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CAPITAL PUNISHMENT IN INDIA -

AN EVALUATION
A Dissertation Submitted to Vivekanad Institute of Professional
Studies,GGSIP University, in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirement
for the Deree of
B.A.LL.B(H)
Under the Supervision of:
Ms. Tushita Gaur Sharma
Deptt. of La!
Submitted by:
"riti#a Gupta
!"A"##"!$%& $Final 'ear&
()*())+,-+.
VIVE"ANAND INSTITUTE O$
P%O$ESSIONAL UNIVE%SIT&!
GGSIP UNIVE%SIT&!
SESSION ' ())*-()+,
Ms. Tushita Gaur Sharma De/artment of #a0
i
SUPERVISOR'S CERTIFICATE
It ives me /leasure to 1ertify that Ms. "riti#a Gupta, ()*())+,-+., !"A"##"!$%&
$Final&, Session ())*-()+, has 1om/leted her dissertation entitled Capita-
Pu.ishme.t i. I./ia - A. E0a-uatio.! as /artial fulfillment of the requirement of
!"A"##"! deree of Vivekanand Institute of Professional Studies, GGSIP University
under my su/ervision" 2he dissertation is fit for submission and evaluation for the
above /ur/ose"

Super0isor 1 Gui/e
2Ms. Tushita Gaur Sharma3
De/artment of #a0
VIPS
ii
CERTIFICATE
2his is to 1ertify that "riti#a Gupta a student of 4.A.LL.42H3 2$i.a- &ear3
has 0orked on to/i1 Capita- Pu.ishme.t i. I./ia - A. E0a-uatio. under my
su/ervision and uidan1e" %er 0ork is oriinal and meets the requirements laid do0n
by Vi0e#a.a/ I.stitute of Professio.a- Stu/ies! GGSIPU for a0ardin the Deree
of #a0 $!"A"##"!$%&&"
Super0isor 1 Gui/e
2Ms. Tushita Gaur Sharma3
De/artment of #a0
VIPS

iii
P%E$ACE
Death is 0idely 1onsidered the most terrible /enalty that the overnment 1an infli1t
on an individual" 2his is not only be1ause it is the most violent of all leal
/unishments, but be1ause it is the most 1om/lete and final" 34e1ution de/rive its
vi1tims not only of their freedom, but of their very future5 of all human /otential"
6ost so1ieties at some time or other have endorsed the use of the death /enalty"
An1ient Roman and 7udai1 1ultures /ra1ti1ed retributive 8usti1e, adherin to the rule
of 9an eye for an eye"9 Italian 1riminoloist :esare !e11aria 1ondemned 1a/ital
/unishment as an ineffe1tive and rossly inhumane deterrent to 1rime" :onversely,
German /hiloso/her Immanuel ;ant 1laimed that e4e1ution 0as the fairest
/unishment for murder, aruin that even uilt5ridden killers should die in order to
ain release from their anuish"
As the U"S" Su/reme :ourt 8usti1e <illiam !ernnan 0rote in his dissent to the
ma8ority=s o/inion in the 1ase of Gre v" Georia> ?Death for 0hatever 1rime and all
1ir1umstan1es is truly and a0esome /unishment" 2he 1al1ulated killin of a human
bein by the state involves, by its very nature, a denial of the e4e1uted /erson=s
humanity @ an e4e1uted /erson has indeed Alost= the riht to have rihts"B
2oday, ho0ever, rouhly half of the 0orld=s nation has effe1tively abandoned 1a/ital
/unishment, 0hile many of the rest em/loy it only in e41e/tional 1ir1umstan1es, if at
all" !ut this is only /art of the story" 3ven 0hile many 1ountries have been movin
a0ay from the death /enalty and to0ards 0hat they see as the more humane
/unishment of life im/risonment, others have moved in the o//osite dire1tion" Far
from restri1tin the use of death /enalty, some 1ountries are a1tually in1reasin its
use" 2he most notable of these is the United States, 0hi1h 1urrently e4e1utes far more
/eo/le than any other 0estern nation"
This pro5e6t e7p-ai.s the PAST AND P%ESENT SITUATION O$ CAPITAL
PUNISHMENT i. a .arrati0e form i. the -i8ht of the /e6isio.s of the hi8h
6ourts a./ Supreme Court of I./ia. There are 9 6hapters.
iv
Chapter + ives Introdu1tion on :API2A# PUCIS%63C2, the history of 1a/ital
/unishment, different ty/es of 1a/ital /unishment and the /ros and 1on of 1a/ital
/unishment"
Chapter ( :a/ital /unishment and statutory frame 0ork in India DPREVISIECS
6AD3 IC :ECS2I2U2IEC, ICDAIC P3CA# :ED3 ACD :RI6ICA#
PRE:3DUR3 :ED3" And many 1are la0s about the /rovisions mention in these
se1tion"
Chapter : Debate F :ontroversy 5 It has al0ays been a 1ontroversial matter as
reliions, /eo/le, nations, 1onstitution of different nation, human riht /oli1es all
have different thinkin about this ty/e of /unishment this is 0hat is e4/lained"
Chapter , Relationshi/ bet0een 2heories of Punishment and :a/ital Punishment" As
there are various theories of /unishment 0hi1h des1ribe and /res1ribe different ty/e
of /unishments" Fe0 theories are in favor and fe0 are aainst 1a/ital /unishment
Chapter ; 7udi1ial trend> the 0ay our Indian 8udi1iary deal 0ith the different 1ases
0hi1h 1ome in front of them and they all have different vie0s and the situation and
fa1ts of every 1ase is different so ho0 they deal 0ith it is 0hat is e4/lained in it
Chapter 9 :on1lusion of the 0hole resear1h done in this dissertation is there and the
my /ersonal o/inion on 0hat I think about 1a/ital /unishment and my suestion as
to 0hat needs too be done or 0hat 1hane is required is there in this 1ha/ter"
v
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
It ives me immense /leasure and sense of ratitude to a1kno0lede my
indebtness to my %onGble tea1her and Resear1h su/ervisor Ms. Tushita Gaur
Sharma 2Super0isor3! Vi0e#a.a/ I.stitute Of Professio.a- Stu/ies!GGSIPU"
It is due to unreserved uidan1e and s/arin of time for me by res/e1ted tea1her
that I am able to 1om/lete this 0ork" %is sym/athi1 attitude, s1holarly uidan1e
and keen interest in the 0ork has ins/ired me at every stae of my efforts" 0ith
equal sin1ere feelin" I /la1e on re1ord my indebtness to other tea1hers of
De/artment 0hose sin1ere en1ouraement 0as tremendous moral su//ort for me"
I am thankful to my /arents and my family members 0ho shared 0ith me
their /re1ious time and en1ouraed me to 1om/lete this 0ork"
"%ITI"A GUPTA
!"A"##"!$%& $Final 'ear&
()*())+,-+.
vi
TA4LE O$ CONTENTS
SUPERVISOR'S CERTIFICATE................................................................ii
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CERTIFICATE..........................................................................................iii
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PREFACE...............................................................................................iv-v
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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT...........................................................................vi
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TABLE OF CONTENTS.....................................................................vii-viii
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vii
ABBREVIATIONS .....................................................................................ix
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TABLE OF CASES................................................................................x-xiii
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CHAPTE%'+< I.tro/u6tio.<..............................................................+-+=
("( Definition """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""H
("H %istory""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""",
(", :ruel and unusual /unishments """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""(H
("I Pros and :ons of :a/ital Punishment""""""""""""""""""""""""""""(J
("* :ons of :a/ital Punishment"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""()

CHAPTE%'(< Capita- Pu.ishme.t a./ Statutor> $rame ?or# i.
I./ia<................................................................................+@-;=
H"( :API2A# Effen1es Under the Indian Penal :ode>"""""""(.
H"H Provisions under :riminal Pro1edure :ode>""""""""""""""""""HI
H", Po0er to Sus/end or Remit Senten1es>""""""""""""""""""""""""",-
H"I Pardonin /o0er Under :onstitution and 7udi1ial
Revie0
Reardin :a/ital Punishment>"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""I,
H"* Arti1le )H of the Indian :onstitution>""""""""""""""""""""""""""""I*
H"J Arti1le (J( of the Indian :onstitution>""""""""""""""""""""""""""IJ
CHAPTE%':< Co.tro0ers> a./ DeAate<........................................;@-=;
viii
,"( <ronful e4e1utions""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""*.
,"H Publi1 o/inion""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""J+
,", Diminished 1a/a1ity"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""JH
,"I International oranisations"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""J,
,"* Reliious vie0s""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""J*
,"J :hristianity"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""J.
,") Roman :atholi1 :hur1h""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""")+
,"- Southern !a/tist""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""")H
,". Anli1an and 3/is1o/alian""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""")H
,"(+ United 6ethodist :hur1h""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""")H
,"(( 2he 3vaneli1al #utheran :hur1h in Ameri1a"""""""""""""""),
,"(H 2he :hur1h of 7esus :hrist of #atter5day Saints""""""""""")I
CHAPTE%',< %e-atio.ship 4etee. Theories of Pu.ishme.t a./
Capita- Pu.ishme.t........................................................=9-*+
I"( :on1e/t of Punishment """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""")-
I"H 2heories of Punishment >""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""").
I", Deterrent 2heory""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""-+
I"IRelationshi/ bet0een Deterrent 2heory and :a/ital
Punishment""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""-(
I"* Retributive 2heory >"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""-H
I"JRelationshi/ bet0een Retributive 2heory F :a/ital
Punishment""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""-I
I") Preventive 2heory""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""-*
I"- Relationshi/ bet0een /reventive theory F 1a/ital
/unishment """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""-)
I". Reformative 2heory"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""-)
I"(+ Relationshi/ bet0een reformative theory F 1a/ital
/unishment """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""".(
i4
CHAPTE%';< Bu/i6ia- Tre./........................................................*(-+(9
*"( 2he :ourt further observed >""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""(+-
*"H Delay in e4e1ution of Death Senten1e"""""""""""""""""""""""""""(H*
*", 6ode of 34e1ution of Death Senten1e""""""""""""""""""""""""""(HJ
CHAPTE%'9< Co.6-usio.! Opi.io. a./ Su88estio..................+(=-+:+
J"( :on1lusion """"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""(H-
J"H E/inion """""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""(,+
J", Suestion"""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""""(,(
%efere.6es ...................................................................................................
......................................................................................+:(-+:,
4
ABBREVIATIONS
AIDS A1quired Immune Defi1ien1y Syndrome
AIR All India Re/orts
:r #7 :riminal #a0 7ournal
:rP: :riminal Pro1edure :ode
D#2 Delhi #a0 2imes
F"I"R" First Information Re/ort
IP: Indian Penal :ode
IK Intellien1e Kuotient
S" Se1tion
S: Su/reme :ourt
S:: Su/reme :ourt :ases
S:R Su/reme :ourt Re/orter
<#R <eekly #a0 Re/orts
U; United ;indom
UC United Cation
U"S" United States
USSR Union of Soviet So1ialist Re/ubli1s
Name of States
A"P" Andhra Pradesh
%"P" %ima1hal Pradesh
6"P" 6adhya Pradesh
U"P" Uttar Pradesh
4i
TABLE OF CASES
Allauddin 6ian v" State of !ihar> (.-. :ri"#"7" (I-J S":L /HH
Ambaram v"State> AIR (.)J S":" H(J.L /HI
Amit alias Ammu v" State of 6aharashtraL /..
Amrit Sinh v" State of Pun8abL /((H
Ashari La! " S#$s v. S%a%& # U.P' ()*+,
Ashok ;umar v" 2he State of Delhi AdministrationL /(+*
Attorney General of India v" #i1hhma Devi> AIR (.-J S":" IJ)
!a1hhan Sinh v" State of Pun8ab> AIR (.-H S":" (,H*L / HI
!alak Ram v"State> AIR (.)I S":"H(J*L /HJ
!al0ant Sinh v" State> AIR (.)J S":" H,+L /H,
!hu/endra Sinh v" State of Pun8ab> (.J. :ri"#"7" J S": L /H-
!ishnu Deo v" State of <est !enal> AIR (.). S":" .JIL /HI
!ishnu Prasad Sinha v" State of AssamL /((J
Chi& -.s%i/& Mr. 0. V. Cha$1ra/h.1'(*+2
Dadu v"State of 6aharashtra> AIR (.)) S":"(*).L /H(
Deena v" Union of India> AIR (.-, S":" ((**"
Dhanan8ay :hatter8ee alias Dhana v" State of <est !enalL /..
Dina v" State of U"PL /(+H
Dina v" state of U"P" , AIR (.-, S: ((**L /.I
3dia Annamma v" State of Andhra Pradesh> AIR (.)I> S":" )..L /H,
F#r1 v. Wai$3ri*h%, I)) U"S" ,.. $(.-J&L /I.
Govindas0ami V" State of 2amil CaduL /(((
4ii
Guru !a1han Sinh v" State> AIR (.J, S":" ,I+L /HJ
%arabans Sinh v" State of Uttar Pradesh> AIR (.-H S":" -I.L /*+
%ar Dayal v" State> AIR (.)J S":" H+**L /H,
%ukam Sinh v" State of Pun8ab>(.)* :ri"#"7" .+H $PF%&L /,.
Iftikhar ;han v" State> AIR (.), S":" -J,L /HJ
7aved Ah4a1 A51.!ha4i1 Pa3a!a v" S%a%& # Maharash%ra' (*+2
7ay ;umar v" State of 6adhya PradeshL /(+.
7o/se/h Peter v" State of Goa, Daman F Diu> AIR (.)) S":"(-(HL /H.
Ka4%a Ti3ari v. Sa%& # M.P' (*+6
;artar Sinh v" 3m/eror> AIR (.,H #ah" H*.L /,-
;artar Sinh v" State > (.)) :ri"#"7" H(I $S":&L /,.
;ehar Sinh v" Union of India> AIR (.-. S":" J*,L /*(
;ehar Sinh v" State> (.-) :ri"#"7" H.( $Del&L /H)
;in 3m/eror v" Sheo Shankar Sinh> AIR (.*I Pat (+., L /,.
;ista Goud and !hoomaiah v" State of Andhra Pradesh> $(.)*& :ri"#"7" $S":"&
)++L /IJ
;rishna Cair v" State of ;erala> (..I :ri"#"7" -J ;er L /,)
;rishan v" State of %aryanaL /(+I
;ul8eet Sinh v" #t" General of Delhi> AIR (.-H S":" ))IL /I)
;ul0inder Sinh v" State of Pun8abL /((,
;ul8eet sinh alias rana v" union of india , AIR (.-( S: (*)HL /.I
K.$7. K.$7. -a$ar1ha$a4 v. S%a%& # A$1hra Pra1&sh

L /--
#a4man Caik v" State of ErissaL /((H
Ma/hi Si$*h a$1 #%h&rs v. S%a%& # P.$7a5' /.,
6adhu 6ehta v" Union of IndiaL /(H+
4iii
6ahendra Cath Das v" State of AssamL /(+J
Mah&sh &%/. v. S%a%& # M.P.' (*+,
6ane/raada Rama1handra Rao v" 2he Revenue Divisional Effi1er, ;ovvuru>
AIR (.*) A"P" HI.L /,-
6aru Ram v" Union of India> $(.-(& S:: (+),L /I.
6asalti v" State> AIR (.J* S":" H+HL /HJ
6ithu v" State of Pun8ab> AIR (.-, S":" I), at I)L / HH,.J
6ohd" :haman v" State of DelhiL /.-
6olai F another v" State of 6adhya PradeshL/(+.
6ubarak %ussain v" State of Ra8asthanL /(((
6una0ar harun shah v" state of 6aharashtraL /.J
6unia//an v" State of 2amil Cadu> AIR (.-( S":" (HH+L /H*
6unia//an v" State of 2amil Cadu> AIR (.-( S":" (HH+L /HH
6urli 6anohar v" State of ;arnatakaL /(()
Canavati v" State of 6aharashtra> AIR (.J(S":" ((HL /IJ
Ca0ab v" 3m/eror> AIR (.,H #ah" ,+-L /,-
Ceti Sri Ramulu v" State of Andhra Pradesh> AIR (.), S":" H**L /H)
Panduran v" State of %yderabad> AIR (.** S":" H(J A2 HH,L /H.
Parkasho v" State of Uttar Pradesh> AIR (.JH All" (*(L /,.
Peter 7ose/h v" State of Goa> (.)) S":" (-(HL /H,
Prem Saar v" Dharambir F othersL /(+)
Ra8a Ram 'adav F others v" State of !iharL /(+I
Ra8endra Prasad v" State of Uttar Pradesh> AIR (.). S":" .(JL /H+,HI
Rakesh ;aushik v" Delhi Administration> (.-J :ri"#"7" *JJ $Del&L /,.
4iv
Ram Deo :hauhan and another v" State of AssamL /((+
Ram Sharma v" State> AIR (.JH S":"(H,.L /HJ
Ra$7i% Si$*h V. U$i#$ T&rrir#%8 # Cha$1i*arh' (*+9
Reddy Samath ;umar v" State of Andhra PradeshL/(()
Renuka !ai alias Rinku alias Ratan and another v" State of
6aharashtraL /(+*
Sadhu Sinh v" State of Pun8ab> (.J- :ri"#"7" ((-, $PF%&L /,-
Santa Sinh v" State of Pun8ab> AIR (.)J S":" H,-JL /HH

Satyendra v" State of Uttar PradeshL /(+.
Sher Sinh v" State> AIR (.-, S":",J(L /*+
Sh&r Si$*h v. S%a%& # P.$7a5' (*+2
Sher Sinh v" State of Pun8ab> AIR (.-, S":"IJ*L /I+
Smt" 2riveni !en v" State of Gu8arat> :ri"#"7" S":" , L/H)
Smt" Shashi Cayer v" Union of IndiaL /(H+
Subhash v" State of Uttar Pradesh> (.)J :ri"#"7" (*H S":" L /H)
Sura8 Ram v" State of Ra8asthanL /(+I
Sushil 6urmu v" state of 7harkhandL /(+)
State of Ra8asthsn v" ;hera8 RamL /((J
State of U"P v" Ramesh Prasad 6israL /(H+
State v" %eera> (.-* :ri"#"7" ((*, $Ra8&L /H*
2"V" Vathees0aran v" State of 2amil CaduL /.I
Union of India and others v" Devendra CathL /((*
<altair and another v" D" Ra8a Ram and others> AIR (.J+ A"P" H*.L
/,-
4v
Chapter 1
Introduction
(
INTRODUCTION- THE LAWFUL INFLICTION OF
DEATH AS A PUNISHMENT; THE DEATH PENALTY.
Death by e4e1ution has e4isted as a /unishment sin1e the da0n of time" 'et althouh this has
e4isted seeminly forever, the question of its morality has also e4isted for that same amount
of time" ;illers kill inno1ent /eo/le, there is no question about that, but does that ive us the
riht to kill these killersM or sometimes a 1riminal has to be /ut to end to /ut an end to the
1rimeM
2he term /a(i%a! oriinates from #atin /a(i%a!is, literally 9reardin the head9 $#atin /a(.%&"
%en1e, a 1a/ital 1rime 0as oriinally one /unished by the severin of the head from the body"
+.+ Defi.itio.
Capita- pu.ishme.t, the /eath pe.a-t>, or e7e6utio. is the infli1tion of death u/on a /erson
by 8udi1ial /ro1ess as a /unishment for an offen1e" :rimes that 1an result in a death /enalty
are kno0n as /a(i%a! /ri4&s or /a(i%a! #&$/&s" 5 0iki/edia
2he leally authoriNed killin of someone as /unishment for a 1rime" D o40ord di1tionary
Capita- pu.ishme.t! also 1alled /eath pe.a-t>, e4e1ution of an offender senten1ed to death
after 1onvi1tion by a 6ourt of -a of a 1riminal offense D %o8er Hoo/
C+D
:a/ital :rimes5 :rimes that 1an result in a death /enalty are kno0n as /a(i%a!
/ri4&s or /a(i%a! #&$/&s"
Ha.8i.8 is the lethal sus/ension of a /erson by a liature" 2he Ox#r1 E$*!ish
Di/%i#$ar8 states that hanin in this sense is 9s/e1ifi1ally to /ut to death by sus/ension by
the ne1k9, althouh it formerly also referred to 1ru1ifi4ion and death by im/alement in 0hi1h
the body 0ould remain 9hanin9"
5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O(P !ritanni1a"1om
Differe.6e Aetee. 6apita- pu.ishme.t a./ /eath pe.a-t>.
C(D
H
:a/ital /unishment should be distinuished from e4tra8udi1ial e4e1utions 1arried out
0ithout /ue pro6ess of la0" 2he term 1&a%h (&$a!%8 is sometimes used inter1haneably
0ith /a(i%a! (.$ish4&$%, thouh im/osition of the /enalty is not al0ays follo0ed by
e4e1ution $even 0hen it is u/held on a//eal&, be1ause of the /ossibility of 1ommutation to
life im/risonment"
+.( Histor>
For 1enturies the death /enalty, often a11om/anied by barbarous refinements, has been tryin
to hold 1rime in 1he1kL yet 1rime /ersists"
A#!3R2 :A6US, R&sis%a$/&: R&5&!!i#$ a$1 D&a%h
:a/ital /unishment has in the /ast been /ra1ti1ed in virtually every so1iety, althouh
1urrently only *- nations a1tively /ra1ti1e it, 0ith .* 1ountries abolishin it $the remainder
havin not used it for (+ years or allo0in it only in e41e/tional 1ir1umstan1es su1h as
0artime&"
O,P
It is a matter of a1tive 1ontroversy in various 1ountries and states, and /ositions
1an vary 0ithin a sinle /oliti1al ideoloy or 1ultural reion" In the 3uro/ean Union member
states, Arti1le H of the :harter of Fundamental Rihts of the 3uro/ean Union /rohibits the
use of 1a/ital /unishment"
OIP
2oday, most 1ountries are 1onsidered by Amnesty International as abolitionist"
O*P
Amnesty
International allo0ed a vote on a nonbindin resolution to the UC to /romote the abolition of
the death /enalty"
OJP
%o0ever, over J+Q of the 0orldGs /o/ulation live in 1ountries 0here
e4e1utions take /la1e, insofar as the four most /o/ulous 1ountries in the 0orld $the Peo/leGs
Re/ubli1 of :hina, India, United States and Indonesia& a//ly the death /enalty" All of them
voted aainst the Resolution on a 6oratorium on the Use of the Death Penalty at the UC
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C(D 000"britanni1a"1om
C:D E 9Abolitionist and retentionist 1ountries R Amnesty International9" Amnesty"or"
C,D E 9:harter of Fundamental Rihts of the 3uro/ean Union9$PDF&"
C;D E 9Amnesty International9" Amnesty"or"
C9D E 9moratorium on the death /enalty9" Un"or" H++)5((5(*"
,
General Assembly in H++-"
O)PO-PO.PO(+PO((PO(HPO(,PO(IPO(*P
34e1ution of 1riminals and /oliti1al o//onents has been used by nearly all so1ietiesSboth to
/unish 1rime and to su//ress /oliti1al dissent" In most /la1es that /ra1ti1e 1a/ital /unishment
it is reserved for murder, es/ionae, treason, or as /art of military 8usti1e" In some 1ountries
se4ual 1rimes, su1h as ra/e, adultery, in1est and sodomy, 1arry the death /enalty, as do
reliious 1rimes su1h as a/ostasy in Islami1 nations $the formal renun1iation of the state
reliion&" In many 1ountries that use the death /enalty, dru traffi1kin is also a 1a/ital
offense" In :hina, human traffi1kin and serious 1ases of 1orru/tion are /unished by the
death /enalty" In militaries around the 0orld 1ourts5martial have im/osed death senten1es for
offenses su1h as 1o0ardi1e, desertion, insubordination, and mutiny"
O(JP
2he use of formal e4e1ution e4tends to the beinnin of re1orded history" 6ost histori1al
re1ords and various /rimitive tribal /ra1ti1es indi1ate that the death /enalty 0as a /art of
their 8usti1e system" :ommunal /unishment for 0rondoin enerally in1luded 1om/ensation
by the 0rondoer, 1or/oral /unishment, shunnin, banishment and e4e1ution" Usually,
1om/ensation and shunnin 0ere enouh as a form of 8usti1e"
O()P
2he res/onse to 1rime
1ommitted by neihbourin tribes or 1ommunities in1luded formal a/oloy, 1om/ensation or
blood feuds"
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C=D Au (,, H++I $H++I5+-5(,&" Atimes"1om"
C@D <orld1oalition"or"
C*D 9Co serious 1han1e of re/eal in those states that are a1tually usin the death /enalty9" 3ovmonitor"1om"
C+)D mer1uryne0s"1om
C++D 9la0makers51ite5e1onomi151risis5effort5ban5death5/enalty9" Fo4ne0s"1om"
C+(D 9death /enalty is not likely to end soon in US9" International %erald 2ribune"
C+:D 9Death /enalty re/eal unlikely says anti5death /enalty a1tivist9" A4isofloi1"1om"
C+,D 9A ne0 2e4asM EhioGs death /enalty e4amined D :am/us9" 6edia"000"thelantern"1om"
C+;D 92%3 D3A2% P3CA#2' IC 7APAC5FID% T %uman Rihts for All U #es Droits de lG%omme /our 2ous9"
Fidh"or"
C+9D 9Shot at Da0n, 1am/ain for /ardons for !ritish and :ommon0ealth soldiers e4e1uted in <orld <ar I9"
Shot at Da0n Pardons :am/ain"
C+=D 2he 9bite9 one had to /ay 0as used as a term for the 1rime itself> 96ordre 0ol outL that se 0e day by day"9
D Geoffrey :hau1er $(,I+D(I++&, 2he :anterbury 2ales,Th& N.$'s Pri&s%'s Ta!&: l" IHIH $(,-)D(I++&,
re/r" In Th& W#r;s # G&#r&8 Cha./&r, ed" Alfred <" Pollard, et al" $(-.-&"
I
A blood feud or vendetta o11urs 0hen arbitration bet0een families or tribes fails or an
arbitration system is non5e4istent" 2his form of 8usti1e 0as 1ommon before the emeren1e of
an arbitration system based on state or oranised reliion" It may result from 1rime, land
dis/utes or a 1ode of honour" 9A1ts of retaliation unders1ore the ability of the so1ial
1olle1tive to defend itself and demonstrate to enemies $as 0ell as /otential allies& that in8ury
to /ro/erty, rihts, or the /erson 0ill not o un/unished"9
O(-P
%o0ever, in /ra1ti1e, it is often
diffi1ult to distinuish bet0een a 0ar of vendetta and one of 1onquest"
Severe histori1al /enalties in1lude breakin 0heel, boilin to death, flayin, slo0
sli1in, disembo0elment, 1ru1ifi4ion, im/alement, 1rushin, stonin, e4e1ution by
burnin, dismemberment, sa0in, de1a/itation, ne1kla1in or blo0in from a un"
O(.P
3laborations of tribal arbitration of feuds in1luded /ea1e settlements often done in a reliious
1onte4t and 1om/ensation system" :om/ensation 0as based on the /rin1i/le
of s.5s%i%.%i#$ 0hi1h miht in1lude material $e"" 1attle, slave& 1om/ensation, e41hane of
brides or rooms, or /ayment of the blood debt" Settlement rules 1ould allo0 for animal
blood to re/la1e human blood, or transfers of /ro/erty or blood money or in some 1ase an
offer of a /erson for e4e1ution" 2he /erson offered for e4e1ution did not have to be an
oriinal /er/etrator of the 1rime be1ause the system 0as based on tribes, not individuals"
!lood feuds 1ould be reulated at meetins, su1h as the Vikin %hi$*s"
OH+P
Systems derivin
from blood feuds may survive alonside more advan1ed leal systems or be iven
re1onition by 1ourts $e"" trial by 1ombat&" Ene of the more modern refinements of the blood
feud is the duel"
In 1ertain /arts of the 0orld, nations in the form of an1ient re/ubli1s, monar1hies or tribal
oliar1hies emered" 2hese nations 0ere often united by 1ommon linuisti1, reliious or
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C+@D 2ranslated from <aldmann, o/"1it", /"(I)"
C+*D 9India non violen1e9" Info5sikh"1om"
C()D #indo0, #(./i%.
*
family ties" 6oreover, e4/ansion of these nations often o11urred by 1onquest of neihbourin
tribes or nations" :onsequently, various 1lasses of royalty, nobility, various 1ommoners and
slave emered" A11ordinly, the systems of tribal arbitration 0ere submered into a more
unified system of 8usti1e 0hi1h formalised the relation bet0een the different 91lasses9 rather
than 9tribes9"
2he earliest and most famous e4am/le is :ode of %ammurabi 0hi1h set the different
/unishment and 1om/ensation a11ordin to the different 1lassUrou/ of vi1tims and
/er/etrators" 2he 2orah$7e0ish #a0&, also kno0n as the Pentateu1h $the first five books of
the :hristian Eld 2estament&, lays do0n the death /enalty for murder, kidna//in, mai1,
violation of the Sabbath, blas/hemy, and a 0ide rane of se4ual 1rimes, althouh eviden1e
suests that a1tual e4e1utions 0ere rare"
OH(P
A further e4am/le 1omes from An1ient Gree1e,
0here the Athenian leal system 0as first 0ritten do0n by Dra1o in about JH( !:> the death
/enalty 0as a//lied for a /arti1ularly 0ide rane of 1rimes, thouh Solon later re/ealed
Dra1oGs 1ode and /ublished ne0 la0s, retainin only Dra1oGs homi1ide statutes"
OHHP
2he
0ord dra1onian derives from Dra1oGs la0s" 2he Romans also used death /enalty for a 0ide
rane of offenses"
OH,POHIP
Islam on the 0hole a11e/ts 1a/ital /unishment"
OH*P
2he Abbasid :ali/hs in !ahdad, su1h
as Al56uGtadid, 0ere often 1ruel in their /unishments"
OHJP
In the O$& Th#.sa$1 a$1 O$&
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C(+D S1habas, <illiam $H++H&" Th& A5#!i%i#$ # %h& D&a%h P&$a!%8 i$ I$%&r$a%i#$a! La3 " :ambride
University Press" "
C((D Robert" 9Gree1e, A %istory of An1ient Gree1e, Dra1o and Solon #a0s9" %istory50orld"or"
C(:D :a/ital Punishment, 3n1y1lo/Vdia !ritanni1a
C(,D 9:a/ital /unishment in the Roman 3m/ire9" 3n"alle4/erts"1om" H++(5+(5,+"
C(;D 9Islam and 1a/ital /unishment9" !b1"1o"uk"
C(9D Th& Ca!i(ha%&< I%s Ris&: D&/!i$&: a$1 Fa!!., <illiam 6uir
J
Ni*h%s, also kno0n as the Ara5ia$ Ni*h%s, the fi1tional storyteller SheheraNade is /ortrayed
as bein the 9voi1e of sanity and mer1y9, 0ith her /hiloso/hi1al /osition bein enerally
o//osed to /unishment by death" She e4/resses this thouh several of her tales, in1ludin
92he 6er1hant and the 7inni9, 92he Fisherman and the 7inni9, 92he 2hree A//les9, and 92he
%un1hba1k9"
OH)P
Similarly, in medieval and early modern 3uro/e, before the develo/ment of
modern /rison systems, the death /enalty 0as also used as a eneralised form of /unishment"
Durin the rein of %enry VIII, as many as )H,+++ /eo/le are estimated to have been
e4e1uted"
OH-P
In (-th 1entury !ritain there 0ere HHH 1rimes 0hi1h 0ere /unishable by death,
in1ludin 1rimes su1h as 1uttin do0n a tree or stealin an animal"
OH.P
2hanks to the
notorious !loody :ode, (-th 1entury $and early (.th 1entury& !ritain 0as a haNardous /la1e
to live" For e4am/le, 6i1hael %ammond and his sister, Ann, 0hose aes 0ere iven as ) and
((, 0ere re/ortedly haned at ;inGs #ynn on <ednesday, Se/tember H-, ()+- for theft" 2he
lo1al /ress did not, ho0ever, 1onsider the e4e1utions of t0o 1hildren ne0s0orthy"
O,+P
Althouh many are e4e1uted in :hina ea1h year in the /resent day, there 0as a time in 2an
Dynasty :hina 0hen the death /enalty 0as abolished"
O,(P
2his 0as in the year )I), ena1ted
by 3m/eror WuanNon of 2an $r" )(HD)*J&" <hen abolishin the death /enalty WuanNon
ordered his offi1ials to refer to the nearest reulation by analoy 0hen senten1in those found
uilty of 1rimes for 0hi1h the /res1ribed /unishment 0as e4e1ution" 2hus de/endin on the
severity of the 1rime a /unishment of severe s1ourin 0ith the thi1k rod or of e4ile to the
remote #innan reion miht take the /la1e of 1a/ital /unishment" %o0ever the death
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C(=D Xi/es, 7a1k David $(...&" <hen Dreams :ame 2rue> :lassi1al Fairy 2ales and 2heir 2radition"Routlede" /" *)D-
C(@D 9%istory of the Death Penalty9" Publi1 !road1astin Servi1e $P!S&"
C(*D 6i1hian State University and Death Penalty Information :enter
C:)D %istory of !ritish 8udi1ial hanin
C:+D !enn, /" -"
)
/enalty 0as restored only t0elve years later in )*. in res/onse to the An #ushan Rebellion"
O,HP
At this time in :hina only the em/eror had the authority to senten1e 1riminals to
e4e1ution" Under WuanNon 1a/ital /unishment 0as relatively infrequent, 0ith only HI
e4e1utions in the year ),+ and *- e4e1utions in the year ),J"

