
Equation for the description of the + Chain Removal
settling velocity v of a spherical indi-
vidual particle with a diameter x and a String-wound cartridge
density p, in a liquid with a density pLand
the + dynamic viscosity qL under the +
Filter element for discontinuous deep-
earth's gravitational acceleration g, if bed filtraHon made from twisted yarn
a laminar flow is present: (+stack fibers),that is coiled to a thick
layer around a perforated core from
where the filtrate flows.The coiled yarn
forms the actual deep-bed filter in
whose pores the contaminant particles
deposit themselves.
Particles must be able to settle un-
hindered by other particles present. If Substitute Cake Thickness
Stokes' law is to be applied onto centri-
fugation the gravitational acceleration + Equivalent Cake Thickness
+
is to be multiplied with the C-value.It

111
Suction Filter

Suction Filter proximity.

General term for the entire class of filters
that use a gas difference pressure as the Surface Tension
driving potential, generated b y the 3 interfcrciai Tension
application of a 3 vacuum behind the
3 ff/iermedium.Suctionfilters are limited
in respect to the maximal 3 pressure Surfactants
difference by the 3 vapor pressure of Surface-active chemicals tend to
the liquid. gather on 3 interfaces and thus do
lower the interfacialtension.Theymainly
Support Grain consist of a 3 hydrophobic group (e.g.
hydrocarbon chain with 10+18 C
3 Body-Feed Filfraffon atoms), or an acryiate group, and a
3 hydrophiiic group (e.g. -COOMe. -
Surface Active Substances OS0,Me. S0,Me. NH,=NH). According to
the polarity of the Ionic group one can
3 Tensides differentiate betweenanionic,cationic
and non-ionic tensides. Problems are
Surface Filtration often posed in industrialapplications by
their limited biological decomposition
Filtrationwhere the particlesto be sepa-
as well as by a tendency to foam.
rated are retained preferably on the
surface of the 3 fiifer medium in
contrast to the 3 deep bed ffNraffon. Suspension
Surface filtration can be realized as Mixture of a liquid and a particle-
3 cake fflfrafion, 3 $/eveffihfion, and shaped solid.The liquid is in this case the
3 cmssffow ffifraffon. 3 confinuous phase, while the solid
forms a 3 disperse or discontinuous
Surface Potential phase. At higher solids concentrations
the suspension transforms into 3sludge.
Electric charge of suspended solids
if the particles approacheach other so
particles. Particles in suspensions are
closely that they are capable of
often negatively charged.The surface
exerting mechanical forces on each
potential is partially compensated b y
other.
counter ionscontained in the liquid. and
declines exponentiallywith an increase
in distance from the particle'ssurface. Suspension Concentration
The surface potential can cause an 3 solids Content
electrostatic repulsionof particles.If one
wants to agglomerate them by utilizing
the 3 bn-der- Waak forces the surface Suspension Density
potential has to be shielded in order to The suspension density psL( s= solid,
bring the particles to a sufficient L= liquid) is defined as ratio of mass m

112
Symmetric Membrane

and volume V: Swivel Beaker
Cup-shaped insert in discontinuously
rn +rn, 0 operating +beaker centrifuges with a
vertically rotating axis.At rest, when the
beakers are charged, they hang
vertically at the end of an arm, which is
attached with pivoting joints to the
rotational axis. During rotation they
swivel sideways into a horizontal plane.
In this manner, several beakers with
c, =+solids-mass concentration, and + suspension can be simultaneously
c, =+solids-volume concentration processed.

Swarm sedimentation Symmetric Membrane
Settling behavior of a particlecollective + +
membrane with an uniform pores
characterized by the fact that size, size across its thickness. Symmetrical
density and shape of the particles all membranes are mostly applied for
lose their influence on the sedimen-
tation velocity. A sharp sedimentation
+ +
micmfiltmtionwhereas asymmetri-
cal membranes with an extremely fine-
front appears with a clear liquid zone pored surface are applied for +
ultra-
above.Themain influencing parameter ntration.
becomes the + suspension concen-
tration. Over the broad range of con-
centrations where swarm settling is
observed some classification effects -
especially in centrifugal fields - can be
observed nevertheless. Only at high
concentrations a totally homogeneous
sedimentation of all particles takes
place; this phenomenon is called
+zone sedimenfation.

