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Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics

Chapter 2
BASIC CONCEPTS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Systems and Properties
2-1C The radiator should be analyzed as an open system since mass is crossing the boundaries of the
system.
2-2C A can of soft drink should be analyzed as a closed system since no mass is crossing the boundaries of
the system.
2-3C Intensive properties do not depend on the size (extent) of the system but extensive properties do.
State, Process, Forms of Energy
2-4C In electric heaters, electrical energy is converted to sensible internal energy.
2-5C The forms of energy involved are electrical energy and sensible internal energy. lectrical energy is
converted to sensible internal energy, !hich is transferred to the !ater as heat.
2-6C The macroscopic forms of energy are those a system possesses as a !hole !ith respect to some
outside reference frame. The microscopic forms of energy, on the other hand, are those related to the
molecular structure of a system and the degree of the molecular activity, and are independent of outside
reference frames.
2-7C The sum of all forms of the energy a system possesses is called total energy. In the absence of
magnetic, electrical and surface tension effects, the total energy of a system consists of the kinetic,
potential, and internal energies.
2-8C The internal energy of a system is made up of sensible, latent, chemical and nuclear energies. The
sensible internal energy is due to translational, rotational, and vibrational effects.
2-9C Thermal energy is the sensible and latent forms of internal energy, and it is referred to as heat in
daily life.
2-10C "or a system to be in thermodynamic e#uilibrium, the temperature has to be the same throughout
but the pressure does not. \$o!ever, there should be no unbalanced pressure forces present. The increasing
pressure !ith depth in a fluid, for example, should be balanced by increasing !eight.
2-11C A process during !hich a system remains almost in e#uilibrium at all times is called a #uasi%
e#uilibrium process. &any engineering processes can be approximated as being #uasi%e#uilibrium. The
!ork output of a device is maximum and the !ork input to a device is minimum !hen #uasi%e#uilibrium
processes are used instead of non#uasi%e#uilibrium processes.
2-12C A process during !hich the temperature remains constant is called isothermal' a process during
!hich the pressure remains constant is called isobaric' and a process during !hich the volume remains
constant is called isochoric.
2-13C The state of a simple compressible system is completely specified by t!o independent, intensive
properties.
2-14C (es, because temperature and pressure are t!o independent properties and the air in an isolated
room is a simple compressible system.
2-15C A process is said to be steady%flo! if it involves no changes !ith time any!here !ithin the system
or at the system boundaries.
)%*
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-16 A *+++%&, po!er plant is po!ered by nuclear fuel. The amount of nuclear fuel consumed per year
is to be determined
Assumptions 1 The po!er plant operates continuously. 2 The conversion efficiency of the po!er plant
remains constant. 3 The nuclear fuel is uranium. 4 The uranium undergoes complete fission in the plant
(this is not the case in practice).
Properties The complete fission of * kg of uranium%)-. releases /.0-*+
*+
k12kg of heat (given in text).
Analysis 3oting that the conversion efficiency is -+4, the amount of energy consumed by the po!er plant
is

k12s *+ -.--- &, ---- &,)2+.- (*+++
y 2fficienc production 5o!er rate n consumptio nergy
/
= = =
=

k12year *+ +.* . *
s2year) -/++ )6 k12s)(-/. *+ -.--- (
year) rate)(* consumtion nergy ( n consumptio energy Annual
*6
/
=
=
=
3oting that the complete fission of uranium%)-. releases /.0-*+
*+
k12kg of heat, the amount of uranium
that needs to be supplied to the po!er plant per year is
kg/year 1562 =

= =
k12kg *+ /.0-
k12year *+ +.* . *
fuel of value \$eating
n consumptio energy Annual
n consumptio fuel Annual
*+
*6
Therefore, this po!er plant !ill consume about one and a half tons of nuclear fuel per year.
)%)
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-17 A *+++%&, po!er plant is po!ered by burning coal. The amount of coal consumed per year is to be
determined
Assumptions 1 The po!er plant operates continuously. 2 The conversion efficiency of the po!er plant
remains constant.
Properties The heating value of the coal is given to be )7,+++ k12kg.
Analysis 3oting that the conversion efficiency is -+4, the amount of chemical energy consumed by the
po!er plant is

k12s *+ -.--- &, ---- &,)2+.- (*+++
y 2fficienc production 5o!er rate n consumptio nergy
/
= = =
=

k12year *+ +.* . *
s2year) -/++ )6 k12s)(-/. *+ -.--- (
year) rate)(* consumtion nergy ( n consumptio energy Annual
*6
/
=
=
=
3oting that the heating value of the coal is )7,+++ k12kg, the amount of coal that needs to be supplied to
the po!er plant per year is