2he t0o most 1ommon forms of e4e1ution in :hina in the 2an /eriod 0ere stranulation and
de1a/itation, 0hi1h 0ere the /res1ribed methods of e4e1ution for (II and -. offenses
res/e1tively" Stranulation 0as the /res1ribed senten1e for lodin an a11usation aainst
oneGs /arents or rand/arents 0ith a maistrate, s1hemin to kidna/ a /erson and sell them
into slavery and o/enin a 1offin 0hile dese1ratin a tomb" De1a/itation 0as the method of
e4e1ution /res1ribed for more serious 1rimes su1h as treason and sedition" Interestinly, and
des/ite the reat dis1omfort involved, most :hinese durin the 2an /referred stranulation
to de1a/titation, as a result of the traditional :hinese belief that the body is a ift from the
/arents and that it is therefore disres/e1tful to oneGs an1estors to die 0ithout returnin oneGs
body to the rave inta1t"
Some further forms of 1a/ital /unishment 0ere /ra1ti1ed in 2an :hina, of 0hi1h the first
t0o that follo0 at least 0ere e4traleal" 2he first of these 0as s1ourin to death 0ith the
thi1k rod 0hi1h 0as 1ommon throuhout the 2an es/e1ially in 1ases of ross 1orru/tion"
2he se1ond 0as trun1ation, in 0hi1h the 1onvi1ted /erson 0as 1ut in t0o at the 0aist 0ith a
fodder knife and then left to bleed to death" A further form of e4e1ution 1alled #in :hi $slo0
sli1in&, or death byUof a thousand 1uts, 0as used in :hina from the 1lose of the 2an dynasty
in rouhly .++ :3 to its abolition in (.+*"
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C:(D !enn, //" H+.DH(+
-
<hen a minister of the fifth rade or above re1eived a death senten1e the em/eror miht
rant him a s/e1ial dis/ensation allo0in him to 1ommit sui1ide in lieu of e4e1ution" 3ven
0hen this /rivilee 0as not ranted, the la0 required that the 1ondemned minister be
/rovided 0ith food and ale by his kee/ers and trans/orted to the e4e1ution round in a 1art
rather than havin to 0alk there"
Cearly all e4e1utions under the 2an took /la1e in /ubli1 as a 0arnin to the /o/ulation" 2he
heads of the e4e1uted 0ere dis/layed on /oles or s/ears" <hen lo1al authorities de1a/itated a
1onvi1ted 1riminal, the head 0as bo4ed and sent to the 1a/ital as /roof of identity and that the
e4e1ution had taken /la1e"
In 2an :hina, 0hen a /erson 0as senten1ed to de1a/itation for rebellion or sedition,
/unishment 0as also im/osed on their relatives, 0hether or not the relatives 0ere uilty of
/arti1i/ation in the 1rime" In su1h 1ases fathers of the 1onvi1ted under ). years of ae and
sons aed over (* 0ere stranled" Sons under (*, dauhters, mothers, 0ives, 1on1ubines,
randfathers, randsons, brothers and sisters 0ere enslaved and un1les and ne/he0s 0ere
banished to the remotest rea1hes of the em/ire" Sometimes the tombs of the familyGs
an1estors 0ere levelled, the an1estorsG 1offins 0ere destroyed and their bones s1attered"
O,,P
Des/ite its 0ide use, 1alls for reform 0ere not unkno0n" 2he (Hth 1entury Se/hardi1 leal
s1holar, 6oses 6aimonides, 0rote, 9It is better and more satisfa1tory to a1quit a thousand
uilty /ersons than to /ut a sinle inno1ent man to death"9 %e arued that e4e1utin an
a11used 1riminal on anythin less than absolute 1ertainty 0ould lead to a sli//ery slo/e of
de1reasin burdens of /roof, until 0e 0ould be 1onvi1tin merely 9a11ordin to the 8udeGs
1a/ri1e"9 %is 1on1ern 0as maintainin /o/ular res/e1t for la0, and he sa0 errors of
1ommission as mu1h more threatenin than errors of omission"
2he last several 1enturies have seen the emeren1e of modern nation5states" Almost
fundamental to the 1on1e/t of nation state is the idea of 1itiNenshi/" 2his 1aused 8usti1e to be
in1reasinly asso1iated 0ith equality and universality, 0hi1h in 3uro/e sa0 an emeren1e of
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.
C::D !enn, /" H(+
the 1on1e/t of natural rihts" Another im/ortant as/e1t is that emeren1e of standin /oli1e
for1es and /ermanent /enitential institutions" 2he death /enalty be1ame an in1reasinly
unne1essary deterrent in /revention of minor 1rimes su1h as theft" 2he arument that
deterren1e, rather than retribution, is the main 8ustifi1ation for /unishment is a hallmark of
the rational 1hoi1e theory and 1an be tra1ed to :esare !e11aria 0hose 0ell5kno0n
treatise O$ Cri4&s a$1 P.$ish4&$%s $()JI&, 1ondemned torture and the death
/enalty and 7eremy !entham 0ho t0i1e 1ritiqued the death /enalty"
O,IP
Additionally, in
1ountries like !ritain, la0 enfor1ement offi1ials be1ame alarmed 0hen 8uries tended to a1quit
non5violent felons rather than risk a 1onvi1tion that 1ould result in e4e1ution" 6ovin
e4e1utions there inside /risons and a0ay from /ubli1 vie0 0as /rom/ted by offi1ial
re1onition of the /henomenon re/orted first by !e11aria in Italy and later by :harles
Di1kens and ;arl 6ar4 of in1reased violent 1riminality at the times and /la1es of e4e1utions"
2he H+th 1entury 0as one of the bloodiest of the human history" 6assive killin o11urred as
the resolution of 0ar bet0een nation5states" A lare /art of e4e1ution 0as summary e4e1ution
of enemy 1ombatants" Also, modern military oranisations em/loyed 1a/ital /unishment as a
means of maintainin military dis1i/line" 2he Soviets, for e4am/le, e4e1uted (*-,+++
soldiers for desertion durin <orld <ar II"
O,*P
In the /ast, 1o0ardi1e, absen1e 0ithout
leave, desertion, insubordination, lootin, shirkin under enemy fire and disobeyin orders
0ere often 1rimes /unishable by death $see de1imation and runnin the auntlet&" Ene
method of e4e1ution sin1e firearms 1ame into 1ommon use has almost invariably been firin
squad" 6oreover, various authoritarian statesSfor e4am/le those 0ith fas1ist or 1ommunist
overnmentsSem/loyed the death /enalty as a /otent means of /oliti1al o//ression"
A11ordin to the de1lassified Soviet ar1hives, J-(,J.H /eo/le 0ere shot in (.,) and (.,-
alone D an averae of (,+++ e4e1utions a day"
O,JP
Partly as a res/onse to su1h e41essive
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C:,D Th& -#.r$a! # Cri4i$a! La3 a$1 Cri4i$#!#*8 $Corth0estern University S1hool of #a0&
(+
C:;D E Patriots inore reatest brutality" Th& S81$&8 M#r$i$* =&ra!1. Auust (,, H++)
C:9D E 9A C#4(a$i#$ %# R.ssia$ =is%#r89" Abbott Gleason $H++.&" <iley5!la1k0ell" /",),"
/unishment, 1ivil oranisations have started to /la1e in1reasin em/hasis on the 1on1e/t
of human rihts and abolition of the death /enalty"
Amon 1ountries around the 0orld, almost all 3uro/ean and many Pa1ifi1 Area states
$in1ludin Australia, Ce0 Xealand and 2imor #este&, and :anada have abolished 1a/ital
/unishment" In #atin Ameri1a, most states have 1om/letely abolished the use of 1a/ital
/unishment, 0hile some 1ountries, su1h as !raNil, allo0 for 1a/ital /unishment only in
e41e/tional situations, su1h as treason 1ommitted durin 0artime" 2he United States $the
federal overnment and ,I of the states&, Guatemala, most of the :aribbean and the ma8ority
of demo1ra1ies in Asia $e"" 7a/an and India& and Afri1a $e"" !ots0ana and Xambia& retain it"
South Afri1a, 0hi1h is /robably the most develo/ed Afri1an nation, and 0hi1h has been a
demo1ra1y sin1e (..I, does not have the death /enalty" 2his fa1t is 1urrently quite
1ontroversial in that 1ountry, due to the hih levels of violent 1rime, in1ludin murder and
ra/e"
O,)P
Advo1ates of the death /enalty arue that it deters 1rime, is a ood tool for /oli1e and
/rose1utors $in /lea barainin for e4am/le&,
O,-P
im/roves the 1ommunity by makin sure that
1onvi1ted 1riminals do not offend aain, /rovides 1losure to survivin vi1tims or loved ones,
and is a 8ust /enalty for their 1rime" E//onents of 1a/ital /unishment arue that it has led to
the e4e1ution of 0ronfully 1onvi1ted, that it dis1riminates aainst minorities and the /oor,
that it does not deter 1riminals more than life im/risonment, that it en1ouraes a 91ulture of
violen1e9, that it is more e4/ensive than life im/risonment,
O,.P
and that it violates human
rihts"
((
C:=D 9Definite no to Death Ro0 D Asmal9"
C:@D 7ames Pitkin" 99;illin 2ime9 R <illamette <eek R 7anuary H,rd, H++-9" <0eek"1om"
C:*D 92he %ih :ost of the Death Penalty9" Death Penalty Fo1us"
(", :ruel and unusual /unishments
Crue- a./ u.usua- pu.ishme.t is a /hrase des1ribin 1riminal /unishment 0hi1h is
1onsidered una11e/table due to the sufferin or humiliation it infli1ts on the 1ondemned
/erson"
For most of re1orded history, 1a/ital /unishments 0ere often deliberately /ainful" Severe
histori1al /enalties in1lude >
Death A> Aoi-i.8 is a method of e4e1ution in 0hi1h a /erson is killed by bein immersed in
a boilin liquid su1h as 0ater or oil" <hile not as 1ommon as other methods of e4e1ution,
boilin to death has been used in many /arts of 3uro/e and Asia"
Death A> Aur.i.8 $also kno0n as Aur.i.8 a-i0e or Aur.i.8 to /eath& is death brouht
about by 1ombustion" As a form of 1a/ital /unishment, burnin has a lon history as a
method in 1rimes su1h as treason, heresy, and 0it1h1raft"
$-a>i.8 is the removal of skin from the body" Generally, an attem/t is made to kee/ the
removed /ortion of skin inta1t"
Flayin of humans is used as a method of torture or e4e1ution, de/endin on ho0 mu1h of
the skin is removed" 2his arti1le deals 0ith flayin in the sense of torture and e4e1ution" 2his
is often referred to as 9flayin alive9" 2here are also re1ords of /eo/le flayed after death,
enerally as a means of debasin the 1or/se of a /rominent enemy or 1riminal, sometimes
related to reliious beliefs $e"" to deny an afterlife&L sometimes the skin is used, aain for
deterren1e, mai1al uses, et1" $e"" s1al/in&"
(H
Cru6ifi7io. is an an1ient method of /ainful e4e1ution in 0hi1h the 1ondemned /erson is tied
or nailed to a lare 0ooden 1ross $of various sha/es& and left to han until dead" :ru1ifi4ion
0as in use /arti1ularly amon the Seleu1ids, :arthainians, and Romans from about the Jth
1entury !: to the Ith 1entury AD"
Death by 6rushi.8 or pressi.8 is a method of e4e1ution that has a history durin 0hi1h the
te1hniques used varied reatly from /la1e to /la1e" 2his form of e4e1ution is no loner
san1tioned by any overnin body"
DisemAoe-me.t $e0is6eratio.& is the removal of some or all of the orans of
the astrointestinal tra1t $the bo0els&, usually throuh a horiNontal in1ision made a1ross
the abdominal area" Disembo0elment may result from an a11ident, but has also been used as
a method of torture and e4e1ution" In su1h /ra1ti1es, disembo0elment may be a11om/anied
by other forms of torture, andUor the removal of other vital orans"
DismemAerme.t is the a1t of 1uttin, tearin, /ullin, 0ren1hin or other0ise removin,
the limbs of a livin thin" It may be /ra1ti1ed u/on human beins as a form of 1a/ital
/unishment, as a result of a traumati1 a11ident, or in 1onne1tion 0ith murder, sui1ide,
or 1annibalism" As o//osed to suri1al am/utation of the limbs, dismemberment is often fatal
to all but the sim/lest of 1reatures" In 1riminoloy, a distin1tion is made bet0een offensive
and defensive dismemberment"
E7e6utio. A> e-epha.t 0as, for thousands of years, a 1ommon method of 1a/ital
/unishment in South and Southeast Asia, and /arti1ularly in India" Asian 3le/hants 0ere used
to 1rush, dismember, or torture 1a/tives in /ubli1 e4e1utions" 2he animals 0ere trained and
versatile, both able to kill vi1tims immediately or to torture them slo0ly over a /roloned
/eriod" 3m/loyed by royalty, the ele/hants 0ere used to sinify both the rulerGs absolute
/o0er and his ability to 1ontrol 0ild animals"
(,
Impa-eme.t 0as a method of torture and e4e1ution 0hereby a /erson is /ier1ed 0ith a lon
stake" 2he /enetration 1an be throuh the sides, from the re1tum, or throuh the mouth" 2his
method 0ould lead to a slo0 and /ainful death" Eften, the vi1tim 0as hoisted into the air
after /artial im/alement" Gravity and the vi1timGs o0n strules 0ould 1ause him to slide
do0n the /ole, es/e1ially if the /ole 0ere on a 0aon 1arryin 0ar /riNes and /risoneers"
Death 1ould take many days" Im/alement 0as frequently /ra1ti1ed
in Asia and 3uro/e throuhout the 6iddle Aes" Vlad III the Im/aler, 0ho learned the
method of killin by im/alement 0hile stayin in :onstantino/le as a /risoner, and Ivan the
2errible have /assed into leend as ma8or users of the method"
OI+P
Ne6#-a6i.8 $sometimes 1alled .e6#-a6e& is the /ra1ti1e of summary e4e1ution 1arried out by
for1in a rubber tire, filled 0ith /etrol, around a vi1timGs 1hest and arms, and settin it on fire"
2he vi1tim may take u/ to H+ minutes to die, sufferin severe burns in the /ro1ess"
Sai.8 0as a method of e4e1ution used in 3uro/e under the Roman 3m/ire, in the 6iddle
3ast, and in /arts of Asia" 2he 1ondemned 0ere hun u/side5do0n and sa0n a/art verti1ally
throuh the middle, startin at the roin" Sin1e the the body 0as inverted, the brain re1eived a
1ontinuous su//ly of blood des/ite severe bleedin, 1ons1iousness thereby 1ontinuin until,
or after, the sa0 severed the ma8or blood vessels of the abdomen"
S-o s-i6i.8 also translated as the s!#3 (r#/&ss, the !i$*&ri$* 1&a%h, or 1&a%h 58 a %h#.sa$1
/.%s, 0as a form of e4e1ution used in :hina from rouhly .++ AD until its abolition in (.+*"
In this form of e4e1ution, the 1ondemned /erson 0as killed by usin a knife to methodi1ally
remove /ortions of the body over an e4tended /eriod of time"
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(I
OI+P Dra1ula 5 !ritanni1a :on1ise
The Area#i.8 hee- 0as a torturous O1a/ital /unishmentP devi1e used in the 6iddle
Aes and early modern times for /ubli1 e4e1ution by 1udelin to death, es/e1ially in Fran1e
and Germany" In Fran1e the 1ondemned 0ere /la1ed on a 1art50heel 0ith their limbs
stret1hed out alon the s/okes over t0o sturdy 0ooden beams" 2he 0heel 0as made to
revolve slo0ly" 2hrouh the o/enins bet0een the s/okes, the e4e1utioner hit the vi1tim 0ith
an iron hammer that 1ould easily break the vi1timGs bones" 2his /ro1ess 0as re/eated several
times /er limb" En1e his bones 0ere broken, he 0as left on the 0heel to die" It 1ould take
hours, even days, before sho1k and dehydration 1aused death" 2he /unishment 0as abolished
in Germany as late as (-H)"
OI(P
(*
OI(P htt/>UU000"(.((en1y1lo/edia"orU!reakinYonYtheY0heel
1.4 P!" #$% C!$" !& C#'()#* P+$(",-.$)
Pros of Capita- Pu.ishme.t
A /erson 0ho has 1ommitted a 1rime like killin or ra/in another /erson should be
iven death /enalty, 0hi1h is as severe /unishment as the a1t" It is said that 0hen a
1riminal is iven a 1a/ital /unishment, it dissuades others in the so1iety from
1ommittin su1h serious 1rimes" 2hey 0ould refrain from su1h 1rimes due to fear of
losin their lives" 2his 0ould definitely hel/ in redu1in 1rime rate in so1iety"
If a 1riminal is 8ailed, he may aain 1ommit the same 1rime after bein released from
/rison" Givin him 1a/ital /unishment 0ould make sure that the so1iety is safe from
bein atta1ked by 1riminals" It seems to be an a//ro/riate /unishment for serial
killers and for those 0ho 1ontinue to 1ommit 1rimes even after servin im/risonment"
Some believe that instead of announ1in life im/risonment for the 1onvi1ts, 0here
they 0ould have to live a futile life behind 1losed bars, it is better to kill them" It is
said that im/risonin someone is more e4/ensive than e4e1utin him" Rather than
s/endin on a /erson 0ho may aain 1ommit terrifyin 1rime, it is better to /ut him to
death"
:a/ital /unishment is equated as revene for /ain and sufferin that the 1riminal
infli1ted on the vi1tim" Some /eo/le stronly believe that a /erson 0ho has taken the
life of another /erson does not have a riht to live" Senten1in su1h a 1riminal 1an
ive relief to the family members of the vi1tim that their loved one has obtained
8usti1e"
It is also im/ortant for the safety of fello0 /rison inmates and uards, as /eo/le 0ho
1ommit horrifyin 1rimes like murder are believed to have a violent /ersonality and
may, in future, atta1k someone durin im/risonment" 2hese reasons em/hasiNe the
im/ortan1e of 1a/ital /unishment for the betterment of human so1iety" %o0ever, there
(J
is another se1tion of /eo/le 0ho believe that it is an immoral and unethi1al a1t of
violen1e"
+.; Co.s of Capita- Pu.ishme.t
If 0e e4e1ute a /erson, 0hat is the differen1e bet0een us and the 1riminal 0ho has
1ommitted the horrifyin 1rime of killin another individual"
:a/ital /unishment is not al0ays 8ust and a//ro/riate" Usually, it has been seen that
/oor /eo/le have to su11umb to death /enalty as they 1annot afford ood la0yers to
defend their stan1e" 2here are very rare 1ases of ri1h /eo/le bein /ronoun1ed 1a/ital
/unishment" Also, an individual from minority 1ommunities are more likely to be
iven death /enalty"
3very human bein is entitled to re1eive a se1ond 1han1e in life" Puttin a 1onvi1t
behind bars is al0ays a loi1al o/tion than killin him, as there is a 1han1e that he
may im/rove" Peo/le 0ho have served life senten1es are re/orted to have bettered
their earlier 0ays of livin and have made 0orth0hile 1ontribution to the so1iety"
2here is also a 1han1e that an individual is inno1ent and is 0ronly 1hared for a
1rime he has never 1ommitted" 2here have been 1ases 0here individuals 0ere released
after bein iven death senten1e, be1ause they 0ere /roved inno1ent" 2here are also
1ases 0here a /ersonGs inno1en1e 0as /roved after he 0as /ut to death" %en1e, it is
best to avoid e4e1utin a /erson"
It is re/orted that there is no relation bet0een 1a/ital /unishment and 1rime rate i"e
ivin death /enalty does not de1rease 1rime rate in the so1iety" :rimes are /revalent
in 1ountries 0here 1a/ital /unishment e4ists and also 0here it has been abolished"
2he question 0hether 1a/ital /unishment is a moral or an immoral a1t in a 1ultured so1iety,
does not have a definite ans0er" <hether to ive 1a/ital /unishment to a 1riminal or not, may
de/end on his /revious 1riminal re1ords and the seriousness of the 1rime he has 1ommitted"
!ut, do 0e really have the riht to take the life of our fello0 human beinsM
()
Chapter -2
Capital Punishment
and Statutory Frame
Work in India
(-
CAPITAL PUNISHMENT AND STATUTORY
FRAME WORK IN INDIA
As far as India is 1on1erned, the /rovisions relatin to :a/ital Punishment
are embodied in Indian Penal :ode and :ri minal Pro1edure :ode" Indian
Penal :ode is the substantive la0, 0hi1h suests the offen1es, 0hi1h are
/unishable 0ith death senten1e" :riminal Pro1edure :ode is the /ro1edural
la0, 0hi1h e4/lains the /ro1edure to be follo0ed in death /enalt y 1ases" 2he
substantive la0 of India viN" , Indian Penal :ode 0as ena1ted in the year
(-J+" 2houh very fe0 Amendments are made here and there, in total it
remains un1haned, 0here as :riminal Pro1edure :ode 0as amended
substantiall y on1e in (.** and reena1ted in (.)H" 2houh ma8 orit y of the
/rovisions remain un1haned Se1tion H,*$H& and Se1tion ,*I$,& under0ent a
ma8 or 1hane" 2he /resent 1ha/ter mainl y deals 0ith the substantive and
/ro1edural la0s /ertainin to :a/ital Punishment" It is also /ro/osed to
dis1uss the /o0er of the e4e1utive to rant /ardon and 1ommute death into
life im/risonment as /rovided under the Indian :onstitut ion"
(. + CAPITAL O$$ENCES UNDE% THE INDIAN PENAL CODE<
2he Indian Penal :ode /rovides for the im/osi tion of :a/ital Punishment in
the follo0in 1ases> Se6tio. +(+ /rovides that 0hoever 0aes 0ar aainst the
Government of India or attem/ts to 0ae su1h 0ar, or abets the 0ain of
su1h 0ar, shall be /unished 0ith death, or im/risonment for life and shall
also be liable to fine" 2he offen1e under Se1tion (H( is a 1a/ital offen1e
be1ause it threatens the very e4isten1e of an oraniNed Government, 0hi1h is
essential for the /rote1tion of human life"
(.
Se6tio. +(,-A /rovides death /enalt y for sedition" 2he line dividin
/rea1hin disaffe1tion to0ards the Government and leiti mate /oliti 1al
a1tivi t y in a demo1rati1 set5u/ 1annot be /re1isel y dra0n" <here the
leiti mate /oliti1al 1riti1ism of the Government in /o0er ends and
disaffe1tion beins, 1annot be as1ertained 0ith /re1ision" 2he demar1atin
line bet0een the t0o is very thin" <hat 0as sedition aainst the Im/eri al
Rulers 6ay today /ass of as leitimat e /oliti1al a1tivi t y in a demo1rat i1 set5
u/ under our libertarian :onstitutionM 2he inter/ret ation has to be moulded
0ithin the letter and s/irit of our :onstitution"
O (P
A11ordin to Se1tion +:( 0hoever abets the 1ommit tin of mutiny by an
offi1er, soldier, sailor or airman, in the Army, Cavy, or Air For1e of the
Government of India, shall, if mut iny be 1ommi tt ed in 1onsequen1e of that
abet ment, be /unished 0ith death or 0ith im/risonment of life, or
im/risonment of either des1ri/tion for a term 0hi1h may e4tend to ten years,
and shall also be liable to fine" Se1tion (,H is also a 1a/ital offen1e, be1ause
it ai ms at the destru1tion of the very for1es, 0hi1h are intended to /rote1t the
ma1hinery of the State" Se1tions (H(, (HI5A and (,H /res1ribe death /enalt y
for the offen1es intended to affe1t the stabilit y, /oliti1al inde/enden1e and
territori al interi t y of the Cation"
Se6tio. +*, aims at the /ersons 0ho ive or fabri1at e false eviden1e 0ith
intent to /ro1ure 1onvi1tion of 1a/ital offen1e to inno1ent /ersons" It runs
thus> 9<hoever ives or fabri1ates false eviden1e, intendin thereby 1ause,
any /erson to be 1onvi1ted of an offen1e 0hi1h is 1a/ital by the la0 for the
ti me bein in for1e in India shall be /unished
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O ( P
Rat an #al and Dhi ra8 #al > #a0 Ef :ri mes> ,.- $(..*&
H+
0ith im/risonment for life or 0ith riorous im/risonment for a term 0hi1h
may e4tend to ten years, and shall also be liable to fine" And if an inno1ent
/erson be 1onvi1ted and e4e1uted in 1onsequen1e of su1h false eviden1e, the
/erson 0ho ives su1h false eviden1e shall be /unished 0ith either death or
the /unishment herein before des1ribed" 9 Se1tion (.I /art II is /unishable
0ith death on the loi1 that the /erson 1on1erned ave false eviden1e 0ith
the intention of or kno0lede of likelihood of de/rivation of inno1ent human
life"
Se6tio. :)( of Indian Penal :ode is the most im/ortant se1tion in the
8 uris/ruden1e of :a/ital Punishment" It /res1ribes death senten1e for the
offen1e of murder" !ut the se1tion ives dis1retion to the senten1in 8 ude by
/res1ribin life im/risonment as an alternative /unishment thouh the authors
of the :ode /res1ribed death as a /unishment, they are 1onvin1ed that it
ouht to be s/arinl y infli1ted" 2hey also observed 92houh the senten1e
1onsequent u/on a 1onvi1tion of murder must be death, if there e4ists any
rounds for mer1y, that 1ir1umstan1e 0ill have to be 1onsidered by the
Government or its e4e1utive minister, and all that a :ourt of 7usti1e 1an do is
to submi t a re1ommendation after /assin the senten1e of la0"9
O HP
A11ordin to Se1tion ,+), 90hoever does any a1t 0ith su1h intent ion or
kno0lede, and under su1h 1ir1umstan1es that, if he by that a1t 1aused death,
he 0ould be uilt y of murder, shall be /unished 0ith im/risonment of either
des1ri/tion for a term 0hi1h may e4tend to ten years, and shall also be liable
to fine, and if hurt is 1aused to any /erson by su1h a1t, the offender shall be
liable either to im/risonment
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O H P
Ibi d at ((H(
H(
for life, or to su1h /unishment as is herein before mentioned" <hen su1h an
attem/t is made by a life 1onvi1t, he may, if hurt is 1aused, be /unished 0ith
death" 9
,
2he offen1e under Se1tion ,+) is one 0here the attem/t is not su11essfulL the
disreard of the san1tit y of human life is, ho0ever, trans/arent here also"
!ut, the senten1e of death 1an be a0arded onl y 0here hurt is 1aused and the
/erson offendin is already under senten1e of i m/risonment for life" 2he last
requirement is merel y an illustration of the /ro/osition that the la0 has not
ruled out the 1onsideration of the individual"
2he reasonin, 0hi1h a//lied for holdin se1tion ,+, as un1onstitutional,
0ould have a//lied 0ith same for1e to the last /art of Se1tion ,+) also, and
the same, if it had left no dis1retion 0ith the 7ude, 0ould have met the same
fate" Fortunatel y, ho0ever, the /rovision for the :a/ital Punishment, in that
se1tion is not mandatory but s/ells out its desirabilit y" 2he 0ord 9may be9 is
indi1at ive onl y of a desirable 1ourse"
I
2he last 1a/ital offen1e in the order in Indian Penal :ode is Se1tion ,.J" It
runs thus> 9If any one of five or more /ersons, 0ho are 1on8 ointl y 1ommit ti n
da1oit y, 1ommi ts murder in so 1ommi tt in da1oit y, every one of those /ersons
shall be /unished 0ith death, or im/risonment for life, or riorous
im/risonment for a term 0hi1h may e4tend to ten years and shall also be
liable to fine" 9 2he offen1e under Se1tion ,.J, is a s/e1ifi1 1ase of vi1arious
liabil it y in res/e1t of the
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O , P
#a0 :ommi ssi on of Indi a> 2hi rt y5 Fi ft h Re/ort > ,* $Se/t ember5 (.J)&"
O I P
:hat urvedi and :hat urvedi > 2heor y and #a0 of :a/i t al Puni shment > *+ $(.-.&"
HH
senten1e of death, but even here it 0ould be diffi1ult to dis1uss the /rin1i/le
of /rote1tion of human life> the se1tion requires that there must be five or
more /ersons 0ho are 1on8 ointl y 1ommi tt in da1oit y and that one of su1h
/ersons must 1ommi t murder in so 1ommi tt in da1oit y" 7oint liabil it y under
this se1tion does not arise unless all the /ersons 1on8 ointl y 1ommit da1oit y
and the murder 0as 1ommi tt ed in so 1ommit tin da1oit y"
*
2he Indian Penal :ode /rovides death /enalt y in three distin1t /atterns"
Se1tions ,+, and ,+) relate to t0o offen1es for 0hi1h the death /enalt y is the
sole form of /unishment" Se1tion ,+H is the se1ond /attern 0here death
/enalt y is 0ith only one alternative namel y" #ife im/risonment" 2he third
/attern is follo0ed in res/e1t of other offen1es 1ited above, 0here death
/enalt y is the ma4i mum to be a//lied alon 0ith 0ide rane of other
minimum senten1es" In res/e1t of the rules or uidelines for the o/eration of
the 1hoi1e out of the rane of senten1es the /enal 1ode is fairl y bold" 2he
question of 0hen or 0hy the death /enalt y should be im/osed is left to
8 udi1ial dis1retion in every 1ase"
O JP
Guided by missiles 0ith lethal /otential in
unuided hands, even 8 udi1ial, is a rave risk 0here the /eril is mortal thouh
tem/ered by the a//ellate /ro1ess"
O )P
Se1tion ,+, of Indian Penal :ode is a unique se1tion, be1ause it is the onl y
se1tion in the 0hole :ode, 0hi1h /res1ribes mandatory death senten1e" It
runs thus> 9<hoever bein under senten1e of im/risonment for life, 1ommi ts
murder, shall be /unished 0ith death" 9 %o0ever, the
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
* Su/ra not e , at ,J
J Pande, !" !> 9Fa1e t o Fa1e 0i t h Deat h9> Su/reme :ourt :ases> (HI $(.-J&
) Ra8 endra Prasad v" St at e of Ut t ar Pradesh> AIR (.). S" :" .(J"
H,
Indian Su/reme :ourt as ultra vires of the :onstitution stru1k do0n this
se1tion"
(. ( P%OVISIONS UNDE% C%IMINAL P%OCEDU%E CODE<
2he ne0 :riminal Pro1edure :ode, (.), /rovides a ne0 /rovision in Se1tion
H,*$H& at the stae of senten1in"
O -P
2he ob8 e1t of this /rovision is to ive a
fresh o//ortunit y to the 1onvi1ted /erson to brin to the noti1e of the 1ourt in
a0ardin a//ro/riate senten1e havin reard to the /ersonal, so1ial and other
1ir1umstan1es of the 1ase"
O .P
2he a11used may have some rounds to ure for ivin him 1onsideration in
reard to the senten1e su1h as that he is bread0inner of the fami l y of 0hi1h
the 1ourt may not be made a0are of durin the trial"
O (+P
2he so1ial
1om/ulsion, the /ressure of /overty, the retributive instin1t to seek an e4tra
leal remedy to a sense of bein 0roned, the la1k of means to be edu1ated in
the diffi1ult art of an honest livin, the /arentae, the heredit y 5 all these and
simi lar other 1onsiderations 1an, ho/efull y and leitimat el y, tilt the s1ales on
the /ro/riet y of senten1e" 2he mandat e of Se1tion H,*$H& must therefore be
obeyed in its letter and s/irit"
O ((P
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O - P
Se1t i on H,* $H&> If t he a11used i s 1onvi 1t ed, t he 8 ude shal l Unl ess he /ro1eeds i n
a11ordan1e 0i t h t he /rovi si ons of Se1t i on ,J+, hear t he a11used on t he quest i on of
sent en1e, and t hen /ass Sent en1e on hi m a11ordi n t o l a0"
O . P
Ram Cat h Iyer, P> :ode of :ri mi nal Pro1edure> (-J* $(..I&
O ( + P
Subhash :" Gu/t a> :a/i t al Puni shment i n Indi a> ((. $(.-J&
O ( ( P
Dadu v"St at e of 6aharasht r a> AIR (.)) S" :" (*)."
HI
Under the :ode of :riminal Pro1edure, (-.-, 0hatever the a11used 0ished to
submit in reard to the senten1e had to be stated by him before the aruments
1on1luded and the 8udment 0as delivered" 2here
0as no se/arate stae for bein heard in reard to senten1e" 2he
a11used had to /rodu1e mat erial and make his submission in reard to
senten1e on the assum/tion that he 0as ulti matel y oin to be 1onvi1ted" 2his
/rovision 0as most unsatisfa1tory" 2he #eislature therefore, de1ided that it
is onl y 0hen the a11used is 1onvi1ted that the question of senten1e should
1ome u/ for 1onsideration and at that stae, an o//ortunit y should be iven to
the a11used to be heard in reard to the senten1e"
O (HP
2he requirement of hearin the a11used is intended to satisfy the rules of
natural 8 usti1e"
O (,P
2he 7ude must make a enuine effort to eli1it from the
a11used all information, 0hi1h 0ill eventuall y bear on the question of
senten1e"
O (IP
2his is indeed one of the reasons in 6ithu=s 1ase
O (*P
for the
Su/reme :ourt to strike do0n Se1tion ,+, of Indian Penal :ode as
un1onstitutional" 9Is a la0 0hi1h /rovides for the senten1e of death for the
offen1e of murder, 0ithout affordin to the a11used an o//ortunit y to sho0
1ause 0hy that senten1e should not be i m/osed, 8 ust and fairM9 Se1tion H,*$H&
be1omes a meaninl ess ritual in 1ases arisin under Se1tion ,+, of Indian
Penal :ode"
O (JP
Prior to (.**, Se1tion ,J)$*& of the :ode of :ri minal
Pro1edure, (-.- insisted u/on the 1ourt statin its reasons if the senten1e of
death 0as not im/osed in a 1ase of murder" 2he result 0as that it 0as
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O ( H P
Sant a Si nh v" St at e of Pun8 ab> AIR (.)J S" :" H,-J
O ( , P
Al l auddi n 6i an v" St at e of !i har> (.-. :ri " #" 7" (I-J S" :"
O ( I P
6uni a//an v" St at e of 2ami l Cadu> AIR (.-( S" :" (HH+"
(* 6i t hu v" St at e of Pun8 ab> AIR (.-, S" :" I), at I)-
(J Ibi d"
H*
thouht that in the absen1e of e4tenuat in 1ir1umst an1es, 0hi1h 0ere to be
stated by the 1ourt, the ordinary /enalt y for murder 0as death" In (.**, sub5
se1tion $*& of Se1tion ,J) 0as deleted and some :ourts, to mean that the
senten1e of life im/risonment 0as the normal senten1e for murder and
senten1e of death 1ould be i m/osed only if there 0ere aravatin
1ir1umstan1es, inter/reted the deletion, at any rate" In the :ode of :riminal
Pro1edure of (.),, there is a further s0in to0ards life im/risonment" 2he
dis1retion to im/ose the senten1e of death or life im/risonment is not so 0ide
no0 as it 0as before (.), :ode" Se1tion ,*I $,& of the ne0 :riminal
Pro1edure :ode has narro0ed do0n the dis1retion" Co0 death senten1e is
ordinaril y ruled out and 1an onl y be im/osed for s/e1ial reasons"
O ()P
2he ultimate shift in leislative em/hasis is that, under the Ce0 :riminal
Pro1edure :ode, (.),, life im/risonment for murder is the rule and :a/ital
Punishment the e41e/tion 5 to be resorted to for reasons to be stated as /er
Se1tion ,*I$,& of :riminal Pro1edure :ode"
O (-P
9" " " Co0 onl y s/e1ial reasons,
that is to say, s/e1ial fa1ts and 1ir1umstan1es in a iven 1ase, 0ill 0arrant
the /assin of death senten1e" 9
O (.P
!ut, it is neither ne1essary, nor /ossible to
make a 1ataloue of s/e1ial reasons, 0hi1h may 8ustify the /assin of death
senten1e in a 1ase"
In kee/in 0ith the 1urrent /enoloi1al thouht im/risonment for life is a
rule and death senten1e is an e41e/tion" " " if a death senten1e is to be
a0arded, the 1ourt has to 8 ustify it by ivin s/e1ial reasons"
O H+P

