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Research-Based Writing Guidelines

Listen Summarize Build Mark

to the
Community Restate the Direct attention to the
Pay attention ideas of Add to the importance of
to the previous arguments or particular arguments
arguments of writers in new observations of or evidence.
others. language. previous writers
Verify Unpack Support Link

to the
Check your Point out the
Knowledge understanding Give examples & relationships among
of previous Explain how evidence to previous arguments
statements & you arrived at support your & knowledge.
knowledge. your claims claims and
and findings. findings.
Defend Challenge Combine Predict

to Rigorous
Thinking Point out where Incorporate Draw conclusions
Defend your earlier writers knowledge from about what might
reasoning may have been multiple happen next, or as a
against a mistaken. resources to result, of insights.
different point form your ideas.
of view.

Authored and illustrated by Angela Cunningham, Bullitt Central High School, Shepherdsville, KY 40165, published under Creative Commons
Attribution-Noncommercial 3.0 Unported License. Modified by Drew M. Loewe, PhD of St. Edward’s University. Modification licensed under
that same Creative Commons license.