Sweetland Filter
+ Leaf filter, patented in 1905 by E.
Sweetland, with hanging filter leafs,
arranged in a tank. Originally,the lower
part of the vessel was unhinged for
cleaning purposes; in present day
designs the upper part of the vessel can
be opened.

113
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Table Filter

t/ V=f( V) Method
Experimentalmethod to determine the
9 filfer medium resistance and the
9 filter cake permeability in a Generally, the specific cake resistance
9 laboratory nufsche filter(+ FiNmtesl) r, has values between 10" and 1016m-2;
with the filter surface A. While a 9 fi/fer at 1011m-2 are extremely well filtering
cake is formed under constant pressure products (i.e. coarse salts, minerals)
Ap, the suspension concentration whereas 1016m-2 characterizes very
( 9 kappa-factor) and the liquid slowly filtering materials (bacteria,
viscosity qL , the cumulative filtrate pigments).
volume V is recorded over time t. Then
the curve t/V-over4 is plotted. Table Filter
Continuously working horizontal
9 vacuum filter, which similar to a 9 disc
filter is divided into a number of 9 filter
cells with individual filtrate discharges.
Although table filters are very similar to
+ bowl ff/ters,their rim edges are not
rigidly connected with the filter disc, but
instead is stationary with a sliding seal.
The solids discharge straight horizontally
X A through an opening in the wall via a
+
A
discharge screw. Table filters are
employed for easy to filter and rapidly
Filtrate volume V, settling+ suspensions.

discharge
tlv over V for incompressible cakes system

It shows for near incompressible cake I
formation a straight line and the filter
medium resistance Rm can be
calculated from the intercept a. The
specific cake permeability p, (or the
specific cake resistance rc = l / p c , receivers
respectively) are calculated from the ,'----
slope b, as follows:
side view

115
Tangled Fiber Fleece

Thermal Convection
Flows in a liquid caused by density
differences in turn due to temperature
gradients. Next to 3 Bmwn/an moffon,
they are the main reason why individual
particles with a diameter of less than
approximately 1 vm cannot settle out in
the earth's gravitational field.

Thermal Fixation
pre-treatment of synthetic fiber weaves,
generally with hot air, to condition the
cloth for dimensional stability during
operation.
BOKELA hlgh perfiDrmance pan fl/ter
Thermal Loading Control Re-
Tangled Fiber Fleece gulator
+ Fleece 3 Loading Regulator

rcr ylor Vortex Thickener
Under certain operating conditions in a + Gravify thickener
coaxial + dynamic crossflow fllfer
annular vortices develop, that rotate as Thickening filter
pairs against each other. If an axial
works either discontinuously or con-
velocity component is superimposed
tinuously to produce a highly con-
analogous to continuous 3 ff/fraffon,
then two continuously parallel and
centrated, still free-flowing + sludge
instead of discharging only a de-
counter-rotating screw vortices evolve
molstured 3 filter cake.They can be
out of the individuals.This leads to an
extremely complex velocity distribution.
operated on the basis of + cake
f l h f k m , 3 cIossnow ffhiion,or 3 deep
bed fflfrcffon. Generally, the thickened
Tension Roller sludge has to be further demoistured in
Deflection roller for the filter cloth in a machineespecially designed for that
+belt fflfers, +press fflfer automot or purpose.The thickening filter represents
3 double belt presses, with an adjust- an alternative to gravitational sedimen-
ment for tightening of the circulating tation or 3 cenfr/fugal sedimentcrffon.
+ fflfer medlum.