555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
() Subhash :" Gu/t a> :a/i t al Puni shment i n Indi a> (H+ $(.-J&
(- $i &3di a Annamma v" St at e of Andhra Pradesh> AIR (.)I> S" :" ).. $i i & %ar Dayal v"
St at e> AIR (.)J S" :" H+** and $i i i & Pet er 7ose/h v" St at e of Goa> (.)) S" :" (-(H
(. !al 0ant Si nh v" St at e> AIR (.)J S" :" H,+"
HJ
2hus 7udes are left 0ith the task of dis1overin 9s/e1ial reasons9,
observed ;rishna Iyer, 7"
O H(P
%e further held that 9s/e1ial reasons9 ne1essary
for im/osin death /enalt y must relate not to the 1rime as su1h but to the
1ri minal" %o0ever, in Ra8 endra Prasad=s 1ase,
O HHP
;ailasam 7" did not a11e/t
this vie0 of ;rishna Iyer 7" and observed that su1h a /rin1i/le 0as not
0arranted by the la0 as it stands today" 934treme /enalt y 1ould be invoked in
e4treme situations9, he o/ined" In Ra8 endra PrasadG s 1ase the ma8 orit y further
held 9Su1h e4traordinary rounds alone 1onstitutional l y qualify as s/e1ial
reasons as to leave no o/tion to the :ourt but to e4e1ute the offender if State
and so1iet y are to survive" Ene stroke of murder hardl y qualifies for this
drasti1 requirement, ho0ever ruesome the killin or /atheti1 the situation
be, unless the inherent testi mony ooNin from that a1t is irresistible that the
murderous a//etite of the 1onvi1t is too 1hroni1 and deadl y that ordered life
in a iven lo1alit y or so1iet y or in /rison itself 0ould be one if this man
0ere no0 or later to be at lare" If he is an irredeemable murderer, like a
bloodthirst y tier, he has to quit this terrestrial tenan1y"
O H,P
2his 1on1e/t of
s/e1ial reasons is further e4/lained by the A/e4 :ourt throuh !ha0ati, 7"
in the 1ase of !a1hhan Sinh"
O HIP
<hat is the relative 0eiht to be iven to
the aravatin and mi tiat in fa1tors de/ends on the fa1ts and 1ir1umst an1es
of the /arti1ular 1ase" It is onl y 0hen the 1ul/abil it y assumes the /ro/ortion
of e4treme de/ravit y that 9s/e1ial reasons9 1an leiti matel y be said to e4ist"
55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O H + P
Ambaram v"St at e> AIR (.)J S" :" H(J."
O H ( P
!i shnu Deo v" St at e of <est !enal > AIR (.). S" :" .JI"
O H H P
Ra8 endra Prasad v" St at e of Ut t ar Pradesh> AIR (.). S" :" .(J"
O H , P
Ibi d
O H I P
!a1hhan Si nh v" St at e of Pun8 ab> AIR (.-H S" :" (,H*"
H)
2he 9s/e1ial reasonsB mentioned in Se1tion ,*I$,& of :riminal Pro1edure
:ode should be taken as equivalent and synonymous to ?1om/el lin reasons9"
O H*P
6urder is terrifi1 $bhayankaram& is not a reason to im/ose death /enalt y"
All murders are terrifi1 and if the fa1t of murder bein terrifi1 is an adequate
reason for i m/osin death senten1e, then every murder shall have to be
visited 0ith that senten1e and death senten1e 0ill be1ome the rule, not an
e41e/tion and Se1tion ,*I$,& :riminal Pro1edure :ode 0ill be1ome a dead
letter"
O H J P
Se1tion ,*I$*& of :riminal Pro1edure :ode deals 0ith the e4e1ution
of death /enalt y" It /rovides that 90hen any /erson is senten1ed to death, the
senten1e shall dire1t that he be haned by the ne1k till he is dead" 9 3ven if it
is not mentioned so also, there is no diffi1ult y" Any0ay the %ih :ourt has to
1onfirm the death senten1e im/osed by the Sessions :ourt" 2he form of the
0arrant that is issued 0hen the senten1e is 1onfirmed by the %ih :ourt
dire1t the 1onvi1t to be haned by the ne1k till he is dead and 0here the
senten1e is im/osed by the %ih :ourt either in a//eal under Se1tion ,)-
:riminal Pro1edure :ode or in e4er1ise of the /o0er of revision, the formal
order that flo0s from the %ih :ourt 1ontains a similar dire1tion"
2he state must establish that the /ro1edure /res1ribed by Se1tion ,*I $*&,
:riminal Pro1edure :ode for e4e1utin the death senten1e is 8ust, fair and
reasonable and that the said /ro1edure is not harsh, 1ruel or deradin" 2he
method /res1ribed by Se1tion ,*I$*& :riminal Pro1edure :ode for e4e1utin
the death senten1e does not violate the /rovisions of Arti1le H( of Indian
:onstitution" 2he system is 1onsistent 0ith the obliat ion of the State to
ensure that the /ro1ess of e4e1ution

555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
H* St at e v" %eera> (.-* :ri " #" 7" ((*,
HJ 6uni a//an v" St at e of 2ami l Cadu> AIR (.-( S" :" (HH+"
H-
is 1ondu1ted 0ith de1en1y and de1orum 0ithout involvin deradation or
brutalit y of any kind"
O H ) P
2he dire1tion for e4e1ution of death senten1e by
/ubli1 hanin is un1onstitutional and if any 7ail 6anual 0ere to /rovide
/ubli1 hanin the Su/reme :ourt 0ould de1lare it to be violative of Arti1l e
H( of the :onstitution"
O H - P
Se1tion ,JJ of :ode :riminal Pro1edure insists
u/on the 1onfirmation of death /enalt y by the %ih :ourt" 2he first /rovision
of this /arti1ular se1tion states, 9<hen the :ourt of Session /asses a senten1e
of death, the /ro1eedins shall be submit ted to the %ih :ourt, and senten1e
shall not be e4e1uted unless it is 1onfirmed by the %ih :ourt" 9 2he se1ond
/rovision insists that the :ourt /assin the senten1e shall 1ommit the
1onvi1ted /erson to 8 ail 1ustody under a 0arrant" 2he first /rovision of the
said se1tion 1orres/onds to Se1tion ,)I of the Eld :ode, 0ithout any 1hane
and Sub5se1tion $H& has been ne0ly added" It is the /ra1ti1e of the %ih :ourt
to be satisfied on the fa1ts as 0ell as the la0 of the 1ase, that the 1onvi1tion
is riht, before it /ro1eeds to 1onfirm the senten1e"
O H . P
2he %ih :ourt has to 1ome to its o0n individual 1on1lusions as to the uilt
or inno1en1e of the a11used, inde/endent of the o/inion of the Sessions
7ude"
O , + P
2he %ih :ourt is dut y bound to inde/endentl y 1onsider the mat ter
1arefull y and e4amine all relevant and mat erial eviden1e"
O , ( P
55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O H ) P
Deena v" Uni on of Indi a> AIR (.-, S" :" ((**"
O H - P
At t orney General of Indi a v" #i 1hhma Devi > AIR (.-J S" :" IJ)
O H . P
6asal t i v" St at e> AIR (.J* S" :" H+H" See al so Guru !a1han Si nh v" St at e> AIR (.J,
S" :" ,I+ and Ram Shankar
v" St at e> AIR (.JH S" :" (H,.
O , + P
!al ak Ram v"St at e> AIR (.)I S" :" H(J*"
O , ( P
If t i khar ;han v" St at e> AIR (.), S" :" -J,
H.
2he %ih :ourt is under an obliation to 1onsider 0hat senten1e should be
im/osed and not to be 1ontent 0ith trial 1ourtG s de1ision on the /oint"
O , H P
<hen an a11used is 1onvi1ted and senten1ed to death, he is only a 1onvi1t
/risoner and not to be treated as 1ondemned /risoner" 2he death senten1e is
not e4e1utabl e 0ithout 1onfirmation of the %ih :ourt" Su1h a /risoner 0ill
be overned by :ha/ter WVII of the 7ail 6anual and 0ill be iven fa1ilit ies
under that 1ha/ter"" " at least till he is de1lared as 1ondemned /risoner in the
eye of la0"
O ,,P
Ceither he is servin riorous im/risonment nor sim/le
im/risonment" %e is in 8 ail so that he is ke/t safe and /rote1ted 0ith the
/ur/ose that he may be availabl e for the e4e1ution of death senten1e"
O , I P
Se1tion ,J) of :riminal Pro1edure :ode deals 0ith the /o0er of %ih :ourt
to dire1t further enquiry to be made or additional eviden1e to be taken" Sub5
se1tion $i& of this se1tion /rovides 9If, 0hen su1h /ro1eedins are submi tted,
the %ih :ourt thinks that a further inquiry should be made into, or
additional eviden1e taken u/on, any /oint bearin u/on the uilt or inno1en1e
of the 1onvi1ted /erson, it may make su1h inquiry or take su1h eviden1e
itself, or dire1t it to be made or taken by the :ourt of Session" 9 <here an
a//li1ation by an a11used /erson to 1all material eviden1e bearin on his line
of defen1e 0as refused by the lo0er 1ourt but 0as rene0ed in the %ih :ourt,
it 0as held that the a11used should be /ermit ted under this se1tion to /rodu1e
further eviden1e" As /ointed out by the Su/reme :ourt, 0hen the referen1e is
made for the 1onfirmat ion of the death senten1e, the %ih :ourt is to see not
onl y the 1orre1tness of order /assed by the Sessions 7ude but must e4amine
the entire eviden1e by itself"
O , * P
2he %ih :ourt may even
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O , H P
Cet i Sri Ramul u v" St at e of Andhra Pradesh> AIR (.), S" :" H**
O , , P
;ehar Si nh v" St at e> (.-) :ri " #" 7" H.( $Del &
O , I P
Smt " 2ri veni !en v" St at e of Gu8 arat > :ri " #" 7" S" :" ,
O , * P
Subhash v" St at e of Ut t ar Pradesh> (.)J :ri " #" 7" (*H S" :"
,+
dire1t a further inquiry or the takin of additional eviden1e for determinin
the uilt or inno1en1e of the a11used and then 1ome to its o0n 1on1lusion on
the entire mat erial on re1ord 0hether the death senten1e should be 1onfirmed
or not"
O , J P
Se1tion ,J- of :riminal Pro1edure :ode em/o0ers the %ih :ourt
to 1onfirm senten1e or annul 1onvi1tion" It envisaes 9In any 1ase submit ted
under Se1tion ,JJ, the %ih :ourt 5 $a& may 1onfirm the senten1e, or /ass any
other senten1e 0arranted by la0, or $b& annul the 1onvi1tion, and 1onvi1t the
a11used of any offen1e of 0hi1h the 1ourt of session miht have 1onvi1ted
him, or order a ne0 trial on the same or on amended 1hare, or $1& may a1quit
the a11used /ersonL Provided that no order of 1onfirmat ion shall be made
under this se1tion until the /eriod allo0ed for /referrin an a//eal has
e4/ired, or, if an a//eal is /resented 0ithin su1h /eriod, until su1h a//eal is
dis/osed of" 9 Se1tion ,J. of the :ode /res1ribes that either 1onfirmat ion of
the senten1e or ne0 senten1e is to be sined by t0o 8udes of %ih :ourt" It
runs thus> 9In every 1ase so submitt ed, the 1onfirmation of the senten1e, or
any ne0 senten1e or order /assed by the %ih :ourt, shall 0hen su1h :ourt
1onsists of t0o or more 7udes, be made, /assed and sined by at least t0o of
them" 9
<here the :ourt 1onsists of t0o or more 7udes and the order of 1onfirmation
of senten1e of death is made, /assed and sined by one of them, the senten1e
of death is not validl y 1onfirmed but remains submit ted to the 1ourt 0hi1h
has to dis/ose of the same under Se1tions ,J)5,)("
O , ) P
2he :ode mandates that
0hen the %ih :ourt 1on1erned 1onsists of t0o or more 7udes, the
1onfirmat ion of the death senten1e or other senten1es shall be sined by at
least t0o of them and this
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O , J P
!hu/endra Si nh v" St at e of Pun8 ab> (.J. :ri " #" 7" J S" :"
O , ) P
Ram Cat h Iyer, P> :ode of :ri mi nal Pro1edure> H)(, $(..I&
,(
a//lied onl y 0here the 1ourt, at the ti me of 1onfirmation of the death
senten1e, 1onsists of t0o or more 7udes" !ut, 0hen a sinle 8udi1ial
1ommi ssioner alone is fun1tionin, Se1tion ,J. of the :ode is not attra1t ed
and he may sin the 1onfirmation of the death senten1e alone and there 0ill
be no illeali t y"
O ,-P
Se1tion ,)+ of the :ode deals 0ith the /ro1edure in 1ases
of differen1e of o/inion" 9<here any su1h 1ase is heard before a !en1h of
7udes and su1h 7udes are equall y divided in o/inion, the 1ase shall be
de1ided in the manner /rovided by Se1tion ,.H of the same :ode" 9 <hen a
senten1e of death is referred to the %ih :ourt for 1onfirmation and the
7udes differ, the matt er should be referred to a third 7ude, under se1tion
,)+, 0ho should not de1ide it a11ordin to the o/inion of the 7ude for
a1quitt al or 1onvi1tion, but shall deliver his o/inion" 2he third 7ude=s duty
is to e4amine the 0hole eviden1e and 1ome to a final 8 udment" Co fetters
1an be /la1ed on the third 7ude" %e is at libert y to e4/ress and a1t u/on the
o/inion, 0hi1h he himself arrives at" If the third 7ude 1hooses he 1an /ass a
senten1e of death, even thouh one 7ude favors an a1quittal and the other
ives a lesser senten1e 0hen 1onvi1tin the a11used" !ut, the olden rule to
be follo0ed by the third 7ude is to ive the benefit of doubt to the a11used"
2he observation of su1h a rule does not amount to abdi1ation of his fun1tions
as a 7ude under Se1tions ,)+ and ,.H of the :ode"
O ,.P
%o0ever, 0hen there
is differen1e of o/inion in the %ih :ourt not only on the question of uilt
but also on that of senten1e, the senten1e should be redu1ed to im/risonment
for life"
O I+P
In the same 1ase as a /re1autionary method the Su/reme :ourt
further maintained that 0hen a//ellate 7udes 0ho aree on the question of
uilt differ on that of senten1e, it is usual not to im/ose death /enalt y unless
there are 1om/el lin reasons"
55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O ,-P 7o/se/h Pet er v" St at e of Goa, Daman F Di u> AIR (.)) S" :" (-(H"
O ,.P In re Carasi ah> AIR (.*. A" P" ,(, at ,()5 ,(-"
O I+P Panduran v" St at e of %yderabad> AIR (.** S" :" H(J A2 HH,"
,H
Se1tion ,)( of the :ode deals 0ith the /ro1edure in 1ases submi tted to %ih
:ourt for 1onfirmation" It /rovides ?In 1ases submitt ed by the :ourt of
Session to the %ih :ourt for the 1onfirmation of a senten1e of death, the
/ro/er offi1er of the %ih :ourt shall, 0ithout delay, after the order of
1onfirmat ion or other order has been made by the %ih :ourt, send a 1o/y of
the Erder, under the seal of %ih :ourt and attested 0ith his offi1ial
sinature, to the :ourt of Session" 9
Se1tion ,-* of :riminal Pro1edure :ode dealin 0ith the /ro1edure for
hearin a//eal ordinaril y not to dismiss su1h a//eals summari l y5

$(& If the A//ellate :ourt does not dismiss the a//eal summari l y, it shall
1ause noti1e of the ti me and /la1e at 0hi1h su1h a//eal 0ill be heard to be
iven D
$i& 2o the a//ellant or his /leader>
$ii& 2o su1h offi1er as the State Government may a//oint on his behalf>
$iii& If the a//eal is from a 8 udment of 1onvi1tion in a 1ase instituted u/on
1om/laint, to the 1om/l ainant>
$iv& If the a//eal is under se1tion ,)) or se1tion ,)-, to the a11used, and
shall also furnish su1h offi1er, 1om/lainant and a11used 0ith a 1o/y of the
rounds of a//eal"
$H& 2he A//ellate :ourt shall then send for the re1ord of the 1ase, if su1h
re1ord is not already availabl e in that :ourt, and near the /arties> Provided
that if the a//eal is onl y as to the e4tent or the lealit y of the senten1e, the
1ourt may dis/ose of the a//eal 0ithout sendin for the re1ord"
,,
$,& <here the onl y round for a//eal from a 1onvi1tion is the alleed
severit y of the senten1e, the a//ellant shall not, e41e/t 0ith the leave of the
:ourt, ure or be heard in su//ort of any other round" 9
2his se1tion 1orres/onds to se1tion IHH of the Eld :ode 0ith some 1hanes
and additions" 2his se1tion embodies the /rin1i/les of natural 8 usti1e by
/rovidin that the a//ellate 1ourt shall 1ause noti1e of the time and /la1e at
0hi1h su1h a//eal shall be heard to be iven to the a//ellant or his /leader
and this is mandatory"
Se1tion ,-. deals 0ith the sus/ension of senten1e /endin the a//eal and
release of a//ellant on bail" It runs thus>9 $(& Pendin any a//eal by a
1onvi1ted /erson, the A//ellate :ourt may, for reasons to be re1orded by it in
0ritin, order that the e4e1ution of the senten1e or order a//ealed aainst be
sus/ended and, also, if is in 1onfinement, that he be released on bail, or on
his o0n bond" 9 2his se1tion 1orres/onds to the /rovisions of Se1tion IHJ of
the Eld :ode"
Se1tion I(, deals 0ith the e4e1ution of order /assed under Se1tion ,--> It
reads 9<hen in a 1ase submi tted to the %ih :ourt for the 1onfirmation of a
senten1e of death, if the :ourt of Session re1eives the order of 1onfirmation
or other order of the %ih :ourt thereon, it shall 1ause su1h order to be
1arried into effe1t by issuin a 0arrant or takin su1h other ste/s as may be
ne1essary"9 2his se1tion 1orres/onds to se1tion ,-( of the Eld :ode 0ithout
any 1hane in the substan1e" Co fi4ed /eriod of delay 1an be held to make the
senten1e of death ine4e1utable"
A 0arrant does not mean only one 0arrant, even 0hen inter/ret ed in isolation
and out of 1onte4t" A 0arrant on1e issued 1an o une4e1uted and is liable to
be rendered ineffe1tive in a number of situations" !ut, by no loi1 1an it be
said that sin1e 0arrant has be1ome infru1tious and that death senten1e should
,I
automat i1al l y stand va1ated" Co /rovision of the :ode bars return of the first
0arrant 0ithout the e4e1ution havin been 1arried out" Cor does it do so in
1ase of issuan1e of a se1ond 0arrant" Se1tion I(I of :riminal Pro1edure :ode
deals 0ith the e4e1ution of senten1e of death /assed by %ih :ourt" <hen a
senten1e of death is /assed by the %ih :ourt in a//eal or in revision, the
:ourt of Session shall, on re1eivin the order of the %ih :ourt, 1ause the
senten1e to be 1arried into effe1t by issuin a 0arrant" Se1tion I(* :ode of
:riminal Pro1edure deals 0ith the /ost/onement of e4e1ution of senten1e of
death in 1ase of a//eal to Su/reme :ourt" 9
$(& <here a /erson is senten1ed to death by the %ih :ourt and an a//eal
from its 8udment lies to Su/reme :ourt under sub51lause $a& or sub51lause
$b& of 1lause $(& of Arti1l e (,I of the :onstitution, the %ih :ourt shall order
the e4e1ution of the senten1e to be /ost/oned until the /eriod allo0ed for
/referrin su1h a//eal has e4/ired, or if an a//eal is /referred 0ithin that
/eriod, until su1h a//eal is dis/osed of" 9 2he sub51lause $H& of the same
se1tion /rovides 9<here a senten1e of death is /assed or 1onfirmed by the
%ih :ourt, and the /erson senten1ed makes an a//li1at ion to the %ih :ourt
for the rant of 1ertifi 1at e under Arti1le (,H or under sub51lause $1& of 1lause
$(& of Arti1le (,I of the :onstitution, the %ih :ourt shall order the
e4e1ution of the senten1e to be /ost/oned until su1h a//li1at ion is dis/osed
of by the %ih :ourt, or if a 1ertifi1ate is ranted on su1h a//li1ation, until
the /eriod allo0ed for /referrin an a//eal to the Su/reme :ourt" 9 2he sub5
1lause $,& of the se1tion /rovides 9<here a senten1e of death is /assed or
1onfirmed by the %ih :ourt, and the %ih :ourt is satisfied that the /erson
senten1ed intends to /resent a /etit ion to the Su/reme :ourt for the rant of
s/e1ial leave to a//eal under Arti1l e (,J of the :onstitut ion, the %ih :ourt
shall order the e4e1ution of the senten1e to be /ost/oned for su1h /eriod as it
1onsiders suffi1ient to enable him to /resent su1h /etition" 9 Se1tion I(J of
:ode of :riminal Pro1edure is an im/ort ant /rovision be1ause it deals 0ith
,*
the /ost/onement of :a/ital Punishment on /renant 0oman" It envisaes> 9If
a 0oman senten1ed to death is found to be /renant, the %ih :ourt shall
order the e4e1ution of the senten1e to be /ost/oned, and 6ay if it thinks fit
1ommute the senten1e to im/risonment for life" 9
2his /rovision does not s/e1ify the ti me for 0hi1h the e4e1ution has to be
/ost/oned" 2here is no 1lue, 0hatsoeverL in the /rovision 0hether su1h
/ost/onement is for ood or till the 0oman delivers" 6oreover, the %ih
:ourt is the onl y forum in 0hi1h the la0 vests the /o0er of /ost/onin the
e4e1ution of a senten1e of death /assed and 1onfirmed on a 0oman /roved to
be /renant" 2he Sessions 7ude, may, of 1ourse, dire1t the /ost/onement of
the e4e1ution of the senten1e, until a//ro/riate orders to that effe1t are
/assed by the %ih :ourt" 2he %ih :ourt, under su1h 1ir1umstan1es, is
em/o0ered even to 1ommut e the senten1e to one of life i m/risonment, if it
thinks fit and this is one instan1e makin a de/arture from the mandate of
Se1tion ,JH of the :ode of :riminal Pro1edure, (.), that no :ourt, 0hen it
has sined its 8udment or final order dis/osin of a 1ase, shall alter or
revie0 the same e41e/t to 1orre1t a 1leri1al or arithmet i1al error"
O I(P
2he
/rovision of Se1tion I(J of the :ode of :ri minal Pro1edure is an instan1e of
9Re/rieve9 or 9Res/ite9" It is stated that 0hen a 0oman is 1onvi1ted and
senten1ed to death, 1lerk of the :ro0n, after senten1e, is to ask 0hether the
0oman has anyt hi n to say in the stay of the e4e1ution of the senten1e" If she
then 1lai ms or the :ourt, then or later on, has reason to su//ose that she is
/renant, a 8 ury of t0elve matrons are em/anell ed and s0orn to try 0hether
or not she is qui1k 0ith 1hild" If the 7ury requires the assistan1e of a medi1al
man, a medi1al man is requested by the :ourt to retire and e4amine the
/risoner and is then e4amined as a 0itness" If the 7ury finds that the /risoner
is qui1k 0ith 1hild, the :ourt stays the e4e1ution of the :a/ital senten1e until
,J
the /risoner delivers a 1hild or it is no loner /ossible that she should deliver
a 1hild" It is ho0ever, for the /risoner to /lead /renan1y, be1ause the riht
to a 7ury of matrons a11rues to her onl y 0hen she /leads but not other0ise" In
India, too, it is im/l ied, under the /rovisions of Se1tion I(J of :riminal
Pro1edure :ode, that the 1onvi1t herself, or her 1ounsel should reveal the
state of her /renan1y, thouh, for the /ost/onement of e4e1ution, it is not at
all ne1essary that she should be qui1k 0ith 1hild" <hat is ne1essary is that
she must be /renant, and the ti me fa1tor as to the duration of the /renan1y
at the ti me of 1onvi1tion is immaterial
O IHP
"
In Fran1e, United ;indom $/osition /rior to abolition& USSR,
:Ne1hoslovakia, 'uoslavia, Australia, Cetherlands, Ce0 Guinea, #aos,
:hina, :ambodi a, and 2he :entral Afri1an Re/ubli1 of 6oro11o, /renant
0omen are e4em/ted from bein e4e1uted" 2he la0 /rovides only for the
/ost/onement of the e4e1ution for a /eriod 0hi1h varies de/endin u/on the
fa1t 0hether the 0omen senten1ed to death breast5feed the 1hild or not"
O I,P
2he as/e1t of breast5feedin is not 1onsidered in India" It is quite interestin
to note 0hether by de/rivin a 1hild from bein fed by mother is violative of
is fundamental riht or not" %o0ever, in a1tual /ra1ti1e, the /ost/onement of
the e4e1ution in su1h 1ir1umstan1es enerall y leads to subsequent
1ommutation of the death senten1e" Se1tion I,H of the :ode deals 0ith
sus/ension, remission and 1ommutation of senten1es" It runs in the follo0in
terms>
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
O I(P :hat urvedi F :hat urvedi > 2heor y and #a0 of :a/i t al Puni shment > J+ $(.-.&"
O IHP Ibi d at J("
O I,P !hat t a1har ya, S" ;> 9Issues i n Abol i t i on of :a/i t al Puni shment 9> 3m/l oyment Ce0s
<eekl y> ( > Dt " H(5H), De1ember, (..I"
,)
(.: Poer to suspe./ or remit se.te.6es<
$(& <hen any /erson has been senten1ed to /unishment for an offen1e, the
a//ro/riate Government may, at any time, 0ithout 1onditions or u/on any
1onditions, 0hi1h the /erson senten1ed, a11e/ts, sus/end the e4e1ution of his
senten1e or remit the 0hole or any /art of the /unishment to 0hi1h he has
been senten1ed"
$H& <henever the a//li1at ion is made to the a//ro/riate Government for the
sus/ension or remission of a senten1e the a//ro/riate Government may
require the /residin 7ude of the :ourt before or by 0hi1h the 1onvi1tion
0as had or 1onfirmed, to state his o/inion as to 0hether the a//li1ation
should be ranted or refused, toether 0ith his reasons for su1h o/inion and
also to for0ard 0ith the statement of su1h o/inion a 1ertifi ed 1o/y of the
re1ord of trial or of su1h re1ord thereof as e4ists"
$,& If any 1ondition on 0hi1h a senten1e has been sus/ended or remit ted is, in
the o/inion of the a//ro/riate Government, not fulfilled, the a//ro/riate
Government may 1an1el the sus/ension or remission, and thereu/on the
/erson in 0hose favour the senten1e has been sus/ended or remitt ed may, if
at lare, be arrested by any /oli1e offi1er, 0ithout 0arrant and remanded to
undero the une4/ired /ortion of the senten1e"
$I& 2he 1ondition on 0hi1h a senten1e is sus/ended or remitt ed under this
se1tion may be one to be fulfilled by the /erson in 0hose favour the senten1e
is sus/ended or remitted, or one inde/endent of his 0ill"
$*& 2he a//ro/riate Government may, by eneral rules or s/e1ial orders, ive
dire1tions as to the sus/ension of senten1es and the 1onditions on 0hi1h
/etitions should be /resented and dealt 0ith> Provided that in the 1ase of any
,-
senten1e $other than a senten1e of fine& /assed on a male /erson above the
ae of eihteen years, no su1h /etition by the /erson senten1ed or by any
other /erson on his behalf shall be entertained, unless the /erson senten1ed is
in 8ail, and
$a& <here su1h a /etition is made by the /erson senten1ed, it is /resented
throuh the offi1er in 1hare of the 8 ailL or
$b& <here su1h /etition is made by any other /erson, it 1ontains a de1laration
that the /erson senten1ed is in 8 ail"
$J& 2he /rovision of the above sub5se1tions shall also a//ly to any order
/assed by a :riminal :ourt under any se1tion of this :ode or of any other
la0, 0hi1h restri1ts the libert y of any /erson or im/oses any liabili t y u/on
him or his /ro/ert y"
$)& In this se1tion and in Se1tion I,,, the e4/ression 9a//ro/riate
Government9 means, 5
$a& In 1ases 0here the senten1e is for an offen1e aainst or the order referred
to in subse1tion $J& is /assed under any la0 relatin to a matter to 0hi1h the
e4e1utive /o0er of the Union e4tends, the :entral Government>
$b& In other 1ases, the Government of the State 0ithin 0hi1h the offender is
senten1ed or the said order is /assed" 9 Se1tion I,H in1or/orates the
/rovisions of se1tion I+( and I+H$,& of the Eld 1ode" 2here is no 1hane in
substan1e of the old la0" 2his se1tion does not ive any /o0er to the
Government to adverse the 8 udment of the :ourt, but /rovides the /o0er of
remitt in the senten1e" 2he minimum senten1e a0ardable under se1tion ,+H
of Indian Penal :ode, bein life im/risonment no redu1tion is /ossible" 2his
,.
/o0er is e4e1utive in nature" <hile Arti1le (J( of the :onstitution s/eaks of
rant of re/rieves, /ardons and remissions et1" , it does not s/eak of
im/osi tion of 1onditions for the rant, 0hereas se1tion I,H of :riminal
Pro1edure :ode s/eaks of remission or sus/ension 0ith any 1ondition"
Se1tion I,H$,& s/e1ifi1al l y /rovides for 1onsequen1es of the 1onditions,
0hi1h are 1ontem/lated by Se1tion I,H$(& of :riminal Pro1edure :ode not
bein fulfilled" Se1tion I,H $,& 1ontem/l ates remandin the /erson so
sub8 e1ted to remission to 8ail on1e aain" Se1tion I,H of :riminal Pro1edure
:ode is not manifestation of Arti1les )H and (J( of the :onstitution but a
se/arate, thouh similar
/rovision"
O IIP
In 1ases of murder, the 7ude may re/ort any e4tenuatin 1ir1umst an1es
1allin for a mi tiat ion of /unishment to the Government and the Government
may thereu/on take su1h a1tion under this se1tion
as it thinks fit" 2he 0ord remi t as used in Se1tion I,H is not a term of art"
Some of the meanins of the 0ord 9remi tB are to /ardon, to refrain from
infli1t in, and to ive u/" 2here is therefore, no obsta1le in the 0ay of the
Governor in remit tin a senten1e of death"
O I*P
<hen the 1on1erned :ourt feels
sym/atheti 1 to0ards the a11used, o0in to some reasons su1h as the 0ife of
the a11used is a 1an1er /atient 0ith si4 1hildren
O IJP
or the a11used is a boy of
tender years
O I)P
or a11used is a youn lady 0ho 1ommit ted murder under the
influen1e of others
O I-P
but leall y 1onstrained to sho0 mer1y, then it
re1ommends su1h 1ases to the Government, be1ause the /o0er of rantin
mer1y is vest 0ith the e4e1utive but not 0ith the 8udi1iary"
5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O IIP ;ri shna Cai r v" St at e of ;eral a> (..I :ri " #" 7" -J
I+
An order /assed under Se1tion I,H :r"P":" is 8usti1iabl e on any of the
follo0in rounds>
$(& 2hat the authorit y e4er1isin the /o0er had no 8urisdi1tion"
$H& 2hat the im/uned order oes beyond the e4tent of /o0er 1onferred by
la0"
$,& 2hat the order has been obtained on the round of fraud or that it has been
/assed takin into a11ount the e4traneous 1onsiderations not ermane to the
e4er1ise of the /o0er or in other 0ords, is a result of mal afide e4er1ise of
/o0er"
O I.P

