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Some objects float on water which only shows that water exerts an
upward force on objects place on it. Objects which is denser the object will
sink, otherwise it will submerged.

When a body is submerged in a liquid, it is lifted or buoyed up by the

liquid. This upward force is called buoyant force. The buoyant force assists in
supporting a body against the downward pull of gravity. The body is said to
“lose weight” – that is to undergo an apparent loss of weight. The apparent
loss of weight in liquid is equal to the buoyant force. (R. Sotto, Physics)

The idea was discovered by Archimedes and called this Archimedes

Principle. This principle states that an object partly or wholly submerged in a
fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid it displaces.
II. Objective

a. To be able to study Archimedes Principle and its application to the

experiment to the determination of density and specific gravity.
b. In particular, the specific gravities of the solid heavier than water, a
solid lighter than water and a liquid other than water will be measured.

I. Materials

1. Equal – arm balance

2. Alcohol
3. Set of weights
4. Hydrometer
5. Metal Cylinder
6. Graduated Cylinder
7. Wooden Cylinder
8. 1000-cc Pyrex beaker
9. Lead Sinker
10.Fine thread
11.Distilled water
I. Data / Table


Specific Gravity of Metal Cylinder

S = ww - w1

S = 122g122g-107g

S = 122g15g

S= 8.13

Percent Error

%error = 8.2 – 8.13

%error = 0.1
II. Question and Answer (Analysis)
1) (a) Explain how you can obtain the volume of an irregular solid
insoluble in water.
i. In getting the volume of an irregular object, is weighed first in
air and then in water, the difference in weights will equal the
weight of the volume of the water displaced, which is the same
as the volume of the object.

(b) How can you obtain the weight of an equal volume of water?
ii.Since we already have the volume of the irregular object, we
can merely say that the volume of the object is equal to the
water being displaced.

2) (a) Why does a block of wood apparently lose more than its entire
weight in air, when completely submerged in water?
i. The wooden block sinks into the water until the buoyant force of
the water is equal to block’s weight.
(b) How is this made possible?
ii.The pressure at the top of the cylinder at depth h1 is P1 and the
pressure at the bottom at depth h2 is P2. The forces acting on
each surfaces are as follows:
F1 = p1A and F2 = P2A
or F1 = ρh1gA and F2 = ρh2gA
Since h2 is greater than h1, F2 is greater than F1. The difference
between these two forces is equal to the buoyant force B exerted by
the fluid. Thus,

Buoyant force B = F2 – F1
= ρh2gA - ρh1gA
= ρgA (h2- h1)

But h2 – h1 = l, the length of the object submerge in the fluid. The

buoyant force is

B= ρgAl

But Al is simply the volume V of the cylinder. It is equal to the volume

of liquid displaced by the cylinder. Therefore,

B= ρgV
Since ρ= mv
B= mg=w
Therefore, the buoyant force is equal to the weight of the water
3) (a) What becomes of the lost weight of an object when immersed in a
i. The surface water will rise and float.
(b) How is this apparent loss of weight explained?
ii.The part of the block that is submerged displaces water equal to
the weight of the block.
4) Suggest a modification of the apparatus arrangement shown in Figure
30 that will demonstrate your answer to Question 3.
i. The tread may not involve to the experiment so that we can
measure the water displace in the object and on how does it
affect to the water.
III. Conclusion

After performing the experiment, I therefore say that the force present
which the fluid exerts on an object placed in it is equal to the weight of
the fluid the object displaces. Archimedes’ principle also makes possible
the determination of the density of an object that is so irregular in shape
that its volume cannot be measured directly. If the object is weighed first
in air and then in water, the difference in weights will equal the weight of
the volume of the water displaced, which is the same as the volume of the
object. Thus the weight density of the object (weight divided by volume)
can readily be determined. In very high precision weighing, both in air and
in water, the displaced weight of both the air and water has to be
accounted for in arriving at the correct volume and density.