tons/year 3,754,000 =
=

= =
kg2year *+ 0.6 . -
k12kg )7,+++
k12year *+ +.* . *
fuel of value \$eating
n consumptio energy Annual
n consumptio fuel Annual
8
*6
Therefore, this po!er plant !ill consume almost 6 millions tons of coal per year.
)%-
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
Energy and Environment
2-18C nergy conversion pollutes the soil, the !ater, and the air, and t he environmental pollution is a
serious threat to vegetation, !ild life, and human health. The emissions emitted during the combustion of
fossil fuels are responsible for smog, acid rain, and global !arming and climate change. The primary
chemicals that pollute the air are hydrocarbons (\$9, also referred to as volatile organic compounds,
:;9), nitrogen oxides (3;x), and carbon monoxide (9;). The primary source of these pollutants is the
motor vehicles.
2-19C <mog is the brow ha!e that b"i#\$s "p i a #arge stagat air mass% a\$ hags o&er
pop"#ate\$ areas o 'a#m hot s"mmer \$a(s) Smog is ma\$e "p most#( o* gro"\$+#e&e# o!oe ,O-.%
b"t it a#so 'otais "mero"s other 'hemi'a#s% i'#"\$ig 'arbo moo/i\$e ,CO.% parti'"#ate
matter s"'h as soot a\$ \$"st% &o#ati#e orgai' 'ompo"\$s ,0OC. s"'h as be!ee% b"tae% a\$
other h(\$ro'arbos) 1ro"\$+#e&e# o!oe is *orme\$ whe h(\$ro'arbos a\$ itroge o/i\$es
rea't i the prese'e o* s"#ight i hot 'a#m \$a(s) O!oe irritates e(es a\$ \$amage the air sa's
i the #"gs where o/(ge a\$ 'arbo \$io/i\$e are e/'hage\$% 'a"sig e&et"a# har\$eig o* this
so*t a\$ spog( tiss"e) It a#so 'a"ses shortess o* breath% whee!ig% *atig"e% hea\$a'hes%
a"sea% a\$ aggra&ate respirator( prob#ems s"'h as asthma)
2-20C Fossi# *"e#s i'#"\$e sma## amo"ts o* s"#*"r) The s"#*"r i the *"e# rea'ts with o/(ge to
*orm s"#*"r \$io/i\$e ,SO2.% whi'h is a air po##"tat) The s"#*"r o/i\$es a\$ itri' o/i\$es rea't with
water &apor a\$ other 'hemi'a#s high i the atmosphere i the prese'e o* s"#ight to *orm
s"#*"ri' a\$ itri' a'i\$s) The a'i\$s *orme\$ "s"a##( \$isso#&e i the s"spe\$e\$ water \$rop#ets i
'#o"\$s or *og) These a'i\$+#a\$e \$rop#ets are washe\$ *rom the air o to the soi# b( rai or sow)
This is 2ow as acid rain) It is 'a##e\$ 3rai4 si'e it 'omes \$ow with rai \$rop#ets)
As a res"#t o* a'i\$ rai% ma( #a2es a\$ ri&ers i i\$"stria# areas ha&e be'ome too a'i\$i' *or
*ish to grow) Forests i those areas a#so e/perie'e a s#ow \$eath \$"e to absorbig the a'i\$s
thro"gh their #ea&es% ee\$#es% a\$ roots) E&e marb#e str"'t"res \$eteriorate \$"e to a'i\$ rai)
2-21C Carbo \$io/i\$e ,CO2.% water &apor% a\$ tra'e amo"ts o* some other gases s"'h as
methae a\$ itroge o/i\$es a't #i2e a b#a2et a\$ 2eep the earth warm at ight b( b#o'2ig the
heat ra\$iate\$ *rom the earth) This is 2ow as the greenhouse effect) The greeho"se e**e't
ma2es #i*e o earth possib#e b( 2eepig the earth warm) B"t e/'essi&e amo"ts o* these gases
\$ist"rb the \$e#i'ate ba#a'e b( trappig too m"'h eerg(% whi'h 'a"ses the a&erage temperat"re
o* the earth to rise a\$ the '#imate at some #o'a#ities to 'hage) These "\$esirab#e
'ose5"e'es o* the greeho"se e**e't are re*erre\$ to as global warming or global climate
change) The greeho"se e**e't 'a be re\$"'e\$ b( re\$"'ig the et pro\$"'tio o* CO2 b(
'os"mig #ess eerg( ,*or e/amp#e% b( b"(ig eerg( e**i'iet 'ars a\$ app#ia'es. a\$
p#atig trees)
2-22C Carbo moo/i\$e% whi'h is a 'o#or#ess% o\$or#ess% poisoo"s gas that \$epri&es the bo\$(6s
orgas *rom gettig eo"gh o/(ge b( bi\$ig with the re\$ b#oo\$ 'e##s that wo"#\$ otherwise 'arr(
o/(ge) At #ow #e&e#s% 'arbo moo/i\$e \$e'reases the amo"t o* o/(ge s"pp#ie\$ to the brai
a\$ other orgas a\$ m"s'#es% s#ows bo\$( rea'tios a\$ re*#e/es% a\$ impairs 7"\$gmet) It
poses a serio"s threat to peop#e with heart \$isease be'a"se o* the *ragi#e 'o\$itio o* the
'ir'"#ator( s(stem a\$ to *et"ses be'a"se o* the o/(ge ee\$s o* the \$e&e#opig brai) At high
#e&e#s% it 'a be *ata#% as e&i\$e'e\$ b( "mero"s \$eaths 'a"se\$ b( 'ars that are warme\$ "p i
'#ose\$ garages or b( e/ha"st gases #ea2ig ito the 'ars)
)%6
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-23E A person trades in his "ord Taurus for a "ord xplorer. The extra amount of 9;) emitte\$ b( the
E/p#orer withi 8 (ears is to be \$etermie\$)
Assumptions The E/p#orer is ass"me\$ to "se 9:; ga##os o* gaso#ie a (ear 'ompare\$ to <=8
ga##os *or Ta"r"s)
Analysis The e/tra amo"t o* gaso#ie the E/p#orer wi## "se withi 8 (ears is
E/tra 1aso#ie > ,E/tra per (ear.,No) o* (ears.
> ,9:; ? <=8 ga#@(r.,8 (r.
> ==28 ga#
E/tra CO2 pro\$"'e\$ > ,E/tra ga##os o* gaso#ie "se\$ .,CO2 emissio per ga##o.
> ,==28 ga#.,=9)< #bm@ga#.
> 22,163 lbm CO2
Discussion Note that the 'ar we 'hoose to \$ri&e has a sigi*i'at e**e't o the amo"t o*
greeho"se gases pro\$"'e\$)
)%.
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-24 A po!er plant that burns natural gas produces +..8 kg of carbon dioxide (9;)) per k,h. The amount
of 9;) production that is due to the refrigerators in a city is to be determined.
Assumptions The city uses electricity produced by a natural gas po!er plant.
Properties +..8 kg of 9;) is produced per k,h of electricity generated (given).
Analysis 3oting that there are )++,+++ households in the city and each household consumes 0++ k,h of
electricity for refrigeration, the total amount of 9;) produced is
ton/year CO 82,600
2
=
=
=
=
kg2year 9; *+ )/ . 7
kg2k,h) old)(+..8 k,h2househ (0++ household) ()++,+++
k,h) per 9; of Amount consumed)( y electricit of Amount ( produced 9; of Amount
)
0
) )
Therefore, the refrigerators in this city are responsible for the production of 7),/++ tons of 9;).
2-25 A po!er plant that burns coal, produces *.* kg of carbon dioxide (9;)) per k,h. The amount of 9;)
production that is due to the refrigerators in a city is to be determined.
Assumptions The city uses electricity produced by a coal po!er plant.
Properties *.* kg of 9;) is produced per k,h of electricity generated (given).
Analysis 3oting that there are )++,+++ households in the city and each household consumes 0++ k,h of
electricity for refrigeration, the total amount of 9;) produced is
ton/year CO 154,000
2
=
=
=
=
kg2year 9; *+ 6 . *.
kg2k,h) old)(*.* k,h2househ (0++ household) ()++,+++
k,h) per 9; of Amount consumed)( y electricit of Amount ( produced 9; of Amount
)
0
) )
Therefore, the refrigerators in this city are responsible for the production of *.6,+++ tons of 9;).
)%/
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-26E A household uses fuel oil for heating, and electricity for other energy needs. 3o! the household
reduces its energy use by )+4. The reduction in the 9;) production this household is responsible for is to
be determined.
Properties The amount of 9;) produced is *..6 lbm per k,h and )/.6 lbm per gallon of fuel oil (given).
Analysis 3oting that this household consumes 7+++ k,h of electricity and *.++ gallons of fuel oil per
year, the amount of 9;) production this household is responsible for is
lbm2year 9; 8)+ , .*
lbm2gal) .6 gal2yr)()/ (*.++ lbm2k,h) .6 k,h2yr)(*. (7+++
gallon) per 9; of Amount consumed)( oil fuel of Amount (
k,h) per 9; of Amount consumed)( y electricit of Amount ( produced 9; of Amount
)
)
) )
=
+ =
+
=
Then reducing the electricity and fuel oil usage by )+4 !ill reduce the annual amount of 9;) production
by this household by
lb/year CO 10,384
2
=
=
=
kg2year) 9; 8)+ , .* )( )+ . + (
) production 9; of amount 9urrent )( )+ . + ( produced 9; in =eduction
)
) )
Therefore, any measure that saves energy also reduces the amount of pollution emitted to the environment.
2-27 A household has ) cars, a natural gas furnace for heating, and uses electricity for other energy needs.
The annual amount of 3;x emission to the atmosphere this household is responsible for is to be
determined.
Properties The amount of 3;x produced is 0.* g per k,h, 6.- g per therm of natural gas, and ** kg per
car (given).
Analysis 3oting that this household has ) cars, consumes *)++ therms of natural gas, and 8,+++ k,h of
electricity per year, the amount of 3;x production this household is responsible for is