2he brother of the murdered /erson is 1onsidered to one of the most
arieved /arties and has the lo1us standi to 1hallene the order of remission
of /unishment" <hile the State Government Is not leall y oblied to ive
reasons for remitt in senten1e, it is duty bound to re/ly to alleations made
in /etition 1hallenin the remission" 2he State Government is not bound to
/rodu1e the re1ords under 0rit of 1ertiorari" 2he initial onus is on the
/etitioner to ive /rima fa1ie eviden1e to sho0 that the /o0er has been
e4er1ised malafide" Referen1e under sub5se1tion $H& of se1tion I,H :riminal
Pro1edure :ode is not mandatory and therefore non51om/lian1e of the said
/rovision does not make the im/uned order 0ithout 8 urisdi1tion"
O *+P
3ven
thouh the senten1e Revisin !oard is not required to ive detailed reasonsL
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O I*P 2he De/ut y Ins/e1t or Gener al of Pol i 1e, Cort h Ranes, <al t ai r and anot her v" D"
Ra8 a Ram and ot hers> AIR (.J+ A" P" H*. and 6ane/raada Rama1handra Rao v" 2he
Revenue Di vi si onal Effi 1er, ;ovvuru> AIR (.*) A" P" HI."
O IJP Sadhu Si nh v" St at e of Pun8 ab> (.J- :ri " #" 7" ((-, $PF%&"
O I)P Ca0ab v" 3m/eror> AIR (.,H #ah" ,+-
O I-P ;art ar Si nh v" 3m/eror> AIR (.,H #ah" H*.
O I.P Ram Cat h Iyer > :ode :ri mi nal Pro1edure> ,H,, $(..I&
I(
nevertheless the administrat ive orders are sub8 e1t to 8 udi1ial revie0"
O *(P
Se1tion I,, of :riminal Pro1edure :ode deals 0ith the /o0er of 1ommut in
the senten1e" 9 2he a//ro/riate Government may, 0ithout the 1onsent of the
/erson senten1ed, 1ommute Senten1e of death, for any other /unishment
/rovided by the Indian Penal :ode"
Se1tion I,, 1orres/onds to the /rovisions of Se1tion I+H$(& of the Eld :ode"
A 1ombined readin of the /rovisions of the Arti1les )H, ),, (J(, (JH and HIJ
of the :onstitution of India and those of Se1tion I,,$a& :ri minal Pro1edure
:ode indi1ates that the State Government 1ontinues to en8 oy the /o0er of
1ommutin a senten1e of deathL sin1e the e4/ression 9State GovernmentB
means the Governor under the General :lauses A1t and under Se1tion I,,
:r"P":, the Governor 1an 1ommute senten1e of death under Se1tion I,,
:r"P":"
O *HP
Albeit the :ourt initiall y felt that reasons need not be iven in the 1ase of
redu1tion of senten1e of death under /reroative of mer1y of State"
O *,P
#ater
observations of the Su/reme :ourt
O *IP
insist that if there are any mitiatin
1ir1umstan1es, not brouht on re1ord for redu1in the senten1e of death to
im/risonment for life, the /ro/er 1ourse is to brin them to the noti1e of the
a//ro/riate Government"
It is true that in /ro/er 1ases an inordinate delay in the e4e1ution of the death
senten1e may be rearded as a round for 1ommutin it" !ut, this is no rule of
la0 and is a mat ter /rimari l y for 1onsideration of the State
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
O *+P %ukam Si nh v" St at e of Pun8 ab> (.)* :ri " #" 7" .+H $PF%&
O *(P Rakesh ;aushi k v" Del hi Admi ni st rat i on> (.-J :ri " #" 7" *JJ $Del &
O *HP Parkasho v" St at e of Ut t ar Pradesh> AIR (.JH Al l " (*("
O *,P ;i n 3m/eror v" Sheo Shankar Si nh> AIR (.*I Pat (+.,"
O *IP ;art ar Si nh v" St at e > (.)) :ri " #" 7" H(I $S" :&
IH
Government"
O **P
A11ordinl y no rule 1an be laid do0n that delay e41eedin
t0o years in the e4e1ution of death senten1e 1an be used to demand its
1onversion into life i m/risonment"
O *JP
Se1tion I,I of :riminal Pro1edure :ode envisaes that the /o0er 1onferred
by Se1tions I,H and I,, u/on the State Government may, in the 1ase of
senten1e of death, also be e4er1ised by the :entral Government" 2his se1tion
1orres/onds to Se1tion I+H $H& of Eld :ode" %o0ever, this se1tion is
a//li1able onl y to a senten1e of death and to no other senten1e"
2he Su/reme :ourt retains and must retain an inherent /o0er and 8 urisdi1tion
for dealin 0ith any e4traordinary situation in the larer interests of
administration of 8 usti1e and for /reventin manifest in8 usti1e bein done"
O *)P
(. , PA%DONING PO?E% UNDE% CONSTITUTION AND BUDICIAL
%EVIE? %EGA%DING CAPITAL PUNISHMENT<
2he deree of im/ortan1e and self5suffi1ien1y en8 oyed by ea1h oran of the
State and the inde/enden1e of /o0er vested in ea1h of them is not absolute
but relative to the /rovisions of the :onstitution in eneral and to the
/rovisions definin the /o0er of other orans in /arti1ul ar" <hatever the
deree of vastness of the /o0ers en8 oyed by the #eislature and by the
34e1utive it is all sub8 e1t to the /rovisions of the :onstitution sin1e ea1h
oran derives its /o0er from and under a 0ritten :onstitution" Cot onl y the
/rovisions of a la0 /assed by the #eislature, but also the a1tion taken,
de1ision arrived at, orders /assed and dis1retion used by the 34e1utive or
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O **P AIR (.JI S" :" H)J
O *JP Sher Si nh v" St at e of Pun8 ab> AIR (.-, S" :" IJ*
O *)P Su/ra not e I. at ,H5,-
I,
other statutory body or tribunal em/o0ered as su1h by or under the
:onstitution or other la0, ordinan1e, rule or reulation, is required to be in
stri1t 1onformit y 0ith the /rovisions of the :onstitution" Sin1e, it is the
e41lusive business of the 8udi1iary to a//l y and inter/ret the :onstitution, in
the final anal ysis it is the 8udi1ial oran, 0hi1h assumes su/rema1y" Under
the :onstitution, the /o0er to de1ide 0hether a /ie1e of #eislation, or the
/rovision of a rule or reulation or the a1tion or order by a 1om/et ent
authorit y is void or not on the round of its un1onstitutionalit y or its
in1onsisten1y 0ith the /rovisions of the :onstitution, is iven to the :ourts
and to nobody else" 2his /o0er to de1ide 1ases or 1ontroversies involvin the
1onstitutionali t y of la0 or of any a1tion taken or any de1ision iven by or
under the /o0ers of a la0 0hether by the e4e1utive or by any other body or
authorit y, is te1hni1al l y kno0n as the 98 udi1ial revie09"
O *-P
2he administration of 8 usti1e throuh 1ourts of la0 is /art of the
1onstitutional s1heme to se1ure la0 and order and the /rote1tion of life,
libert y, or /ro/erty" Under that s1heme it is for the 8 ude to /ronoun1e
8 udment and senten1e, and it is for the e4e1utive to enfor1e the senten1e
O *.P
"
Cormal l y this is the /ro1edure" !ut, somet imes the senten1e /ronoun1ed by
the 8ude is not 1arried out as it is" It may be altered into the follo0in
forms"
$a& PA%DON< A /ardon releases both the /unishment /res1ribed for the
offen1e and the uilt of the offender, and 0hen the /ardon is full, it releases
the /unishment and blots out of e4isten1e the uilt, so that in the eye of la0,
the offender is as inno1ent as if he had never 1ommit ted the offen1e"
O J+P
If
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
O *-P :hat urvedi , R" G> 7udi 1i ar y Under :onst i t ut i on> H,5HI $(.)-&
O *.P Subhash :" Gu/t a> :a/i t al Puni shment i n Indi a> (HI $(.-J&
O J+P Seervai , %" 6> :onst i t ut i onal #a0 of Indi a> ()*) $(.-I&
II
ranted before 1onvi1tion, it removes the /enalties and disabilities and
restores hi m to all his so1ial rihts" %o0ever, /ardon is an a1t of ra1e and
therefore it 1annot be demanded as a matter of riht"
$b& COMMUTATION< :ommut ation means e41hane of one thin for
another" %ere it means substitution of one form of /unishment for another, of
lihter 1hara1ter"
$1& %EMISSION< Remission means redu1tion of the amount of /unishment
0ithout 1hanin its 1hara1ter"
$d& %ESPITE< Res/ite means a0ardin a lesser /unishment on some s/e1ial
rounds" 3" 2he /renan1y of a 0oman offender5
$e&%EP%IEVE< Re/rieve means tem/orary sus/ension of death senten1e" 3"
Pendin /ro1eedin for /ardon or 1ommutat ion"
(. ; A%TICLE =( O$ THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION<
9Po0er of President to rant /ardon et1" , and sus/end, remi t or 1ommute
senten1e in 1ertain 1ases>
$(& 2he President shall have the /o0er to rant /ardons, re/rieves, res/ites or
remissions of /unishment or to sus/end, remit or 1ommut e the senten1e of
any /erson 1onvi1ted of any offen1e 5
$a& In all 1ases 0here the /unishment or senten1e is by a :ourt 6artial>
I*
$b& In all 1ases 0here the /unishment or senten1e is for an offen1e aainst
any la0 relatin to a matter to 0hi1h the e4e1utive /o0er of the Union
e4tends>
$1& In all 1ases 0here the senten1e is a senten1e of death>
$H& Cothin in sub51lause $a& of 1lause $(& shall affe1t the /o0er 1onferred by
la0 on any offi1er of the Armed For1es of the Union to sus/end, remi t or
1ommute a senten1e /assed by a :ourt 6artial" 9
(. 9 A%TICLE +9+ O$ THE INDIAN CONSTITUTION<
Po0er of Governor to rant /ardon et1" , and to sus/end, remi t, or 1ommute
senten1es in 1ertain 1ases> 92he Governor of a State shall have the /o0er to
rant /ardons, re/rieves, res/ites or remission of /unishment or to sus/end,
remit or 1ommut e the senten1e of any /erson 1onvi1ted of any offen1e aainst
any la0 relatin to a mat ter to 0hi1h the 34e1utive /o0er of the State
e4tends" 9
From the above t0o arti1l es it is 1lear that the /o0er of /ardon and other
/o0ers of 1lemen1y are 1onferred u/on the President of India and the
Governor of the States" <hy is this /o0er 1onferred u/on themM
92he ob8 e1t of 1onferrin this 8udi1ial /o0er on the President is to 1orre1t
/ossible 8udi1ial errors, for no human system of 8 udi1ial administrat ion 1an
be free from im/erfe1tions9"
O J(P
2here is one more reason 0orth ment ionin"
9" :ir1umstan1es may arise 0here 1arryin out a senten1e, or settin
ma1hinery of 8usti1e in mot ion, miht im/eril the safet y of the real m" 2hus, if
the enfor1ement of the senten1e is likel y to lead to bloodshed and revolution,
the e4e1utive miht 0ell /ause before e4/osin the State to su1h /eril9"
IJ
Similar :onditions a//l y to amnest y"
O JHP
Se1tion *I of the Indian Penal :ode
also 1onfers a simil ar /o0er on the Government" 9In every 1ase in 0hi1h
senten1e of death shall have been /assed, the a//ro/riate Government may,
0ithout the 1onsent of the offender 1ommute the /unishment for any other
/unishment /rovided by this :ode" 9 !ut, the framers of the :ode ave a
totall y different reason for 1onferrin su1h /o0er on the Government" 9It is
evidentl y fit that the Government should be em/o0ered to 1ommute the
senten1e of death for any other /unishment /rovided by the :ode" It seems to
us very desirable that the Government should have the /o0er of 1ommut in
/er/etual
trans/ortation for /er/etual im/risonment" 6any 1ir1umstan1es of 0hi1h the
e4e1utive authorit ies ouht to be a11uratel y informed, but 0hi1h must often
be unkno0n to the ablest 8udes, may, at /arti1ular ti mes, render it hihl y
in1onvenient to 1arry a senten1e of trans/ortation into effe1t"
2he State of those remot e Provin1es of the 3m/ire, in 0hi1h 1onvi1t
settlements are established, and the 0ay in 0hi1h the interest of those
/rovin1es may be effe1ted by any addition to the 1onvi1t /o/ulation, are
matters 0hi1h lie altoether out of the 1oniNan1e of the 2ribunals by 0hi1h
those senten1es are /assed, and 0hi1h Government only is 1om/etent to
de1ide"
O J,P
Anyho0, no0 the total s1enario is 1haned" 2he /rovisions of
Se1tions *I and ** of Indian Penal :ode be1ame unne1essary by the am/ler
/rovisions of the :ode of :riminal Pro1edure 0hi1h 3m/o0er the a//ro/riate
Government to 1ommute, sus/end or remit all 8udi1ial senten1es"
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O J(P !asu, D" D> :omment ar y on t he :onst i t ut i on of Indi a> Vol " 3> H** $(.-(&
O JHP Su/ra not e J+ at (HI"
O J,P Se1ond #a0 :ommi ssi on Re/ort > Paras *((5 *(H"
I)
A subsequent /etit ion for 1lemen1y after the former havin been re8 e1ted is
not barred, that is to say, the re8 e1tion of one 1lemen1y /etition does not
e4haust /o0er of President or Governor" 2he 1ir1umstan1es about the
/oliti1al nature of the offen1e, the undoubted de1line in :a/ital Punishment
in most 1ountries of the 0orld, the /ros/e1tive 1hane in the la0s bearin on
the /enalt y in ne0 0ake of the ae, the later de1larat ion of la0 in tune 0ith
the 1hanin tone of /enoloy 0ith its 1orre1tional and rehabilitative bias,
the 1ir1umstan1es that the Damo1l es= s0ord of death senten1e had been
hanin over the head of the 1onvi1t for over a number of years and like
fa1tors may /robabl y be ured before the President and Governor
O JIP
for
entertainin a subsequent /etition"
!oth the President and the Governor have the /o0er of /ardon et1" , Are they
distin1t from ea1h otherM Undoubtedl y the President=s /o0er is 0ider than
that of the Governors= of the States>
(" 2he President has e4e1utive /o0er to rant /ardon in 1ases, 0here the
senten1e is a senten1e of death 0hile the Governor 1annot rant /ardon in
1ase of a death senten1e"
H" 2he President 1an /ardon /unishment or senten1es infli1ted by :ourt
6artial" Governors 1annot"
," In res/e1t of sus/ension, remission and 1ommutation of senten1e of death
both have 1on1urrent /o0ers" Arti1les )H$(&$1& e4/ressl y /rovides that the
President=s /o0er e4tends to /ardonin senten1es in all 1ases 0here the
senten1e is one of death" 2he President=s /o0er e4tends to /ardonin offen1es
aainst la0s ena1ted by Parliament in res/e1t of matters in #ist I, S1hedule ),
and the Governor=s /o0er e4tends to /ardonin offen1es aainst la0s ena1ted
by State #eislature in res/e1t of mat ters in #ist II, S1hedule )" 2he /o0er of
I-
the President and the Governors e4tends also to /ardonin offen1es in res/e1t
of matters in #ist III, but sub8 e1t to the limi tat ion on e4e1utive /o0er
1ontained in Arti1le ), $(& $a&, /roviso and Arti1le (JH /roviso res/e1tivel y"
2he Governor e4er1ise a 1onstitutional and not a statutory /o0er, his
authorit y bein derived from Arti1le (J(, 0hi1h enables him to /ardon all
offen1es aainst all la0s relatin to a mat ter to 0hi1h the
leislat ive authorit y of the state e4tends" As the Penal :ode and the matters
1ontained therein is a sub8 e1t of 1on1urrent leislation sin1e the /enal 1ode is
the eneral la0 of 1ri mes in India, 0hi1h /rovides for senten1e of death, it is
1lear that the GovernorG s /o0er of /ardon under Arti1l e (J( e4tends to
/ardonin a senten1e of death"
O J*P
2his 1onstitutional /o0er of the Governor 1ame into 1onfli1t 0ith the /o0er
of 8 udi1iary in CanavatiG s 1ase" In the 1ase of Canavati
O JJP
the /etitioner 0as
1onvi1ted of murder and 0as senten1ed to im/risonment for life by !ombay
%ih :ourt" At the time of the de1ision of the %ih :ourt the /etitioner 0as
in Caval 1ustody" Soon after the 8udment 0as /assed by the %ih 1ourt the
/etitioner made an a//li1ation for leave to a//eal to Su/reme :ourt" En the
same day, the Governor of 6aharashtra issued an order under Arti1le (J(
sus/endin the senten1e sub8 e1t to the 1ondition that the a11used shall remain
in Caval 7ail till the dis/osal of his a//eal by the Su/reme :ourt" 2he
0arrant issued for the arrest of the a11used 0as returned unserved" 2he
question involved 0as> Should the a11used surrender to his senten1e as
required by rules of the Su/reme :ourt under Erder H( Rule * or should he
remain in Caval 1ustody in /ursuant to the order made by the Governor under
Arti1le (J("
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O JIP ;i st a Goud and !hoomai ah v" St at e of Andhra Pradesh> $(.)*& :ri " #" 7" $S" :" & )++"
O J*P Su/ra not e J( at ()J*"
O JJP Canavat i v" St at e of 6aharasht ra> AIR (.J(S" :" ((H
I.
2he Su/reme :ourt held that the /o0er to sus/end a senten1e by the
Governor under Arti1le (J( 0as sub8 e1t to the rules made by the Su/reme
:ourt 0ith res/e1t to 1ases, 0hi1h 0ere /endin before it in a//eal" 2he
/o0er of Governor to sus/end the senten1e of a 1onvi1t 0as bad so mu1h as it
1ame in 1onfli1t 0ith the rule of the Su/reme :ourt, 0hi1h required the
/etitioner to surrender himself to his senten1e" It is o/en to the Governor to
rant a full /ardon at any time even durin the /enden1y of the 1ase in the
Su/reme :ourt in e4er1ise of 0hat is ordinaril y 1alled mer1y 8 urisdi1tion"
!ut, the Governor 1annot e4er1ise the /o0er of sus/ension of the senten1e
for the /eriod 0hen the Su/reme :ourt is seiNed of the 1ase" 2he order of the
Governor 1ould only o/erate until the mat ter be1ame sub8 udi1e in the
Su/reme :ourt and it did be1ome so on the filin of the /etition for a s/e1ial
leave to a//eal" After filin of su1h a /etition and till the 8 udi1ial /ro1ess is
over the /o0er of the Governor 1annot be e4er1ised"
O J)P
Another landmark 8udment in the area of /ardonin /o0er is that of ;ul8 eet
SinhG s 1ase 0here the /etitioner questioned the fairness and reasonableness
of this duty of the President In ;ul8 eet Sinh
O J-P
, the a11used ;ul8 eet Sinh
alias Rana had been 1onvi1ted alon 0ith 7asbir Sinh alias !illa by the
Additional Sessions 7ude, Delhi for various offen1es in1ludin murder and
ra/e, 1ausin the death of t0o youn 1hildren, Geetha :ho/ra and her brother
San8 ay and senten1ed them to death, 0hi1h 0as 1onfirmed by the %ih :ourt"
2he a11used /resented a s/e1ial leave /etition to the Su/reme :ourt to a//eal
from the 8 udment of the %ih :ourt" Su/reme :ourt dismissed the /etition"
!ut, the a11used /resented a mer1y /etition to the President to 1ommute their
death /enalt y"
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O J)P Su/ra not e J( at ()J."
O J-P ;ul 8 eet Si nh v" #t " General of Del hi > AIR (.-H S" :" ))I"
*+
<hile /etitions 0ere /endin Rana /resented a 0rit /etition to the Su/reme
:ourt in effe1t invitin the Su/reme :ourt to rea//raise his 1ase, and
re1onsider the dismissal of his s/e1ial leave /etition" :handra1hud :"7" $for
himself, A" P"Sen and !harul Islam, 77" & After a 1areful s1rutiny of the
eviden1e held that there 0as no doubt that Rana and !illa had murdered the
t0o 1hildren, after a savae /lannin 0hi1h bears a /rofessional stam/" B 2he
survival of an orderly so1iet y demands the e4tin1tion of the life of /ersons
like Rana and !illa 0ho are a mena1e to so1ial order and se1urit y" they are
/rofessional murderers and deserve no sym/athy in terms of the evolvin
standards of de1en1y of a mature so1iet y"9 %o0ever, :handra1hud :" 7"
e4/ressed the ho/e that the President 0ould dis/ose of the mer1y /etition
e4/editiousl y" 2he President re8 e1ted the /etitions of mer1y" 2hereu/on
Rana filed a 0rit /etition 1ontendin that the /o0er 1onferred by Arti1l e )H
on the President to rant Pardons and to 1ommut e senten1es es/e1iall y the
senten1e of death 0as a /o0er 1ou/led 0ith a dut y, 0hi1h must be fairl y and
reasonabl y e4er1ised" :handra1hud :"7" , observed that the :ourt did not
kno0 0hether the Government of India had formulat ed any uniform standard
of uidelines by 0hi1h the e4er1ise of the /o0er under Arti1le )H 0as
intended to be, or 0as in fa1t, uided" 2he /etition 0as fi4ed in the se1ond
0eek of 7anuary (.-H" 6ean0hile the e4e1ution 0as stayed, and in order to
obviate the ne1essit y of /ersons similarl y situated filin 0rit /etit ions, the
:ourt dire1ted that 9the death senten1e i m/osed on any /erson 0hatsoever
0hose /etition under Arti1l e )H or Arti1le (J( has been re8 e1ted by the
President or the Governor should not be e4e1uted until the dis/osal of this
0rit /etition"
2he :ourt observed that question as to the s1o/e of the President=s /o0er
may have to a0ait e4amination on a//ro/riate o11asion" 2he /resent /etition
did not /rovide su1h an o11asion be1ause 0hatever are the uidelines
observed for the e4er1ise of the /o0er 1onferred by Arti1le )H, the onl y
*(
senten1e, 0hi1h 1an /ossibl y be im/osed on Rana and !illa, is that of death
and no 1ir1umstan1es e4ist for interferen1e 0ith that senten1e" 2he :hief
7usti1e re1alled his earlier 0ords 9" the survival of an orderly so1iet y
demands the e4tin1t ion of the life of /ersons like Rana and !illa 0ho are a
mena1e to so1ial order and se1urit y"9 92he ne1essit y or 8 ustifi1at ion of
e4er1isin the /ardonin /o0er had to be 8 uded from 1ase to 1ase" 9 %e
quoted :hief 7usti1e 2aft of the United States in the 1ase of Grossman" 92he
administration of 8 usti1e by the 1ourts is not ne1essaril y al0ays 0ise or
1ertainl y 1onsiderate or 1ir1umstan1es 0hi1h may /ro/erly mitiate uilt" 2o
afford a remedy, it has al0ays been thouht essential in /o/ular overnments
as 0ell as monar1hies, to vest in some other authorit y than the 1ourts /o0er
to avoid /arti1ular 8 udments" It is a 1he1k entrusted to the e4e1utive for
s/e1ial 1ases" 2o e4er1ise it to the e4tent of destroyin the deterrent effe1t of
8 udi1ial /unishment 0ould be to /ervert it, but, 0hoever is to make it useful
must have full dis1retion to e4er1ise it" B
It is not out of /la1e to re1all the observations made by the Su/reme :ourt in
CanavatiG s 1ase in this reard" 92he vie0 of the lanuae of Arti1l es )H and
(J(, 0hi1h 0as simi lar to that used in Se1tion H.* $H& of the Government of
India A1t, (.,* and similar to that of Ameri1an :onstitution, the President
and the Governors of the States in India had the same /o0ers of /ardon both
in nature and effe1t, as is en8 oyed by ;in in Great !ritain and the President
in the United States" 2herefore, in India also the /ardonin /o0er 1an be
e4er1ised before, durin, or after trial" 9 In 6aru Ram
O J.P
it 0as held that
0hile e4er1isin the /ardonin /o0er the ob8 e1t and s/irit of Se1tion I,,5A
of :riminal Pro1edure :ode must be ke/t in vie0" 2he /o0er to /ardon is
e4er1ised by the President on the advi1e of the :oun1il of 6inisters"
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O J.P 6aru Ram v" Uni on of Indi a> $(.-(& S:: (+),"
*H
In Sher Sinh
O )+P
0hile dis/osin of a 0rit /etition for the 1ommut ation of
death senten1e into life im/risonment on the rounds of inordinate delay the
:ourt took an o//ortunit y to im/ress u/on the :entral and State Governments
that the mer1y /etitions filed under Arti1le )H and (J( of the :onstitution or
under Se1tion I,H and I,, of the :riminal Pro1edure :ode must be dis/osed
of e4/editiousl y"
:handra1hud :"7" observed ?A self 5im/osed rule should be follo0ed by the
e4e1utive authorit ies viorousl y, that every su1h /etition shall be dis/osed of
0ithin a /eriod of three months from the date 0hen it is re1eived" #on delay
in the dis/osal of these /etit ions are a serious hurdle in the dis/osition of
8 usti1e and indeed, su1h delay tend to shake the 1onfiden1e of the /eo/le in
the very syst em of 8 usti1e" 9 2he :ourt 1ited several instan1es and one su1h
1ase 0as mer1y /etition under Arti1le (J( /endin before the Governor of
7ammu and ;ashmir for the last eiht years" It 0ould, ho0ever, be a travest y
of 8 usti1e, as Sen 7" observed and the 1ourse of 8 usti1e 0ill be /erverted, if
for the same offen1e, the /etitioner has to s0in and /ay the e4treme /enalt y
of death 0here as the death senten1e im/osed on his 1o5a11used for the very
same offen1e is 1ommuted and his life is s/ared"
O )(P
2he fa1ts of the 1ase are as follo0s> 2hree /ersons 0ere senten1ed to death
by a 1ommon 8 udment and reretfull y, ea1h one has eventuall y met 0ith a
different fate" Ene of those three /ersons, 7eeta Sinh, 0ho did not file any
Revie0 /etition before the Su/reme :ourt 0as e4e1uted on E1tober J, (.-("
2he other /erson ;ashmira Sinh su11eeded in havin his death senten1e
1ommuted into life im/risonment" 2he /etitioner %arbans Sinh 0as to be
e4e1uted but, fortunatel y, he filed this 0rit /etition on 0hi1h the :ourt
/assed an order stayin the e4e1ution of his death senten1e"
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O )+P Sher Si nh v" St at e> AIR (.-, S" :" ,J("
O )(P %arabans Si nh v" St at e of Ut t ar Pradesh> AIR (.-H S" :" -I.
*,
Im/osin death on the /etitioner involves the :ourt as 0ell as the authoriti es
1on1erned in violation of rudimentary norms overnin the administrat ion of
8 usti1e" !ut, instead of 1ommut in his senten1e the :ourt observed that in the
interest of 1omit y bet0een the /o0ers of Su/reme :ourt and the Po0ers of
the President of India, it 0ill be more in the fitness of thins if they 0ere to
make a re1ommendation to the President of India to e4er1ise his /ardonin
/o0er under Arti1le )H of the :onstitution, and 1ommute his senten1e into
the life im/risonment" 2his is be1ause the President has already 1onsidered
his mer1y /etition on1e and re8 e1ted it" 2he /ro/riet y and de1orum require
that the mat ter should be referred ba1k to the President instead of the :ourt
de1idin to 1ommut e the senten1e"
2he re1ent 1ase in this 1onte4t is that of ;ehar Sinh=s
O )HP
" Pathak, :" 7" ,
observed that kee/in in vie0 the fallibi lit y of human 8 udment, 0hi1h may
o11ur even in the most trained mind, a mind resour1ed by harvest of
e4/erien1e, it has been 1onsidered a//ro/riate that in the matter of life and
/ersonal libert y, entrustin should e4tend the /rote1tion the /o0er to some
hih authorit y to s1rutiniNe the validit y of the threatened denial of life" 2he
/o0er so entrusted is a /o0er belonin to the /eo/le and is re/osed in the
hiher dinitary of the State" So, this /o0er 0as rearded as a /art of the
:onstitutional s1heme and the !en1h observed that it should be so treated in
our Re/ubli1 alsoL and the same has been re/osed by the /eo/le throuh the
:onstitution in the %ead of the State and it en8 oy hih status"
Su1h a /o0er 0as not rearded as a /o0er amountin to amendin or
modifyi n or su/ersedin a 8udi1ial verdi1t and it 0as stated that the order
rantin /ardon 0ould not be 8ustifiable on its neither meri ts, nor 1an reasons
be asked" %o0ever, 0hether the a1t of a 1onstitution or statutory fun1tionary
55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O )HP ;ehar Si nh v" Uni on of Indi a> AIR (.-. S" :" J*,"
*I
falls 0ithin the 1onstitutional or leislat ive 1onferment of /o0er or is
vitiat ed by self denial on an erroneous a//re1iation of the full am/li tude of
the s1o/e of the /o0er is a matter, 0hi1h 1ould be e4amined by 1ourts" It 0as
stated that the manner of 1onsideration of su1h a /etition lies 0ithin the
dis1retion of the fun1tionary, and it is for him to de1ide ho0 best he 1an
a1quaint himself 0ith all the information that is ne1essary for its /ro/er and
effe1tive dis/osal"
2he fun1tionary may 1onsider suffi1ient the informat ion furnished before him
in the first instan1e or he may send for further mat erial relevant to the issues,
0hi1h he 1onsiders /rudent, and he may, if he 1onsiders it 0ill assist him,
ive an oral hearin to the /arties" 2he matt er, ho0ever, lies entirel y 0ithin
his dis1retion"
O ),P
In ;ehar Sinh, the 1ourt made the follo0in observations>
$a& 2he 1ourts are not 1om/etent to question the de1ision of the President $or
the Governor as the 1ase may be& as to the e4er1ise of, or denial to e4er1ise
the /o0er in a /arti1ul ar 1ase on its meri ts"
$b& 2he President or the Governor is not bound to dis1lose the reasons for his
order and the :ourts are not entitl ed to ask the reasons" En the other hand5
Sin1e the :ourt is the final inter/ret er of the :onstitution and limitat ions
im/osed by it on the different orans of the State, 5
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O ),P %ansari a, !" #> Ri ht t o #i fe and #i bert y under t he :onst i t ut i on> I) $(..,&"
**
$a& 2he :ourt is 1om/etent to determine the s1o/e and area of the /o0er
1onferred by Arti1le )H $or Arti1le (J( as the 1ase may be& and 0hether the
President $or the Governor& has 2ransressed the li mi ts of that /o0er"
$b& 2he :ourt 1an interfere if, in a /arti1ular 1ase, the President has refused
to e4er1ise the /o0er on an erroneous a//re1iation of the s1o/e of that
/o0er, e" " , 0here the President refuses to 1onsider an a//li1ation for /ardon
on the erroneous assum/tion that he 0as /re1luded from oin into the merits
of the 1ase by the 8udment of the final :ourt as to the Guilt of the /erson" In
truth, the s1o/e of the /o0er under Arti1le )H is altoether different from
/o0ers vested in the :ourts" %en1e, not0ithstandin the 8udment of the
Su/reme :ourt, the President is entitl ed to o into the meri ts of the 1ase and
even to e4amine the eviden1e of the 1riminal 1ase" In su1h a 1ase of 0ron
refusal to e4er1ise the 1onstitutional /o0er the Su/reme :ourt dire1ted the
President to re1onsider the a//li1ation, 0hi1h 0as deemed to be /endin" It
has even suested that the :ourt may interfere if the e4er1ise of the
other0ise dis1retionary /o0er is 90holly irrelevant, irrational, dis1riminatory
or malafide" 9
!ut, this /ro/osition has little /ra1ti1al utili t y if the President $or the
Governor& has no obliation to dis1lose reasons for his dis1retion" ;ehar
SinhG s 1ase is a rare instan1e 0here the :ourt 1ould interfere be1ause the
PresidentG s order 1learl y stated that he 1ould not e4er1ise the /o0er sim/l y
be1ause the hihest :ourt of the land had de1ided the merits of the 1ase
aainst the 1onvi1t"
At any rate, Indian 7udes a//ear to be more assertive in this narro0 field of
8 udi1ial revie0, than their 1ounter/arts in the United States"
*J
2he Indian Penal :ode /rovides :a/ital Punishment for eiht 1ateories of
offen1es namel y, 0ain 0ar aainst the Government of India $S" (H(&,
abettin mutiny by a member of the armed for1e $S" (,H&, fabri1atin false
eviden1e 0ith intent to /ro1ure 1onvi1tion of a 1a/ital offen1e, 0ith the death
/enalt y a//li1able onl y if an inno1ent /erson is in fa1t e4e1uted as a result
$S" (.I&, murder $S" ,+H&, murder 1ommi tt ed by a life 1onvi1t $,+,&, abettin
the 1ommi ssion of sui1ide of a 1hild or insane /erson $S" ,+*&, attem/ted
murder a1tuall y 1ausin hurt, 0hen 1ommi tt ed by a /erson already under
senten1e of life im/risonment $S" ,+)& and da1oit y 0ith murder $S" ,.J&"
:riminal Pro1edure :ode /rovides 0ith the /ro1edure to be follo0ed 0hile
a0ardin and e4e1utin the death senten1e" 2he administration of 8 usti1e
throuh 1ourts of la0 is /art of the 1onstitutional s1heme and under that
s1heme it is for the 8ude to /ronoun1e 8udment and senten1e and it is for
the e4e1utive to enfor1e them" Arti1les )H and (J( of the Indian :onstitution
em/o0ers the President or the Governor as the 1ase may be to rant /ardon
and also to sus/end, remit or 1ommute senten1es in 1ertain 1ases" 2he
e4e1utive heads 1an e4er1ise this /o0er, before, durin and after the trial"
*)
Chapter- 3
Controversy and
Debate
*-
CONT%OVE%S& AND DE4ATE
:a/ital /unishment is often the sub8 e1t of 1ontroversy" E//onents of the
death /enalt y arue that it has led to the e4e1ution of inno1ent /eo/le, that
its main motive is not 8usti1e but revene and to save money, that life
im/risonment is an effe1tive and less e4/ensive substitute,
O (P
that it
dis1ri minates aainst minori ties and the /oor, and that it violates the
1ri minalG s riht to life " Su//orters believe that the /enalt y is 8ustified for
murderers by the /rin1i/le of retribution , that life im/risonment is not an
equall y effe1tive deterrent, and that the death /enalt y affirms the riht to life
by /unishin those 0ho violate it in the stri1test form"
:. + ?ro.8fu- e7e6utio.s
<ronful e4e1ution is a mis1arriae of 8usti1e o11urrin 0hen an inno1ent
/erson is /ut to death by 1a/ital /unishment"
O HP
6any /eo/le have been
/ro1lai med inno1ent vi1ti ms of the death /enalt y"
O ,P O IP O *P
Some have 1lai med
that as many as ,. e4e1utions have been 1arried out in the U"S" in fa1e of
1om/ell in eviden1e of inno1en1e or serious doubt about uilt" Ce0l y
available DCA eviden1e has allo0ed the e4oneration of more than (* death
ro0 inmates sin1e (..H in the U"S"
O JP
!ut DCA eviden1e is only
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O(P 92he %ih :ost of the Death Penalty9" Death Penalty Fo1us"
OHP 9Inno1en1e and t he Deat h Penal t y9 " Deat h/enal t yi nf o" or
O ,P :a/i t al Defense <eekl y
O IP 934e1ut ed Inno1ent s9" 7ust i 1edeni ed" or"
O *P 9<ronful e4e1ut i ons9" 6i t l i ed" l y1os" de"
O JP 92he Inno1en1e Pro8 e1t D Ce0s and Informat i on> Press Rel eases9 "
*.
available in a fra1tion of 1a/ital 1ases" In the U;, revie0s /rom/ted by the
:riminal :ases Revie0 :ommission have resulted in one /ardon and three
e4oneration 0ith 1om/ensat ion /aid for /eo/le e4e1uted bet0een (.*+ and
(.*,, 0hen the e4e1ution rate in 3nland and <ales averaed () /er year"
:.( PuA-i6 opi.io.
In :anada , Australia , Ce0 Xealand , #atin Ameri1a , and <estern 3uro/e , the
death /enalt y has be1ome relativel y un/o/ular, 0ith the ma8 orit y of the
/o/ulation o//osin it"
O )P
%o0ever 1ertain 1ases of mass murder, terrorism,
and 1hild murder o11asionall y 1ause 0aves of su//ort for reinstitution, su1h
as the Greyhound bus beheadin , Port Arthur massa1re and !ali bombins "
!et0een H+++ and H+(+, su//ort for the return of 1a/ital /unishment in
:anada dro//ed from IIQ to I+Q, and o//osition to it returnin rose from
I,Q to IJQ"
O -P
Abolition 0as often ado/ted due to /oliti1al 1hane, as 0hen 1ountries
shifted from authoritarianism to demo1ra1y, or 0hen it be1ame an entry
1ondition for the 3uro/ean Union" 2he United States is a notable e41e/tion>
some states have had bans on 1a/ital /unishment for de1ades $the earliest
is 6i1hian, 0here it 0as abolished in (-I)&, 0hile others a1tivel y use it
today" 2he death /enalt y there remains a 1ontentious issue 0hi1h is hotl y
debated" 3lse0here, ho0ever, it is rare for the death /enalt y to be abolished
as a result of an a1tive /ubli1 dis1ussion of its meri ts"
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O)P D&a%h (&$a!%8 i$#r4a%i#$ /&$%&r 9International Polls and Studies9"
O-P 9:anadians s/lit on /ot, death /enalty> /oll9" CBC N&3s" 6ar1h (-, H+(+"
J+
In abolitionist 1ountries, debate is somet imes revived by /arti1ularl y brutal
murders, thouh fe0 1ountries have brouht it ba1k after abolishin it"
%o0ever, a s/ike in serious, violent 1ri mes, su1h as murders or terrorist
atta1ks, has /rom/t ed some 1ountries $su1h as Sri #anka and 7amai1a & to
effe1tivel y end the moratorium on the death /enalt y" In retentionist 1ountries,
the debate is someti mes revived 0hen a mis1arriae of 8usti1e has o11urred,
thouh this tends to 1ause leislat ive efforts to i m/rove the 8udi1ial /ro1ess
rather than to abolish the death /enalt y"
A Gallu/ International /oll from H+++ said that 9<orld0ide su//ort 0as
e4/ressed in favor of the death /enalt y, 0ith 8 ust more than half $*HQ&
indi1at in that they 0ere in favour of this form of /unishment" 9 A number
of other /olls and studies have been done in re1ent years 0ith various results"
In a /oll 1om/leted by Gallu/ in E1tober H++., J*Q of Ameri 1ans su//orted
the death /enalt y for /ersons 1onvi1ted of murder, 0hile ,(Q 0ere aainst
and *Q did not have an o/inion"
O .P
In the U"S" , surveys have lon sho0n a ma8 orit y in favor of 1a/ital
/unishment" An A!: Ce0s survey in 7ul y H++J found J* /er1ent in favour of
1a/ital /unishment, 1onsistent 0ith other /ollin sin1e H+++"
O (+P
About half
the Ameri 1an /ubli1 says the death /enalt y is not im/osed frequentl y enouh
and J+ /er1ent believe it is a//lied fairl y,
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O.P H++- Gallu/ Death Penalty Poll"
O(+P A!: Ce0s /oll, 9:a/ital Punishment, ,+ 'ears En> Su//ort, but Ambivalen1e as <ell9 $PDF, 7uly (, H++J&"
J(
a11ordin to a Gallu/ /oll from 6ay H++J"
O ((P
'et surveys also sho0 the
/ubli1 is more divided 0hen asked to 1hoose bet0een the death /enalt y
and life 0ithout /arole , or 0hen dealin 0ith 8 uvenile offenders"
O (HP
Rouhl y
si4 in (+ tell Gallu/ they do not believe 1a/ital /unishment deters murder and
ma8 orit ies believe at least one inno1ent /erson has been e4e1uted in the /ast
five years"
O (,P
:.: Dimi.ishe/ 6apa6it>
In the United States, there has been an evolvin debate as to 0hether 1a/ital
/unishment should a//l y to /ersons 0ith diminished mental 1a/a1it y" In F#r1
v. Wai$3ri*h% ,
O (IP
the Su/reme :ourt held that the 3ihth Amendment
/rohibits the state from 1arryin out the death /enalt y on an individual 0ho
is insane, and that /ro/erl y raised issues of e4e1ution5ti me sanity must be
determined in a /ro1eedin satisfyin the mini mum requirements of due
/ro1ess" In A%;i$s v. Vir*i$ia ,
O (*P
the Su/reme :ourt addressed 0hether the
3ihth Amendment /rohibits the e4e1ution of mental l y retarded /ersons" 2he
:ourt noted that a 9national 1onsensus9 had develo/ed aainst it"
O (JP
<hile
su1h e4e1utions are still /ermi tted for /eo/le 0ith marinal retardation,
eviden1e of retardation is allo0ed as a mitiatin 1ir1umst an1e" %o0ever, a
re1ent 1ase of 2eresa #e0is 0ho 0as the first 0oman e4e1uted in Virinia
sin1e (.(H, /roved to be very 1ontroversial be1ause Governor !ob
61Donnell refused to 1ommute her senten1e to life im/risonment, even
thouh she had an IK of )+"
O ()P O (-P
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
O((P :rime"
O(HP,O(,P 000"en"0iki/edia"orU0ikiU
O(IP I)) U"S" ,.. $(.-J&"
O(*P *,J U"S" ,+I, (HH S" :t" HHIH $H++H&"
O(JP (HH S" :t" at HHI."
O()P SteinmetN, ;aty $H+(+5+.5(+&" 9Virinia <oman Fa1es 34e1ution amid :alls for #enien1y9" 2I63"
O(-P 9Grandmother 2eresa #e0is to be e4e1uted in Virinia after last minute re/rieve refused9 Ce0s"sky"1om"
JH
:., I.ter.atio.a- or8a.isatio.s
2he United Cations introdu1ed a resolution durin the General Assembl yG s
JHnd sessions in H++) 1allin for a universal ban"
O (.P O H+P
2he a//roval of a
draft resolution by the Assembl yG s third 1ommit tee, 0hi1h deals 0ith human
rihts issues, voted .. to *H, 0ith ,, abstentions, in favour of the resolution
on Covember (*, H++) and 0as /ut to a vote in the Assembl y on De1ember
(-"
O H(P O HHP O H,P
Aain in H++-, a lare ma8 orit y of states from all reions ado/ted
a se1ond resolution 1allin for a moratorium on the use of the death /enalt y
in the UC General Assembl y $2hird :ommi tt ee& on Covember H+" (+*
1ountries voted in favour of the draft resolution, I- voted aainst and ,(
abstained" A rane of amendments /ro/osed by a small minori t y of /ro5death
/enalt y 1ountries 0ere over0hel minl y defeated" It had in H++) /assed a non5
bindin resolution $by (+I to *I, 0ith H. abstentions& by askin its member
states for 9a moratorium on e4e1utions 0ith a vie0 to abolishin the death
/enalt y9"
O HIP