116
Throughput

Thickening 100 up to several 1,000 rpm and are
furnished with approx. 0.5 up to 2m
denotes increasing the 3 solids con- drum diameter. They are well suited for
centration of a diluted suspension to smaller batches of frequently changing
produce a still free-flowing3 sludge.The products, as often required in the
thickening represents a typical pre- chemical industry, because they are
treatment process in solid-liquid accessible and easy to clean.
separation, most of the time followed by
a further 3 demoisturing of the sludge
with suitable equipment. Thereby the Three Phase Border
generally high-grade equipment Linear contact formed by three different
downstream is no longer burdened with phases with a physical interface
large volumes or streams of liquid. Both between each other, e.g. solid/liquid/
settling and filtering processes can be gas, solid/liquid/liquid or liquid/liquid/
utilized for the thickening, i.e. gravi- gas.
tational sedimentation, 3 centrifugd
sedimentation as well as 3 cake
fl/tration, 3 crossflow fl/tratlon,and the Three Phase Decanter
3 deepbedfi/frafionwith regenerating 3 Decanter, i.e.a 3 solid bowl centrl-
beds. luge, which aside from solid separation
can also separate two immiscible
Thin layer Filtration liquids.The liquids separate from each
other due to their density difference into
+ Sieve Fi/tration layers that are coaxially stacked around
the rotational axis of the decanter, and
Thixotrope are removed out of the process
chamber by dedicated discharge
Non-3 Newtonian flow behavior. With devices such as 3 peeling d k s . The
increasing duration of the acting shear applications for such machines are
forces the 3 viscosify of the liquid de- found, for example, in oil-saturated
creases. waste- water, or in the processing of
vegetable oil.
Three-Column Centrifuge
Discontinuously working 3 centrifuge Throughput
with perforated filter or solid bowl, a Quantity based on mass or volume
vertical rotational axis,and mountedon which is able to pass through a
three spring-dampened legs for separation apparatus per time unit.The
vibration absorption. The centrifuge throughput can be related to the
drum itself is rigidly mounted in the amount of 3 suspension fed, or the
spring-suspended housing. A typical filtrate or solids flows produced,
example for a three-column centrifuge respectively. Both moist and dry solids
is a+ peeler centrifuge.Three column can be meant in the case of solids
centrifuges operate in the range of low throughput. If a specific throughput is

117
Tilting Pan Filter

stated, then this value refers in addition
to the employed + filter area. For
example the specific throughput of
+ rotary filters is quoted in (kg/m2h).
Trunsmembrune
Tilting Pan Filter Indicatesthe direction perpendicular to
Quasi-continuously working vacuum +
the surface of a membrane from the
filter of an older design made with + +
concentrateto the permeate side
individual suction box arranged of the medium.
horizontally in a circle around a
+ central control valve. The suction
Transtubulur
boxes are further turned stepwise
according to a time-controlled pro- indicates the direction parallel to the
gram. Following the last demoisturing surface of a + membrane of a cylin-
step they are tilted and the cake drops drical filter module from the point of
out of the filter cell. +
entry of the suspension to the exit of
the + concentrate.

Titer Reduction
68/t Filter
+ Bacteria Retaining Test
+
is a special design of the belt filterby
the DORR OLIVER company that
Titus Pneumatics features vacuum trays covered with a
+ Peeling Pneumatics +
continuous filter medium.This design
is more elaborate than a basic

Titus FilteMryer
+ vacuum filter with a +rubber con-
veyor, but it offers considerably more
+ Filter Reactor freedom in the selection of suitable filter
media,and it operates like a continuous
Torque
+ vacuum filter.

is a term used in mechanics defined as
the product of force and lever arm Tricanter
which is the perpendicular distance +
A decanter centfifugefor separating
from the axis to the line of action of the of a three-phase suspension, i.e.a solid
force acting on a revolving rigid object. and two immiscible liquids of different
density, by the FLOWEG company.The
separated liquids are drained off with
Totul Separation Degree two different discharge systems. There
0 measuresthe solids m,,separated out is an option to discharge one of the
of a + suspenslon, in relation to the components with and the other without
solids amount in the feed mA: pressure.The position of the separation
line between the liquids can be