kg/year !O 91"06
#
=
+
+ =
+
+
=
kg2therm) )(+.++6- therms2yr (*)++
kg2k,h) ++0* k,h2yr)(+. (8+++ kg2car) cars)(** ()
gallon) per 3; of Amount consumed)( gas of Amount (
k,h) per 3; of Amount consumed)( y electricit of Amount (
car) per produced 3; of nt cars)(Amou of 3o. ( produced 3; of Amount
x
x
x x
Discussion Any measure that saves energy !ill also reduce the amount of
pollution emitted to the atmosphere.
)%0
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
Temperatre
2-28C The zeroth la! of thermodynamics states that t!o bodies are in thermal e#uilibrium if both have
the same temperature reading, even if they are not in contact.
2-29C They are 9elsius(9) and >elvin (>) in the <I, and "ahrenheit (") and =ankine (=) in the nglish
system.
2-30C 5robably, but not necessarily. The operation of these t!o thermometers is based on the thermal
expansion of a fluid. If the thermal expansion coefficients of both fluids vary linearly !ith temperature,
then both fluids !ill expand at the same rate !ith temperature, and both thermometers !ill al!ays give
identical readings. ;ther!ise, the t!o readings may deviate.
2-31 A temperature is given in 9. It is to be expressed in >.
Analysis The >elvin scale is related to 9elsius scale by
T(>) ? T(9) @ )0-
Thus,
T(>) ? -09 @ )0- ? 310 \$
2-32E A temperature is given in 9. It is to be expressed in ", >, and =.
Analysis Asing the conversion relations bet!een the various temperature scales,
T(>) ? T(9) @ )0- ? *79 @ )0- ? 291 \$
T(") ? *.7T(9) @ -) ? (*.7)(*7) @ -) ? 64"4%
T(=) ? T(") @ 6/+ ? /6.6 @ 6/+ ? 524"4 &
2-33 A temperature change is given in 9. It is to be expressed in >.
Analysis This problem deals !ith temperature changes, !hich are identical in >elvin and 9elsius scales.
Thus,
T(>) ? T(9) ? 15 \$
2-34E A temperature change is given in ". It is to be expressed in 9, >, and =.
Analysis This problem deals !ith temperature changes, !hich are identical in =ankine and "ahrenheit
scales. Thus,
T(=) ? T(") ? 27 &
The temperature changes in 9elsius and >elvin scales are also identical, and are related to the changes in
"ahrenheit and =ankine scales by
T(>) ? T(=)2*.7 ? )02*.7 ? 15 \$
and
T(9) ? T(>) ? 15C
)%7
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-35 T!o systems having different temperatures and energy contents are brought in contact. The direction
of heat transfer is to be determined.
Analysis \$eat transfer occurs from !armer to cooler obBects. Therefore, heat !ill be transferred from
system C to system A until both systems reach the same temperature.

Pressre, !anometer, and "arometer
2-36C The pressure relative to the atmospheric pressure is called the gage pressure, and the pressure
relative to an absolute vacuum is called absolute pressure.
2-37C The atmospheric air pressure !hich is the external pressure exerted on the skin decreases !ith
increasing elevation. Therefore, the pressure is lo!er at higher elevations. As a result, the difference
bet!een the blood pressure in the veins and the air pressure outside increases. This pressure imbalance
may cause some thin%!alled veins such as the ones in the nose to burst, causing bleeding. The shortness
of breath is caused by the lo!er air density at higher elevations, and thus lo!er amount of oxygen per unit
volume.
2-38C 3o, the absolute pressure in a li#uid of constant density does not double !hen the depth is doubled.
It is the gage pressure that doubles !hen the depth is doubled.
2-39C If the lengths of the sides of the tiny cube suspended in !ater by a string are very small, the
magnitudes of the pressures on all sides of the cube !ill be the same.
2-40C Pascals principle states that the pressure applied to a confined fluid increases the pressure
throughout by the same amount. This is a conse#uence of the pressure in a fluid remaining constant in the
horizontal direction. An example of 5ascalDs principle is the operation of the hydraulic car Back.
2-41C The density of air at sea level is higher than the density of air on top of a high mountain. Therefore,
the volume flo! rates of the t!o fans running at identical speeds !ill be the same, but the mass flo! rate
of the fan at sea level !ill be higher.
2-42 The pressure in a vacuum chamber is measured by a vacuum gage. The absolute pressure in the
chamber is to be determined.
Analysis The absolute pressure in the chamber is determined from
k'a 68 )6 8)
vac atm abs
= = = P P P
)%8
P
abs
P
atm
> 92 2Pa
2: 2Pa
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-43E The pressure in a tank is measured !ith a manometer by measuring the differential height of the
manometer fluid. The absolute pressure in the tank is to be determined for the cases of the manometer
arm !ith the higher and lo!er fluid level being attached to the tank .
Assumptions The fluid in the manometer is incompressible.
Properties The specific gravity of the fluid is given to be <E ? *.).. The density of !ater at -)" is /).6
lbm2ft
-
(Table A%-).
Analysis The density of the fluid is obtained by multiplying its specific gravity by the density of !ater,
- -
lbm2ft + . 07 ) lbm2ft 6 (*.).)(/). <E
)
= = =
O H

The pressure difference corresponding to a differential height of )7 in bet!een the t!o arms of the
manometer is
psia )/ . *
in *66
ft *
ft2s lbm -).*06
lbf *
ft) )()72*) ft2s )(-).*06 lbm2ft (07
)
)
)
) -
=

= = gh P
Then the absolute pressures in the tank for the t!o cases becomeF
(a) The fluid level in the arm attached to the tank is higher (vacuum)F
ps(a 11"44 = = = )/ . * 0 . *)
vac atm abs
P P P
(b) The fluid level in the arm attached to the tank is lo!erF
ps(a 13"96 )/ . * 0 . *)
atm gage abs
= + = + = P P P
Discussion 3ote that !e can determine !hether the pressure in
a tank is above or belo! atmospheric pressure by simply
observing the side of the manometer arm !ith the higher fluid
level.
)%*+
Air
<E? *.).
P
atm
? *.)/ psia
)7 in
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-44 The pressure in a pressurized !ater tank is measured by a multi%fluid manometer. The gage pressure
of air in the tank is to be determined.
Assumptions The air pressure in the tank is uniform (i.e., its variation !ith elevation is negligible due to
its lo! density), and thus !e can determine the pressure at the air%!ater interface.
Properties The densities of mercury, !ater, and oil are given to be *-,/++, *+++, and 7.+ kg2m
-
,
respectively.
Analysis <tarting !ith the pressure at point * at the air%!ater interface, and moving along the tube by
adding (as !e go do!n) or subtracting (as !e go up) the
gh
terms until !e reach point ), and setting
the result e#ual to Patm since the tube is open to the atmosphere gives
atm
P gh gh gh P = + +
- mercury ) oil * !ater *

<olving for P*,
- mercury ) oil * !ater atm *
gh gh gh P P + =
or,

) (
) oil * !ater - mercury atm *
h h h g P P =
3oting that P*,gage ? P* % Patm and substituting,

k'a 56"9 =

+
=
) )
-
- - )
, *
32m *+++
k5a *
m2s kg *
3 *
G m) - . + )( kg2m (7.+ %
m) ) . + )( kg2m (*+++ m) 6/ . + )( kg2m )H(*-,/++ m2s (8.7*
gage
P
Discussion 3ote that Bumping horizontally from one tube to the next and realizing that pressure remains
the same in the same fluid simplifies the analysis greatly.
2-45 The barometric reading at a location is given in height of mercury column. The atmospheric pressure
is to be determined.
Properties The density of mercury is given to be *-,/++ kg2m
-
.
Analysis The atmospheric pressure is determined directly from
k'a * . *++
32m *+++
k5a *
m2s kg *
3 *
m) 0.+ . + )( m2s 7* . 8 )( kg2m (*-,/++
) )
) -
=

=
= gh P
atm

)%**
,ater
h
*
Air
*
h
-
h
)
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-46 The gage pressure in a li#uid at a certain depth is given. The gage pressure in the same li#uid at a
different depth is to be determined.
Assumptions The variation of the density of the li#uid !ith depth is negligible.
Analysis The gage pressure at t!o different depths of a li#uid can be expressed as
* *
gh P = and
) )
gh P =
Taking their ratio,
*
)
*
)
*
)
h
h
gh
gh
P
P
= =

<olving for P) and substituting gives
k'a 112 = = = k5a) )7 (
m -
m *)
*
*
)
)
P
h
h
P