A number of reional 1onventions /rohibit the death /enalt y, most notabl y,
the Si4th Proto1ol $abolit ion in ti me of /ea1e& and the 2hirteenth Proto1ol
$abolition in all 1ir1umstan1es& to the 3uro/ean :onvention on %uman
Rihts " 2he same is also stated under the
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O(.P 2homas %ubert $H++)5+J5H.&" 97ournZe 1ontre la /eine de mort > le monde dZ1ide[9 $in Fren1h&" :oalition
6ondiale"
OH+P Amnesty International"
OH(P 9UC set for key death /enalty vote9" Amnesty International" H++)5(H5+."
OHHP Dire1torate of :ommuni1ation D 2he lobal 1am/ain aainst the death /enalty is ainin momentum D Statement
by 2erry Davis, Se1retary General of the :oun1il of 3uro/e"
OH,P UC General Assembly D #atest from the UC Ce0s :entre"
OHIP 9U"C" Assembly 1alls for moratorium on death /enalty9"
J,
Se1ond Proto1ol in the Ameri1an :onvention on %uman Rihts , 0hi1h,
ho0ever has not been ratified by all 1ountries in the Ameri1as, most notabl y
:anada and the United States" 6ost relevant o/erative international treaties
do not require its /rohibition for 1ases of serious 1ri me, most notabl y,
the International :ovenant on :ivil and Politi1al Rihts " 2his instead has, in
1ommon 0ith several other treaties, an o/tional /roto1ol /rohibitin 1a/ital
/unishment and /romotin its 0ider abolition"
O H*P
Several international oraniNat ions have made the abolition of the death
/enalt y $durin time of /ea1e& a requirement of membershi/, most notably
the 3uro/ean Union $3U& and the :oun1il of 3uro/e " 2he 3U and the :oun1il
of 3uro/e are 0illin to a11e/t a moratorium as an interim measure" 2hus,
0hile Russia is a member of the :oun1il of 3uro/e, and /ra1ti1es the death
/enalt y in la0, it has not made /ubli1 use of it sin1e be1omin a member of
the :oun1il" Ether states, 0hile havin abolished de 8ure the death /enalt y in
ti me of /ea1e and de fa1to in all 1ir1umstan1es, have not ratified Proto1ol
no" (, yet and therefore have no international obliation to refrain from usin
the death /enalt y in ti me of 0ar or i mminent threat of 0ar $Armeni a, #atvia,
Poland and S/ain&"
O HJP
Ital y is the most re1ent to ratify it, on 6ar1h ,, H++."
O H)P
2urkey has re1entl y, as a move to0ards 3U membershi/, underone a reform
of its leal syst em" Previously there 0as a 1& a/%#moratorium on the death
/enalt y in 2urkey as the last e4e1ution took /la1e in (.-I"
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O H*P \ 9Se1ond E/tional Proto1ol to the I::PR9" Effi1e of the UC %ih :ommissioner on %uman Rihts"
O HJP \ Amnesty International"
JI
O H)P \ Italy abolishes the death /enalty in all 1ir1umstan1es"
2he death /enalt y 0as removed from /ea1etime la0 in Auust H++H, and in
6ay H++I 2urkey amended its 1onstitution in order to remove 1a/ital
/unishment in all 1ir1umstan1es" It ratified Proto1ol no" (, to the 3uro/ean
:onvention on %uman Rihts in February H++J" As a result, 3uro/e is a
1ontinent free of the death /enalt y in /ra1ti1e, all states but Russia, 0hi1h
has entered a moratorium, havin ratified the Si4th Proto1ol to the 3uro/ean
:onvention on %uman Rihts, 0ith the sole e41e/tion of !elarus , 0hi1h is
not a member of the :oun1il of 3uro/e" 2he Parliamentary Assembl y of the
:oun1il of 3uro/e has been lobbyin for :oun1il of 3uro/e observer states
0ho /ra1ti1e the death /enalt y, the U"S" and 7a/an, to abolish it or lose their
observer status" In addition to bannin 1a/ital /unishment for 3U member
states, the 3U has also banned detainee transfers in 1ases 0here the re1eivin
/art y may seek the death /enalt y"
Amon non5overnment al oraniNations $CGEs&, Amnest y International
and %uman Rihts <at1h are noted for their o//osition to 1a/ital /unishment"
A number of su1h CGEs, as 0ell as trade unions, lo1al 1oun1ils and bar
asso1iations formed a <orld :oalition Aainst the Death Penalt y in H++H"
:.; %e-i8ious 0ies
4u//hism
2here is disareement amon !uddhists as to 0hether or not !uddhism
forbids the death /enalt y" 2he first of the Five Pre1e/ts $Pan1a5sila& is to
abstain from destru1tion of life" :ha/ter (+ of the Dhamma/ada states>
J*
3veryone fears /unishmentL everyone fears death, 8 ust as you do"
2herefore do not kill or 1ause to kill" 3veryone fears /unishmentL
everyone loves life, as you do" 2herefore do not kill or 1ause to kill"
:ha/ter HJ, the final 1ha/ter of the Dhamma/ada, states, 9%im I 1all
a brahmin 0ho has /ut aside 0ea/ons and renoun1ed violen1e to0ard all
1reatures" %e neither kills nor hel/s others to kill" 9 2hese senten1es are
inter/ret ed by many !uddhists $es/e1iall y in the <est& as an in8 un1tion
aainst su//ortin any leal measure 0hi1h miht lead to the death
/enalt y" %o0ever, as is often the 1ase 0ith the inter/retation of s1ri/ture,
there is dis/ute on this matt er" %istori1all y, most states 0here the offi1ial
reliion is !uddhism have im/osed 1a/ital /unishment for some offenses"
Ene notable e41e/tion is the abolition of the death /enalt y by
the 3m/eror Saa of 7a/an in -(-" 2his lasted until ((J*, althouh in
/rivate manors e4e1utions 1ontinued to be 1ondu1ted as a form of
retali ation" 7a/an still im/oses the death /enalt y, althouh some re1ent
8 usti1e ministers have refused to sin death 0arrants, 1itin
their !uddhist beliefs as their reason"
O H-P
Ether !uddhist5ma8 orit y states
vary in their /oli1y" For e4am/le, !hutan has abolished the death /enalt y,
but 2hailand still retains it, althouh !uddhism is the offi1ial reliion in
both"
Bu/aism
2he offi1ial tea1hins of 7udaism a//rove the death /enalt y in /rin1i/le
but the standard of /roof required for a//li1at ion of death