118
adjusted with a height-variable suspension.
+ peeling disc.
Turbid Substances
Tromp Curve 3 Colloids
+ Fractional Grade Efficiency
Turbidity
Tubular Centrifuges + turbidfiltmtion phase
Cylindrical sedimentation centrifuge of
distinct slenderness ratio. They are
operated with over flow until the solids
Turbodrain
collection space is filled up with Continuously working gravitational belt
separated solids. Tubular Centrifuges thickener by the BELLMER company for
are used for separating extremely fine upgrading flocculated thin slurries.
particles out of highly diluted Plowshare-likebaffles are moving across
suspensions with +
C-values of several a horizontal demoisturing tray in order
10.000’s. to reposition the sludge layer over and
over again and to tear open new flow
channels for the draining liquid. The
Tumbler Centrifuge machine serves for instance as a pre-
+
Continuouslyworking se/ftransporiing treater of + suspensions for the subse-
centrifugewith a conically opening and +
quent demoisturing on a doublebelt
a cantilevered sieve basket. The press.
+
transport of solids through this sliding
centrifuge is accomplished with a
tumbling motion of the sieve basket
Turbulent Flow
around its rotating axis. The machine is sets in when the critical + Reynold’s
designed in such a way that at normal number is exceeded as minor flow
rotations the solids remain in place by fluctuatlons are no longer attenuated
adhesive friction. The solids are forced and random turbulences disturb the
to slide intermittently by the tumbling fluid movement. These are small liquid
movement to manage the otherwise or gas eddies that move volume
difficult to control solids transport in elements diagonally to the flow
sliding centrifuges. direction, so that the liquid or gas layers
are being mixed.

Turbid Filtration Phase
occurs at the very first moment of filter
Will Lace
cake formation. It is caused b y fine solids Special form of + Mill weave, at which
particles that are able to pass through warp and weft (+ weave) have diffe-
the + pores of the + filter medlum +
rent diameters.Thismakes the weave
+
beforea bridgelayerisformed. which stronger; in addition the +mesh width
serves as a filter agent for the remaining can be modified.

119
Will Weuve
Special form of thread weave in a
+ weave. A weft thread is bound over
respectively two or more warp threads
or reverted (weft- respectively warp
thread). The interlacing points rise in a
twill weave in uninterrupted diagonals,
forming the twill marks. Wlthln the
+ pattern repeat one or more weave
marks can exist. In a satin weave the
interlacing points do not contact each
other, so that a smooth, surface without
structure is formed. Twill weaves often
have unevensides, if warp and weft are
not equally distributed on the upper-
and underside of the cloth.

Wo-Phase Flow
in solid-liquid separation technology
means often a mixed flow of liquid and
gas in a + bulk. In contrast to tubular
two-phase flows, these fluids move to a
large extent independently from each
other in the fine pore channels of
+
particle bu/ks.Thus the liquid volume
is assigned to the solids when the gas
flow is evaluated since the shear stress
+
induced by the frictionof the gas into
the liquid is generally smaller by several
orders of magnitude than the
3 capMary pressure which retains the
liquid.

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SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Upgrading

Ultrafiltration
A membrane-type filtration, often
executed as + crossflow liltrcrfion for
separating submicron-sizedparticles or
dissolved macromolecules. The 3 cuf
point of ultrafiltration membranes is
often characterized by the so-called
+ MWCO (Molecular Weight Cut Off).

Underpressure
Lowered absolute pressure acting
against a surrounding atmospheric
pressure.This underpressure,also known
as vacuum, can be decreased in low
vacuum filtrations only down to the
vapor pressure of the liquid, i.e. the
underpressure for water at room
temperature and sea level can be
decreased down to 0.2bar a.

If the term 3 suspension does not make
sense anymore for a liquid to b e
separated such as in a 3 sterile filtration,
it may be called an unfiltrate.

Upgrading
3 Thickening of 3 suspensions,
meaning an increase of the 3 solids
concentration.

121
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Verficul Pendulum Filfer Centrifuge