Discussion 3ote that the gage pressure in a given fluid is proportional to depth.
2-47 The absolute pressure in !ater at a specified depth is given. The local atmospheric pressure and the
absolute pressure at the same depth in a different li#uid are to be determined.
Assumptions The li#uid and !ater are incompressible.
Properties The specific gravity of the fluid is given to be <E ? +.7.. ,e take the density of !ater to be
*+++ kg2m
-
. Then density of the li#uid is obtained by multiplying its specific gravity by the density of
!ater,
- -
kg2m 7.+ ) kg2m + (+.7.)(*++ <E
)
= = =
O H

Analysis (a) >no!ing the absolute pressure, the atmospheric pressure can be determined from

k'a 96"0 =

=
=
)
) -
32m *+++
k5a *
m) )(. m2s )(8.7* kg2m (*+++ k5a) (*6.
gh P P
atm

(b) The absolute pressure at a depth of . m in the other li#uid is
k'a 137"7 =

+ =
+ =
)
) -
32m *+++
k5a *
m) )(. m2s )(8.7* kg2m (7.+ k5a) (8/.+
gh P P
atm

Discussion 3ote that at a given depth, the pressure in the lighter fluid is lo!er, as expected.
)%*)
h
*
*
h
)
)
P
atm
h
P
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
)%*-
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-48E It is to be sho!n that * kgf2cm
)
? *6.))- psi .
Analysis 3oting that * kgf ? 8.7+//. 3, * 3 ? +.))67* lbf, and * in ? )..6 cm, !e have
lbf )+6/- . )
3 *
lbf +.))67*
) 3 8.7+//. ( 3 8.7+//. kgf * =

= =
and
ps( 14"223 = =

= =
)
)
) ) )
lbf2in ))- . *6
in *
cm )..6
) lbf2cm )+6/- . ) ( lbf2cm )+6/- . ) kgf2cm *
2-49E The !eight and the foot imprint area of a person are given. The pressures this man exerts on the
ground !hen he stands on one and on both feet are to be determined.
Assumptions The !eight of the person is distributed uniformly on foot imprint area.
Analysis The !eight of the man is given to be )++ lbf. 3oting that pressure is force per unit area, the
pressure this man exerts on the ground is
(a) ;n one footF ps( 5"56 = = = = lbf2in ./ . .
in -/
lbf )++
)
)
A
W
P
(a) ;n both feetF ps( 2"78 = =

= = lbf2in 07 . )
in -/ )
lbf )++
)
)
)
A
W
P
Discussion 3ote that the pressure exerted on the ground (and on the feet) is reduced by
half !hen the person stands on both feet.
2-50 The mass of a !oman is given. The minimum imprint area per shoe needed to
enable her to !alk on the sno! !ithout sinking is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The !eight of the person is distributed uniformly on the imprint area of the shoes. 2 ;ne
foot carries the entire !eight of a person during !alking, and the shoe is sized for !alking conditions
(rather than standing). 3 The !eight of the shoes is negligible.
Analysis The mass of the !oman is given to be 0+ kg. "or a pressure of +.. k5a on the sno!, the imprint
area of one shoe must be

2
1"37 =

= = =
) )
)
32m *+++
k5a *
m2s kg *
3 *
k5a +..
) m2s kg)(8.7* (0+
P
mg
P
W
A
Discussion This is a very large area for a shoe, and such shoes !ould be impractical to use. Therefore,
some sinking of the sno! should be allo!ed to have shoes of reasonable size.
)%*6
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-51 The vacuum pressure reading of a tank is given. The absolute pressure in the tank is to be
determined.
Properties The density of mercury is given to be ? *-,.8+ kg2m
-
.
Analysis The atmospheric (or barometric) pressure can be expressed as
k5a *++./
32m *+++
k5a *
m2s kg *
3 *
m) )(+.0.. m2s )(8.7+0 kg2m (*-,.8+
) )
) -
=

=
= h g P
atm

Then the absolute pressure in the tank becomes
k'a 70"6 = = = -+ *++./
vac atm abs
P P P
2-52E A pressure gage connected to a tank reads .+ psi. The absolute pressure in the tank is to be
determined.
Properties The density of mercury is given to be ? 767.6 lbm2ft
-
.
Analysis The atmospheric (or barometric) pressure can be expressed as
psia *6.)8
in *66
ft *
ft2s lbm -).*06
lbf *
ft) )()8.*2*) ft2s )(-).*06 lbm2ft (767.6
)
)
)
) -
=

=
= h g P
atm

Then the absolute pressure in the tank is
P P P
abs gage atm
= + = + = .+ *6.)8 64 29 ps(a .
)%*.
P
abs
P
atm
> <88mmHg
-;2Pa
P
abs
8; psia
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-53 A pressure gage connected to a tank reads .++ k5a. The
absolute pressure in the tank is to be determined.
Analysis The absolute pressure in the tank is determined from
k'a 594 = + = + = 86 .++
atm gage abs
P P P
2-54 A mountain hiker records the barometric reading before and after a hiking trip. The vertical distance
climbed is to be determined.
Assumptions The variation of air density and the gravitational acceleration !ith altitude is negligible.
Properties The density of air is given to be ? *.)+ kg2m
-
.
Analysis Taking an air column bet!een the top and the bottom of the
mountain and !riting a force balance per unit base area, !e obtain
bar +.07+) (+.8-+
32m *++,+++
bar *
m2s kg *
3 *
) )( m2s )(8.7* kg2m (*.)+
) (
2
) )
) -
top bottom air
top bottom air
=

=
=
h
P P gh
P P A W

It yields h ? 1274
!hich is also the distance climbed.
)%*/
h > A
<B; mbar
9-; mbar
P
abs
P
atm
> 9: 2Pa
8;; 2Pa
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-55 A barometer is used to measure the height of a building by recording reading at the bottom and at the
top of the building. The height of the building is to be determined.
Assumptions The variation of air density !ith altitude is negligible.
Properties The density of air is given to be ? *.*7 kg2m
-
. The density of mercury is *-,/++ kg2m
-
.
Analysis Atmospheric pressures at the top and at the bottom of the building are
k5a *++.0+
32m *+++
k5a *
m2s kg *
3 *
m) )(+.0.. m2s )(8.7+0 kg2m (*-,/++
) (
k5a 80.-/
32m *+++
k5a *
m2s kg *
3 *
m) )(+.0-+ m2s )(8.7+0 kg2m (*-,/++
) (
) )
) -
bottom bottom
) )
) -
top top
=

=
=
=

=
=
h g P
h g P

Taking an air column bet!een the top and the bottom of the building and !riting a force balance per unit
base area, !e obtain
k5a 80.-/) (*++.0+
32m *+++
k5a *
m2s kg *
3 *
) )( m2s )(8.7+0 kg2m (*.*7
) (
2
) )
) -
top bottom air
top bottom air
=

