Mary Brannan

Annotated Bibliography
Barriers to Distance Education

1. Hara, Noriko. Kling, Rob. (1999). Students’ Frustrations with a Web-Based
Distance Education Course. First Monday, 4(12), pp. 1-28 Retrieved
This article researches students’ feelings and frustrations toward distance education. Its
research shows that the three top frustrations are lack of prompt feedback, ambiguous
instructions and technology problems. Secondly it addresses research regarding whether
these frustrations inhibit a student’s learning. It showed that these frustrations do inhibit a
student’s learning. This article contributed helpful information to my bibliography topic
by illuminating the student’s frustrations. It built on the issues addressed in the other
articles reviewed.
2. Block, Judy. (2010). Distance Education and the Digital Divide: An Academic
Perspective Online J ournal of Distance Learning Administration, 13(1), Retrieved

This article researched how the digital divide affects distance education. It reported that
the greatest causes for the digital divide is race, income and location. It reported that the
lower socioeconomic group and minorities continue to fall further behind due to the
digital divide. It is causing some groups to not be able to participate in distance learning.
This article contributed to my bibliography because it highlighted an obstacle that must
be addressed when looking at distance learning.
3. Owusu-Ansah, Angela. Neill, Patti. Haralson, Michele. Distance Education
Technology: Higher Education Barriers During the First Decade of the Twenty-
First Century Online J ournal of Distance Learning Administration, 13(1),
Retrieved from:

This article addressed barriers to distance education on the institution’s site. It
specifically researched the barriers that higher education faces and the causes for not
implementing distance learning. It reported that higher education institution report the
reasons for not implementing distance education is cost, accessibility, faculty concerns,
state mandates and operation concerns. This article was helpful in offering a perspective
from the institution rather than from the student, like in the other articles.