Vacuum 1916 consisting of a horizontal vessel

+ Underpressure with round filter leaves mounted
vertically on a common hollow shaft.
The shaft with the filter leafs rotates
Vacuum Belt Filter with Rubber slowly during the cleaning and the cake
Conveyor Belt is removed with spray nozzles, i.8.in wet
Special design form of a + belt filter. A
manner. The Vallez-filter was the first
pressure leaf filter suitable to be cleaned
vacuum belt filter with rubber conveyor
+
belt works fully continuously.The filter
in closed condition.
medium is carried by a continuous
rubber conveyor belt underneath Van-depWaals Forces
serving for the transport function as well
are bondingforces between atoms and
as for mechanical stability. The belt has
molecules that are not based on a
filtrate run-off grooves diagonally to the
complete or even partial electron
centerline and drilled wholes for the
drainage of + filtrate by suction.
transition. They result from interactions
between fluctuating electrical dipoles.
Vacuum belt filters with rubber conveyor
belts cannot be employed in all fields
During the + coagulation of particles
Van-der-Waals forces can come into
without limitations, because frequently
+ suspensionsare not compatible with
play only if the electrostatic repulsion
between the particles is small enough.
rubber, especially in the chemical
industry.For this reason other belt filters
have been designed,such as the belt + VC-Filter
filterwith reversing vacuum trays or the
continuously working + tray belt filter.
Horizontally arranged tube filter press
with press membrane.

Vacuum Filter Vertical Pendulum Filter
Discontinuously or continuously working Centrifuge
class of cake filters that drain filtrate with
+
underpressureapplied in the filtercell
Discontinuously working + filter centri-
on the underside side of the + filter
fuge, whose perforated drum can
oscillate freely on an top-mounted,
medium.
vertically rotating shaft in a solid housing.
Self-centering is forced by rotation.The
Vallez-Filter rotating shaft is mounted on an
A + leaf filter patented by E. Vallez in appropriate frame or bridge frame.
Vertical pendulum filter centrifuges are

123
Vibrating Screen

conceived for bottom discharge and Vibrutiond Density
mainly used in the sugar industry for
separating and + washing crystalline 3 Bulk Density
sugar. The cake is discharged with
peeler knives or a sharp edge of the Vibratory Centrifuge
drum where the solids cake breaks off
and falls out of the drum bottom.
Continuously working + sleve centri-
fuge with a cantilevered filter drum,
which is enlarged conically to the
Vibrating Screen outside. The + suspension is added at
Rectangularsieve, which is oscillated by the bottom center of the cone and is
a vibrating motor. The moist feed conveyed by coaxially superimposed
material is charged onto the narrow oscillations to the outer edge of the
front side and simultaneously trans- cone, where the demolstured solids are
ported and demoistured by the sieve discharged.Vibratory centrifuges have
a similar field of appllcation as
movement. Vibrating screens are
typically employed for a large-scale
+ vlbmffngscreens they are well suited
sand demoisturings.Theprocessingcan for easy to demoisture materials at high
be influenced by changing the sieve +suspension concentruffon and large
flow rates. They are built with drum
slope, and the frequency and
diameters of approx. 0.5+1.5m.
amplitude of the vibration.
+
operated with C-valuesin the region
of 60+150, and have a throughput of up
VibrationAbsorption Plate to 350m.tJhr.
Massive steel or concrete plate, which
is attached for instance under horizon- Viscosity
tal + peeler cenfrlfuges in order to
Viscousnessof a fluid expressedas either
increase their total weight for vibration
dampening.The complete aggregate + dynamic vlscoslty or + kinemafic
of + centrifuge and vibrating absorp- V/sm*ty.
tion plate is mounted again on spring
elements which normally neutralize the Viscousness
oscillations transmitted into the foun-
dation.
+ Vlscoslty
Void Rutio
Vibration Damper
The void ratio e is defined as the void
Spring elements often attached under
+ centrlfuges to shield the foundation
volume V, divided by the solids volume
+
Vsof a bulk.
from the vibrations generated by the
operation.

The void ratio is related to + prosifj’.
124
Vortex Flow

Volume Concentrution
.) Solids Content

Vortex Finder
A pipe, immersed from above into the
center of a 3 hydrocyclone, through
which the main portion of the
suspension liquid is discharged. All
+
particles smaller than the cut-size are
also carried by the .)secondary vortex
out of the cyclone.