=
=
h
P P gh
P P A W

It yields h ? 288"6
!hich is also the height of the building.
)%*0
<-; mmHg
<88 mmHg
h
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-56 5roblem )%.. is reconsidered. The entire < solution is to be printed out, including the
numerical results !ith proper units.I.
P_bottom=755"[mmHg]"
P_top=730"[mmHg]"
g=9.807 "[m/s^2]" "local accelerato! o" gra#t\$ at sea le#el"
r%o=&.&8"['g/m^3]"
()*+,P_abs=-P_bottom.P_top/01234)5+-6mmHg676'Pa6/"['Pa]" "(elta P
rea8!g "rom t%e barometers7 co!#erte8 "rom mmHg to 'Pa."
()*+,P_% =r%o0g0%/&000 "['Pa]" ")9:. &.&;. (elta P 8:e to t%e ar <:8
col:m! %eg%t7 %7 bet=ee! t%e top a!8 bottom o" t%e b:l8!g."
">!stea8 o" 8#8!g b\$ &000 Pa/'Pa =e co:l8 %a#e m:ltple8 r%o0g0% b\$ t%e ))?
":!cto!7 1234)5+-6Pa676'Pa6/"
()*+,P_abs=()*+,P_%
SOLUTION
4arables ! @a!
()*+,P_abs=3.333 ['Pa]
()*+,P_%=3.333 ['Pa]
g=9.807 [m/s^2]
%=288 [m]
P_bottom=755 [mmHg]
P_top=730 [mmHg]
r%o=&.&8 ['g/m^3]
2-57 A diver is moving at a specified depth from the !ater surface. The pressure exerted on the surface of
the diver by !ater is to be determined.
Assumptions The variation of the density of !ater !ith depth is negligible.
Properties The specific gravity of sea !ater is given to be <E ? *.+-. ,e take the density of !ater to be
*+++ kg2m
-
.
Analysis The density of the sea !ater is obtained by multiplying its specific gravity
by the density of !ater !hich is taken to be *+++ kg2m
-
F
- -
2 *+-+ ) kg2m + (*.+-)(*++ <E
)
m kg
O H
= = =
The pressure exerted on a diver at -+ m belo! the free surface of the sea is
the absolute pressure at that locationF
k'a 404"0 =

+ =
+ =
)
) -
32m *+++
k5a *
m) )(-+ m2s )(8.7+0 kg2m (*+-+ k5a) (*+*
gh P P
atm

)%*7
P
atm
<ea
h
P
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-58E A submarine is cruising at a specified depth from the !ater surface. The pressure exerted on the
surface of the submarine by !ater is to be determined.
Assumptions The variation of the density of !ater !ith depth is negligible.
Properties The specific gravity of sea !ater is given to be <E ? *.+-. The density of !ater at -)" is /).6
lbm2ft
-
(Table A%-).
Analysis The density of the sea !ater is obtained by multiplying its specific gravity by the density of
!ater,
- -
lbm2ft /6.)0 ) lbm2ft 6 (*.+-)(/). <E
)
= = =
O H

The pressure exerted on the surface of the submarine cruising -++ ft belo!
the free surface of the sea is the absolute pressure at that locationF
ps(a 6 148.
in *66
ft *
ft2s lbm -).*06
lbf *
ft) )(-++ ft2s )(-).*06 lbm2ft (/6.)0 psia) (*6.0
)
)
)
) -
=

+ =
+ = gh P P
atm

2-59 A gas contained in a vertical piston%cylinder device is pressurized by a spring and by the !eight of
the piston. The pressure of the gas is to be determined.
Analysis Jra!ing the free body diagram of the piston and balancing the vertical forces yield
PA P A W F
atm spring
= + +
Thus,
k'a 4 123.
32m *+++
k5a *
m *+ -.
3 /+ ) m2s kg)(8.7+0 (6
k5a) (8.
) ) 6
)
spring
atm
=

+
+ =
+
+ =

A
F mg
P P
)%*8
P
atm
<ea
h
P
F
spring
P
atm
P
W ? mg
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-60 5roblem )%.8 is reconsidered. The effect of the spring force in the range of + to .++ 3 on the
pressure inside the cylinder is to be investigated. The pressure against the spring force is to be
plotted, and results are to be discussed.
g=9.807"[m/s^2]"
P_atm= 95"['Pa]"
m_psto!=A"['g]"
BC_spr!g=;0""D
,=3501234)5+-6cm^2676m^26/"[m^2]"
E_psto!=m_psto!0g""
C_atm=P_atm0,01234)5+-6'Pa6763/m^26/""
"Crom t%e "ree bo8\$ 8agram o" t%e psto!7 t%e bala!c!g #ertcal "orces \$el8F"
C_gas= C_atmGC_spr!gGE_psto!""
P_gas=C_gas/,01234)5+-63/m^2676'Pa6/"['Pa]"
Fspring [N] Pgas [kPa]
0 &0;.2
55.5; &22.&
&&&.& &38
&;;.7 &53.8
222.2 &;9.7
277.8 &85.;
333.3 20&.A
388.9 2&7.3
AAA.A 233.2
500 2A9.&
# 1## 2## 3## \$## %##
1##
12#
1\$#
16#
1&#
2##
22#
2\$#
26#
F
spring
'()
P
g
a
s

'
*
P
a
)

)%)+
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-61 )Also solved by ! on enclosed "#* Coth a gage and a manometer are attached to a gas to
measure its pressure. "or a specified reading of gage pressure, the difference bet!een the fluid levels of
the t!o arms of the manometer is to be determined for mercury and !ater.
Properties The densities of !ater and mercury are given to be !ater ? *+++ kg2m
-
and be \$g ? *-,/++
kg2m
-
.
Analysis The gage pressure is related to the vertical distance h bet!een the t!o fluid levels by
g
P
h h g P

gage
gage
= =
(a) "or mercury,
60 0 .
k3 *
s kg2m *+++
k5a *
k32m *
) m2s )(8.7+0 kg2m (*-/++
k5a 7+
) )
) -
gage
=

= =
g
P
h
Hg

(b) "or !ater,

8"16
k3 *
s kg2m *+++
k5a *
k32m *
) m2s )(8.7+0 kg2m (*+++
k5a 7+
) )
) -
gage
)
=

= =
g
P
h
O H

)%)*
AI=
h
B; 2Pa
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-62 Problem 2.;& s reco!s8ere8. +%e eHect o" t%e ma!ometer <:8 8e!st\$ ! t%e
ra!ge o" 800 to &37000 'g/m3 o! t%e 8Here!tal <:8 %eg%t o" t%e ma!ometer s to
be !#estgate8. (Here!tal <:8 %eg%t aga!st t%e 8e!st\$ s to be plotte87 a!8 t%e
res:lts are to be 8sc:sse8.
C:!cto! <:8_8e!st\$-Cl:8I/
>" <:8I=6@erc:r\$6 t%e! <:8_8e!st\$=&3;00 else <:8_8e!st\$=&000
e!8
B>!p:t "rom t%e 8agram =!8o=. >" t%e 8agram =!8o= s %88e!7 t%e! all o"
t%e !p:t m:st come "rom t%e
e9:ato!s =!8o=. ,lso !ote t%at brac'ets ca! also 8e!ote comme!ts . b:t
t%ese comme!ts 8o !ot appear !
t%e "ormatte8 e9:ato!s =!8o=.D
BCl:8I=6@erc:r\$6
P_atm = &0&.325 "'pa"
()*+,P=80 "'Pa 3ote %o= ()*+,P s 8spla\$e8 o! t%e Cormatte8
)9:ato!s E!8o=."D
g=9.807 "m/s27 local accelerato! o" gra#t\$ at sea
le#el"
r%o=Cl:8_8e!st\$-Cl:8I/ "Jet t%e <:8 8e!st\$7 et%er Hg or H227 "rom t%e
":!cto!"
"+o plot <:8 %eg%t aga!st 8e!st\$ place BD aro:!8 t%e abo#e e9:ato!. +%e!
set :p t%e parametrc table a!8 sol#e."
()*+,P = 5H20g0%/&000
">!stea8 o" 8#8!g b\$ &000 Pa/'Pa =e co:l8 %a#e m:ltple8 b\$ t%e ))?
":!cto!7 1234)5+-6Pa676'Pa6/"
%_mm=%0co!#ert-6m676mm6/ "+%e <:8 %eg%t ! mm s "o:!8 :s!g t%e b:lt.
! 1234)5+ ":!cto!."
P_abs= P_atm G ()*+,P
"+o ma'e t%e grap%7 %8e t%e 8agram =!8o= a!8 remo#e t%e BDbrac'ets "rom
Cl:8I a!8 "rom P_atm. ?elect 3e=
Parametrc +able "rom t%e +ables me!:. 1%oose P_abs7 ()*+,P a!8 % to be !
t%e table. 1%oose ,lter 4al:es "rom
t%e +ables me!:. ?et #al:es o" % to ra!ge "rom 0 to & ! steps o" 0.2. 1%oose
?ol#e +able -or press C3/ "rom t%e
1alc:late me!:. 1%oose 3e= Plot E!8o= "rom t%e Plot me!:. 1%oose to plot
P_abs #s % a!8 t%e! c%oose 2#erla\$
Plot "rom t%e Plot me!: a!8 plot ()*+,P o! t%e same scale."
hmm
[mm]