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OH-P 97a/an hans t0o more on death ro0 $see also /arara/h ((&9" !!: Ce0s" H++-5(+5H-"
JJ
/enalt y is e4tremel y strinent" In /ra1ti1e, it has been abolished by
various 2al mudi1 de1isions, makin the situations in 0hi1h a death
senten1e 1ould be /assed effe1tivel y im/ossible and hy/othet i1al" A
1a/ital 1ase 1ould not be tried by a normal B&i% Di$ of three 8 udes, it
1an only be ad8 udi1ated by a Sa$h&1ri$ of a minimum of t0enty5three
8 udes"
O H.P
Forty years before the destru1tion of the 2em/l e in
7erusalem in )+ :3, i" e" in ,+ :3, the Sanhedrin effe1tivel y abolished
1a/ital /unishment, makin it a hy/othet i1al u//er li mit on the severit y
of /unishment, fittin in finalit y for God alone to use, not fallible
/eo/le"
O ,+P
2he (Hth 1entury 7e0ish leal s1holar, 6aimonides said>
9It is better and more satisfa1tory to a1quit a thousand uilt y /ersons
than to /ut a sinle inno1ent one to death" 9
O ,(P
6aimonides arued that e4e1utin a defendant on anyt hi n less than
absolute 1ertaint y 0ould lead to a sli//ery slo/e of de1reasin burdens
of /roof, until 0e 0ould be 1onvi1tin merel y 9a11ordin to the 8udeG s
1a/ri1e9" 6aimonides 0as 1on1erned about the need for the la0 to uard
itself in /ubli1 /er1e/tions, to /reserve its ma8 est y and retain the
/eo/leG s res/e1t"
O ,HP
Is-am
S1holars of Islam hold it to be /ermissible but the vi1tim or the
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OH.P !abylonian 2almud Sanhedrin Ha
O,+P 7erusalem 2almud $Sanhedrin I( a&
O,(P Goldstein, <arren $H++J&" D&&$1i$* %h& h.4a$ s(iri%< -&3ish !a3's visi#$ #r a 4#ra! s#/i&%8"
O,HP 6oses 6aimonides, Th& C#44a$14&$%s: N&*. C#44. >+), at HJ.DH)(
J)
famil y of the vi1tim has the riht to /ardon" In Islami1
8 uris/ruden1e $Fi?h&, to forbid 0hat is not forbidden is forbidden"
:onsequentl y, it is im/ossible to make a 1ase for abolition of the death
/enalt y, 0hi1h is e4/li1it l y endorsed"
Sharia #a0 or Islami1 la0 may require 1a/ital /unishment, there is reat
variation 0ithin Islami1 nations as to a1tual 1a/ital /unishment" A/ostasy
in Islam and stonin to death in Islam are 1ontroversial to/i1s"
Furthermore, as e4/ressed in the KurG an, 1a/ital /unishment is 1ondoned"
Althouh the KurG an /res1ribes the death /enalt y for several ha11 $fi4ed&
1ri mesSin1ludin ra/eSmurder is not amon them" Instead, murder is
treated as a 1ivil 1ri me and is 1overed by the la0 of ?isas $retaliat ion&,
0hereby the relatives of the vi1ti m de1ide 0hether the offender is
/unished 0ith death by the authoriti es or made to /ay 1i8ah $0erild & as
1om/ensation"
O ,,P
9If anyone kills /ersonSunless it be for murder or for s/readin mis1hief
in the landSit 0ould be as if he killed all /eo/le" And if anyone saves a
life, it 0ould be as if he saved the life of all /eo/le9 $KurG an *>,H&"
9S/readin mis1hi ef in the land9 1an mean many different thins, but is
enerall y inter/reted to mean those 1ri mes that affe1t the 1ommuni t y as a
0hole, and destabilise the so1iet y"
:rimes that have fallen under this des1ri/tion have in1luded> treason,
a/ostasy, /ira1y $essentiall y armed robbery&, murder, terrorism, ra/e
in1ludin /aedo/hilia, adultery, homose4ual inter1ourse"
O ,IP
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O ,,P \ 3n1y1lo/Vdia !ritanni1a" 91a/ital /unishment D !ritanni1a Enline 3n1y1lo/edia9" !ritanni1a"1om"
O ,IP \ 9:a/ital Punishment in Islam9" Islam"about"1om" Retrieved H+(+5+-5H,"
J-
%o0ever, there is also a minorit y vie0 0ithin some 6usli ms that 1a/ital
/unishment is not 8ustified in the liht of KurG an"
O ,*P
:.9 Christia.it>
Althouh some inter/ret that 7esus G s tea1hins 1ondemn violen1e in 2he
Gos/el of #uke and 2he Gos/el of 6atthe0 reardin 2urnin the other
1heek , and Peri1o/e Adulterae in 0hi1h 7esus intervenes in the stonin of
an adulterous, $most s1holars
O ,JP O ,)P
aree that this /assae 0as 91ertainl y
not /art of the oriinal te4t of St 7ohnG s Gos/el" 9
O ,-P
& and others
1onsider Romans (,>,DI to su//ort death /enalt y" 6any :hristians have
understood that 7esusG do1trine of /ea1e s/eaks to /ersonal ethi1s and is
distin1t from 1ivil overnmentG s duty to /unish 1ri me" Also, #eviti 1us
H+>HDH) has a 0hole list of situations in 0hi1h e4e1ution is su//orted"
:hristian /ositions on this vary"
O ,.P
2he si4th 1ommandment $fifth in the Roman :atholi1 and #utheran
1hur1hes& is /rea1hed as G 2hou shalt not killG by some denominat ions and
as G 2hou shalt not murderG by others" As some denominat ions do not have
a hard5line stan1e on the sub8 e1t, :hristians of su1h denominations are
free to make a /ersonal de1ision"
O I+P
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O ,*P 9<hy 2he Death Penalty is un5Islami1M 5 ;ashif ShahNada H+(+9" Retrieved H+(+5((5H+"
O ,JP 9C32!ible> 7ohn )9" !ible"or" Retrieved H++.5(+5()" See note (,. on that /ae"
O ,)P ;eith, :hris $H++-&" 9Re1ent and Previous Resear1h on theP&ri/#(& A1.!%&ra&
O ,-P Th& Ox#r1 Di/%i#$ar8 # %h& Chris%ia$ Ch.r/h, $Ce0 'ork> E4ford University Press, H++*&"
O ,.P 9<hat 2he :hristian S1ri/tures Say About 2he Death Penalty Reliioustoleran1e"or""
O I+P 9!!: D Reliion F 3thi1s D :a/ital /unishment> Introdu1tion9" !b1"1o"uk" H++.5+-5+,"
J.
:.= %oma. Catho-i6 Chur6h
St" 2homas Aquinas , a Do1tor of the :hur1h , a11e/ts the death /enalt y as
a deterrent and /revention method but not as a means of venean1e"
$See Aquinas on the death /enalt y " & 2he Roman :ate1hism states this
tea1hin thus>
Another kind of la0ful slayi n belons to the 1ivil authorit ies, to 0hom is
entrusted /o0er of life and death, by the leal and 8 udi1ious e4er1ise of
0hi1h they /unish the uilt y and /rote1t the inno1ent" 2he 8 ust use of this
/o0er, far from involvin the 1rime of murder, is an a1t of /aramount
obedien1e to this :ommandment 0hi1h /rohibits murder" 2he end of the
:ommandment is the /reservation and se1urit y of human life" Co0 the
/unishments infli1ted by the 1ivil authorit y, 0hi1h is the leitimat e
avener of 1rime, naturall y tend to this end, sin1e they ive se1urit y to
life by re/ressin outrae and violen1e" %en1e these 0ords of David> I$
%h& 4#r$i$* I (.% %# 1&a%h a!! %h& 3i/;&1 # %h& !a$1: %ha% I 4i*h% /.% #
a!! %h& 3#r;&rs # i$i?.i%8 r#4 %h& /i%8 # %h& L#r1"
O I(P
In 3vanelium Vitae , Po/e 7ohn Paul II suested that 1a/ital /unishment
should be avoided unless it is the onl y 0ay to defend so1iet y from the
offender in question, o/inin that /unishment 9ouht not o to the
e4treme of e4e1utin the offender e41e/t in 1ases of absolute ne1essit y>
in other 0ords, 0hen it 0ould not be
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)+
OI(P 92%3 :A23:%IS6 EF 2R3C2> 2he Fifth :ommandment9" :in"or"
/ossible other0ise to defend so1iet y" 2oday ho0ever, as a result of steady
im/rovements in the oraniNation of the /enal system, su1h 1ases are very
rare, if not /ra1ti1all y non5e4istent" 9
O IHP
2he most re1ent edition of
the :ate1hism of the :atholi1 :hur1h restates this vie0"
O I,P
2hat the
assessment of the 1ontem/orary situation advan1ed by 7ohn Paul II is not
bindin on the faithful 0as 1onfirmed by :ardinal RatNiner 0hen he
0rote in H++I that, if a :atholi1 0ere to be at odds 0ith the %ol y Father
on the a//li1ation of 1a/ital /unishment or on the de1ision to 0ae 0ar,
he 0ould not for that reason be 1onsidered un0orthy to /resent himself to
re1eive %oly :ommunion" <hile the :hur1h e4horts 1ivil authorities to
seek /ea1e, not 0ar, and to e4er1ise dis1retion and mer1y in im/osin
/unishment on 1ri minals, it may still be /ermissible to take u/ arms to
re/el an aressor or to have re1ourse to 1a/ital /unishment" 2here may
be a leitimat e diversity of o/inion even amon :atholi1s about 0ain
0ar and a//l yin the death /enalt y, but not ho0ever 0ith reard to
abortion and euthanasia"
O IIP
<hile all :atholi1s must therefore hold that 9the infli1tion of 1a/ital
/unishment is not 1ontrary to the tea1hin of the :atholi1 :hur1h, and the
/o0er of the State to visit u/on 1ul/rits the /enalt y of death derives mu1h
authorit y from revelation and from the 0ritins of theoloians9, the
matter of 9the advisabilit y of e4er1isin that /o0er is, of 1ourse, an affair
to be determined u/on other and various 1onsiderations" 9
O I*P
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OIHP Pa/al en1y1li1al, 3vanelium Vitae, 6ar1h H*, (..*
OI,P Assumin that the uilty /artyGs identity and res/onsibility have been fully determined, the traditional tea1hin of
the :hur1h does not e41lude re1ourse to the death /enalty, if this is the only /ossible 0ay of effe1tively defendin
human lives aainst the un8ust aressor"
)(
OIIP Priestsforlife"or"
OI*P 9:A2%E#I: 3C:':#EP3DIA> :a/ital Punishment $Death Penalty&9" Ce0advent"or" (.((5+J5+("
:.@ Souther. 4aptist
Southern !a/tists su//ort the fair and equitable use of 1a/ital /unishment
for those uilt y of murder or treasonous a1ts"
O IJP
:.* A.8-i6a. a./ Epis6opa-ia.
2he #ambeth :onferen1e of Anli1an bisho/s 1ondemned the death
/enalt y in (.-->
2his :onferen1e> " " " ," Ures the :hur1h to s/eak out aainst> " " " $b& all
overnments 0ho /ra1ti1e 1a/ital /unishment, and en1ouraes them to
find alternative 0ays of senten1in offenders so that the divine dinit y of
every human bein is res/e1ted and yet 8usti1e is /ursuedL" " " "
O I)P
:.+) U.ite/ Metho/ist Chur6h
2he United 6ethodist :hur1h , alon 0ith other 6ethodist 1hur1hes, also
1ondemns 1a/ital /unishment, sayin that it 1annot a11e/t retribut ion or
so1ial venean1e as a reason for takin human life"
O I-P
2he :hur1h also
holds that the death /enalt y falls unfairl y and unequall y u/on
marinalised /ersons in1ludin the /oor, the unedu1ated, ethni1 and
reliious minoriti es, and /ersons 0ith ment al and emotional illnesses"
O I.P
2he General :onferen1e of the United 6ethodist :hur1h 1alls for
its bisho/s to u/hold o//osition to 1a/ital /unishment and for
overnments to ena1t an immediat e moratorium on 1arryi n out the death
/enalt y senten1e"
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)H
OIJP 9S!: Resolution> En :a/ital Punishment9" Southern !a/tist :onvention"
OI)P #ambeth :onferen1e of Anli1an !isho/s, (.--, Resolution ,,, /arara/h ,"
OI-P 92he United 6ethodist :hur1h> :a/ital Punishment9" Ar1hives"um1"or"
OI.P 92he United 6ethodist :hur1h> Effi1ial 1hur1h statements on 1a/ital /unishment9" Ar1hives"um1"or"
:.++ The E0a.8e-i6a- Luthera. Chur6h i. Ameri6a
In a (..( so1ial /oli1y statement, the 3#:A offi1iall y took a stand to
o//ose the death /enalt y" It states that revene is a /rimary mot ivat ion
for 1a/ital /unishment /oli1y and that true healin 1an onl y take /la1e
throuh re/entan1e and foriveness"
O *+P
Other Protesta.ts
Several key leaders early in the Protestant Reformat ion , in1ludin 6artin
#uther and 7ohn :alvin , follo0ed the tradit ional reasonin in favour of
1a/ital /unishment, and the #utheran :hur1h G s Ausbur
:onfession e4/li1i tl y defended it" Some Protestant rou/s have
1ited Genesis .>*DJ , Romans (,>,DI , and #eviti 1us H+>(DH) as the basis
for /ermitt in the death /enalt y"
O *(P
6ennonites , :hur1h of the !rethren and Friends have o//osed the death
/enalt y sin1e their foundin, and 1ontinue to be stronl y o//osed to it
today" 2hese rou/s, alon 0ith other :hristians o//osed to 1a/ital
/unishment, have 1ited :hrist G s Sermon on the 6ount $trans1ribed
in 6atthe0 :ha/ter *D) & and Sermon on the Plain $trans1ribed in #uke
J>()DI. &" In both sermons, :hrist tells his follo0ers to turn the other
1heek and to love their enemies, 0hi1h these rou/s believe
mandates nonviolen1e , in1ludin o//osition to the death /enalt y"
),
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O *+P \ ?3#:A So1ial Statement on the Death PenaltyB" 3l1a"or" (..(5+.5+I"
O *(P \ OJP htt/>UU0eb"ar1hive"orU0ebUH++J(H(I(((HI.Uhtt/>UU000"equi/"orUfreeU:P(,+I"htm
:.+( The Chur6h of Besus Christ of Latter-/a> Sai.ts
2he :hur1h of 7esus :hrist of #atter5day Saints $also 1alled 6ormons &
neither /romotes nor o//oses 1a/ital /unishment, althouh the 1hur1h=s
founder, 7ose/h Smith, 7r" , su//orted it"
O *HP
%o0ever, today the 1hur1h
offi1iall y state it is a ?matter to be de1ided solel y by the /res1ribed
/ro1esses of 1ivil la0"B
O *,P
Commu.it> of Christ
:ommunit y of :hrist , the former ReoraniNed :hur1h of 7esus :hrist of
#atter Day Saints $R#DS&, is o//osed to 1a/ital /unishment" 2he first
stand aainst 1a/ital /unishment 0as taken by the 1hur1hG s Presidin %ih
:oun1il in (..*" 2his 0as follo0ed by a resolution of the <orld
:onferen1e in H+++" 2his resolution, <: (H),, states>
<e stand in o//osition to the use of the death /enalt yL and " " " as a /ea1e
1hur1h 0e seek 0ays to a1hieve healin and restorative 8 usti1e" :hur1h
members are en1ouraed to 0ork for the abolition of the death /enalt y in
those states and nations that still /ra1ti1e this form of /unishment"
O *IP
Easter. Ortho/o7 Christia.it>
3astern Erthodo4 :hristianit y does not offi1iall y 1ondemn nor endorse
1a/ital /unishment" It states that it is not a totall y
)I
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O*HP Roberts $(.+H, /" I,*&"
O*,P 92he :hur1h of 7esus :hrist of #atter5day Saints> Publi1 Issues9" Ce0sroom"lds"or"
O*IP R#DS <orld :onferen1e, Resolution (H),, Ado/ted A/ril -, H+++, entitled 9%ealin 6inistry and :a/ital
Punishment9
ob8 e1tionable thin, but also that its abolishment 1an be driven by
enuine :hristian values, es/e1ial l y stressin the need for mer1y"
O **P
Esoteri6 Christia.it>
2he Rosi1ru1ian Fello0shi/ and many other :hristian esoteri1 s1hools
1ondemn 1a/ital /unishment in all 1ir1umstan1es"
O *JP O *)P
)*
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O *IP 92he !asis of the So1ial :on1e/t, IW" ,9" 6os/at"ru"
O **P %eindel, 6a4 $(.(+s&, Th& R#si/r./ia$ Phi!#s#(h8 i$ @.&s%i#$s a$1 A$s3&rs A V#!.4& II< @.&s%i#$ $#.BB<
R#si/r./ia$ Vi&3(#i$% # Ca(i%a! P.$ish4&$%, IS!C +5.((H)I5.+5(
O *JP 2he Rosi1ru1ian Fello0shi/> O5s&ssi#$: O//.!% E&/%s # Ca(i%a! P.$ish4&$%
Chapter -
!elationship "et#een
$heories o% Punishment
and Capital Punishment
)J
%e-atio.ship Aetee. Theories of Pu.ishme.t a./ Capita-
Pu.ishme.t
Some of the ma8 or questions 0hi1h are enain the attention of modem
/enoloists are 0hether the tradit ional forms of /unishment should remain
the e41lusive or /ri mary 0ea/ons in restrainin 1riminal behavior or should
be su//lements and even re/la1ed by a mu1h more fle4ible or diversified
1ombinat ion of measures of treatment of a reformative, 1urative and
/rote1tive nature" And if so, it 0hi1h 1ateories of offenders should these
im/rovised measures be a//li1able and ho0 should their 1hoi1e in /arti1ular
1ases be determinedM And finall y, ho0 1ould the reinteration of offenders in
to so1iet y be /la1ed so as effa1e the /enal stima and to 1ut off the su//ly of
/otential re1idivists at its sour1eM
O (P
Punishin the offenders is a /rimary fun1tion of all 1ivil states" 2he
in1iden1e of 1rime and its retribution has al0ays been an unendin
fas1ination for human mind" %o0ever, durin the last t0o hundred years, the
/ra1ti1es of /unishment and /ubli1 o/inion 1on1ernin it have been
/rofoundl y modified due to the ra/idl y 1hanin so1ial values and senti ments
of the /eo/le" 2he 1ru1ial /roblem today is 0hether a 1riminal is to be
rearded by so1iet y as a nuisan1e to be abated or an enemy to be 1rushed or a
/atient to be treated or a refra1tory 1hild to be dis1i/linedM Er should he be
rearded as none of these thins but sim/l y be /unished to sho0 to others
that anti5so1ial 1ondu1t does but finall y /ay"
5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O (P #eon RadNi no0i 1N > In Sear1h Ef :ri mi nol oy, /I
))
It is in this /ers/e1tive that the /roblem of 1rime, 1ri minal and
/unishment is enain the attention of 1ri minoloist and /enoloists all
around the 0orld" A A1rime= has been defined by salmond as an a1t deemed by
la0 to be harmful for so1iet y as a 0hole althouh its immediate vi1tim may
be an individual" 2hus ?a murderer in8 ures /rimari l y a /arti1ul ar vi1tim, but
it blatant disreard of human life /uts it beyond a matt er of mere
1om/ensation bet0een the murderer and the vi1tim=s famil yB"
O HP
2hose 0ho
1ommi t su1h a1ts, if 1onvi1ted, are /unished by the state" It is, therefore,
evident that the ob8 e1t of 1ri minal 8 usti1e is to /rote1t the so1iet y aainst
1ri minals by /unishin them under the e4istin /enal la0" 2hus /unishment
1an be used as a method of redu1in the in1iden1e of 1ri minal behavior either
by deterrin the /otential offenders or by in1a/a1it atin and /reventin them
from re/eatin the offen1e or by reformin them into la05abidin 1itiNens" It
is this /rin1i/le 0hi1h underlies the do1trines 1on1ernin the desirabili t y and
ob8 e1tives of /unishment" 2heories of /unishment, therefore, 1ontain
enerall y /oli1ies reardin of 1rime and 1ri minals" 2here are four enerall y
a11e/ted theories of /unishment, namel y, deterrent, retributive, /reventive
and reformative" It must, ho0ever, be noted that these theories are not
mutuall y e41lusive and ea1h of them /lays an i m/ortant role in dealin 0ith
/otential offenders"
,. + Co.6ept of Pu.ishme.t L
!efore dealin 0ith the theories of /unishment, it 0ould be /ertinent to
e4/lain the 1on1e/t of /unishment" Sir 3a!%&r M#5&r!8: 0hile
55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
OHP Salmond >7uris/ruden1e $(H
th
ed"& /.H
)-
a11e/tin the definition of /unishment as iven by Gr#%i#.s: suests that
/unishment /resu//oses that >5
(" <hat is infli1ted is an ill, that is somethin un/leasantL
H" it is a sequel to some a1t 0hi1h is disa//roved by authorit yL
," there is some 1orres/onden1e bet0een the /unishment and the a1t
0hi1h has evoked it>
I" /unishment is infli1t ed, that it is im/osed by someone=s
voluntary a1tL
*" Punishment is infli1ted u/on the 1riminal, or u/on someone 0ho
is su//osed to be ans0erable for him and for his 0ron doins"
,.( Theories of Pu.ishme.t <
2o /unish 1riminals is a re1oniNed fun1tion of all 1iviliNed states for
1enturies" !ut 0ith the 1hanin /atterns of modern so1ieties, the a//roa1h of
/enoloists to0ards /unishment has also underone a radi1al 1hane" 2he
/enoloists today are 1on1erned 0ith 1ru1ial /roblem as to the end of
/unishment and its /la1e in /enal /oli1y"
2houh o/inions have al0ays differed as reards /unishment of
offenders varyi n from are5old traditionalism to re1ent modernism, broadly
s/eakin four ty/es of vie0s 1an be distin1tl y found to /revail" 6odern
/enoloists /refer to 1all them Atheories of /unishment= 0hi1h are as
follo0s>5
).
,.: Deterre.t Theor>
3arlier modes of /unishment 0ere, by and lare, deterrent in nature"
2his kind of /unishment /resu//oses infli1t ion of severe /enalties on
offenders 0ith a vie0 to deterrin them from 1ommit ti n 1ri me" It is the
fulfill ment of oneAs venean1e that underlies every 1riminal a1t" 2he
deterrent theory also seeks to 1reate some kind of fear in the mind of others
by /rovidin adequate /enalt y and e4em/lary /unishment to offenders 0hi1h
kee/s them a0ay from 1riminal it y" 2hus the rior of /enal dis1i/line a1ts as a
suffi1ient 0arnin to offenders as also others" 2herefore, deterren1e is
undoubtedl y one of the effe1tive /oli1ies 0hi1h almost every /enal syst em
a11e/ts des/ite the fa1t that it invariabl y fails in its /ra1ti1al a//li1ation"
Deterren1e, as a measure of /unishment /arti1ul arl y fails in 1ase of hardened
1ri minals be1ause the severit y of /unishment hardly has any effe1t on them"
It also fails to deter ordinary 1ri minals be1ause many 1rimes are 1ommi tt ed in
a s/ur of moment 0ithout any /rior intention or desin" 2he futilit y of
deterrent /unishment is evin1ed from the fa1t the quite a lare number of
hardened 1riminals return to /rison soon after their release" 2hey /refer to
remain in /rison rather than leadin a free life in so1iet y" 2hus the ob8 e1t
underl yi n deterrent /unishment is unquestionabl y defeated" 2his finds
su//ort from the fa1t that 0hen 1a/ital /unishment 0as bein /ubli1l y
a0arded by hanin the /erson to death in /ubli1 /la1es, many /ersons
1ommi tt ed 1ri mes of /i1k5/o1ketin, theft, assault or even murder in those
men5/a1ked atherin des/ite the hastl y s1ene"
-+
Suffi1e it to say that the do1trine 1on1ernin deterrent /unishment has
been 1losel y asso1iates 0ith the /rimitive theories of 1rime and 1ri minal
res/onsibilit y" In earlier ti mes, 1rime 0as attributed to the influen1e of evil
s/irit, or free50ill of the offender" So the so1iet y /referred severe and
deterrent /unishment for the offender for his a1t, of voluntary /erversit y
0hi1h 0as believed to be a 1hallene to God or reliion"
O ,P
2he /unishment 0as to be a terror to evil5doers and an a0ful 0arnin
to all others 0ho miht be tem/t ed to imit ate them"
,., %e-atio.ship Aetee. Deterre.t Theor> a./ Capita-
Pu.ishme.t
2he fear of bein 1ondemned to death is /erha/s the reatest deterrent 0hi1h
kee/s an offender a0ay from 1riminal it y" Death /enalt y in 1ase of murder
serves as an effe1tive deterrent to remind the murderer about the severit y of
la0 to0ards this heinous 1rime and 1ertainl y hel/s in redu1in the in1iden1e
of homi 1ide" 2he old method of /ubli1 e4e1ution thouh abandoned today,
0ere ho0ever, is to kee/ the number of offen1es /unishable be death to a
minimum and avoid death /enalt y as far as /ossible althouh its retention in
the statute book is favored even to this day"
---------------------------------------------------------------------------
O,P !arnes F 2eeters LCe0 %oriNons In :riminoloy, $,
rd
ed"& /H(J
-(
,.; %etriAuti0e Theor> <
<hile deterrent theory 1onsidered /unishment as a means of attainin
so1ial se1urit y, the retributive theory treated it as an end in itself" It 0as
essentiall y based on retributive 8usti1e 0hi1h suests that evil should be
returned for evil
O IP
0ithout any reard to 1onsequen1es" 2he su//orters of this
vie0 did not treat /unishment as an instrument for se1urin /ubli1 0elfare"
2he theory, therefore, underlined the idea of venean1e or revene" 2hus the
/ain to be infli1ted on the offender by 0ay of /unishment 0as to out0eih
the /leasure derived hi m from the 1rime" In other 0ords, retributive theory
suested that /unishment is an e4/ression of so1iet y=s disa//robation for
offender=s 1riminal a1t"
As rihtl y observed by Sir Wa!% &r M#5&r!8: the theory of retribution is
based on the vie0 that /unishment is a /arti1ul ar a//li1ation of the eneral
/rin1i/le of 8usti1e, that men should be iven their due"
O *P
Punishment serves
to e4/ress and to satisfy the rihteous indinat ion 0hi1h a healthy minded
1ommunit y reards transression" As su1h, it is sometimes an end in itself"
O JP
It must be states that the theory of retribution has its oriin in the
1rude ani mal instin1t of individual or rou/ to retali ate 0hen hurt" 2he
modern vie0, ho0ever, does not favour this 1ontention be1ause it is
55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
OIP Sen"P";" > Penoloy Eld And Ce0 $(.I,&, /H)
O*P Sir <ater 6oberly > 2he 3thi1s Ef Punishment $(.J- ed"& / (I
OJP Ibid
-H
neither 0ise nor desirable" En the 1ontrary, it is enerall y 1ondemned as
vindi1tive a//roa1h to the offender"
Retributive theory is 1losel y asso1iated 0ith the notion of e4/iation
0hi1h means blottin out the uilt by sufferin an a//ro/riate /unishment" It
is this 1onsideration 0hi1h underlies the mathemati 1al equation of 1ri me,
namel y, uilt /lus /unishment is &?.a! to inno1en1e"
6ost /enoloists refuse to subs1ribe to the 1ontention that offenders
should be /unished 0ith a vie0 to makin them /ay their dues" 2he reason
bein that no sooner an offender 1om/let es his term of senten1e, he thinks
that his uilt is 0ashed off and he is free to indule in 1ri minalit y aain"
=&*a! o//osed the theory of retribution and observed that it is the
manifestation of revene for an in8 ury" 2o quote hi m, he said,
?'ou hurt me so I 0ill hurt you" Indeed that is the literal meanin of
retribution" And if I 1annot hurt you myself, I demand that you should be hurt
by others" 2he desire to make the offender suffer, not be1ause it is needed so
that the uilt is /ured, not also be1ause sufferin miht deter him from
future 1rime, but sim/l y be1ause it is felt that he deserves to suffer, is the
essen1e of retribution" B
O )P
It must, ho0ever, be stated that Sir -a4&s S%&(h&$ defended the do1trine of
retribution on the round that ?1ri minals deserved to be hated and the
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O)P Studies In %ealian :osmoloy / (,,, :ited !y 30in A:" 2he 6ortality Ef Punishment // ),5)*
/unishment should be so 1ontrived as to ive e4/ression to that hatred, and to
8 ustify by ratifyi n a healthy natural sentiment" B
O -P
-,
2hus modern /enoloy dis1ards retribution in the sense of venean1e, but in
the sense of re/robation it must al0ays be an essential element in any form of
/unishment"
,.9 %e-atio.ship Aetee. %etriAuti0e Theor> a./ Capita-
Pu.ishme.t
Death senten1e has been used as an effe1tive 0ea/on of retributive 8 usti1e for
1enturies" 2he 8ustifi1ation advan1ed is that it is la0ful to forfeit the life of a
/erson 0ho takes a0ay another=s life" A /erson 0ho kills another must be
eli minated from the so1iet y and, therefore, fully merits his e4e1ution" 2hus
the motive for death /enalt y may indeed in1lude venean1e 0hi1h is a
1om/ensatory and re/aratory satisfa1tion for an in8 ured /art y, rou/ or
so1iet y" <hen reulated and 1ontrolled by la0, venean1e is also so1iall y
useful" #eal venean1e solidifies so1ial solidarit y aainst la0 breaker and
/robabl y is the only alternative to the disru/tive /rivate revene of those 0ho
feel harmed"
:ommentin on the effe1tiveness of death /enalt yL Th#rs%&$ s&!!i$ observed
that it has failed as a measure of so1ial /rote1tion, so also as an instrument of
retributive 8 usti1e" :itin illustrat ion from United States to
55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O-P Sir 7ames Ste/hen > %istory Ef :riminal #a0 Ef 3nland, / -H
su//ort this 1ontention, he arued that the numbers of e4e1utions are far less
than the number of murders 1ommit ted annuall y 0hi1h 1learl y indi1ated that
-I
death senten1e is no loner looked 0ith favour and is fallin into disuse
ra/idl y" Another arument 0hi1h needs attent ion reardin de1linin effe1t of
death /enalt y is that even after the a0ard of this senten1e, in most 1ases, it is
either 1ommuted or /ardoned in the last resort and its final e4e1ution is
seldom 1arries out"
,.= Pre0e.ti0e Theor>
Preventive /hiloso/hy of /unishment is based on the /ro/osition not to
avene 1rime but to /revent it" It /resu//oses that need for /unishment of
1ri me arises sim/l y out of so1ial ne1essities" In /unishin a 1riminal, the
1ommunit y /rote1ts itself aainst anti5so1ial a1ts 0hi1h endaner so1ial order
in eneral or /erson or /ro/erty of its members"
In order to /resent /reventive theory in its a11urate form, it 0ould be
0orth0hile to quote Fi/h%& 0ho observed, ?2he end of all /enal la0s is that
they are not to be a//liedB" Givin an illustrat ion ne 1ontinued, ?0hen a land
o0ner /uts u/ a noti1e tres/assers 0ill be /rose1uted he does not 0ant an
a1tual tres/asser and to have the trouble and e4/ense of settin the la0 in
mot ion aainst him" %e ho/es that the threat 0ill render any su1h a1tion
unne1essary, his aim is not to /unish tres/asser but to /revent it" If tres/ass
still takes /la1e, he undertakes /rose1ution, 2hus, the instrument or
deterren1e 0hi1h he devised oriinall y 1onsisted in the eneral threat and not
in /arti1ular 1onvi1tions" B
-*
2he real ob8 e1t of the /enal la0 therefore, is to make the threat
enerall y kno0n rather than /uttin it o11asional l y into e4e1ution" 2his
indeed makes the /reventive theory realisti1 and humane" It is effe1tive for
dis1ourain anti5so1ial 1ondu1t and a better alternative to deterren1e or
retribution 0hi1h no0 stands re8 e1ted as methods of dealin 0ith 1ri me and
1ri minals"
In 3nland, utilit arian like B&$%ha4: S%.ar% Mi!! and A.s%i$ su//orted
/reventive theory be1ause of its humaniNin influen1e on 1ri minal la0" 2hey
asserted that it is 1ertaint y of la0 and not its severit y 0hi1h has a real effe1t
on offenders"
As an off5shoot of /reventive vie0 reardin 1ri me and 1riminals, the
develo/ment of /rison institution ained momentum" 2he /reventive theory
seeks to /revent the re1urren1e of 1ri me by in1a/a1i tat in the offenders" It
suests that /risonisation is the best mode of 1ri me /revention as it seeks to
eli minate offenders from so1iet y thus disablin them from re/eatin 1ri me"
2he su//orters of /reventive /hiloso/hy re1oniNe im/risonment as the best
mode of /unishment be1ause it serves as an effe1tive deterrent and a useful
/reventive measure" It /re5su//oses some kind of /hysi 1al restrain on
offenders" A11ordin to the su//orters of this theory, murderers are haned
not merel y to deter others from meet in simi lar end, but to eli minate su1h
dreadful offenders from so1iet y"
,.@ %e-atio.ship Aetee. pre0e.ti0e theor> a./ 6apita-
pu.ishme.t
-J
Preventive theory talks about not /reventin 1rime but the /erson 0ho has
1ommi tt ed it, various methods 0hi1h it ave one of the most effe1tive method
is 1a/ital /unishment be1ause in 1a/ital /unishment a /erson 0ho has
1ommi tt ed a 1rime is an offender is e4e1uted /ermanentl y" Preventive theory
is nothin but to /revent a 1riminal from 1ommit ti n 1ri me and in 1a/ital
/unishment the 1riminal is e4e1uted 0hi1h /revents him /ermanent l y from
1ommi tt in 1rimes"
,.* %eformati0e Theor>
<ith the /assae of time, develo/ments in the field of 1ri minal s1ien1e
brouht about a radi1al 1hane in 1riminoloi 1al thinkin" 2here 0as a fresh
a//roa1h to the /roblem of 1ri me and 1riminals" IndividualiNed treat ment
be1ame the 1ardinal /rin1i/le for reformat ion of offenders" 2his vie0 found
e4/ression in the reformative theory of /unishment"
As aainst deterrent, retributive and /reventive 8 usti1e, the reformative
a//roa1h to /unishment seeks to brin about a 1hane in the attitude of
offender so as to rehabilitat e him as a la0 abidin member of so1iet y" 2hus
/unishment is used as a measure to re1laim the offender and not to torture or
harass him" Reformat ive theory 1ondemns all kinds of 1or/oral /unishments"
2he ma8 or em/hasis of the reformist movement is rehabili tat ion of inmates in
/eno51orre1tional institutions so that they are transformed in to ood 1itiNens"
2hese 1orre1tional institutions have either ma4i mum or minimum se1urit y
arranements" 2he reformists advo1ate human treatment of inmates inside the
/rison institutions" 2hey also suest that /risoners should be /ro/erly
trained to ad8 ust themselves to free file in so1iet y after their release from the
-)
institution" 2he aen1ies su1h as /arole and /robation are re1ommended as
the best measures to re1laim offenders to so1iet y as reformed /ersons"
2he reformative vie0 of /enoloy suests that /unishment is onl y 8 ustifiabl e
if it looks to the future and not to the /ast" ?It should not be /unishment is
onl y 8 ustifiabl e if it looks to the future and not to the /ast" It should not be
rearded as settlin an old a11ount but rather as o/enin a ne0 oneB" 2hus
the su//orters of this vie0 8ustify /risonisation not solel y for /ur/ose of
isolatin 1riminals and eliminat in them from so1iet y but to brin about a
1hane in their mental outlook throuh effe1tive measures of reformation
durin the term of their senten1e"
Undoubtedl y, modern /enoloists reaffirm their faith in reformative
8 usti1e but they stronly feel that it should not be stret1hed too far" 2he
reformative methods have /roved useful in 1ases of 8 uvenile delinquents and
the first offenders" Se4 /sy1ho/aths also seem to res/ond favorabl y to the
individual iNed treatment model of /unishment" Re1idivists and hardened
1ri minals ho0ever do not res/ond favorabl y to the reformist ideoloy" It is
for this reason that sa!4#$1 observed that throuh eneral substitution of
reformation for deterren1e for deterren1e may seem disastrous, it is ne1essary
in 1ertain 1ases s/e1iall y for abnormals, and deenerates 0ho have
diminished res/onsibilit y"
O .P
It therefore, follo0s
that /unishment should not be rearded as an end in itself but onl y as a
means, the end bein the so1ial se1urity and rehabilitation of the offender in
so1iet y"
--
6any /enoloists have denoun1ed Arehabilit ative ideal = or the Areformist
ideoloy= underlyin individuali Ned treatment model be1ause in /ra1ti1e they
are more /unitive, un8 ust and inhumane than retribution or deterren1e"
<ri tin about the 1ondition of /risons in Russia and Fran1e, P&%&r Kr#(#%;i$
observed, ?/risons are seen as symbols of our hy/o1risy reardin
rehabili tat ion, our intoleran1e of deviants, or our refusal to deal 0ith the root
1auses of 1ri me su1h as /overt y" Dis1rimination, unem/loyment, inoran1e,
over51ro0dinB
O (+P
and so on"
'et another arument 0hi1h is often advan1ed aainst reformative
treat ment is that there is no /unishment involved in it the sense of some sort
of /ain and, therefore, it 1annot be rearded as /unishment in true sense of
the term" !ut it must be /ointed out that thouh reformative treat ment
involves benevolent 8 usti1e, yet the detention of the offender in /rison or any
other reformative be1ause of the mental /ain 0hi1h he suffers from the
de/rivation of his libert y durin the /eriod he is so institut ional iNed"
2herefore, it is erroneous to think that institutional detention for reformat ion
is not a form of /unishment" In fa1t, surveillan1e and 1lose su/ervision is
itself /unitive thouh it involves no /hysi1al /ain or sufferin"
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O.P Salmond > 7uris/ruden1e $(H
th
ed", (.JJ&, /"H)
O(+P ;amenka F !ro0n >Ideas And Ideoloy #a0 And So1iety ,/((H
2he authors of an Ameri1an study also 1riti1i Ned reformist ideoloy statin
that, ?it never 1ommended more than li/ servi1e from most of its more
-.
/o0erful adherents" Prison administrator 0ho embra1ed the rehabilit ative
ideal, have done so be1ause it in1reased their /o0er over inmatesB"
O ((P
It is a kno0n fa1t that /unishment al0ays 1arries 0ith it a stima inasmu1h as
it fetters the normal libert y of Individual" It has be1ome an interal /art of
la0 enfor1ement for se1urin so1ial 1ontrol" Punishment is inevitabl e for
re1idivists 0ho are habitual la05breakers" 2he tenden1y amon re1idivists to
re/eat 1ri me is due to their inabilit y to 1onform to the a11e/ted norms of
so1iet y" Investiative resear1hes reveal that it is the ment al de/ravit y of the
offenders 0hi1h makes them delinquent and, therefore, a system of 1lini1al
treat ment seems inevitable for the 1orre1tion of su1h offenders" %o0ever,
there is a need for 1om/artment ali Nat ion of offenders for this /ur/ose on the
basis of ae, se4, ravit y of offen1e and mental 1ondition" 2his ob8 e1t is
a1hieved by s1ientifi1 1lassifi1ation of 1ri minals into different 1ateories
su1h as the first offenders, habitual offenders, re1idivists, 8uvenile
delinquents, insane 1riminals and se4 offenders" 2hus /unishment should be a
sort of so1ial surery sin1e 1riminal is essential l y a /rodu1t of 1onfli1t
bet0een the interest of so1iet y"
------------------------------------------------------------------------
O((P An Ameri1an Re/ort En :rime And Punishment 3ntitled" ?Strule For 7usti1eB Pre/ared !y Ameri1an
Friends Servi1e :ommittee $Ce0 'ork (.)(&, / ((H
,.+) %e-atio.ship Aetee. %eformati0e Theor> a./ Capita-
Pu.ishme.t
2here is no relationshi/ bet0een reformative theory and 1a/ital
/unishment as reformative theory talks about reformin a 1riminal and ivin
.+
him se1ond 1han1e to restart his life and be1ome a ood 1itiNen of this nation
but 1a/ital /unishment does not talks about se1ond 1han1e or reformation it
talks about e4e1ution so there is no relationshi/ bet0een these t0o"
.(
Chapter -&
'udicial $rend
.H
/UDICIAL TREND
2he 6aistra1y has more often than not, used Se1tion ,*I$,& of the :ode of :riminal
Pro1edure to 8ustify its stand either in su//ort of or aainst the a0ard of 1a/ital /unishment"
2he abolitionists see this /rovision a reen sinal for dilution of 1a/ital /unishment 0hile for
the re1e/tionists the s/e1ial reasons 1ontem/lated by Se1tion ,*I$,& im/li1itly suest that
death senten1e is leally and 1onstitutionally /ermissible"
It must, ho0ever, be noted that 0hat a//ears to one 8ude as e4tenuatin
1ir1umstan1es 8ustifyin 1ommutation of death senten1e to that of life5im/risonment, may not
be ne1essarily so 0ith the other 7ude" 2hus in K.$7. K.$7. -a$ar1ha$a4 v. S%a%& # A$1hra
Pra1&sh
CDE
, the a11used, infatuated by the 1harm of a villae irl, 1ommitted brutal of his
inno1ent 0ife and his t0o minor sons 0hile they 0ere aslee/ in death of niht" 2he irl, on
her /art, had 0arned the a11used throuh her letters not to destroy his ha//y family life by
the illi1it intima1y, but the a11used /aid no heed and 1hose to 1ommit tri/e murder 0ith
e4treme de/ravity" Althouh the ma8ority by H > ( 1ommuted death senten1e to that of
im/risonment for life, Mr. -.s%i/& A.P. S&$, in his dissentin 8udment disareed 0ith the
ma8ority and observed"
OHP
?2he a11used 0ho a1ted as a monster, did not even s/are his t0o inno1ent
minor 1hildren in order to et rid of his 0ife and issues thouh her L if death
senten1e 0as not to be a0arded in a 1ase like this I do not see the ty/e of
offen1es 0hi1h 1all for death senten1e"B
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O(P :iminal A//eal Co" *(( of (.)- Dis/osed Ef Alon0ith Ra8endra Prasad=s :ase $AIR (.). S: .(J&
OHP ibid", /" .JH"
.,
A /erusal of some of the Su/reme :ourt de1isions involvin a0ard of death /enalty
0ould reveal that sudden im/ulse or /rovo1ation
O,P
un1ontrollable hatred arisin out of se4
indulen1e
OIP
, family feud or land dis/ute
O*P
, infidelity of 0ife
OJP
or senten1e of death hanin
over the head of the a11used for a 1onsiderable lon /eriod of time due to la0=s delay
O)P
, have
been a11e/ted as e4tenuation 1ir1umstan1es 8ustifyin lesser /enalty of life im/risonment
instead of death senten1e" Mr. -.s%i/& Krish$a !8&r of the Su/reme :ourt of India, ho0ever,
made it 1lear in Ra7&$1ra Prasa1 v. S%a%& # U.P
C6E
, that 0here the murder is deliberate,
/remeditated, 1old5blooded and ruesome
O.P
and there are no e4tenuatin 1ir1umstan1es, the
offender must be senten1ed to death as a measure of so1ial defense"
O(+P
2he /ros and 1ons of ?life or death senten1eB have been e4tensively death 0ith by the
Su/reme :ourt of India in Ra7&$1ra Prasa1Fs
CDDE
1ase" 2herefore it 0ould be /ertinent to state
the fa1ts of the 1ase to analyNe the entire issue in its /ro/er /ers/e1tive"
2he a11used in the instant 1ase 0as a des/erate 1hara1ter 0ho had underone senten1e
of im/risonment for life and 0as released on Gandhi 7ayanti day in (.)H, a fe0 day /rior to
the o11urren1e" En H*
th
E1tober, (.)H the a11used suddenly atta1ked on Rambharosey and
dealt several blo0s on vital /arts of his body 0ith knife" Rambharosey released himself from
the ri/ of the a11used and ran inside house and bolted the door" 2he a11used 1hased him all
the 0ay 0ith the blood5stained knife and kno1ked at the door askin him to o/en it"
6ean0hile, the de1eased 6ansukh 1ame and tried to entreat the a11used not to assault
Rambharosey" 2hereu/on, the a11used stru1k de1eased 6ansukh, 0ho tried to
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O,P Ummilal v" State of 6"P" , AIR (.)- dis/osed of alon 0ith Ra8endra Prasad=s 1ase $AIR (.). S: .(J&"
OIP 3dia Anamma v" State of A"P", AIR (.)I S: )..
O*P :ha0la v" State of %aryana, AIR (.)I S: (+-. > Guru S0amy v" State of 2amil Cadu , AIR (.). S:
(()) LShidaouda Cina//a v" State of ;arnataka, AIR (.-( S: )JI
OJP !ishnu Dev Sha0 v" State of <est !enal, AIR (.). S: )+H
O)P 2"V" Vathees0aran v" State of 2amil Cadu , (.-, 1r l8 I-(
O-P AIR (.). S: .(J
O.P %ARI%AR SICG% V" S2A23 EF U"P" , AIR (.)* S: (*+(
O(+P Sarvesh0ar Prasad Sharma v" State of 6"P" , AIR (.)) S: HIH,
O((P AIR (.). S: (,-I
.I
es1a/e but the a11used 1hased him over a distan1e of H++ to H*+ feet and infli1ted re/eated
knife blo0s on him 0hi1h resulted into his death" 2hus the de1eased 0as done to death by the
a11used be1ause the former tried to /revent him from assaultin Rambharosey"
2he Su/reme :ourt by a ma8ority of H to ( and s/eakin throuh Mr. 7.s%i/& V. R.
Krish$a !8&r, attributed failure of /enal institutions to 1ure 1riminality 0ithin the 1riminal as
the sole 1ause of this 1ruel murder and allo0ed 1ommutation of death senten1e of the a11used
to that of life im/risonment" 2he :ourt, i$%&r a!ia, observed>
?A se1ond murder is not to be 1onfounded 0ith the /ersistent /otential for murderous
atta1k by the murderer" 2his 0as not a mena1e to the so1ial order but a s/e1ifi1 family
feud@" here 0as not a youth of un1ontrollable, violent /ro/ensities aainst the
1ommunity but one 0hose /aranoid /re5o11u/ation 0ith family quarrel oaded him to
o at the rival"B
34/ressin his 1om/assion for the 1ondemned a11used the learned 7ude further observed >
?2his 1onvi1t has had the hanin aony hanin over his head sin1e (.), 0ith near
solitary 1onfinement to boot [ %e must by no0 be more a Aveetable= than a /erson and
hanin a ?veetableB is not death /enalty"B
Rea1tin shar/ly to the ma8ority vie0 7usti1e A"P Sen in his dissentin 8udment in this 1ase
ho0ever, /leaded that the a11used deserved no lenien1y in a0ard of death senten1e" 2o quote
his o0n 0ords
O(HP
>
?2he 1ase of this a11used is destru1tive of the theory of reformation" 2he thera/euti1
tou1h 0hi1h is said the best of /reventin re/etition of the offen1e has been of no avail"
Punishment must be desined so as to deter, as far as /ossible from 1ommission of similar
55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O(HP AIR (.). S: .(J , A2 P .JH
.*
offen1es" It should also serve as a 0arnin to other members of so1iety" In both as/e1ts, the
e4/eriment of reformation has miserably failed" I am quite sure that 0ith the 1ommutation of
his death senten1e, the a11used 0ill 1ommit a fe0 more murders and he 0ould aain be1ome
a mena1e to the so1iety"B
2he learned 7ude further observed
O(,P
>
@@""the humanisti1 a//roa1h should not obs1ure our sense of realities" <hen a man
1ommits a 1rime aainst so1iety by 1ommittin a diaboli1al, 1old5blooded, /re5/lanned
murder of one inno1ent /erson the brutality of 0hi1h sho1ks the 1ons1ien1e of the :ourt, he
must fa1e the 1onsequen1es of his a1t" Su1h a /erson forfeits his riht to life"
In a 0ay Ra8endra Prasad=s 1ase /rovided as a//ro/riate o//ortunity for the Su/reme
:ourt to e4/ress its vie0 on need for dilution of death /enalty in the 1onte4t of India So1iety"
:itin e4tensively from Anlo5Ameri1an literature
O(IP
available on the sub8e1t and the relevant
1ase la0
O(*P
" 6r" 7usti1e ;rishna lyer tried to derive at the /oint that s/e1ial reasons referred to
under Se1tion ,*I$,& of the :ode of :riminal Pro1edure must be liberally 1onstrued so as to
limit death /enalty only to rare 1ateories of 1ase su1h as 0hite 1ollar 1rime, anti5so1ial
offen1es like hi8a1kin or sellin of s/urious liquor, et1" and hardened murderers" -.s%i/&
Krish$a !8r& em/hati1ally stated that, by and lare, murders in India are not by a 1al1ulated
/rofessionally 1old5blooded /lannin but somethin that ha//ens on the s/ur of the moment
due to sudden /rovo1ation, /assion, family feud, or an alter1ation et1", motivates one to o to
e4treme and 1ommit the 1rime and, therefore, there are /ros/e1ts for reformation of the
offenders if they are not done a0ay to death"
2he learned 7ude dis1arded the a0ard of death /enalty from the 1onstitutional stand/oint
also" %e em/hati1ally stressed that death senten1e is violative of Arti1les (I, (. and H( of the
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O(,P I!ID ", A2 / .IJ
.J
O(IP Sto1kholm de1laration of amnesty international 1onferen1e $(+
th
, ((
th
De1ember (.))&
O(*P Furnam v" Georia , $(.)H& I+- us H,-"
:onstitution of India" 2o quote his o0n 0ords"
O(JP
?:or/oreal death is alien to fundamental rihts" Restri1tion on fundamental
rihts are /ermissible if they are reasonable" Su1h restri1tions may rea1h the
e4treme state of e4tin1tion only if it is so 1om/letely desirable to /rohibit
totally" <hile senten1in you 1annot be arbitrary sin1e 0hat is arbitrary is /er
se unequal"B
In sum, the Su/reme :ourt 1on1luded that 1ommutation of death /enalty to
im/risonment for life is 8ustified in the instant 1ase kee/in in vie0 the ideoloi1al,
1onstitutional, 1riminoloi1al and 1ultural trends in India and abroad"
2he rulin in Ra7&$1ra Prasa1Fs 1ase 0as follo0ed in t0o subsequent 1ases de1ided
by the Su/reme :ourt in the same year" In one 1ase
O()P
, the a11used 0as senten1ed to death by
the %ih :ourt but on a//eal his senten1e 0as 1ommuted to life im/risonment be1ause the
murder arose out of a family quarrel relatin to division of land and the fa1t that the a//ellant
0as under the senten1e of death for si4 lon year 0as by itself enouh to 8ustify mitiation of
senten1e"
In another 1ase
O(-P
, althouh the a11used 0as 1onvi1ted for quadru/le murder and
senten1ed to death, but the Su/reme :ourt in a//eal redu1ed it to one of im/risonment for
life on the round that dis/ute related to reulatin ?turnsB for takin irriation 0ater for
ari1ultural /ur/oses and the earlier /rovo1ation 1ame from the de1eased side by beatin the
a11used"
A year letter, the Su/reme :ourt, 0as on1e aain 1alled u/on to settle the 1ontroversy
over 1hoi1e bet0een death /enalty and im/risonment for life
O(.P
but this time by a larer
5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O(JP Ra8ender /rasad=s 1ase , AIR .). S: .(J at / .-H
.)
O()P Gurus0aky v" state of tamil nadu, AIR (.). S: (())"
O(-P Dalbir Sinh v" State of U"P" ,AIR (.). S: (,-I
O(.P !a1han Sinh v" State of Pun8ab AIR (.-+ S: -.-
!en1h of five 8udes" Everrulin its earlier de1ision in Ra7&$1ra Prasa1, the :ourt by a
ma8ority of I to ( $ma8ority vie0 taken 58 Mr. -.s%i/& 0. V. Cha$1ra/h.1: O. -. Sar;aria:
G.(%a and U$%ava!ia: 77 0hile !ha0ati, 7" dissentin& e4/ressed a vie0 that death senten1e
as an alternative /unishment for murder is not unreasonable and hen1e not voilative of
Arti1les (I, (., and H( of the :onstitution
OH+P
, be1ause the ?/ubli1 orderB1omtem/lated by
1lause $H& to $I& of arti1le (. is different from ?la0 and orderB" 7ustifyin retention of death
/enalty as an alternative /unishment in referen1e to Se1tion ,*I$,& of the :ode of :riminal
Pro1edure, (.), the :ourt, i$%&r a!ia, observed
OH(P
"
?2he question 0hether or not death /enalty serves any /enoloi1al /ur/ose is
a diffi1ult, 1om/le4 and intri1ate issue" It has evoked stron diverent
vie0s@" Cot0ithstandin the vie0 of the Abolitionists to the 1ontrary, a very
lare sement of /eo/le, the 0orld over, in1ludin so1ioloist, 8urists, 8udes
and administrators still firmly believe in the 0orth and ne1essity of 1a/ital
/unishment for the /rote1tion of so1iety"B
2he :ourt further observed> 2he Su/reme :ourt should not venture to formulate riid
standers in an area in 0hi1h the leislators so 0earily treadL only broad uidelines 1onsistent
0ith the /oli1y indi1ated by the leislature 1an be laid do0n"
2he ma8ority, ho0ever, e4/ressed the need for liberal 1onstru1tion of mitiatin
fa1tors in the area of death /enalty and held that dinity of human life /ostulates resistan1e to
takin life throuh la0s instrumentality, that ouht not to be done save in rar&s% # rar& /as&s
0hen alternative o/tion is unquestionably fore1losed"
Ceativin the abolitionist=s 1ontention that venean1e 0hi1h is no loner an
a11e/table end of /unishment, that it is 1ontrary to reformation of 1riminal and his
55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
.-
OH+P 7AG 6E%AC SICG% V" S2A23 EF U"P" AIR (.), S: .I)
OH(P !a1han sinh v" state of Pun8ab, AIR (.-+ S: -.-
rehabilitation, and finally that it is inhuman and deradin, the Su/reme :ourt rule that
thouh life im/risonment is the rule, death senten1e must be retained as an e41e/tion for the
offen1e of under Se1tion ,+H, I"P": to be used s/arinly"
Follo0in the rulin laid do0n in Ba/ha$ Si$*h: the Su/reme :ourt u/held the death
senten1e of the a11used in Ma/hi Si$*h a$1 #%h&rs v. S%a%& # P.$7a5,
OHHP
on the round that
the murder 1ommitted 0as of e41e/tionally de/raved and heinous in 1hara1ter and the
manner of its e4e1ution and its desin 0ould /ut it at the level of e4treme atro1ity and
1ruelty" 2he a11used in the instant 1ase had killed t0o inno1ent and hel/less 0omen" 2heir
#ordshi/s of the Su/reme :ourt o/ined that the rar&s% # rar& /as& do1trine 0as 1learly
attra1ted in this 1ase and that senten1e of death 0as /erfe1tly 8ustified"
<hile de1idin, this 1ase$i"e" Ma/hi Si$*h&, the A/e4 :ourt realiNed that the rarest of
rare 1ases do1trine had 1aused Ainner 1onfli1t= in the minds of the 7udes be1ause it 0as left
mu1h to the 8udi1ial dis1retion to de1ide 0hether the 1ase fell 0ithin the 1ateory of rarest of
rare 1ase or not" %en1e the Su/reme :ourt laid do0n a five D/oint formula based on the
manner in 0hi1h the murder 0as 1ommitted and the motive, nature and manitude of the
1rime and the /ersonality of the vi1tim" 2he fa1tors 0hi1h the :ourt 0as e4/e1ted to take into
1onsideration for this /ur/ose may be briefly stated as follo0s>5
(" 2he 4a$$&r in 0hi1h the offen1e of murder 0as 1ommitted" If it 0as 1ommitted
0ith e4treme brutality su1h as burnin the vi1tim alive or 1uttin body into /ie1es,
it 0ould be a fit 1ase to be 1onsideration for this /ur/ose may be briefly states as
follo0s >
H" <hen the 4#%iv& reveals de/ravity and meanness of the murderer e"" 1rime bein
1ommitted for material ain"
," <hen the murder is s#/ia!!8 abhorrent su1h as bride burnin or killin of a %ari8an"
I" <hen the 4a*$i%.1& of the offen1e is enormous as in 1ase or multi/le murders"
..
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OHHP AIR (.-, S: .*)
*" <hen the vi/%i4 is an inno1ent 1hild, a hel/less 0oman, or a re/uted fiure i"e" the
1ase of a /oliti1al murder"
2he :ourt, ho0ever, 1autioned that these uidelines should not be a//lied too literally"
Instead, the 8udes should inter/ret the /rovisions rationally to as1ertain 0hether
1olle1tive 1ons1ien1e of the 1ommunity has been sho1ked and it 0ill e4/e1t the 7ude
to a0ard the death /enalty"
OH,P
2he Su/reme :ourt reiterated its a//roval for death senten1e on1e aain in its de1ision
in Ch#(ra Chi!1r&$
C>GE
murder 1ase" In this 1ase the a11used kul8eet Sinh alias Rana
alon 0ith one 7asbir Sinh a!ias !illa 1ommitted ruesome murder of t0o teenae
1hildren Gita :ho/ra and her brother San8ay in a /rofessional manner and 0as
senten1ed to death by Additional Distri1t 7ude, Delhi" 2he %ih :ourt 1onfirmed the
1onvi1tion and death senten1e 0hereu/on a//ellant moved in a//eal to Su/reme :ourt"
Dismissin the a//eal, the Su/reme :ourt u/held the 1onvi1tion and senten1e of the
a11used on the round that the murder 0as /re/lanned, 1old5blooded and 1ommitted in
most brutal manner, hen1e there 0ere no e4tenuatin 1ir1umstan1es 0arrantin
mitiation of senten1e"
2he Su/reme :ourt in its de1ision in 2"V" Vathees0aran v" State of 2amil Cadu
OH*P
, on1e
aain ruled that /roloned delay in e4e1ution e41eedin t0o years 0ill be a suffi1ient
round to quash death senten1e sin1e it is un8ust, unfair and unreasonable /ro1edure
and only 0ay to undo the 0ron is to quash the death senten1e" 2he :ourt further
observed that the 1ause of delay is immaterial 0hen the senten1e is that of death and a
/erson under senten1e of death may also 1laim fundamental rihts, i"e" /ro1edure under
Arti1le H( must be 8ust, fair and reasonable"
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OH,P Dina v" state of U"P" , AIR (.-, S: ((**
(++
OHIP ;ul8eet sinh alias rana v" union of india , AIR (.-( S: (*)H
OH*P AIR (.-, S: ,J(
!ut soon after in Sh&r Si$*h v. S%a%& # P.$7a5
C>9E
the Su/reme :ourt overruled is
earlier rulin in Vethees0aran=s 1ase" Deliverin the 8udment in this 1ase Chi& -.s%i/&
Mr. 0. V. Cha$1ra/h.1 observed that death /enalty should only be im/osed in rare and
e41e/tional 1ases but any death senten1e u/held by the Su/reme :ourt should no be
allo0ed to be defeated by a//lyin any rule of thumb" 2he learned :ourt further
observed that no hard and fast rule 1an be laid do0n as far as the question of delay 0as
1on1erned" If a /erson 0as allo0ed to resort to frivolous /ro1eedin in order to delay
the e4e1ution of death senten1e, the la0 laid do0n by :ourt on death senten1e 0ould
be1ome an ob8e1t of ridi1ule" 2hus, dismissin the 0rite5/etition the Su/reme :ourt in
this 1ase dire1ted the Pun8ab Government to e4/lain the delay in e4e1ution"
In yet another 1ase, namely, 7aved Ah4a1 A51.!ha4i1 Pa3a!a v" S%a%& #
Maharash%ra
C>,E
, the Su/reme :ort u/held the senten1e of death for a ruesome and
brutal murder" In the instant 1ase the a//ellant 0as 1onvi1ted for multi/le murders" %e
killed his sister5in5la0 aed H, years, his little ni1e aed , years, his baby ne/he0 ae
about one and half years and the minor servant aed about - years" 2he motive of
murders 0as the olden ear5rins and banles of the de1eased" 2he sister5in5la0
sustained H+ stab5in8uries, nie1e H, stab 0ounds, servant - in1ised 0ound and baby
nie1e , in8uries" 2he a11used 0as 1onvi1ted for murder and senten1ed to death" %is
1onvi1tion 0as u/held by the %ih :ourt" %e thereu/on moved an a//eal to the
Su/reme :ourt only on the question of senten1e" Dismissin his a//eal the Su/reme
:ourt, i$%&r a!ia observed>5
?2he a//ellant a1ted like a demon sho0in no mer1y to his hel/less vi1tims three of 0hom
0ere hel/less little 1hildren and one a 0oman" 2he murders 0ere /er/etrated in a 1ruel,
1allous and fiendish fashion" Althouh the a//ellant 0as HH years of ae and the 1ase rested
u/on 1ir1umstantial eviden1e, the :ourt 0ere unable to refuse to /ass the senten1e
5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
(+(
OHJP AIR (.-, S: IJ*
OH)P AIR (.-, S: *.I
of death as it 0ould be stultifyin the 1ourse of la0 and 8usti1e" It 0as truly the rarest of rare
1ases the :ourt had no o/tion but to 1onfirm the senten1e of death"B
In the notorious -#shi-A5h8.$;ar murder 1ase
OH-P
the a11used 1ommitted a series of
ruesome murders durin 7anuary, (.)J and 6ar1h, (.))" 2hey 0ere senten1ed to death by
the trial :ourt 0hi1h 0as 1onfirmed by the !ombay %ih :ourt on ,th A/ril, (.)." 2he
a//ellants thereu/on filed s/e1ial leave /etitions before the Su/reme :ourt for 1ommutation
of death senten1e to one of the life im/risonment as the ?deathB 0as hoverin over their
minds for five years" 20o of the /etitioners, namely, Shanta Ram 7ata/ and 6una0ar Shah
/leaded that durin this /eriod they had 0ritten a book entitled ?Ka!8a$ Mar*H in 6arathi
and translated ?S.;sh4a V8a8a4B 0ritten in 3nlish by Dhirendra !ramha1hari in to
6arathi" Dismissin the /etitions the Su/reme :ourt observed that the book50ritin and
translation 0ork of the /etitioners belied that any s/e1tre of death /enalty 0as hoverin over
their minds durin the /eriod they have been in 8ail" 2herefore any mer1y sho0n in matter of
senten1e 0ould not only be mis/la1ed but 0ill 1ertainly ive rise to and foster a feelin of
/rivate revene amon the /eo/le leadin to destabiliNation of so1iety"
2he Su/reme :ourt in Ra$7i% Si$*h V. U$i#$ T&rrir#%8 # Cha$1i*arh
C>+E
0as on1e aain
1alled u/on to de1ide an a//eal relatin to the question of senten1e" In the instant 1ase,
murder 0as 1ommitted by a//ellant a life 1onvi1t durin /arole" 2he a11used 0as
senten1ed to death on 1onvi1tion under Se1tion ,+,, I"P":" and the 1o5a11used 0as
a0arded life5im/risonment" Areein 0ith the 1ontention of de1eased=s 1ounsel the
Su/reme :ourt 1ommuted the senten1e of death to that of im/risonment for life as
Se1tion ,+,, I"P": had been de1lared un1onstitutional in Mi%h. v. S%a%& # P.$7a5
CB)E
"
2he :ourt held that durin /arole a//ellant should have behaved like a la0 abidin
1itiNen but instead he induled into heinous 1rime of murder hen1e the 1ase fell 0ithin
the 1ateory of rarest of rare 1ases"
5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
(+H
OH-P 6una0ar harun shah v" state of 6aharashtra , AIR (.-, S: *-*
OH.P AIR (.-I S: I*
O,+P AIR (.-, S: I),
Aain, in Mah&sh &%/. v. S%a%& # M.P
CBDE
, the Su/reme :ourt maintainin the senten1e
of death /assed by the %ih :ourt observed>
?it 0ould be mo1kery of 8usti1e to /ermit the a//ellant to es1a/e the e4treme
/enalty of la0 @" and to ive lesser /unishment for the a//ellant 0ould be to
render 8usti1in system of this 1ountry sus/e1t, the 1ommon man 0ould lose
faith in 1ourtsB
In the instant 1ase father and son had a4ed a /erson and three members of his family
and his neihbor 0ho intervened merely be1ause dauhter of that /erson married a %ari8an"
2he Su/reme :ourt held that interferen1e 0ith the senten1e 0as not 1alled for be1ause the a1t
of a//ellants 0as e4tremely brutal, revoltin and ruesome 0hi1h sho1ks the 8udi1ial
1ons1ien1e" 2herefore deterrent /unishment 0as a so1ial ne1essity in this 1ase"
2he Su/reme :ourt in its de1ision in Ashari La! " S#$s v. S%a%& # U.P
CB>E
, on1e aain
u/held the death senten1e of the a11used 0ho 1ommitted re/rehensible and ruesome murder
of t0o inno1ent irls on (I
th
Auust, (.-I to 0re1k their /ersonal venean1e over the dis/ute
they had 0ith reard to /ro/erty 0ith the mother of vi1tims and 1ommen1ed that ?the only
/unishment the a11used deserved 0as nothin but death"B :ommentin on the desirability of
death senten1e the :ourt further observed>
?Failure to im/ose a death senten1e in rave 1ases 0here it is a 1rime aainst the so1iety,
/arti1ularly in 1ase of murders 1ommitted 0ith e4treme brutality 0ill brin to nauht the
senten1e of death /rovided by Se1" ,+H I"P":" it is duty of :ourt to im/ose /ro/er /unishment
de/endin u/on the deree of 1riminality and desirability to im/ose su1h /unishment"B
%o0ever, the e4e1ution of death senten1e by /ubli1 hanin 0as held as barbari1 and
violative of Art" H( of the :onstitution" 3ven if the 7ail 6anual 0ere to /rovide /ubli1
hanin, it 0ould be de1lared un1onstitutional"
O,,P
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
(+,
O,(P AIR (.-) S: (,IJ
O,HP AIR (.-) S: ()H(
O,,P #a1hma devi v" state of ra8asthan , AIR (.-J S: IJ)
In Ka4%a Ti3ari v. Sa%& # M.P,
O,IP
the a11used 1ommitted the ra/e on a seven year old irl
and stranulated her to death" %e thre0 her body in a 0ell and 1aused disa//earan1e of
eviden1e" 2he a11used 0as 1onvi1ted for the offen1e under se1tion ,J,, ,)J, ,+H and H+(,
I"P":" and 0as senten1ed to death by the trial 1ourt and the senten1e 0as maintained by the
hih 1ourt also" In a//eal the su/reme 1ourt u/held the de1ision of the lo0er 1ourts and held
that this is a ?rar&s% # %h& rar& /as&H 0here the senten1e of the death is eminently desirable
not only to deter others from 1ommittin su1h atro1ious 1rimes but also to ive em/hati1
e4/ression to so1iety=s abhorren1e of su1h 1rimes" 2he 1ourt , inter alia , observed >
?!efore o/tin for death /enalty , the 1ir1umstan1es of the Aoffender= also required to
be taken into 1onsideration alon 0ith the 1ir1umstan1es of the 1rime " A balan1e sheet of
aravatin and mitiatin 1ir1umstan1es has to be dra0n u/ and in doin so the mitiatin
1ir1umstan1es have to be a11orded full 0eihtae and a 8ust balan1e has to stru1k bet0een
the aravatin and mitiatin 1ir1umstan1es before the o/inion is e4er1ised"B
In 6ohd" :haman v" State of Delhi
O,*P
, the a11used has 1ommitted ra/e on a minor
irl Ritu aed one and a half years 0hen /arents and t0o sisters 0ere a0ay from
%ome" As a result of this brutal and hastly a1t the 1hild suffered several in8uries and
died" 2he trial :ourt 1onvi1ted the a11used under Se1tion ,+H and ,)J, I"P": and
senten1ed him to death 0hi1h 0as 1onfirmed by the %ih :ourt" Em a//eal, the
Su/reme :ourt held that, 0hen the murder is 1ommitted in an e4tremely brutal,
rotesque, diaboli1al, revoltin or dastardly manner so as to arouse intense and
indination of 1ommunity these should be 1onstrued as aravatin 1ir1umstan1es for
im/osition of death senten1e" In the instant 1ase the 1rime 1ommitted is undoubtedly
serious and heinous and reveals a dirty and /erverted mind of a /erson 0ho has no
1ontrol over his 1arnal desires" !ut takin uidelines laid do0n in !e1han Sinh
$su/ra& the 1ase is one 0hi1h deserves humanist a//roa1h and therefore 1a/ital
senten1e im/osed aainst a//ellant is 1ommuted to im/risonment for life"
(+I
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O,IP AIR (..J S: H-++
O,*P H++( $(& :":r"7" (H( $S:&

