You are on page 1of 3

STUDY NOTES

The urinary system consists of two kidneys, two ureters, one bladder, and the urethra
Kidneys also
Regulate blood volume by excreting or conserving water
Regulate electrolyte content of blood by excreting or conserving minerals
Regulate acid-base balance of by excreting or conserving H+ ions or HCO3-

2. KIDNEYS
Introduction
Are located in the upper abdominal cavity on either side of the spine
Upper part rests on the diaphragm
Are surrounded by adipose tissue
Protection
The renal artery enters each kidney and the renal vein leaves each kidney
The artery is a branch of the abdominal aorta
The ureter carries urine from the kidney to the bladder
Internal Structure of the Kidney
Renal Cortex
Outer layer of tissue
Made up of renal corpuscles and convoluted tubules
Renal Medulla
Inner layer of tissue
Made up of Loops of Henle and collecting tubules
Renal Pelvis
Cavity formed by enlargement of the ureter
The Nephron
Is the structural and functional unit of the kidney
Renal Corpuscle
Is made up of a glomerulus surrounded by Bowman=s capsule
The glomerulus is a network of capillaries that comes from the afferent arteriole and empties into an
efferent arteriole
Bowman=s capsule is the expanded end of the renal tubule
Renal Tubule
Is made up of the proximate convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule
The distal convoluted tubules of various nephrons empty into a collecting tubule
All parts of the renal tubule are surrounded by the peritubular capillaries, which form from the efferent
arteriole
Blood Vessels of the Kidney
The course of blood flow through the kidney is an crucial part of the process of urine formation
Blood flows from the abdominal aorta Crenal artery Cafferent arterioles Cglomerulus(capillaries) Cefferent
arteriole-------peritubular capillaries Crenal vein----inferior vena cave ----heart
2. FORMATION OF URINE
Introduction
Involves three major processes
Glomerular filtration(renal corpuscle), tubular reabsorption, and tubular secretion( renal tubules)

Glomerular Filtration
Blood is forced under great pressure into the glomerulus and plasma, dissolved substances, and small
proteins are forced out of the glomeruli and into Bowman=s capsule
now called renal filtrate

Filtrate like blood except has less protein and no blood cells
Tubular Reabsorption
Takes place from the renal tubules into the peritubular capillaries
Tubular Secretion
Changes the composition of urine
Substances are actively secreted from the blood into the peritubular capillaries into the filtrate in the renal
tubules
Waste products such as ammonia, creatinine, and metabolic products of medications may be excreted in
the urine
H+ may be secreted by the tubules to help maintain normal pH of the blood
Hormones that Influence Reabsorption of Water
Aldosterone
Secreted by adrenal cortex in response to high levels of K in blood and low levels of Na, or a decrease in
blood pressure
When Na+ is reabsorbed water follows
helps maintain blood pressure
Atrial Natriuretic Hormone(ANH)
Secreted by atria of heart when stretched by high blood pressure or increased blood volume in too so both
are excreted
Lowers blood volume or blood pressure
Antidiuretic Hormone or ADH
Released by the posterior pituitary gland when amount of water in body decreases
The distal convoluted tubules become permeable to water and water is reabsorbed back into the blood
Helps maintain normal blood volume and blood pressure
Also helps produce a concentrated urine necessary to prevent too much water lost while excreting toxic
materials
If the amount of water in the body increases, the secretion of ADH decreases and the kidneys absorb less
water.
2. THE KIDNEYS AND ACID-BASE BALANCE
Kidneys are organs most responsible for maintaining pH of blood
2. OTHER FUNCTIONS OF THE KIDNEYS
Secretion of erythropoietin
Secreted when blood oxygen levels decrease
Stimulates the bone marrow to increase rate of RBC production
More RBC=s increase the amount of oxygen in the blood
2. ELIMINATION OF URINE
Ureters
Go from kidneys to bladder prevents the backflow of urine
Urinary Bladder
Is a muscular sac behind the pubic bones
Act as a reservoir for urine
Urethra
Carries urine from bladder to outside of body
The Urination Reflex
Also called micturition or voiding
2. CHARACTERISTICS OF URINE
Have physical and chemical aspects
Amount
Normal output over 24 hours is 1 to 2 liters
Can be altered by sweating, diarrhea, excessive fluid intake, and consumption of alcohol
Color
Usually a straw or amber color

Freshly voided urine is clear

Specific Gravity
Normally 1.010 to 1.025
Is a measure of the dissolved materials in urine
If you have been sweating, you will have less urine and a higher specific gravity
Indicates the concentrating ability of the kidneys
pH
Between 4.6 - 8.0 with average of 6.0
Diet is greatest influence
Constituents
Urine is about 95% water
Waste products and salts dissolved in water
Nitrogenous Wastes
Theses wastes contain nitrogen
In the liver urea is formed by the deamination of excess proteins used for energy

Abnormal Constituents in Urine
Glucose
diabetes
Protein
kidney disease
Blood
kidney disease or bleeding in urinary tract
Bacteria
cloudy urine
infection
(2) Ketones
(a) form from fats and proteins
(b) malfunctioning carbohydrate metabolism or diet high in proteins
2. AGING AND THE URINARY SYSTEM
As we get older, the number of nephrons in our kidneys decreases, of half the original number by 70 or 80
Kidneys lose concentrating ability

Glomerular filtration rate decreases
Due to arteriosclerosis
Excretion of nitrogenous wastes remains normal
Urinary bladder decreases in size and tone
i. Urinate more frequently
ii. Incontinence
b. More at risk for infection