[kg/m
3
]
&0&97 800
378A 2&5;
2323 35&&
&;7; A8;7
&3&& ;222
&07; 7578
9&3.& 8933
792.8 &0289
700.5 &&;AA
;27.5 &3000
)%))
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
;);; ;)2; ;):; ;)C; ;)B; =);;
;
2;
:;
C;
B;
=;;
=2;
=:;
=C;
=B;
2;;
22;
2:;
!anometer Flid +eig,t, m
P
r
e
s
s

r
e
,

*
P
a
Ta2 F#"i\$ 1age a\$ Abso#"te Press"res &s Maometer F#"i\$ Height
Abso#"te Press"re
1age Press"re
Maometer F#"i\$D Mer'"r(

# 2### \$### 6### &### 1#### 12### 1\$###
#
22##
\$\$##
66##
&&##
11###

'*g-m.3)
,
m
m

'
m
m
)
!anometer Flid +eig,t vs !anometer Flid /ensity

)%)-
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-63 The air pressure in a tank is measured by an oil manometer. "or a given oil%level difference bet!een
the t!o columns, the absolute pressure in the tank is to be determined.
Properties The density of oil is given to be ? 7.+ kg2m
-
.
Analysis The absolute pressure in the tank is determined from
k'a 101"75 =

+ =
+ =
)
) -
32m *+++
k5a *
m) )(+.6. m2s )(8.7+0 kg2m (7.+ k5a) (87
gh P P
atm

2-64 The air pressure in a duct is measured by a mercury manometer. "or a given mercury%level difference
bet!een the t!o columns, the absolute pressure in the duct is to be determined.
Properties The density of mercury is given to be ? *-,/++ kg2m
-
.
Analysis (a) The pressure in the duct is above atmospheric pressure
since the fluid column on the duct side is at a lo!er level.
(b) The absolute pressure in the duct is determined from

k'a 102"0 =

+ =
+ =
) )
) -
32m *+++
k5a *
m2s kg *
3 *
m) )(+.+*. m2s )(8.7* kg2m (*-,/++ k5a) (*++
gh P P
atm

2-65 The air pressure in a duct is measured by a mercury manometer. "or a given mercury%level difference
bet!een the t!o columns, the absolute pressure in the duct is to be determined.
Properties The density of mercury is given to be ? *-,/++ kg2m
-
.
Analysis (a) The pressure in the duct is above atmospheric pressure
since the fluid column on the duct side is at a lo!er level.
(b) The absolute pressure in the duct is determined from
)%)6
AI=
P
atm
? 87 k5a
+.6. m
AI=
P
*. mm
AI=
P
-+ mm
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics

k'a 104"0 =

+ =
+ =
) )
) -
32m *+++
k5a *
m2s kg *
3 *
m) )(+.+-+ m2s )(8.7* kg2m (*-,/++ k5a) (*++
gh P P
atm

)%).
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-66E The systolic and diastolic pressures of a healthy person are given in mm\$g. These pressures are to
be expressed in k5a, psi, and meter !ater column.
Assumptions Coth mercury and !ater are incompressible substances.
Properties ,e take the densities of !ater and mercury to be *+++ kg2m
-
and *-,/++ kg2m
-
, respectively.
Analysis Asing the relation
gh P =
for gage pressure, the high and lo! pressures are expressed as

k'a 10"7
k'a 16"0

32m *+++
k5a *
m2s kg *
3 *
m) )(+.+7 m2s )(8.7* kg2m (*-,/++
32m *+++
k5a *
m2s kg *
3 *
m) )(+.*) m2s )(8.7* kg2m (*-,/++
) )
) -
lo! lo!
) )
) -
high high
=

= =
=

= =
gh P
gh P

3oting that * psi ? /.78. k5a,

ps( 2"32
k5a /.78.
psi *
5a) + . (*/
high
=

= P and
ps( 1"55
k5a /.78.
psi *
5a) (*+.0
lo!
=

= P
"or a given pressure, the relation
gh P =
can be expressed for mercury and !ater as
!ater !ater
gh P = and mercury mercury
gh P =
. <etting these t!o relations e#ual to each other and
solving for !ater height gives
mercury
!ater
mercury
!ater mercury mercury !ater !ater
h h gh gh P

= = =
Therefore,
1"09
1"63
= = =
= = =
m) +7 . + (
kg2m *+++
kg2m /++ , *-
m) *) . + (
kg2m *+++
kg2m /++ , *-
-
-
lo! mercury,
!ater
mercury
lo! !ater,
-
-
high mercury,
!ater
mercury
high !ater,
h h
h h

Discussion 3ote that measuring blood pressure !ith a K!aterL monometer !ould involve differential fluid
heights higher than the person, and thus it is impractical. This problem sho!s !hy mercury is a suitable
fluid for blood pressure measurement devices.
)%)/
h
h
Clood
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-67 A vertical tube open to the atmosphere is connected to the vein in the arm of a person. The height
that the blood !ill rise in the tube is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The density of blood is constant. 2 The gage pressure of blood is *)+ mm\$g.
Properties The density of blood is given to be ? *+.+ kg2m
-
.
Analysis "or a given gage pressure, the relation
gh P =
can be expressed for mercury and blood as
blood blood
gh P = and mercury mercury
gh P =
. <etting these t!o relations e#ual to each other !e get
mercury mercury blood blood
gh gh P = =
<olving for blood height and substituting gives
1"55 = = = m) *) . + (
kg2m *+.+
kg2m /++ , *-
-
-
mercury
blood
mercury
blood
h h

Discussion 3ote that the blood can rise about one and a half meters in a
tube connected to the vein. This explains !hy I: tubes must be placed
high to force a fluid into the vein of a patient.
2-68 A man is standing in !ater vertically !hile being completely submerged. The difference bet!een the
pressures acting on the head and on the toes is to be determined.
Assumptions ,ater is an incompressible substances, and thus the density does not change !ith depth.
Properties ,e take the density of !ater to be ?*+++ kg2m
-
.
Analysis The pressures at the head and toes of the person can be expressed as

gh P P + = and
toe atm toe
gh P P + =
!here h is the vertical distance of the location in !ater from the free
surface. The pressure difference bet!een the toes and the head is
determined by subtracting the first relation above from the second,
) (
h h g gh gh P P = =
<ubstituting,

k'a 17"7 =

=
) )
) -
32m *+++
k5a *
m2s kg *
3 *
+) % m )(*.7+ m2s )(8.7* kg2m (*+++ P P
Discussion This problem can also be solved by noting that the atmospheric pressure (* atm ? *+*.-).
k5a) is e#uivalent to *+.-%m of !ater height, and finding the pressure that corresponds to a !ater height
of *.7 m.
)%)0
h
h
toe
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-69 ,ater is poured into the A%tube from one arm and oil from the other arm. The !ater column height
in one arm and the ratio of the heights of the t!o fluids in the other arm are given. The height of each
fluid in that arm is to be determined.
Assumptions Coth !ater and oil are incompressible substances.
Properties The density of oil is given to be ? 08+ kg2m
-
. ,e take the density of !ater to be ?*+++
kg2m
-
.
Analysis The height of !ater column in the left arm of the monometer is given to be h!* ? +.0+ m. ,e let
the height of !ater and oil in the right arm to be h!) and ha, respectively. Then, ha ? /h!). 3oting that both
arms are open to the atmosphere, the pressure at the bottom of the A%tube can be expressed as