In the 1ase of Amit alias Ammu v" State of 6aharashtra
O,JP
, the a11used aed H+ years
$a//ellant& took de1eased, a s1hool irl of about (H years of ae to a se1luded /la1e and
1ommitted ra/e on her and stranulated her to death" %e senten1ed to death by the
Sessions :ourt in vie0 of heinousness of the 1rime and also ordered fine of Rs"
H*,+++U5 to be /aid to the /arents of the 1hild" 2he %ih :ourt 1onfirmed the aforesaid
senten1es on the round that the 1ase full in the 1ateory of rarest of rare 1ase" En
a//eal, the Su/reme :ourt held that 1onvi1tion of the a//ellant for the offen1e under
Se1tion ,+H and ,)J, IP:, has been rihtly re1orded by the :ourt of Session and
affirmed by the %ih :ourt" !ut 1onsiderin that the a//ellant is a youn man of H+
years, he 0as a student and there bein no /revious re1ord of any heinous 1rime and
also there bein no eviden1e that he 0ill be a daner to the so1iety, and 1onsiderin the
1ir1umstan1es of the 1ase and 1umulative fa1ts, the A/e4 :ourt held that the 1ase did
not fall in the 1ateory of Ararest of rare= 1ase and hen1e the senten1e of death 0as
modified to one of im/risonment for life" 2he a//eal 0as therefore allo0ed only to the
e4tent of modifi1ation of senten1e only"
In Dhanan8ay :hatter8ee alias Dhana v" State of <est !enal
O,)P
, the a//ellant 0as
found uilty of 1ommittin ra/e and murder of a s1hool oin (- year old irl in
retaliation for his transfer as a se1urity uard to some other buildin 1om/le4, on the
1om/laint by the de1eased irl to her /arents that the a//ellant 0as testin and
harassin him" %is a//eal havin failed in the %ih :ourt and the Su/reme :ourt and
the mer1y a//eal bein re8e1ted by Governor of <est !enal and also the %on=ble
President of India, he 0as finally haned till death on (I
th
Auust H++I in Ali/ore 7ail
of <est !enal in e4e1ution of his death senten1e" 2he fa1ts of the 1ase 0ere as follo0s
>5
5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
(+*
O,JP AIR H++, S: ,(,(
O,)P :riminal a//eal nos" ,.,5,.I of H++I de1ided on HJ5,5H++I
2he a//ellant 0as se1urity uard de/uted to uard the buildin AAnand A/artments"
De1eased has made 1om/laint about the teasin by the a//ellant to her mother
/reviously also and her father requested to re/la1e the a//ellant and a11ordinly he
0as transferred to Paras a/artment" Anuished from this, the a//ellant entered the
house in the absen1e of other members, 1ommitted ra/e and killed her" She 0as found
dead on the floor 0ith her skirt and blouse /ulled u/ and her /rivate /arts and breast
0ere visible 0ith /at1hes of blood near her head and floor" A11ordin to medi1al
eviden1e, hymen of the de1eased sho0ed fresh tear 0ith fresh blood in the marins and
blood stains on the vaina and matter /ubli1 hair" It is settled la0 that 0hen the 1ase is
based on 1ir1umstantial eviden1es, the motive also ears im/ortan1e" In the
1ir1umstan1es the 1hain of the eviden1e 0as so 1om/lete that it led to the uilt of the
a11used" 2he %ih :ourt rihtly u/held the 1onvi1tion and senten1e of death"
2hus, the ill5fated vi1tim %etal Parekh 0as ra/ed and murder on 6ar1h *, (..+
bet0een *",+ and *"I* P"6" in her Flat Co" ,5A, on the third floor of Anand
A/artment" 2he a//ellant 0as 1hallaned and tried for ra/e and murder and also for an
offen1e under Se1tion ,-+, IP: for 1ommittin theft of a 0rist50at1h from the said flat"
2he learned Additional Sessions 7ude found him uilty and 1onvi1ted the a//ellant $i&
for an offen1e under Se1tion ,+H IP: and senten1ed him to death, $ii& for an offen1e
under Se1tion ,)J, IP: and senten1ed him to im/risonment for life, and $iii& for the
offen1e under Se1tion ,-+ IP:, he 0as senten1es to undero riorous im/risonment for
five years" 2he substantive senten1es under Se1tions ,)J and ,-+, IP: 0ere ordered to
run 1on1urrently but 0ere to 1ease to have any effe1t, in the senten1e of death for
1onvi1tion of the a//ellant under Se1tion ,+H IP: 0as 1onfirmed by the %ih :ourt
and the a//ellant 0as e4e1uted" Referen1e for 1onfirmation of the death senten1e 0as
a11ordinly made to the %ih :ourt" 2he a//ellant also /referred an a//eal aainst his
1onvi1tion and senten1e in the %ih :ourt" 2he 1riminal a//eal filed the a//ellant 0as
(+J
dismissed and the senten1e of death 0as 1onfirmed by the %ih :ourt" En s/e1ial leave
bein ranted, the a//ellant Dhanan8oy :hatter8ee alias Dhana, filed an a//eal"
2here 0ere no eye50itnesses of the o11urren1e and the entire 1ase rested on
1ir1umstantial eviden1e" In a 1ase based on 1ir1umstantial eviden1e, the e4isten1e of
motive assumed sinifi1an1e thouh absen1e of motive does not ne1essarily dis1redit
the /rose1ution 1ase if the 1ase stands other0ise established by other 1on1lusive
1ir1umstan1es and the 1hain of su1h eviden1e is 1om/lete and takes one irresistible
1on1lusion about the uilt of the a11used" In the 1ase there 0as am/le eviden1e on
re1ord to sho0 that the a//ellant had a motive 1ommit the alleed 1rime and therefore,
the :ourt rihtly found the a11used uilty of aforesaid offen1es" As1endan1e of the
a11used after the o11urren1e, thouh not by itself suffi1ient to /rove the uilt of the
a11used, 0as suffi1ient to su//ort the 1ase aainst him" 2he :ourt, therefore, re8e1ted
the belated and vaue /lea a alibi 0hi1h it 1onsidered to be only an afterthouht and a
/lea in des/air" 2he :ourt held that /rose1ution has su11essfully established that the
a//ellant alone 0as uilty of 1ommittin ra/e of %etal and subsequently murderin
her"
As to the question of senten1e, the trial :ourt a0arded the senten1e of death
and the %ih :ourt 1onfirmed the im/osition of 1a/ital /unishment for the offen1e
under Se1tion ,+H of IP: for the murder of %etal Paresh" #earned 1ounsel submitted
that a//ellant 0as a married man of H) years of ae and there 0ere no s/e1ial reasons
to a0ard the senten1e of death on him" It 0as further submitted that kee/in in vie0 the
leislative /oli1y dis1ernible from Se1tion H,*$H& read 0ith Se1tion ,*I$,& of :r"P":",
the :ourt may make the 1hoi1e of not im/osin the e4treme /enalty of death on the
a//ellant and ive him a 1han1e to be1ome a reformed member of the so1iety in
kee/in 0ith the 1on1ern for the dinity of human life" 2he learned 1ounsel for the
State, on the other hand 1anvassed for 1onfirmation of the senten1e of death do that it
(+)
serves as a deterrent to similar de/raved minds" A11ordin to the learned State 1ounsel
there 0ere no mitiatin 1ir1umstan1es and the 1ase 0as undoubtedly rarest of the rare
1ases 0here the senten1e of death alone 0ould meet the ends of 8usti1e"
2he :ourt observed as follo0s >5
<e have iven our an4ious 1onsideration to the question of senten1e kee/in
in vie0 the 1haned leislative /oli1y 0hi1h is /atent from Se1tion ,*I$,& :r" P":" 0e
have also 1onsidered the observations of this :ourt in !a1han Sinh v" State of
Pun8ab
O,-P
" !ut in re1ent years, the risin 1rime rate5 /arti1ularly violent 1rime aainst
0omen has made the 1riminal senten1in by the 1ourts a sub8e1t of 1on1ern" 2oday
there are admitted dis/arities" Some 1riminals et very harsh senten1es 0hile many
re1eive rossly different senten1e for an essentially equivalent 1rime and a sho1kinly
lare number even o un/unished thereby en1ourain the 1riminal and in the ultimate
makin 8usti1e suffer by 0eakenin the system=s 1redibility" Ef 1ourse, it is not /ossible
to lay do0n any 1ut and dry formula relatin to im/osition of senten1e but the ob8e1t of
senten1in should be to see that the 1rime does not to un/unished and the vi1tim of
1rime as also the so1iety has the satisfa1tion that 8usti1e has been done to it" In
im/osin senten1es in the absen1e of s/e1ifi1 leislation, 7udes must 1onsider variety
of fa1tors and after 1onsiderin all those fa1tors and takin an overall vie0 of the
situation, im/ose senten1e 0hi1h they 1onsider to be an a//ro/riate one" Aravatin
fa1tors 1annot be inored and similarly mitiatin 1ir1umstan1es have also to be taken
into 1onsideration"
0.1 T,. C!+) &+),. !1".2.% 3
In our o/inion, the measure of /unishment in a iven 1ase must de/end u/on
atro1ity of the 1rimeL the 1ondu1t of the 1riminal and the defenseless and
un/rote1ted state of the vi1tim" Im/osition of a//ro/riate /unishment is the
manner in 0hi1h the 1ourts res/ond to the so1iety=s 1ry for 8usti1e aainst the
1riminals" 7usti1e demands that 1ourts should im/ose /unishment befittin the
1rime so that the 1ourts refle1t /ubli1 abhorren1e of the 1rime" 2he 1ourts must
not only kee/ in vie0 the riht of the of the 1riminal but also the rihts of the
(+-
vi1tim of 1rime and the so1iety at lare 0hile 1onsiderin im/osition of
a//ro/riate /unishment"
5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O,-P AIR (.-+ S: -.-
A11ordin to the %on=ble :ourt, the sordid e/isode of the se1urity uard, 0hose sa1red duty
0as to ensure the /rote1tion and 0elfare of the inhabitants of the flats in the a/artment,
should have sub8e1ted the de1eased, a resident of one of the flats, to ratify his 8ust and
murder her in retaliation for his transfer on her 1om/laint, makes the 1rime even more
heinous" ;ee/in in vie0 the medi1al eviden1e and the state in 0hi1h the body of the
de1eased 0as found" It is obvious that a most heinous ty/e of barbari1 ra/e and murder 0as
1ommitted on a hel/less and defenseless s1hool5oin irl of (- years" If the se1urity uards
behave in this manner 0ho 0ill uard the uardsM 2he faith of the so1iety by su1h a barbari1
a1t of the uard ets totally shaken and its 1ry for 8usti1e be1omes loud and 1lear" 2he offen1e
0as not only inhuman and barbari1 but it 0as totally ruthless 1rime of ra/e follo0ed by 1old
blooded murder and an affront to the human dinity of the so1iety" 2he savae nature of the
1rime has sho1ked our 8udi1ial 1ons1ien1e" 2here are no e4tenuatin or mitiatin
1ir1umstan1e 0hatsoever in the 1ase" <e aree that a real and abidin 1on1ern for the dinity
of human life is required to be ke/t in mind by the :ourts 0hile 1onsiderin the 1onfirmation
of the senten1e of death but a 1old blooded /re/lanned brutal murder, 0ithout any
/rovo1ation, after 1ommittin ra/e on an inno1ent and defenseless youn irl of (- years, by
the se1urity uard 1ertainly makes this 1ase a rarest of the rare 1ases 0hi1h 1alls for no
/unishment other than the 1a/ital /unishment and 0e a11ordinly 1onfirm the senten1e of
death im/osed u/on the a//ellant for the offen1e under Se1tion ,+H, IP:" 2he order of
Se1tion im/osed on the a//ellant by the 1ourts belo0 for offen1es under Se1tions ,)J and
,-+, IP: are also 1onfirmed alon 0ith the dire1tions relatin thereto as in the event of the
e4e1ution of the a//ellant, those senten1es 0ould only remain of a1ademi1 interest" 2his
a//eal fails and is hereby dismissed"
As a last dit1h to save his life, the a//ellant filed a mer1y a//eal 0ith the %on=ble
President of India 0hi1h 0as re8e1ted by an order of the President dated I
th
Auust H++(,
(+.
2hereafter, the brother of the a//ellant filed a /etition in the Su/reme :ourt seekin stay of
Dhanan8oy=s e4e1ution of death senten1e" !ut the five D8ude !en1h of the A/e4 :ourt
refused to revie0 the President=s de1ision to re8e1t a//ellant=s mer1y /etition" :onsequently,
Dhanan8oy=s death senten1e 0as e4e1uted in Ali/ore :entral 7ail in <est !enal on (I
th
Auust H++I by hanin him till death"
Dhanan8ay=s 1ase is undoubtedly a trend5setter in the history of 1a/ital /unishment in
India and 1learly indi1ates that the /rin1i/le laid do0n in !a1han Sinh=s 1ase i"e" rarest of
rare 1ase is best suited to the so1io5millieu of the Indian so1iety even in the /resent H(
st
1entury"
In sura8 Ram v" State of Ra8asthan
O,.P
L the a11used brutally murdered his real brother,
brother=s t0o sons and aunt 0hile they 0ere aslee/" %e also attem/ted to murder brother=s
0ife and dauhter" 2he Su/reme :ourt u/held the senten1e of death as the murder 0ere
1ommitted in a 1ool and 1al1ulated manner and 0ithout any /rovo1ation" 2herefore, it 1learly
fell in the 1ateory of rarest of rare 1ases"
2he Su/reme :ourt in ;rishan v" State of %aryana
OI+P
L de1lined to hold that the
a//ellant=s 1ase fell in the 1ateory of rarest of rare 1ases, and therefore, 1ommuted death
senten1e to one of life im/risonment" In the 1ase, the a11used 0as already servin a senten1e
of life Dim/risonment" In this 1ase, the a11used 0as already servin a senten1e of life5
im/risonment for a murder and he 0as found uilty of 1ommittin another murder of a
/erson 0ith 0hom he had a /ro/erty dis/ute 0hile he 0as released on /arole" 2he :ourt
ruled that undoubtedly felonious /ro/ensity of offender is a fa1tor 0hi1h requires
1onsideration for the senten1e of death but that 1annot be made the sole basis for a0ard of
death senten1e as all other fa1tors su1h as motive, manner and manitude should also be
taken into 1onsideration"
((+
In Ra8a Ram 'adav F others v" State of !ihar
OI(P
, the a//ellants $eiht in number&
5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O,.P AIR (..) S: (-
OI+P AIR (..) S: H*.-
OI(P AIR (..J S: (J(,
0ere 1hared for 1ommittin /remeditated murder of si4 /ersons in a 1ool and 1al1ulated
manner 0ith e4treme 1ruelty and brutality under Se1tion ,+H, I,J read 0ith Se1tion (I- and
(H+5!, I"P": 2he in1ident o11urred 0hen a rou/ of /ersons 1ommitted mass massa1re of HJ
/ersons out of 0hi1h H* belon to one 1ommunity and H+ of them also beloned to the same
family in the villae !haora, Poli1e Station 6adan/ur, Dist5 Auranabad on the niht of ,+
th
6ay, (.-)" 2he 1onvi1tion 0as based on the testimony of solitary 1hild 0itness 0ho 0as five
year old son of one of the de1eased" %is de/osition 0as held 1onvin1in and reliable" 2he
Su/reme :ourt ruled that normally senten1e of death 0as 0holly 8ustified kee/in in vie0
the s/e1ial fa1ts of the 1ase, but it 0ill not be /ro/er to a0ard e4treme senten1e of death on
the a//ellants hen1e it 0ould be /ro/er to 1ommute the death senten1e to one of the life
im/risonment"
Aain, in the 1ase of Ashok ;umar v" 2he State of Delhi Administration
OIHP
, the
alleations aainst the a11used 0ere that he 0as havin illi1it relations 0ith 1o5a11used and
killed her husband in a room of hotel by strikin him 0ith stone" 2he %ih :ourt enumerated
as many as eleven 1ir1umstantial eviden1e aainst the a//ellant and s/elt out the 1ase to be
rarest of rare one" 2he Su/reme :ourt held the vie0 that a//ellant 0as rihtly 1onvi1ted of
the offen1e under Se1tion ,+H, I"P": as the 1hain of 1ir1umstan1e fully established the uilt of
the a11used" %o0ever, on the /oint of senten1e, the A/e4 :ourt observed that the a1t of
strikin the de1eased 0ith a handy stone and 1ausin the death 1annot be said to be so 1ruel,
unusual or diaboli1 0hi1h 0ould 0arrant death /enalty" 2herefore, the :ourt 1ommuted the
death senten1e of the a//ellant to that of im/risonment for life"
In Renuka !ai alias Rinku alias Ratan and another v" State of 6aharashtra
OI,P
, the
a//ellants Renuka and Seema, both sister, their mother An8alibai, a 1o5a11used 0ho died in
(..) and a//rover ;iran Shinde $husband of Renuka& all belonin to Pune used to 1ommit
(((
thefts by snat1hin the old 1hains in restively or 1ro0ded and made a livin out of the
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OIHP AIR (..J S: HJ*
OI,P AIR H++J S: ,+*J
in1ome derived from su1h thefts" 2hey used to have a 1hild 0ith them at the time of
1ommittin the 1rime so that by makin use of 1hild they 0ould easily es1a/e from the
1ro0s" So all of them used to enter into a 1ons/ira1y to kidna/ small 1hildren belo0 * years
of ae and make use of them 0henever ne1essary and dis/ose them of 0hen they 0ere no
loner useful" In this manner they killed as many as . 1hildren durin the /eriod 7une" (..+
to E1tober, (..J" 2hey 0ere 1onvi1ted on various 1ounts and the t0o a11used Renuka and
Seema 0ere senten1ed to death by the Sessions :ourt and their senten1e 0as 1onfirmed by
the %ih :ourt" 2he a//rover ;iran Shinde had also kidna//ed (, 1hildren and 1aused death
of . out of them" 2he a//ellants 0ere found uilty of uilty of offen1es under se1tion ,JI
read 0ith Se1tion (H+ D! of IP: and also se1tion, ,H, IP:"
In a//eal aainst the death senten1e, the Su/reme :ourt held that there 0ere no
mitiatin 1ir1umstan1e in favor of the a//ellants, e41e/t for the fa1t that they 0ere 0omen"
!ut the nature of the 1rime and the systemati1 0ay in 0hi1h ea1h 1hild 0as kidna//ed and
killed am/ly demonstrated the de/ravity of the mind of the a//ellants" 2he a//ellants 0ere
1learly a mena1e to the so1iety and the /eo/le of the lo1ality 0ere 1om/letely horrified and
1ould not send their 1hildren even to s1hool" 2he :ourt observed, 0e are alive to the ne0
trends in the senten1in system in 1riminoloy, but 0e do not think that a//ellants are likely
to reform" 2herefore, their 1onvi1tion and death senten1e 0as 1onfirmed and the stay of
e4e1ution of 1a/ital /unishment im/osed on them 0as va1ated"
In 6ahendra Cath Das v" State of Assam
OIIP
, the a//ellant $a11used& 0as a youn
man, 0ho killed the de1eased and 1ho//ed off the hands and head of the dead body"
2hereafter, he 1ame to the /oli1e station alon 0ith the 1ho//ed hand and head of the
de1eased to make a 1onfession of his offen1e" 2he Su/reme :ourt 1onsidered this murder as
the rarest of rare 1ase and u/held the death senten1e of the a11used" 2he :ourt re8e1ted the
((H
/lea that the a11used 0as a youn man havin liability of his three youn unmarried sisters
and ae5old /arents 0ho 0ere solely de/endent on him"
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OIIP $(...& * S:R (+H
In the 1ase of Prem Saar v" Dharambir F others
OI*P
, the a11used 0ere senten1ed to life
im/risonment for 1ommittin murder by intentionally 1ausin death of the de1eased in
furtheran1e of 1ommon intention under Se1tion ,+HU,I I"P": In a//eal aainst the senten1e
by the informant, the Su/reme :ourt held that undoubtedly, brutality is inbuilt in every
murder but in the 1ase of every murder death senten1e is not im/osed be1ause life
im/risonment is the rule and death senten1e is the e41e/tion" 2he senten1e of death is
im/osable in rarest of rare 1ases" 2he :ourt further noted that havin taken into
1onsideration the mitiatin 1ir1umstan1es indi1ated by the %ih :ourt, there 0as no s1o/e
for interferen1e and alterin the senten1e of life im/risonment to one of the death senten1e"
2he 1onvi1tion of a11used Dharambir 0as, therefore, affirmed" 2he :ourt, ho0ever, ordered
a1quittal of the a11used ;arambir be1ause the /rose1ution did not link him 0ith the
o11urren1e and, therefore, his 1onvi1tion 0as not 8ustified"
2he Su/reme :ourt in Sushil 6urmu v" state of 7harkhand
OIJP
, reiterated the rarest of rare 1ase
do1trine and held, 0hen 1olle1tive 1ons1ien1e of the 1ommunity is sho1ked and it 0ill e4/e1t
the holders of the 8udi1ial /o0er 1entre to infli1t death /enalty irres/e1tive of their /ersonal
o/inion as reards desirability of other0ise of retainin death /enalty, death senten1e must be
a0arded" In this 1ase the a//ellant sa1rifi1ed a 1hild of nine years before the deity ;ali by
beheadin him, for his o0n /ros/erity" 2he non51hallant 0ay in 0hi1h he 1arried the severed
head in a unny ba and thre0 it in the /ond unerrinly sho0s that the a1t 0as diaboli1 of
most su/erlative deree in 1on1e/tion and 1ruel in e4e1ution, /arti1ularly 0hen the a//ellant
$a11used& 0as havin his o0n 1hild of the same ae" 2he Su/reme :ourt dismissed the
a//eal and laid do0n the test to determine as to 0hat 1ases may be 1overed under the rarest
of rare rule" A11ordin to the A/e4 :ourt the follo0in 1ases 0ould attra1t the rarest of rare
1ases rule to 8ustify im/osition of death senten1e >5
((,
(" <hen the murder is 1ommitted in an e4tremely brutal, rotesque, diaboli1al, revoltin
or dastardly manner so as to arouse intense and e4treme indination of the 1ommunity
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OI*P AIR H++I S: H(
OIJP AIR H++I S: ,.I
H" 2he murder is 1ommitted for a motive 0hi1h evin1es total de/ravity and meanness L
," <hen murder is that of a member of S1heduled :ast or minority 1ommunity L
I" <hen murder is in enormous /ro/ortion i"e", several /ersons are murdered L
*" <hen the vi1tim of murder is an inno1ent 1hild or a hel/less 0oman or an old or
infirm /erson"
2he :ourt ruled that death /enalty should be the only /unishment to be a0arded in the
aforesaid 1ase"
In the 1ase of %oliram !ordoloi v" State of Assam
OI)P
, the Su/reme :ourt 1onfirmed the death
senten1e in the /e1uliar 1ir1umstan1es of the 1ase" 2he :ourt listed out the aravatin
1ir1umstan1es aainst the a11used and held >5
$a& this is a 1ase 1old5blooded murderL
$b& the a11used 0as leadin the anL
$1& the vi1tims did not 1ontribute or /rovoke the in1identL
$d& t0o vi1tims 0ere burnt to death by lo1kin the house from outsideL
$e& one of the vi1tims 0as a youn 1hild of about J years of ae, 0ho someho0,
manaed to 1ome out of the burnin house, but he 0as mer1ilessly thro0n
ba1k to the fire by the a//ellant $a11used&L
$f& the drain of Caarmol !ordoloi by the a11used %oliram to his house and
the 1uttin him into /ie1es in broad dayliht in the /resen1e of bystanders
refle1ted on the de/ravity and barbarity of the offender L
((I
$& the 0hole in1ident took /la1e in broad dayliht and the 1rime 0as 1ommitted
in a most barbari1 manner to deter others from 1hallenin the su/rema1y of
the a//ellant $a11used& in the villaeL
$h& the entire in1ident 0as /re5/lanned by the a11used %oliram"
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OI)P :riminal a//eal no" (+J,UH++I de1ided on a/ril -, H++*
In absen1e of any mitiatin 1ir1umstan1e in favor of the a//ellant $a11used&, the A/e4 :ourt
u/held the death senten1e 0hi1h in its o/inion 0as the only a//ro/riate /unishment in vie0
of the fa1ts of the 1ase"
In Satyendra v" State of Uttar Pradesh
OI-P
, the a11used /ersons 0ho 0ere variously
armed 1ame in rou/ by usin 1ars and motor 1y1les and inter1e/ted a bus kno0in fully
0ell that de1eased 0ere travelin in that bus" 2hey entered the bus from both doors 0ithout
ivin an o//ortunity to de1eased /ersons to es1a/e, and killed them on the s/ot" 20o
de1eased 0ho tries to es1a/e from the bus, 0ere 1hased by a11used and killed" 2he medi1al
re/ort testified death by un5fires" 2he a11used 0ere 1onvi1ted under Se1tion (I.U,+H
$unla0ful assembly and murder& and senten1ed to death by the trial :ourt 0hi1h 0as
affirmed by the %ih :ourt" In a//eal, the Su/reme :ourt held that senten1in the a11used to
death 0as not /ro/er be1ause various overt a1ts of individual a11used /ersons 0ere not
established" 2herefore, the death senten1e 0as 1onverted to im/risonment for life"
In the 1ase of 7ay ;umar v" State of 6adhya Pradesh
OI.P
, the a11used 0as a youn man
of HH years of ae 0ho attem/ted to ra/e his sister5in5la0 $!habhi& but havin failed in his
attem/t, he murdered her and haned her mutilated head on a tree" %e also murdered the -
years old dauhter of the de1eased 0ho 0as the sole 0itness to this in1ident" 2he Su/reme
:ourt re8e1ted the a//eal and u/held the death senten1e on the round that the double murder
0as 1ommitted in a brutal and ruesome manner and deserved no lenien1y in the a0ard of
senten1e"
((*
In 6olai F another v" State of 6adhya Pradesh
O*+P
, the Su/reme :ourt u/held the
death senten1e of the t0o a11used and e4/ressed a vie0 that the 1ase squarely fell in the
1ateory of one of the rarest of rare 1ase" 2he fa1ts of the 1ase 0ere as follo0s >5
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OI-P AIR H++I S: ,*+-
OI.P $(...& * S:: (
O*+P AIR H+++ S: ())
2he vi1tim, a irl named Caveen aed (J years 0as alone in her home and 0as
/re/arin for her Wth 1lass e4amination" Suddenly both the a11used takin advantae of her
bein alone in the in the house entered the house and 1ommitted the shameful a1t of ra/e and
stranulated her by usin her underarment and thereafter took her to the se/ti1 tank alone
0ith the 1y1le and 1aused in8uries 0ith a shar/ eded knife" 2he a11used further e4hibited the
1riminality in their 1ondu1t by thro0in the dead body into the se/ti1 tank totally
disreardin the res/e1t for a human dead5body" 2he trial 1ourt 1onvi1ted the a11used for
ra/e and murder under Se1tions ,)* and ,++ and senten1ed them to death" 2he %ih :ourt
u/held the 1onvi1tion in a//eal" In a//eal, the A/e4 1ourt held that 1ounsel for the a11used
$a//ellants& 1ould not /oint any mitiatin 1ir1umstan1e 0hi1h 0ould 8ustify redu1tion of the
senten1eL hen1e the 1ase 1learly fell in the 1ateory 0ould 8ustify redu1tion of the senten1eL
hen1e the 1ase 1learly fell in the 1ateory of rarest of rare 1ase and death senten1e 0as the
only /ro/er /unishment in the instant 1ase"
2he Su/reme :ourt in Ram Deo :hauhan and another v" State of Assam
O*(P
, reiterated
that 1ommission of the murder in a brutal manner on a hel/less 1hild or the 0oman in a /re5
/lanned manner 8ustify the im/osition of ma4imum /enalty of death senten1e" In this 1ase the
a11used 1aused death of four /ersons of a family in a very 1ruel, heinous and dastardly
manner" %is 1onfessional statement sho0ed that he 1ommitted these murders after /revious
/lannin 0hi1h involved e4treme brutality" Under the 1ir1umstan1es, the :ourt held that the
/lea that the a11used 0as a youn /erson at the time of o11urren1e 1annot be 1onsidered as
mitiatin 1ir1umstan1e and therefore, death senten1e im/osed on the a11used 1annot be
interfered 0ith" 2he :ourt further observed>
((J
It is true that in a 1iviliNed so1iety a tooth for tooth, and a nail for nail or death for
death is not the rule but it is equally true that 0hen a man be1omes a beast and
mena1e to the so1iety, he 1an be de/rived of his life a11ordin to the /ro1edure
established by la0, as :onstitution itself has re1oniNed the death senten1e as a
/ermissible /unishment"
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O*(P AIR H+++ S: HJ).
2he A/e4 :ourt reiterated that in offen1es /unishable 0ith death, life senten1e is the rule and
death senten1e is e41e/tion, but the /resent 1ase is an e41e/tional 1ase 0hi1h 0arrants the
a0ard of death senten1e to the a11used" 2he a//eal 0as, therefore, dismissed"
In the 1ase of Govindas0ami V" State of 2amil Cadu
O*HP
, the Su/reme :ourt s/eakin
throuh 6uker8ee, 7" observed that, in 1ase of murder 1ommitted in a ruesome brutal and
1al1ulated manner, de1linin to 1onfirm death senten1e 0ill stultify the 1ourse of la0 and
8usti1e" 2he 1ommutation of death senten1e to life im/risonment in su1h 1ase 0ill be yieldin
s/asmodi1 sentiment, unreulated benevolen1e and mis/la1ed sym/athy"
2he Su/reme :ourt in !ablu alias 6ubarak %ussain v" State of Ra8asthan
O*,P
, held
that, a 1ase 0ould fall in the 1ateory of rarest of rare 1ases 0hen the 1olle1tive 1ons1ien1e of
the 1ommunity is so sho1ked that it 0ill e4/e1t the holders of the 8udi1ial /o0er to infli1t
death /enalty irres/e1tive of their /ersonal o/inion as reards desirability or other0ise of
retainin death /enalty" 2he senten1e of death is 8ustifies 0hen the 1rime is enormous in
/ro/ortion and the a11used has 1ommitted multi/le murders of all members of his o0n family
in a 1ruel manner"
In the instant 1ase, the a//ellant $a11used& killed his 0ife, three dauhters aed ., J
and I years and son aed t0o and half years in the evenin of .5(H5H++* by stranulation
one by one and after 1ommittin the brutal a1t 1ame out of his house shoutin that I have
killed the five bastards" 2he a11used made a e4tra 8udi1ial 1onfession of his ruesome a1t
before four /rose1ution 0itnesses and he 0as the only /erson in the house besides the five
(()
vi1tims of his hastly a1t" 2he a11used /leaded the defense of drunkenness under Se1tion -*
I"P":"
Re8e1ted the defense /lea, the A/e4 :ourt held that merely be1ause the a//ellant
1laim to be in a state of drunkenness at the relevant /oint of time, that does not in any 0ay
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O*HP AIR (..- S: (.,,
O*,P AIR H++) S: J.)
dilute the ravity of his offen1e be1ause he killed five /ersons one after another in1ludin his
0ife and four youn 1hildren" 2he 1ase squarely falls under rarest of rare 1ases and therefore
the senten1e of death a0arded to the a//ellant by the Sessions :ourt, Ca/ur and affirmed by
the %ih :ourt needs no interferen1e" 2he :ourt reiterated that 1onvi1tion 1an be based solely
on 1ir1umstantial eviden1e 0hen the /rose1ution has /roved beyond doubt that the 1hain is
1om/lete and there is no infirmity or la1una 0hi1h 1ould be 1ured by false defense or /lea
O*IP
"
In the 1ase of #a4man Caik v" State of Erissa
O**P
, it 0as 1on1lusively /roved on the
basis of 1ir1umstantial eviden1e that the a11used 1ommitted ra/e on his brother=s dauhter
aed ) years in a lonely /la1e in forest and thereafter murdered her" 2he eviden1e on re1ord
indi1ated lo0 diaboli1ally the a11used had 1on1eived of his /lan and brutally e4e1uted it, and
su1h a 1al1ulated, 1old5blooded and brutal murder of a irl of a very tender ae after
1ommittin ra/e on her 0ould undoubtedly fall in the 1ateory of rarest of rare 1ase attra1tin
no other /unishment than the 1a/ital /unishment"
2he A/e4 :ourt in this 1ase held that in8uries 1aused on the /erson of the murdered
1hild and the blood5soaked underarments found near the body 1om/leted the 1hain of
eviden1e as not to leave any doubt about the se4ual assault follo0ed by brutal, mer1iless,
dastardly and monstrous murder 0hi1h the a//ellant had 1ommitted" 2he irl of the tender
ae of ) years fell /rey of the lust of the a11used 0hi1h sends sho1kin 0aves not to the
8udi1ial 1ons1ien1e but to everyone havin slihtest sense of human values and /arti1ularly to
the blood relations and the so1iety at lare" 2he :ourt, therefore, u/held the senten1e of death
/assed on the a11used $a//ellant& and the a//eal 0as dismissed"
((-
In a similar 1ase of Amrit Sinh v" State of Pun8ab
O*JP
, the a//ellant $a11used&aed ,(
0as 1onvi1ted for the offen1e of ra/e and murder under Se1tion ,)J and ,+H of IP: and
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O*IP State of U"P" v" Ashok ;umar Srivastava AIR (..H S: -I+, AIR (.-I S: (JHH et1
O**P AIR (..* S: (,-)
O*JP AIR H++) S: (,H
senten1ed to death by the Additional Sessions 7ude, 6ansa 0hi1h 0as affirmed by the
Pun8ab %ih :ourt" In a//eal aainst this senten1e, the Su/reme :ourt de1lined to treat the
1ase as rarest of rare and held that the ra/e and murder of the de1eased )U- year irl 0as no
doubt but it 1ould have been a momentary la/se on the /art of a//ellant $a11used&, seein a
lonely irl at a se1luded /la1e" %e had no /re5meditation for 1ommittin the offen1e" 2he
offen1e may look to be heinous, but under no 1ir1umstan1es, it 1an be said to be a rarest of
rare 1ase" 2he :ourt, therefore, allo0ed the a//eal to the e4tent that ma4imum senten1e of
riorous im/risonment for life be im/osed instead of death senten1e"
In the 1ase of a//ellant on ,5((5H++, found the de1eased irl Ra8 Preet ;aur $Guddi&
aed )U- years returnin alone from the house of her 1lassmate at about *",+ /"m" %e ra/ed
her in his 1otton field and thereafter murdered her brutally and 1overed the dead body 0ith
dry leaves" In8uries 0ere also found on the de1eased irl=s ne1k and mouth" 2he eviden1e that
the a11used 0as last seen 0ith the de1eased irl 0as 1orroborative of his involvement in the
brutal ra/e and murder of an inno1ent hel/less female 1hild"
In ;ul0inder Sinh v" State of Pun8ab
O*)P
, the a11used infli1ted andasi blo0s on the
ne1k of vi1tims, %ardi/ ;aur and 7oinder ;aur, 0ho re1eived serious in8uries and died" 2he
eviden1e sho0ed that the a11used had entered the fodder5room of the %aveli for 1ommittin
ra/e u/on %ardi/ ;au and 0hen she resisted, he stranulated her by /uttin her 1hunni
around" Sin1e 7oinder ;aur 0as a//roa1hin the fodder5room seein the a11used
malhandlin %ardi/, she 0as obviously an eye50itness to the 1rime, hen1e a11used stru1k
blo0s on her ne1k so that no 0itness is left to his offen1e" 2he in1iden1e o11urred on I5-5
H++H at H",+ P"6" and the F"I"R 0as loed immediately at * /"m" En the basis of medi1al
((.
re/ort and finer/rint of the a11used the Session :ourt 1onvi1ted him for the offen1e under
Se1tion ,++U,+H and senten1es him to death by its 8udment dated H(5(+5H++," 2he %ih
:ourt maintained the 1onvi1tion but set aside the death senten1e and remitted the matter to
555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O*)P AIR H++) S: H-J-
the Sessions 7ude to re1onsider the quantum of senten1e" 2he a//ellant filed an a//eal
aainst this order of the %ih :ourt by 0ay of s/e1ial leave to the Su/reme :ourt"
2he defense /lea 0as that there 0ere (I in8uries on the body of %ardi/ and (J in8uries
on the body of 7oinder ;aur and so many in8uries 1ould not /ossibly be 1aused by a sinle
/erson, i"e" a11used" %en1e there must have been more than one /ersons 0ho atta1ked the
vi1tims" Re8e1tin the /lea, the :ourt u/held the 1onvi1tion of the a//ellant under Se1tion
,+H IP: but redu1ed the senten1e to life im/risonment sin1e it a//eared to the :ourt that the
1rime 0as 1ommitted in a fit of /assion and does not 1ome 0ithin the 1ateory of rarest of
rare 1ases"
In a 1riminal a//eal
O*-P
aainst the 8udment rendered by a Division !en1h of the
Ra8asthan %ih :ourt at 7odh/ur on (("H"(..- to the Su/reme :ourt by both a//ellants and
the res/ondents, the A/e4 :ourt 0as 1alled u/on to de1ide the /ro/riety of alteration of
1onvi1tion of * a11used from Se1tion ,+H read 0ith Se1tion (I., (I- and ,I( of IP: to
Se1tion ,+I5Iread 0ith Se1tion (I., (I- and ,I(, IP:" 2he a11used 0ere found uilty of
1ommittin murder by beatin the de1eased 0ith lathis and a4es on a trifle issue of damae of
1ro/ by oats enterin into their fields" 2his had resulted into instantaneous death of the
de1eased" 2he %ih :ourt found no rievous in8uries havin been found on the body of the
de1eased, altered the 1onvi1tion of the a11used under Se1tion ,+H to one of ,+I Part I, IP:
and redu1ed the senten1e to the /eriod underone $i"e" si4 years& but enhan1ed the amount of
fine from Rs" H+++U5 to Rs" (+,+++U5 to be /aid to the 0ido0 of the de1eased as 1om/ensation"
2he Su/reme :ourt em/hasiNin the /rin1i/le of /ro/ortion bet0een 1rime and /unishment
(H+
held that im/osition of senten1e 0ithout 1onsiderin its effe1t on the so1ial order in many
1ases may be in reality a futile e4er1ise" 2he :ourt observed >
2he so1ial im/a1t of 1rime e"" 0here it relates to offen1es aainst 0omen, da1oity,
kidna//in, misa//ro/riation of /ubli1 money, treason and other offen1es involvin moral
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O*-P Adu ramv" 6ukna F others, 1riminal a//eal no" JIJ F JI)U(... de1ided by the su/reme 1ourt
tur/itude or moral delinquen1y 0hi1h have reat im/a1t on so1ial order and /ubli1 interest
1annot be lost siht of and /er se require e4em/lary treatment" Any liberal attitude by
im/osin meaer senten1es or takin to sym/atheti1 vie0 merely on a11ount of la/se of time
in res/e1t of su1h offen1es 0ill be result50ise 1ounter /rodu1tive in the lon run and aainst
so1ietal interest 0hi1h needs to be 1ared for and strenthened by strin of deterren1e inbuilt
in the senten1in system"
Allo0in the a//eals /artly, the :ourt held that 1ustodial senten1e of si4 year 0ould
serve the ends of 8usti1e althouh normally the senten1e for 1onvi1tion for offen1e relatable
de Se1t" ,+I5I, IP: 0ould be more" !ut this is a 1ase 0hi1h a1tually falls under ,+I5II, IP:
thouh there is no a//eal on behalf of a11used /ersons in this reard" 2he enhan1ed fine must
be /aid 0ithin t0o months and default 1ustodial senten1e 0ill be t0o years= riorous
im/risonment"
In Union of India and others v" Devendra Cath
O*.P
, the a11used 0as a0arded death
senten1e for havin 1aused homi1idal death of t0o army /ersonnel and rievous in8uries to
others in :ourt martial /ro1eedins" 2he a11used 0as tried for four 1hares se1tion . of the
Army A1t for the 1hared of murder $Se1tion ,+H of IP:& and attem/t to murder" 2he De/uty
Advo1ate General 0as of the vie0 that the eviden1e on re1ord 1learly established the uilt of
the a11used and this bein a rarest of rare 1ase, he deserved the senten1e of death" %is
senten1e 0as 1onfirmed by the 7ude Advo1ate General and also by the :entral Government"
En a 0rit a//li1ation filed in the %ih :ourt of Allahabad aainst this senten1e, the :ourt
held that the 1onvi1tion 0as 0ell merited, but felt that the 1ase did not fall 0ithin the
(H(
1ateory of rarest of rare 1ases and therefore, dire1ted the authorities to /ass a fresh order on
the question of senten1e"
2he :entral Government moved in a//eal aainst this order of the %ih :ourt to the
Su/reme :ourt" 2he A/e4 :ourt held that in the instant 1ase, the %ih :ourt has not
5555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
O*.P H++J S::# 1om H)
attem/ted to do the e4er1ise of dra0in a balan1e5sheet of aravatin and mitiatin
1ir1umstan1es of the 1ase and had 1ome to an abru/t 1on1lusion about the 1ase bein not
1overed by the rarest of rare rule" 2he 1ase 0as, therefore, remitted to the %ih :ourt to
1onsider the matter of senten1e afresh and a0ard the a//ro/riate senten1e" 2he :ourt ruled
that 0hile dra0in a balan1e5sheet of aravatin and mitiatin 1ir1umstan1es, the
mitiatin 1ir1umstan1es should be a11orded full 0eihtae before the o/tion of a0ard of
death senten1e is e4er1ised" 2he 1ir1umstan1es of the offender also require to be taken note of
alon 0ith the 1ir1umstan1es of the 1rime"
In !ishnu Prasad Sinha v" State of Assam
OJ+P
, the a11used 1ommitted ra/e on a minor
irl 0ho has slee/in 0ith her family in 0aitin room of travel aen1y alon 0ith 1o5
a11used 0ho 0as a 1leaner of another bus travel aen1y and 1aused her death by strikin to
heavy blo0s of bri1k" %e made a 1onfession 0hi1h 0as not retra1ted throuhout the trial and
e4/ressed re/entan1e and remorse in his 8udi1ial 1onfession" 2he 1ir1umstantial eviden1e
fully established the uilt of the a11used" 6oreover, he had sho0ed his remorse and
re/entan1e even in his statement under Se1tion ,(, of the :ode of :riminal Pro1edure"
2herefore, the Su/reme :ourt held that a//ellant 1an be 1onvi1ted only on the basis of the
1ir1umstantial eviden1e but ordinary, death /enalty should not be a0arded"
Reiteratin its earlier de1ision handed do0n in State of Ra8asthsn v" ;hera8 Ram
OJ(P
,
the A/e4 :ourt held as follo0s >5
(HH
#ife im/risonment is the rule and death senten1e is an e41e/tion" Death senten1e must
be im/osed only 0hen life im/risonment a//ears to be as altoether inadequate /unishment
havin reard to the relevant 1ir1umstan1es of the 1rime, and /rovided the o/tion to im/ose
senten1e of im/risonment for life 1anon be 1ons1ientiously e4er1ises havin reard the nature
and 1ir1umstan1es of the 1rime and all the relevant 1ir1umstan1es
OJHP
"
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OJ+P AIR H++) S: -I-
OJ(P $H++,& - S:: HHI
OJHP AIR (.-, S: -*)L State of 6"P" v" 6unna :hoube and another , $H++*& H S:: JH* et1"
2he :ourt further Stated that even other0ise, it 1annot be said to be a rarest of rare
1ase" Althouh the manner in 0hi1h de1eased irl 0as ra/ed 0as brutal, but it 1ould have
been momentary la/se on the /art of a//ellant, seein a lonely, irl, at a se1luded /la1e" %e
had no /remeditation for 1ommittin the 1rime" 2he offen1e 0as no doubt heinous but under
no 1ir1umstan1es, it 1ould be said to be a rarest of rare 1ase, hen1e death /enalty is 1onverted
into life im/risonment"
In the 1ase of Reddy Samath ;umar v" State of Andhra Pradesh
OJ,P
, the a11used 0ho
0as a medi1al /ra1titioner $do1tor& on ((U(H 6ar1h (..- 1aused the death of his father5in5
la0, mother5in5la0 and three minor 1hildren by /oisonin them in8e1tin Pan :uronium
!romide $1alled PAVU#EC&" 2he a11used do1tor made his father5in5la0 and mother5in5la0
and their three minor 1hildren believe that they 0ere sufferin from AIDS 0hen a1tually it
0as not so" %e then manaed to kill them by ivin /oisonous in8e1tion under the /rete4t of
ivin treatment in order to rab their /ro/erty" 2he /rose1ution established 1ir1umstantial
eviden1e beyond all reasonable doubts and, therefore, the a11used 0as senten1ed to
im/risonment for life by the trial :ourt and it 0as affirmed by the %ih :ourt" In a//eal, the
Su/reme :ourt noted that the fa1ts of the 1ase has sho1ked the 8udi1ial 1ons1ien1e" 2he
ruesome murders 0ere /er/etrated in 1old blooded, /re5meditated and 0ell oraniNed
manner 0ith a vie0 to rab the /ro/erty" Sin1e the %ih :ourt had not issues noti1e for
enhan1ement of /unishment to death senten1e, the A/e4 :ourt held that lookin to the
ravity and manner in 0hi1h the murders 0ere 1ommitted, the ends of 8usti1e 0ould 0arrant
that the a//ellant should be in 8ail in terms of Se1tion *) of IP: and he should not et the
(H,
benefit of any remission either ranted by the State or :entral Government on any aus/i1ious
festival"
In the 1ase of S0amy Shraddananda allies 6urli 6anohar v" State of ;arnataka
OJIP
, the
a//ellant 0as 1onvi1ted for the offen1e of murder under Se1tion ,+HUH+( I"P": and 0as
55555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555555
OJ,P AIR H++* S: ,I)-
OJIP AIR H++- S: ,+I+
senten1ed to death by the Sessions :ourt, !analore on H+
th
6ay, H++* 0hi1h 0as 1onfirmed
by the %ih :ourt of ;arnataka on (.5.5H++*" 2he a//ellant 1ame to the Su/reme :ourt
aainst the 8udment of the %ih :ourt" 2he t0o 7ude !en1h of the A/e4 :ourt
unanimously u/held the 1onvi1tion but differed on the quantum of /unishment" ;at8u, 7" held
that the a//ellant deserved nothin but the death 0hereas S"!" Sinha, 7,, felt that the
/unishment of life im/risonment, rather than death, 0ould serve the ends of 8usti1e" %e
ho0ever added that the a//ellant 0ould not release from /rison till the end of his life"
2he fa1ts of the 1ase briefly stated 0ere that the de1eased vi1tim beloned to a hih
re/uted and 0ealthy /rin1ely family holdin vest /ro/erty in1ludin a bi bunalo0 in
!enalore 1onstru1ted over ,-,+++ Sq" ft" of land 0hi1h she ot in ift from her /arents" She
0as married to one Akbar ;haleeli, and Indian forein servi1e offi1ial and her four dauhters
from him" She souht the servi1es of the a//ellant to handle her /ro/erty dis/utes" %er
husband 0as /osted in Iran and she lived in her bunalo0 in !analore" She divor1ed her
husband in (.-* and married the a//ellant in the ho/e of havin a son from him" It 0as
reistered marriae" %er four dauhters from /revious husband mostly livin abroad" After
marriae she a//ointed 8ointly" 2he dauhters, ho0ever, maintained affe1tion and love for
their mother" !y the end of 6ay (..(, the de1eased vi1tim $Shakereh& suddenly and
mysteriously disa//eared" %er dauhters made frequent enquires about their mother from the
a//ellant 0ho on1e said that she has one to %yderabad, another time said she has one to
;ut1h to attend a marriae and al0ays ave evasive re/lies 0hi1h raised doubt in the mind of
the dauhter" <hen she /ersonally 1ame to !analore and enquired about her mother, the
(HI
a//ellant said she has one to U"S"A for treatment in Roosevelt %os/ital" <hen she
1ontra1ted the hos/ital, they re/lied there 0as no su1h /atient in their re1ord" She 1onfronted
the a//ellant and a11used him of ivin false and evasive information" 2he a//ellant no0
told that her mother has one to #andon and she 0anted to kee/ her movements 1onfidential"
%o0ever, the a//ellant stood totally e4/osed 0hen the dauhter of the de1eased 1alled on
him in a hotel room in !ombay and 1han1ed to see the /ass/ort of her mother lyin around"
Co0 she 0as sure that there 0as some foul /lay 0ith her mother and therefore reistered a
1ase aainst the a//ellant on (+
th
7une, (..H"
Investiation revealed that the a//ellant had administered a heavy dose of slee/in
/ills to the de1eased and ke/t her alive in a 0ooden bo4 0hi1h /ut in a /it in the ba1kyard of
his bunalo0 in !analore" It 0as also found that the a//ellant had submitted fabri1ated
returns to In1ome 2a4 authorities in (.., bearin fored sinatures of the de1eased" %e 0as
althouh de/osin as shre0d and 1unnin man 0ith no remorse for his ruesome murder"
It 0as be1ause of the 1onfli1tin o/inions of the aforesaid t0o58ude !en1h, that the
matter 1ame u/ before a larer !en1h 0hi1h felt that the 1ase of the a//ellant fell 8ust short of
rarest of rare 1ase and therefore the a//ellant should be a0arded senten1e of im/risonment
for rest of life and the /rison A1t does not 1onfer on any authority a /o0er to 1ommute or
remit senten1es" It only /rovides for reulation of /risons and treatment of /risoners 1onfined
therein" 2here is no rule 1onferrin an indefeasible riht on a /risoner senten1ed to life
im/risonment to as un1onditional release on the e4/iry of a /arti1ular /eriod of time
in1ludin remission" Cor a less senten1e 1an be substituted for a /risoner senten1ed to rest of
life" Im/risonment for life im/lies im/rison for 0hole of remainin life"
;.( De-a> i. e7e6utio. of Death Se.te.6e
A survey of available 1ase5la0s on death senten1e 0ould reveal that the attention of
the Su/reme :ourt 0as fo1used on the question 0hether inordinate delay in the e4e1ution of
death /enalty 1an be 1onsidered to entitle the 1onvi1t to 1laim 1ommutation of the senten1e to
that of life im/risonment" In 2riveniben v" State of Gu8arat
OJ*P
, the five 7udes !en1h of the
(H*
Su/reme :ourt overruled Vathees0aran and 7aved Ahmed
OJJP
to the e4tent they /ur/orted to
lay do0n the t0o years= delay rule, and held that no fi4ed /eriod of delay 1ould be held to
make the senten1e of death ine4e1utable" 2he :ourt, ho0ever, observed that it 0ould
1onsider su1h delay an as im/ortant round for 1ommutation of the senten1e"
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OJ*P AIR (.-. S: (,**
OJJP Su/ra
In 6adhu 6ehta v" Union of India
OJ)P
, the Su/reme :ourt held that a delay of eiht years in
the dis/osal of mer1y /etition 0ould be suffi1ient to 8ustify 1ommutation of death senten1e to
life im/risonment
OJ-P
sin1e riht to s/eedy trial is im/li1it in Art" H( of the :onstitution 0hi1h
o/erated thouh all the staes of senten1in in1ludin mer1y /etition to the President"
In State of U"P v" Ramesh Prasad 6isra
OJ.P
, the Su/reme :ourt redu1ed the death
senten1e of the a11used to one of im/risonment for life in vie0 of lon la/se of time from the
date of 1ommission of 1rime" 2he in1ident had o11urred on the intervenin niht of
Se/tember HJUH), (.-* in ;ar0i to0n of !anda distri1t of U"P" 2he a11used 0as a /ra1ti1in
advo1ate 0ho had 1ommitted horrendous bed5room murder of his H- years old 0ife 0hom he
had married only * months ao" %e 0as found uilty of offen1e under Se1tion ,++ and I.-5A
$i"e", do0ry death& and his /lea of alibi 0as not established hen1e he 0as 1onvi1ted on the
basis of 1ir1umstantial eviden1e and senten1ed to death"
;.: Mo/e of E7e6utio. of Death Se.te.6e
Se1tion ,*I$*& of the :ode of :riminal Pro1edure, (.), requires that 0hen a /erson
is senten1ed to death, the 8ude in hid senten1in order shall dire1t that the 1ondemned /erson
be haned by ne1k till he is dead" 2he 1onstitution validity of this mode of e4e1ution of death
senten1e 0as 1hallened in Dina v" State of U"P
O)+P
on the round that it 0as violative of Art
H( of the :onstitution bein barbarous and inhuman in nature" 2he Su/reme :ourt, %o0ever,
re8e1ted the 1ontention and held that hanin the 1ondemned /arson by ne1k till he is dead
(HJ
0as /erha/s the only 1onvenient and relatively less /ainful mode of e4e1utin the death
senten1e" 2he issue 0as on1e aain raised in Smt" Shashi Cayer v" Union of India
O)(P
but the
Su/reme :ourt u/held the validity of hanin by ne1k until death reiteratin its earlier
de1ision in Dina=s 1ase"
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OJ-P DA'A SICG% V" union of india ,AIR (..( S: (*I-
OJ.P AIR (..) S: H)JJ
O)+P AIR (.-, S: ((**
O)(P AIR (..H S: ,.*
(H)
Chapter -6
Conclusion, Opinion
and Suggestion
(H-
CONCLUSION4 OPINION AND SUGGESTION
9.+ Co.6-usio.
:a/ital /unishment is bein used as a /unishment sin1e the da0n of time" It is bein
/ra1ti1ed in many 1ountries and many 1ountries have sto//ed ivin this /unishment" 2here
are different ty/es or methods of ivin this /unishment like hanin, ele1tri1 1hair, stonin,
1rushin, lethal in8e1tion et1" there are both /ros and 1ons of 1a/ital /unishment" 2he Indian
la0 /rovides 0ith 1a/ital /unishment for various offen1es iven in Indian /enal 1ode and the
/ro1edure to be follo0ed is iven in 1riminal /ro1edure 1ode" Se1tion ,+H of Indian /enal
1ode ives dis1retion to the senten1in 8ude by /res1ribin life im/risonment as an
alternative /unishment
?For 1enturies the death /enalty, often a11om/anied by barbarous refinements, has been tryin to hold 1rime in
1he1kL yet 1rime /ersists"B
A#!3R2 :A6US, R&sis%a$/&: R&5&!!i#$ a$1 D&a%h
Different /eo/le have different o/inion" Some are in favour of 1a/ital /unishment and some
are aainst it" Fe0 say it is the best 0ay to de1rease the 1rime rate on the other hand fe0 say
it takes a0ay the riht to life of the 1riminal" Different reliion talks differently about it some
are in favour and some are aainst it" Fe0 thinkers have there very interestin vie0 /oints
like
?6ost /eo/le a//rove of 1a/ital /unishment, but most /eo/le 0ouldnGt do the hanmanGs 8obB"
G3ERG3 ER<3##, Th& R#a1 %# Wi*a$ Pi&r
?:a/ital /unishment is as fundamentally 0ron as a 1ure for 1rime as 1harity is 0ron as a 1ure for /overty"B
%3CR' FERD
(H.
:a/ital /unishment has relation 0ith theory of /unishment too as it has a deterren1e fa1tor in
it" It sets an e4am/le for others not to 1ommit su1h 1rime" It follo0s the /rin1i/le of eye for
an eye" And is a very ood /reventive measure but at the same /la1e it is aainst reformative
theory as it does not ive a 1han1e to the 1riminal to im/rove himself and live life as an
honest /erson"
?If 0e are to abolish the death /enalty, I should like to see the first ste/ taken by my friends the
murderers"B
A#P%ECS3 ;ARR, L&s G.I(&s: 7an" ,(, (-I.
I think capital punishment works great. Every killer you kill never kills again.
A!ill 6aher=
2he 8udi1ial trend to0ards 1a/ital /unishment is very strane and at the same time diffi1ult
for the 8udes to de1ide that the a11used should be a0arded su1h /unishment or not" In all the
situation the 8udes have an alternative /unishment for the 1a/ital /unishment that is life
im/risonment" !ut on the other hand they need to kee/ in mind the offen1e 1ommitted, the
fa1ts of the 1ase, the situation and than they need to ive their 8udment" 7udes r not
heartless or 1ruel /eo/le but at times they have to ive su1h /unishment to those 0ho truly
deserve it"
2he /rofound moral question is not, 9Do they deserve to dieM9 but 9Do 0e deserve to kill
themM9
5%elen Pre8ean
6any that live deserve death" And some that die deserve life" :an you ive it to themM 2hen
do not be too eaer to deal out death in 8udement" For even the very 0ise 1annot see all ends
57"R"R" 2olkien
(,+
9.( Opi.io.
6y o/inion about this /unishment is a bit different as 1om/ared to the reliious, /oliti1al and
other /eo/le=s /oint of vie0" <e all live in a so1iety and 0e are iven some rihts and to
en8oy those rihts 0e need to surrender some 0hi1h means to follo0 the la0 made" If you
0ant some thin you have to ive somethin in return as if 0e 0ant to en8oy freedom 0e
0ant /ea1eful environment for livin 0e 0ant safety for our kids so 0e have to ive this riht
to the state the la0 and order ma1hinery to /unish those 0ho break the la0 1reate /roblem for
others and destroy the /ea1eful environment and if it rea1hes to that e4tent that they 1annot
be 1haned or sto//ed than they must be iven death senten1e as a ste/ taken for the benefit
of the so1iety 1an never be 0ron " In this situation 0ho ever breaks those la0s must be
/unished so that others don=t do the same thin "In doin so if even 1a/ital /unishment has to
be iven I don=t think there is any thin 0ron in it, as it is done for the ood and 0elfare of
the 0hole so1iety" Su1h /unishment is ne1essary to maintain la0 and order for that fear of
/unishment is ne1essary so that no one 0ill think of 1ommittin 1rime aain"
?Fear of /unishment is 0hat sto/s us from 1ommittin a 1rime"B
;ritika Gu/ta
Fear and faith are the t0o most im/ortant thins and both of them must be there in /eo/le"
2hey must be like t0o sides of a 1oin 0hi1h is 0hen fli//ed or tossed it stands straiht
be1ause one 0on=t do 0ell" Peo/le must have faith and ear both" 2hey must have this faith in
la0 that if anythin 0ron ha//ens 0ith them they 0ill et 8usti1e and they must also have
fear of /unishment 0hi1h 0ill sto/ them from 1ommittin any 1rime" So both fear and faith
are ne1essary"
(,(
9.: Su88estio.
:ommittin mistake and than learnin from them is the nature of every human bein so 0e
need to kee/ that thin in mind before ivin any /unishment to any one" As there is an old
sayin that ?even od forives one mistakeB so 0e are 8ust human beins so 0e must ive
one 1han1e to everyone to 1hane them self and if than also the /erson does 1hane him self
than /unishin him 0ith this /unishment is not bad but one 1han1e must be iven"
!ut there 1an be situation 0here even one 1han1e 1an not be iven like for e4am/le the 1ase
of the terrorist kasab he 1annot be iven a se1ond 1han1e so in su1h 1ases it miht not be
follo0ed "
!ut before ivin su1h /unishment it must be tried to see if there is even a sinle /ossibility
for than a11used to 1hane him self and life an honest life he must be iven that 1han1e
/ro/er 1ounselin must be /rovided and full hel/ must be iven to him"
And if /unishment is iven it must be e4e1uted soon and it must not be left /endin for years

