Introduction

Hip hop culture started to develop many years ago and
I would like to introduce you the formation of it. The
reason why I decided to make this project about hip hop
culture is simple – I consider this culture as one of the most
interesting and nowadays the most popular over the
world.
Roots of hip hop
• Hip hop (also spelled hip-hop or hiphop) is both a cultural
movement and a genre of music developed in New York
City in the 1970s primarily by African Americans and
Latinos. The four historic "elements" of hip hop are:
• Rap
• Dj-ing
• Breakdance
• Graffiti art

What is Hip Hop?
• Hip Hop consists of poetry that
is spoken rather than song
• It is spoken over music/ whether
sampled or instrumental
• There are four pillars of Hip Hop
• Mcing, Djing, B-boying and
grafitti
Too many people are unclear as to what Hip Hop Culture
really is and tend to use the term frivolously. Hip Hop
Culture is commonly recognized by its main elements:
Graffiti, Djing, Breakdancing (B-boying), Mcing (Rapping),
and Beatboxing. However, these elements are simply forms
of art designed to express a deeper meaning. At its core,
Hip Hop is so much more than mere art and
entertainment. Hip Hop is the constantly evolving spirit and
consciousness of urban youth that keeps recreating itself in a
never-ending cycle.
• It is joy, sorrow, pleasure, pain, victory, defeat, anger,
happiness, confusion, clarity, humor, intensity,
dream, nightmare, life, death, and everything else in
between. It is the spirit that connects the past to the
present and lays a path towards the future. The spirit
of Hip Hop is the same as Jazz, Reggae, Blues, Doo-
wop, Be-bop, and a multitude of other types of
expressions, be it musical or otherwise, that African
people throughout the Diaspora have given birth to
and introduced to the world.
• That very spirit is what breathes life into a simple idea and
transforms it into a living cultural movement. Hip Hop
Culture cannot be assimilated, integrated, diluted,
watered-down, sold for profit, or pimped. It will always
exist, in this incarnation or another. What the mainstream
promotes as Hip Hop is only a commercial product
misleading you into believing that it represents Hip Hop in
its totality.
Rap Music’s Beginning
• “Rap music emerged out of a Hip-
Hop culture of the 1960’s and
1970’s with its emphasis on
political expression and resistance
through graffiti, modes of dress,
language and social practices”
(Beach)

Grandmaster Flash photo by Stuart
Sevastes
Beginning of HIP HOP
• Some People Say:
• American Slaves
were the primary influence of
hip hop
• Most People Say: Early 70s and
HERC in New York
Hip Hop’s roots and influences
• Kool Herc the father of hip hop
• Jamaican born raised in the Bronx
• He created the blueprint for hip hop music and culture
oBased on the Jamaican tradition of toasting
oImpromptu, boastful poetry and speech over music which he witnessed as
a youth in Jamaica
• This provided the base for Mcing
oRhythmic delivery of rhymes and wordplay
oRapping is derived from the griots (folk poets) of West Africa and Jamaican
style toasting


Early Hip Hop 1970’s
• Last time we looked at more of the roots of Hip Hop from West African
storytelling and Jamaican Toasting
• But hip hop as we know it started in the late 1970’s
• Herc the Father of Hip Hop
• Developed break-beat which include cutting and scratching on a record
usually a disco(1970’s Donna Summers beat)

Hip Hop Parties
• In order to keep kids out of the streets, DJ Kool Herc began organizing dance parties in
his home in the Bronx The parties became so popular they were moved to outdoor
venues to accommodate more people.
• City teenagers, after years of gang violence, were looking for new ways to express
themselves.
• These outdoor parties, hosted in parks, became a means of expression and an outlet
for teenagers, where "instead of getting into trouble on the streets, teens now had a
place to expend their pent-up energy."
Hip Hop 1980’s
• By the late 1970’s the underground urban movement known as hip hop had gained
media attention through music videos and socially conscious statements
• Specifically, in 1982, when Afrika Bambaataa and the Soulsonic Force released the
electro-funk track "Planet Rock". Instead of simply rapping over disco beats,
Bambaataa created an electronic sound, taking advantage of the rapidly improving
drum machine Roland TB-303 synthesizer technology,
• In addition, the music video for "Planet Rock" showcased the subculture of hip hop
musicians, graffiti artists, and b-boys/b-girls.
Early 90s
• Two opposite styles are popular: Dance Rap & Gangster Rap
• Dance Rap: easy to dance to, lyrics are easygoing – MCHammer,
Vanilla Ice
• Gangster Rap: violent and misogynistic – Dr Dre, Ice Cube, IceT
• East Coast Hip Hop was ready to pop – A Tribe Called Quest, De La
Soul, Redman (Korean dude)
Growing Unrest
• “The more black Americans found themselves excluded from the
mainstream, the greater the possibilities for violent confrontation with
the more visible symbols of white society.