!* ! atm bottom
gh P P + = and
a a !) ! atm bottom
gh gh P P + + =
<etting them e#ual to each other and simplifying,
a a !) !* a a !) ! !* ! a a !) ! !* !
) 2 ( h h h h h h gh gh gh
\$
+ = + = + =
3oting that ha ? /h!), the !ater and oil column heights in the second arm are determined to be
0"122 = + =
) ) )
/ (08+2*+++) m +.0
\$ \$ \$
h h h
0"732 = + =
a a
h h (08+2*+++) m *)) . + m +.0
Discussion 3ote that the fluid height in the arm that contains oil is
higher. This is expected since oil is lighter than !ater.
2-70 The hydraulic lift in a car repair shop is to lift cars. The fluid gage pressure that must be maintained
in the reservoir is to be determined.
Assumptions The !eight of the piston of the lift is negligible.
Analysis 5ressure is force per unit area, and thus the gage pressure re#uired is simply the ratio of the
!eight of the car to the area of the lift,
k'a 278 = =

= = =
)
) )
)
)
gage
k32m )07
m2s kg *+++
k3 *
6 2 m) -+ . + (
) m2s kg)(8.7* )+++ (
6 2 #
mg
A
W
P
Discussion 3ote that the pressure level in the reservoir can be reduced
by using a piston !ith a larger area.
)%)7
h
a
h
\$)
h
\$*
oil
,ater
W ? mg
P
atm
P
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-71 "resh and sea!ater flo!ing in parallel horizontal pipelines are connected to each other by a double
A%tube manometer. The pressure difference bet!een the t!o pipelines is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 All the li#uids are incompressible. 2 The effect of air column on pressure is negligible.
Properties The densities of sea!ater and mercury are given to be sea ? *+-. kg2m
-
and \$g ? *-,/++
kg2m
-
. ,e take the density of !ater to be ! ?*+++ kg2m
-
.
Analysis <tarting !ith the pressure in the fresh !ater pipe (point *) and moving along the tube by adding
(as !e go do!n) or subtracting (as !e go up) the
gh
terms until !e reach the sea !ater pipe (point )),
and setting the result e#ual to P) gives
) sea sea air air \$g \$g ! *
P gh gh gh gh P
\$
= + +
=earranging and neglecting the effect of air column on pressure,

) (
sea sea ! \$g \$g sea sea \$g \$g ! ) *
h h h g gh gh gh P P
\$ \$
= + =
<ubstituting,
k'a 3"39 = =

=
)
)
- -
- )
) *
k32m -8 . -
m2s kg *+++
k3 *
m)G 6 . + )( kg2m (*+-. m) / . + )( kg2m (*+++
m) * . + )( kg2m )H(*-/++ m2s (8.7* P P
Therefore, the pressure in the fresh !ater pipe is -.-8 k5a higher than the pressure in the sea !ater pipe.
Discussion A +.0+%m high air column !ith a density of *.) kg2m
-
corresponds to a pressure difference of
+.++7 k5a. Therefore, its effect on the pressure difference bet!een the t!o pipes is negligible.
)%)8
"resh
,ater
h
!
h
sea
h
air
<ea
,ater
&ercury
Air
h
\$g
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-72 "resh and sea!ater flo!ing in parallel horizontal pipelines are connected to each other by a double
A%tube manometer. The pressure difference bet!een the t!o pipelines is to be determined.
Assumptions All the li#uids are incompressible.
Properties The densities of sea!ater and mercury are given to be sea ? *+-. kg2m
-
and \$g ? *-,/++
kg2m
-
. ,e take the density of !ater to be ! ?*+++ kg2m
-
. The specific gravity of oil is given to be +.0),
and thus its density is 0)+ kg2m
-
.
Analysis <tarting !ith the pressure in the fresh !ater pipe (point *) and moving along the tube by adding
(as !e go do!n) or subtracting (as !e go up) the
gh
terms until !e reach the sea !ater pipe (point )),
and setting the result e#ual to P) gives
) sea sea oil oil \$g \$g ! *
P gh gh gh gh P
\$
= + +
=earranging,

) (
sea sea ! oil oil \$g \$g
sea sea oil oil \$g \$g ! ) *
h h h h g
gh gh gh gh P P
\$
\$

+ =
+ + =
<ubstituting,
k'a 8"34 = =

+ =
)
)
-
- - - )
) *
k32m -6 . 7
m2s kg *+++
k3 *
m)G 6 . + )( kg2m (*+-.
m) / . + )( kg2m (*+++ m) 0 . + )( kg2m (0)+ m) * . + )( kg2m )H(*-/++ m2s (8.7* P P
Therefore, the pressure in the fresh !ater pipe is 7.-6 k5a higher than the pressure in the sea !ater pipe.

)%-+
"resh
,ater
h
!
h
sea
h
oil
<ea
,ater
&ercury
;il
h
\$g
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-73E The pressure in a natural gas pipeline is measured by a double A%tube manometer !ith one of the
arms open to the atmosphere. The absolute pressure in the pipeline is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 All the li#uids are incompressible. 2 The effect of air column on pressure is negligible. 3
The pressure throughout the natural gas (including the tube) is uniform since its density is lo!.
Properties ,e take the density of !ater to be ! ? /).6 lbm2ft
-
. The specific gravity of mercury is given to
be *-./, and thus its density is \$g ? *-.//).6 ? 767./ lbm2ft
-
.
Analysis <tarting !ith the pressure at point * in the natural gas pipeline, and moving along the tube by
adding (as !e go do!n) or subtracting (as !e go up) the
gh
terms until !e reach the free surface of oil
!here the oil tube is exposed to the atmosphere, and setting the result e#ual to Patm gives
atm
P gh gh P =
!ater !ater \$g \$g *

<olving for P*,
* !ater \$g \$g atm *
gh gh P P + + =
<ubstituting,
ps(a 18"1 =

+ + =
)
)
)
- - )
in *66
ft *
ft2s lbm -).)
lbf *
ft)G )()02*) lbm2ft (/).6 ft) )(/2*) lbm2ft )H(767./ ft2s ) . -) ( psia *6.) P
Discussion 3ote that Bumping horizontally from one tube to the next and realizing that pressure remains
the same in the same fluid simplifies the analysis greatly. Also, it can be sho!n that the *.%in high air
column !ith a density of +.+0. lbm2ft
-
corresponds to a pressure difference of +.+++/. psi. Therefore, its
effect on the pressure difference bet!een the t!o pipes is negligible.
)%-*
h
!
3atural
gas
h
\$g
*+in
&ercury
,ater
Air
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-74E The pressure in a natural gas pipeline is measured by a double A%tube manometer !ith one of the
arms open to the atmosphere. The absolute pressure in the pipeline is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 All the li#uids are incompressible. 2 The pressure throughout the natural gas (including
the tube) is uniform since its density is lo!.
Properties ,e take the density of !ater to be ! ? /).6 lbm2ft
-
. The specific gravity of mercury is given to
be *-./, and thus its density is \$g ? *-.//).6 ? 767./ lbm2ft
-
. The specific gravity of oil is given to be
+./8, and thus its density is oil ? +./8/).6 ? 6-.* lbm2ft
-
.
Analysis <tarting !ith the pressure at point * in the natural gas pipeline, and moving along the tube by
adding (as !e go do!n) or subtracting (as !e go up) the
gh
terms until !e reach the free surface of oil
!here the oil tube is exposed to the atmosphere, and setting the result e#ual to Patm gives
atm
P gh gh gh P = +
!ater !ater oil oil \$g \$g *

