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Hp th
Hp th l qu trnh quan trng x l kh thi trong sn xut cng nghip v trong cc lnh vc bo v
mi trng
Hp th da trn c s ca qu trnh truyn khi. Ty thuc vo bn cht ca s tng tc gia cht hp
th v cht b hp th m chia ra lm 2 loi :Hp th vt l v hp th ha hc .
Hp th vt l: da trn s ha tan ca cu t pha kh trong pha lng .
Hp th ha hc : xy ra phn ng ha hc gia cht hp th v cht b hp th

Thit k thp hp th c th lm vic gin on hoc lin tc, c 2 kiu thit b lm vic lin tc ph bin
nh:

o Thit b hp th loi m
o Thit b hp th loi mm
Chng ta cn tnh ton xc nh cc kch thc c bn ch yu ca thit b hp th nh: ng kch
thp chiu cao thp ph hp vi yu cu sn xut v hiu sut thp.
i vi thp mm chiu cao thp c xc nh theo cc d kin sau:
o S mm thc t ca thp
o Khong cch gia cc mm

Trnh t tnh tan thp hp th:
a. La chn dung mi cht hp th
b. Xy dng ng cn bng v ng lm vic , xc nh lng dung mi cn thit
c. Xc nh s n v truyn khi chiu cao ca mt n v truyn khi hoc s mm thc
v khang cch gia cc mm
d. Tnh chiu cao, ng knh thp, m
e. Tnh tr lc , bm my nn

2. Kh thi trong cng nghip
Cc loi kh thi trong sn xut cng nghip: Kh thi t l hi , kh thi trong qu trnh nu c kim loi,
kh thi nh my cn luyn cao su, kh thi t nh my dp nhm .
- CO : L sn phm ca qu trnh chy trong iu kin thiu O2, CO gy c ch s h hp ca ng vt
v t bo thc vt. C th gy t vong cp k nng 0.8 ppm.
- NOx : Bao gm NO; NO2. L nhng cht nhim do qu trnh t chy nhin liu pht thi vo bu
kh quyn, trong gn ngn la kh NO chim 90 95% v phn cn li l NO2.
- SOx: Hu ht cc lai nhin liu lng u c cha lu hunh trong du t khi chy thnh phn lu
hunh trong nhin liu phn ng vi oxy to thnh kh oxit lu hunh, trong khong 99% l kh sunfu
ioxit SO2.
- Bi: Trong sn phm chy ca cc nguyn liu lng, rn hu ht u c mang theo bi. Nhin liu khi
chy sinh ra mt hm lng bi ln nhng nht thit cn c x l trnh bi pht tn ra mi trng
gy ra cc bnh lin quan n ng h hp v lm mt v sinh mi trng xung quanh ngun thi.

Ly v d kh thi ca l hi

Kh thi l hi t bng than : Bi , CO2, SO2, CO, SO3, NO
X
, do phn ng chy ca cc thnh phn
ha hc trong than vi oxy trong khng kh to nn.
Kh thi ca l hi t bng du F.O : cha cc thnh phn nh SO2, NO
x
, CO, v bi
stt Thnh phn n v Kt qu
1 Bi mg/m
3
351
2 SO
2
mg/m
3
2682
3 NO
2
mg/m
3
1456
4 CO mg/m
3
954
(K thut x l cht thi cng nghip Nguyn nh Phc , Dng Th Thnh, Nguyn Th Thanh
Hng)
Cc thnh phn vt tiu chun ca kh thi l SO2, SO3, SO
X
v NOx v vy cn c x l trc khi
thi ra mi trng

3. Tc hi ca kh thi
Cc kh SO2 ,SO3, SOx l nhng kh thuc loi c hi khng ch i vi sc khe con ngi ,
ng thc vt , cc cng trnh kin trc l mt trong nhng tc nhn chnh gy nhim mi
trng
i vi sc khe con ngi
SO2 l cht kh c tnh kch thch , nng nht nh c th gy co git c trn kh
qun . nng ln s gy tng tit dch nim mc ng kh qun
i vi ng thc vt
SO
X
s b oxy ha trong khng kh v phn ng vi nc ma to thnh acid sulfuric ,
nc ma cha acid vi nng cao s nh hng n h sinh thi thc vt
i vi cng trnh kin trc
Gy n mn kim loi , b tng v cc cng trnh kin trc , thay i tnh cht mu sc vt
liu xy dng , lm cho st thp b g st nhanh
4. Cc bin php x l SO2

Hp th SO2 bng nc : l phng php n gin c s dng trong cc l t cng
nghip
u im : R tin , d tm , hon nguyn c
Nhc : ha tan SO2 thp , phi dng 1 lng nc ln
Hp th SO2 bng NaOH hoc KOH
u im : Hp th tt, hiu sut cao
Nhc im : Chi ph dung mi cao, khng th hon nguyn dung mi
Hp th bng dung dch vi sa:l phng php c p dng rng ri trong cng
nghip , nguyn liu r tin , hiu qu x l cao, c sn mi ni
u im :cng ngh n gin, chi ph u t thp , cht hp th kh r tin
Nhc im:ng cn , gy n mn thit b
Ngoi ra cn x l SO2 bng amoniac, bng Magie oxit , km oxt , hp ph bng than
hot tnh v.v..