Civil Rights
“Even as the civil rights movement struck down legal
barriers…it failed to diminish economic inequalities”
(Litwack)
Rap and Hip-Hop in the Bronx
• “The Bronx community-center dances and block parties
where hip-hop began in the early 1970’s were not
demonstrations for justice, they were celebrations of
survival”(Chang)
• The seeds of later political rap were being sown
• “Grandmaster Flash and the Furious Five…[created] the
classic song “The Message” [which] resonated with an
explosive terrifying mix of desperation and anger”(Litwack)
Political Rap
• Through the mid-1980’s rappers like Run-DMC and Soul Sonic Force
“weighed in on topics like racism, nuclear proliferation, and
apartheid”(Chang)
• Run-DMC Finds a much larger audience than early rap (including white
“rockers”)
Late 80’s early 90’s
• Increasing frustration and
antagonism a “post-civil rights
stance”
• Led by Public Enemy rappers
“displayed the Black Panthers media
savvy and the Minister Louis
Farrakhan’s nationalist rage”(Chang)
• In 1988 NWA entered the Top-20
charts with its album Straight Out of
Compton which included the song
“F—k tha Police”(Litwack)
“Street Poets”
• “African Americans who articulated growing
despair at being caged in deteriorating
postindustrial cities” (Litwack)
The Golden Age of Hip Hop
• The height of hip hop from the mid-
1980’s to mid 1990’s
• Main Themes:
• Afrocentrity
• Police and Gangs
• Society (poor, being black and minority)
• Miscellaneous (Partying, Fun, women)


Controversy
• Because of Hip Hop’s bold image and in addition to the music
becoming more mainstream, Hip Hop became controversial.
• “The use of profanity as well as graphic depictions of violence and
sex creates challenges in the broadcast of such material both on
television stations such as MTV, in music video form, and on radio.
As a result, many hip hop recordings are broadcast in censored
form, with offending language "bleeped" or blanked out of the
soundtrack, or replaced with "clean" lyrics. The result – which
sometimes renders the remaining lyrics unintelligible or
contradictory to the original recording”






Diversification of Hip Hop
• 1990’s Hip Hop experienced a lot of diversity
in terms of style, dance and rapping
• East Coast
• Nas, Jay-Z, Biggie
• West Coast
• Snoop Dogg, Dr. Dre, Tupac
• Southern style
• Outkast,
• Introduction to new rapping styles
• Twista (fast rapping)

Early 2000’s
• By this time Hip Hop is very commercialized and popular
• Popular artists include:
• Nelly, (Just the first 50 seconds) Eminem, Dr. Dre, 50 Cent. Lil Jon
• “The Real Slim Shady” , “So hot in herre”,
• A lot of the lyrics were catchy fun, the music made people dance which
made the it really popular and mainstream
• My high school music!
• Lot of controversy about the portrayal of women, sexism and misogyny


Current State of Rap music
• “One might ask whether rap has abandoned the
revolution”
• “The hip-hop lifestyle is now available for purchase in
every suburban mall”
• Hip-hop rose by making blackness—even radical
blackness—the worldwide trading currency of cultural
cool”(Chang)
Hip Hop Dead?
• The Hip Hop of early 2000’s redefined hip hop.
• However, starting in 2005 Hip Hop Sales started to decline
• Why do you think? Time claimed hip hop was dad and Nas created and
Album entitled “Hip Hop is Dead”
Nas said, “When I say 'hip-hop is dead', basically America is dead.
There is no political voice. Music is dead ... Our way of thinking is
dead, our commerce is dead. Everything in this society has been
done. …..once hip-hoppers owned hip-hop ... We are our own
politicians, our own government, we have something to say”
• The introduction new and alternative rap of the mid to late 2000’s and 2010’s
changed hip hop to what we know it today and helped to increase sales.
• Key Hip Hop Artists of late 2000’s and 2010’s:
• Kanye West, Lil Wayne, Drake, Kid Cudi

Hip Hop 2012
• A popular artist of today is Drake
• What do you think of his style of hip hop? Is his hop dead? What does he
add to hip hop?

• Can you think of some other aspects of Hip Hop Culture?