<olving for P*,
oil oil * !ater \$g \$g atm *
gh gh gh P P + + =
<ubstituting,

ps(a 17"7 =

+ + =
)
)
)
-
- - )
*
in *66
ft *
ft2s lbm -).)
lbf *
ft)G )(*.2*) lbm2ft (6-.*
ft) )()02*) lbm2ft (/).6 ft) )(/2*) lbm2ft )H(767./ ft2s ) . -) ( psia 6.) * P
Discussion 3ote that Bumping horizontally from one tube to the next and realizing that pressure remains
the same in the same fluid simplifies the analysis greatly.
)%-)
h
!
3atural
gas
h
\$g
&ercury
,ater
;il
h
oil
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-75 The gage pressure of air in a pressurized !ater tank is measured simultaneously by both a pressure
gage and a manometer. The differential height h of the mercury column is to be determined.
Assumptions The air pressure in the tank is uniform (i.e., its variation !ith elevation is negligible due to
its lo! density), and thus the pressure at the air%!ater interface is the same as the indicated gage pressure.
Properties ,e take the density of !ater to be ! ?*+++ kg2m
-
. The specific gravities of oil and mercury are
given to be +.0) and *-./, respectively.
Analysis <tarting !ith the pressure of air in the tank (point *), and moving along the tube by adding (as
!e go do!n) or subtracting (as !e go up) the
gh
terms until !e reach the free surface of oil !here the
oil tube is exposed to the atmosphere, and setting the result e#ual to Patm gives
atm \$
P gh gh gh P = +
oil oil \$g \$g ! *

=earranging,
\$
gh gh gh P P
! \$g \$g oil oil atm *
+ =
or,

\$
h h h
g
P
+ =
\$g \$g s, oil oil s,
!
gage , *

<ubstituting,
m - . + *-./ m) (+.0. 0) . +
m k5a. *
m2s kg *+++
) m2s (8.7* ) kg2m (*+++
k5a /.
\$g
)
)
) -
+ =

h
<olving for h\$g gives h\$g ? 0"47 . Therefore, the differential height of the mercury column must be 60
cm.
Discussion Jouble instrumentation like this allo!s one to verify the measurement of one of the
instruments by the measurement of another instrument.
)%--
AI=
,ater
h
oil
C8 2Pa
h
\$g
h
!
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-76 The gage pressure of air in a pressurized !ater tank is measured simultaneously by both a pressure
gage and a manometer. The differential height h of the mercury column is to be determined.
Assumptions The air pressure in the tank is uniform (i.e., its variation !ith elevation is negligible due to
its lo! density), and thus the pressure at the air%!ater interface is the same as the indicated gage pressure.
Properties ,e take the density of !ater to be ! ?*+++ kg2m
-
. The specific gravities of oil and mercury
are given to be +.0) and *-./, respectively.
Analysis <tarting !ith the pressure of air in the tank (point *), and moving along the tube by adding (as
!e go do!n) or subtracting (as !e go up) the
gh
terms until !e reach the free surface of oil !here the
oil tube is exposed to the atmosphere, and setting the result e#ual to Patm gives
atm \$
P gh gh gh P = +
oil oil \$g \$g ! *

=earranging,
\$
gh gh gh P P
! \$g \$g oil oil atm *
+ =
or,

\$
h h !% h !%
g
P
+ =
\$g \$g oil oil
!
gage , *

<ubstituting,
m - . + *-./ m) (+.0. 0) . +
m k5a. *
m2s kg *+++
G
) m2s (8.7* ) kg2m (*+++
k5a 6.
\$g
)
)
) -
+ =

h
<olving for h\$g gives h\$g ? 0"32 . Therefore, the differential height of the mercury column must be -)
cm.
Discussion Jouble instrumentation like this allo!s one to verify the measurement of one of the
instruments by the measurement of another instrument.
)%-6
AI=
,ater
h
oil
:8 2Pa
h
\$g
h
!
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-77 The top part of a !ater tank is divided into t!o compartments, and a fluid !ith an unkno!n density
is poured into one side. The levels of the !ater and the li#uid are measured. The density of the fluid is to
be determined.
Assumptions 1 Coth !ater and the added li#uid are incompressible substances. 2 The added li#uid does
not mix !ith !ater.
Properties ,e take the density of !ater to be ?*+++ kg2m
-
.
Analysis Coth fluids are open to the atmosphere. 3oting that the pressure of both !ater and the added
fluid is the same at the contact surface, the pressure at this surface can be expressed as

! ! atm f f atm contact
gh P gh P P + = + =
<implifying and solving for f gives

3
kg/ 562"5 = = = = ) kg2m *+++ (
cm 7+
cm 6.

-
! ! f f \$
f
\$
f
h
h
gh gh
Discussion 3ote that the added fluid is lighter than !ater as
expected (a heavier fluid !ould sink in !ater).
2-78 A load on a hydraulic lift is to be raised by pouring oil from a thin tube. The height of oil in the tube
re#uired in order to raise that !eight is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 The cylinders of the lift are vertical. 2 There are no leaks. 3 Atmospheric pressure act on
both sides, and thus it can be disregarded.
Properties The density of oil is given to be ?07+ kg2m
-
.
Analysis 3oting that pressure is force per unit area, the gage pressure in the fluid under the load is simply
the ratio of the !eight to the area of the lift,
k5a 6.-6 k32m -6 . 6
m2s kg *+++
k3 *
6 2 m) )+ . * (
) m2s kg)(8.7* .++ (
6 2
)
) )
)
)
gage
= =

= = =
#
mg
A
W
P
The re#uired oil height that !ill cause 6.-6 k5a of pressure rise is

0"567 =

= = =
)
)
) -
)
gage
gage
k32m *
m2s kg +++ *
) m2s )(8.7* kg2m (07+
k32m -6 . 6

g
P
h gh P

Therefore, a .++ kg load can be raised by this hydraulic lift by simply raising the oil level in the tube by
./.0 cm.
Discussion 3ote that large !eights can be raised by little effort in hydraulic lift by making use of 5ascalDs
principle.
)%-.
h
f
h
!
"luid
,ater
+O,-
500 kg
h
*.) m * cm
Chapter 2 Basic Concepts of Thermodynamics
2-79E T!o oil tanks are connected to each other through a mercury manometer. "or a given differential
height, the pressure difference bet!een the t!o tanks is to be determined.
Assumptions 1 Coth the oil and mercury are incompressible fluids. 2 The oils in both tanks have the
same density.
Properties The densities of oil and mercury are given to be oil ? 6. lbm2ft
-
and \$g ? 767 lbm2ft
-
.
Analysis <tarting !ith the pressure at the bottom of tank * (!here pressure is P*) and moving along the
tube by adding (as !e go do!n) or subtracting (as !e go up) the
gh
terms until !e reach the bottom of
tank ) (!here pressure is P)) gives
) * oil ) \$g ) * oil *
) ( P gh gh h h g P = + +
!here h* ? *+ in and h& ? -) in. =earranging and simplifying,
) oil \$g ) oil ) \$g ) *
) ( gh gh gh P P = =
<ubstituting,
ps(a 14"9 =

= =
)
)
)
) -
) *
in *66
ft *
ft2s lbm -).)
lbf *
ft) )(-)2*) ft2s ) . -) ( ) lbm2ft 6. % (767 P P P
Therefore, the pressure in the left oil tank is *6.8 psia higher than the pressure in the right oil tank.
Discussion 3ote that large pressure differences can be measured conveniently by mercury manometers. If
a !ater manometer !ere used in this case, the differential height !ould be over -+ ft.
)%-/
-) in
*+ in
&ercury