Vortex Flow
3 Potential Vortex

125
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Water Value

W.A.R Washing Pipe
+ Wring Alfernating Press Horizontal pipe with a single n o d e at
the end to spray a d washing llquidon

Warp
a + +
fflfer cake in pusher cenhituges
etc.
+ Weave
Washing Spray
Wash Degree Device especially applied at +
drum
Residual portion of a substance dis- filters for the +washing of a +
filter
solved in the + mother liquor that is to cake. Pipes with spray nozzles running
be washed out of a + fflfer cake. The across the drum distribute the +
was-
wash degree is normalized by assigned hing liquid as uniform as possible film
values of 1 before the washing and 0 over the cake surface.
after the total removal of the undesired
substances, respectively.
Washing Ratio

Washing
Characteristic measure in + CfiSplaCe-
menf washing for the consumption of
+ Cake Washing washing liquid.Thewashing ratio relates
the volume of washing liquid to the pore

Washing liquid
volume in a + filter cake. Ideally, the
ratio would be unity as the pore volume
Used for the removal of undesired would be replaced just once by was-
substances, which are dissolved in the hing liquid. In reality, however, washing
+ +
mofherliquor of a bulk.The bulk+ ratios can be considerably higher.
can either be permeated by the was-
hing liquid (see + dlsplacemenf was-
hing) or the demoistured + bulk is re- Water Content
suspended in it separately and filtered 3 Residual Moisture
again.The latter case causes a dilution
effect (see + dilution washlng).
Water Value
Reference value for the permeation
Washing Out +
rating of filfermedla.It is determined
+ Washing with particle free water under defined
conditions and by relating the passed

127
Wear

volume to the surface.The water value resistant against abrasion than a
serves malnly for the comparative weave.
ranking of filter media; it is of little value
regarding the filtration performance
Wedge Zone
+
with an actual suspension.
A second demoisturing section in a
+ double belt press following the pre-
demolsturing +sfrainlng zone where
+ Abrasion the + bulk is compacted by addltio-
nal pressing and shearing on its way
through the roller press system.
Weave
Textile materia1,fabricated in a weaving
mill, from two thread systems crossing
each other in a rectangular pattern in + Weave
a weave. Transversely to the in longitu-
dinal direction running warp (warp
Weir Disc
threads) the weft is woven in and out
repeatedly at the weave's edges or Device used in sedimentation centri-
ledges. fuges (see + decanter) for the liquid
level control in the machine. The weir
disc can be designed either for a fixed
Wedge Wire Filter level or through height-adjustableradi-
Discontinuously working, candle- al slots for a variable filling.
shaped filter for purifying large liquid
volumes with low partlcle conta-
Wetting Angle
mination.Thefiltration processon the slit-
shaped filter openings is stopped when + Wemng + Contact Angle
a pre-set value for the developing
pressure loss is reached.Thenthe wedge Wefflng
filter is regenerated mechanically by
means of brushes or scrapers, mostly Spreading of a liquid on a solid surface.
while filtering.Thegap width of the filter A liquid that spreads spontaneously
sieve has to be adjusted for the particle across the entire body Is called a
size to be retained. completely wetting or + spreading li-
quid. The + contact angle at the
+ fhree-phase boundary of solid, liquid
Wedge Wire Sieve and gas is In this case 0". Glass. water
Metallic, rigid and non-woven +
filter and air form a completely wetting
medium with slot-shaped openings. system. If the contact angle is smaller
Wedge wire sieves are used as filter than 90" a liquid shows wetting behavior.
medium for instance in screen Contact angles larger than 90" define
+
centrifuges or worm extruders.These the non-wetting class; the system glass-
sieves are considerably more robustand mercury-air would be an example.
Wring Alternating Press