Hip-Hop Redefining Cultural Norms

• Additionally, the rights given to black people during
and after the Civil Rights Movement left the following
generations at a loss of how to continue the fight for
black rights, how to determine the more subtle forms
of racism and discrimination, and how to properly
answer the question of how far to push obvious
political dissent.
The changes in the national social climate made for
notably confusing times “because Black nationalist
thinkers have historically been highly vocal in
identifying the importance of Black identity and Black
culture for political struggle. [Hip Hop] can use Black
nationalism to explore the challenges that confront
African Americans in the post-Civil Rights era”
• Hip Hop artists such as Tupac are able to create a
balance between the promotion of black rights and
self-purportment in the face of questionable racism.
“Intense vulnerability many young people felt with
respect to the vicissitudes of daily life, their need for a
figure who could resist overt and more subtle injuries”
(Dimitriadis 4). In this way, Hip Hop artists can be
regarded as important mentor-esque public figures for
young marginalized black youth who would otherwise
lack an important pool of relatable leaders.
• To this end, Hip Hop culture redefined cultural norms and practices
nationwide by establishing new modes of learning, conduct, and social
interaction. The nineties saw a marked increase in the establishment of
street gangs as a direct response for coveted social reform. The emphasis
of the street in the upbringing of communities of lower socioeconomic
standing augments the power of street education. “Media and popular
culture play important roles in young people’s lives and must be
explored as a kind of alternative ‘lived’ curriculum… young people today
are using these texts to construct locally validated selves and senses of
community, linked to shared notions of what it means to be black and
marginalized in the United States”
• Street education and “street smarts” are directly related
to the culture surrounding Hip Hop music. Consequently,
street education both colors the thematic elements of Hip
Hop and is structured in turn by that what those themes
generally promote. Many youths throughout the nineties
incorporated Hip Hop into their daily lives, to the point
where Hip Hop completely redefined traditionally
“proper” methods of social interaction. “Hip-hop culture
is one key social medium in which many young men and
women of color (particularly in the US, but also
increasingly in other societies) construct their gender”
(Munoz-Laboy, Weinstein and Parker 616).
• Hip Hop culture stands as a poignant and historically
significant factor of society as it represents a reflection of
socio-political woes and widespread sentiment of
traditionally marginalized and oppressed communities. As
such, Hip Hop is a vehicle for social commentary and
awareness, as well as an avenue for public discourse. In
these considerations, 1990’s Hip Hop development
marked a culturally nuanced and significant movement in
history in both its reflection of the discontented social
climate at the time and its ability to construct and
reconstruct socio-cultural norms.
Rap
• Rapping (also known as Mcing , spitting,) is the
rhythmic spoken delivery of rhymes and wordplay,
one of the elements of hip hop music and culture. The
use of the word to describe quick speech or repartee
long predates the musical form, meaning originally "to
hit".

Rhyme style
• Aside from "flow" (the voice and tone of a particular MC),
and rhythmic delivery, the only other central element of
rapping is rhyme. In classical poetry, rhymes that span
many syllables are often considered whimsical, but in hip
hop the ability to construct raps with large sets of
rhyming syllables is valued.

Flow
Rap delivery, or "flow", is defined by prosody, cadence, and
speed. Cadence deals with the dynamics and patterns of
the rhythm. In addition to rubato (changes in tempo for
the purpose of expression), cadence can also serve to
reinforce song structure through ritardando (the gradual
slowing down of tempo).
Freestyle and battle rap
• There are two kinds of freestyle rapping: one is scripted
(recitation), but having no particular overriding subject
matter, the second typically referred to as "freestyling" or
"spitting", is the improvisation of rapped lyrics. When
freestyling, some rappers inadvertently reuse old lines, or
even "cheat" by preparing segments or entire verses in
advance.

Dj-ing
• A DJ or deejay is a person who selects and plays
prerecorded music for an audience. There are several
types of DJs. Radio DJs introduce and play music that
is broadcast on AM, FM, shortwave or digital radio
stations. Club DJs select and play music in a bar, club,
disco, a rave, or even a stadium. Hip hop DJs select,
play and create music with multiple turntables, often
to back up one or more MCs.

Breakdance
Breakdance, b-boying or b-girling is a street dance style
that evolved as part of the hip hop movement among
African American and Puerto Rican youths in the South
Bronx of New York City during the early 1970s. It is
normally danced to pop, funk or hip hop music, often
remixed to prolong the breaks, and is a well-known hip
hop dance style.
Styles
Toprock
Downrock
Freezes
Power moves
Graffiti art
• Graffiti (singular: graffito; the plural is used as a mass noun)
is the name for images or lettering scratched, scrawled,
painted or marked in any manner on property. Graffiti is
often regarded as unsightly damage or unwanted
vandalism.Graffiti has existed since ancient times, with
examples going back to Ancient Greece and the Roman
Empire.

Styles
Tag
Throw-up
Piece
Bubble
Blockbuster
Wildstyle
Roller
Beatbox
Beatboxing is a form of vocal percussion connected with hip hop culture (it
has been called the fifth element of hip hop) although it is not limited to
hip hop music. It primarily involves the art of producing drum beats,
rhythm, and musical sounds using one's mouth, lips, tongue, voice, and
more. It may also involve singing, vocal imitation of turntablism, the
simulation of horns, strings, and other musical instruments.
• Hip Hop is very creative, innovative and original. Though it has deep roots
in Africa, it is very American. It is a result of American culture and it’s social
and economic stratification.

• Yet, it’s still unique to other aspects of American culture.

• Hip Hop had it’s height and was and is still considered a very controversial
music genre. However, it’s controversy is in a sense rooted in society.

• Mainstream hip hop today is very different from the 1990’s


• Q: Why has hip-hop grown to become such a significant part of culture?
• Q: Is hip-hop a medium for social change?
Q: What are your views on how various groups such as women are
portrayed in hip-hop?
• Q: How does hip-hop relate to other art forms like dance, theatre, graffiti
and so on?
Q: How important is language in hip-hop?
Q: To what extent has hip-hop raised awareness of the situation in urban
communities?
Q: How has the Internet impacted hip-hop?
Q: What are the social and economic realities facing the hip-hop
generation?