(,H
!e%erences
(,,
REFERENCES
!asu, D"D> :ommentary on the :onstitution of India
!arnes F 2eeters L Ce0 %oriNons In :riminoloy, $,
rd
ed"&
!hatta1harya, S";> 9Issues in Abolition of :a/ital Punishment9
:haturvedi, R"G> 7udi1iary Under :onstitution
:haturvedi and :haturvedi> 2heory and #a0 of :a/ital Punishment
%ansaria, !"#> Riht to #ife and #iberty under the :onstitution
#eon RadNino0i1N > In Sear1h Ef :riminoloy
Pande, !"!> 9Fa1e to Fa1e 0ith Death9> Su/reme :ourt :ases
Ram Cath Iyer,P> :ode of :riminal Pro1edure
Ratan #al and Dhira8 #al> #a0 Ef :rimes
Salmond > 7uris/ruden1e $(H
th
ed"&
Subhash :" Gu/ta> :a/ital Punishment in India
Seervai, %"6> :onstitutional #a0 of India
<ronful e4e1utions
C"V" Paran8a/e > :riminoloy and Penoloy
P.(!%(5#*"6/!+$#*" 7 R.'!)"
:a/ital Defense <eekly
#a0 :ommission of India> 2hirty5Fifth Re/ort> ,* $Se/tember5(.J)&"
(,I
Se1ond #a0 :ommission Re/ort> Paras *((5*(H
2he Inno1en1e Pro8e1t D Ce0s and Information> Press Releases"
WEBSITES
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000"oole"1om
000"indiankanoon"or
000"lealindia"in
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000"/ib"ni1"in
000"/rb"or
000"s1ribd"1om
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(,*