Wetting is of importance in solid-liquid revolutions. Worm screen centrifuges
separation due to its direct influence on have drum diameters of approx,
the capillary pressure and therefore it 0.2+1.0mand operate with 3C-values
plays a role in 3 de-moisturingof 3 filter of approx. 200+3000.Their suspension
cakes. throughput is approx. 1.0+80m.t./hr.
Particles to be separated should be
larger 1OOpm.3 Cake wasbing is limited
Wing-Sheur Sfrengfb due to the drum internals.
Test method for measuring the aggre-
gate strength of moist 3 bulkmaterials
designated for 1andfilling.Awing probe Wound Module
is inserted into a moist 3 bulk material 3 Spiral Module
sample that has been prepared
according to specifications and the
torque needed to rotate the probe is
Wrapped Module
measured.A minimum value of approx. 3 Spiral Module
2N/m2suffices for landfilling. The wing-
shear strength depends on the type of
Wring Alternating Press
material and its 3 residual moisture.
Special design of a discontinuously
working piston filter press developed by
Worm Extruder the BOKELA and Siempelkamp
Continuously working + press filter companies with pressing powers of up
apparatus made up of a screw in a to approx. 100bar. A novelty of these
perforated cylinder with contracting presses are the parallel arranged
cross sectional area.The screw conveys drainage filter media that are inserted
the feed material axially and in the process chamber. Between the
compresses it continuously. The media the sludge is pressed to a thin
separated liquid permeates the 3 filter layer of 1 +2mm thickness. During
medium (e.g. gap sieve) and flows to pressing the drainage cloths fold up and
the outside. Worm extruders are create in this manner a multitude of
preferably employed with substances channels through which the released
that are coarse,compressible and often 3 filtrate can readily drain off.The thin
fibrous in addition. Known applications layer filtration applied in this press
extend as far as to the separation of Ii- significantly accelerates the pressing
quid manure. process in comparison t o 3 filter
presses. In addition, the extremely high
pressing power produces considerably
Worm Screen Centrifuge lower equilibrium moisture. When the
Continuously working +filter centr/fuge press is opened the drainage cloths are
with a conically widening, cantilevered stretched again and the pressed cake
sieve basket, in which the solids transport drops out in pieces.Residual cake solids
is facilitated with a conveyer screw still adhering can be shaken off by a
rotating at a 3 differenfial number of twisted swaying of the cloth package.

129
Wring Press

Presently, machines are built with a to- which also can
permeability P~~,,~(S)
tal filter area of up to 58m2. attain values between 0 and 100%:

The function prel,L(S)
can be described
by the+ Brutsaerf equation.

Drainage module of the wrlng press

Wring Press
+ Wring Alfernafing Press
Wyckoif & Botset Equation
The permeability of + fllfer cakes
changes for both the liquid and the
gaseous-phase flows with a change in
the + saturation degree during a gas
differential pressure demoisturing of the
system. As for the permeability of the
gaseous phase p,(S) as a function of
the saturation degree S. it is according
to WyckofftIBotset the product of the
single phase permeability p, and a re-
lative gas permeability P,~~,,(S)ranging
from 0 to 100%:

The permeability for the liquid phase
p,(S), in turn, also as a function of the
saturation degree S, is formed as the
product of the single phased
permeability p, and a relative liquid

130
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Yield Point

Yield Point
The yield point of a body under strain is
defined as the tension at which plastic
deformation begins with a measurable
velocity.

131
SolidlLiquid Separation Lexicon
Reinhard Bott and Thomas Langeloh
Copyright0 Wiley-VCH Veriag GrnbfL2002

Zone Sedimenfufion

Zeta Meter served caused b y the formation of
hydrodynamic complexes. At higher
Instrument for the measurement of the
+ zetapotentialof particles suspended
concentrations the sedimentation
velocity decreases strongly as a swarm
in an electrolytic fluid.
is formed, in which the velocity
determining particle properties like
Zeta Potential specific density,size and shape lose their
influences. In this region, the resulting
The zeta potential is the gradient of the
hindered sedimentation can be
electro-kinetic potentialat a solid-liquid
phase border. The surface of a sus-
+
described with the Richardson%Zaki
equafion. The hindered sedimentation
pended particle is generally electrically
is beneficial in sedimentation equip-
charged (often negative).An ionic layer
that surrounds this surface is formed in
+
ment because it forms a sharp sedi-
mentation front.
the suspension liquid from dissociated
molecules with opposite charges. This
layer may compensate to a large
degree but not completely the surface
charge of the particles. Complete
neutralization occurs with an additional
diffuse liquid layer around the particle.
which still displays a slight surplus of the
respective counter ions. Charge
equilibrium exists only outside this
+ double layer. Zeta potentials can be
measured by a forced tangential
displacement of the mobile double
layer, with values ranging typically of
+40s -50mV.

Zone Sedimentation
+ Agglomeration or 3 flocculation of
the solid particles can intensify the
+
hindered sedimentation (see Swarm
Sedimentation). In the region of low
solids concentrations an excess
sedimentation velocity can be ob-

133