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9
th
Improvement in Food Resources Question with Solution
1. State one demerit with composite fish culture system. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: fish breed only during monsoon and lack of availability of good quality seeds
2. State one importance of photoperiod in agriculture. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: photoperiod in agriculture provide adequate light for flowering
3. Name one micronutrient and one macronutrient which plants take from the soil. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Macronutrients are: Calcium (Ca) , Magnesium (Mg)
Micronutrients are: Boron (B) Chloride (Cl)
4. List two desirable traits for fodder crops.[2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Tallness and profused branching are the desired characteristics for producing a higher yield of fodder crops.
5. Distinguish between a mullet and a prawn. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Mullet is a type of fish while prawn is a crustacean. Both live in water and serve as a food supplement worldwide.
prawn belongs to group arthropoda whereas mullet belongs to group pisces. so you can use their characteristic
features to distinguish between the two
6. Name two breeds of cows selected for long lactation period. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: After giving the birth of a calf ,a cow secretes milk.the duration of milk secretion of a cow that is the period of time
till which the cow secretes milk is known as lactation period.brownswiss and jersey are selected for their long lactation
period.
7. How does Bombay duck differ from common carp ? [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Bombay duck is a marine fish, while common carp is a fresh water fish.
8. How does catla differ from mrigal? [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Catla belongs to genus Catla while mrigal belongs to genus Cirrhinus
9. Name the two vitamins which are added in the poultry feed. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: vitamins A and K
10. From where do plants acquire the following nutrients? [2010 (T-I)] (a) Nitrogen (b) Hydrogen
Ans: (a) Nitrogen from soil (b) Hydrogen from water
11. State the reason of introducing Italian bee variety in bee farms. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: An Italian bee variety, A. mellifera, has also been brought in to increase yield of honey.
12. Mention any two activities for the improvement of crop yield. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: The major activities for improving crop yields are :
Crop variety improvement
Crop production improvement
Crop protection management.
13. Which nutrients are supplied by cereals and pulses ? [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: carbohydrate and protein.are supplied by cereals and pulses respectively,
14. Name two fresh initiatives taken to increase the water availability for agriculture. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Two new irrigation systems have been developed to save water and increase the availability of water to the
crops. These are:
1) Drip irrigation system: Here, water is supplied to the roots of the plants directly in a drop wise manner. This
prevents unnecessary wastage of water.
2) Sprinkler system: Here water is sprinkled over the crops like it happens in rain. So, water is absorbed by the soil in
a better way.
15. Mention any two advantages of using Italian bee variety in honey production. [2010 (T-I)]

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Ans: The Italian bees have high honey collection capacity. They sting somewhat less. They stay in a given beehive for
long periods, and breed very well.
16. Name any two weeds of crop field. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Xanthium (gokhroo), Parthenium (gajar ghas),Cyperinus rotundus (motha).
17. Define animal husbandry. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Animal husbandry is the management and care of farm animals by humans for profit
18. What are genetically modified crop? [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: GM (Genetically modified) crops are the crops in which a gene from some other organism may be another plant
or a microorganism is inserted into the plant to get desired characteristic such as disease resistance, response to
fertilizers, product quality and high yields. For example: Cotton, Maize, Papaya, Soybean, Sugarbeet, Squash , etc.
19. Mention the components of food present in vegetable and fruits. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Vegetables, spices and fruits provide a range of vitamins and minerals in addition to small amounts of proteins,
carbohydrates and fats.
20. Name the cereals which provide us carbohydrate for energy requirement. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Cereals such as wheat, rice, maize, millets and sorghum provide us carbohydrate for energy requirement.
21. Give technical term for milk producing females and farm labour animals. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Milk-producing females are called milch animals (dairy animals), while the ones used for farm labour are called
draught animals
22. Why do we eat pea and groundnut? [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: pea (arhar) provide us protein where as ground nut provide us with necessary fats.
23. Mention two examples of mixed cropping.
Ans: Some combinations of mixed cropping are :-
Wheat and Mustard
Maize and urad (pulse)
Groundnut and sunflower
24. Name two factors responsible for losses of grains during storage?
Ans: Factors responsible for such losses are biotic insects, rodents, fungi, mites and bacteria, and abiotic
inappropriate moisture and temperatures in the place of storage.
25. (a)Name an exotic variety of honey bee grown in India. (b) What is called the rearing of fish on a large scale?
Ans: (a)Pisciculture (b) Apis Cerana indica
26. Name two exotic cattle breed with long lactation period? [2014 (T-I)]
Ans: the period of milk production after the birth of a calf is called lactation period. Jersey and Brown Swiss are two
exotic cattle breed having long lactation period.
27. In what way boilers, feed is different from layers? [2014 (T-I)]
Ans: Broilers feed is protein rich with adequate fat. The level of vitamins A and K is kept high in the poultry feeds.
28. Which one boiler or layers mature earlier? [2014 (T-I)]
Ans: Broilers have fast growth rate
29 What type of shelter is provided to boiler and layers? [2014 (T-I)]
Ans: Broilers do not require much space and lighting
30. Mention the preventive and control measure used before grain are stored?
Ans: cleaning of the produce before storage, proper drying of the produce first in sunlight and then in shade, and
fumigation using chemicals that can kill pests.
31. List two biotic and abiotic factor each that responsible for grain loss?

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Ans: Factors responsible for grain losses are biotic insects, rodents, fungi, mites and bacteria, and abiotic
inappropriate moisture and temperatures in the place of storage.
32.What do we call the kind of farming with no use of chemicals?
Ans: organic farming
33.Write the basis of the selection for inter cropping?
Ans: The crops for inter cropping are selected such that their nutrient requirements are different.
34. Mention the steps farmer taken to achieve 4 times increase in production of crops from 1960 to 2004.
Ans: The steps farmer taken to achieve 4 times increase in production of crops are:
(a) Crop variety improvement (b) Crop production improvement (c)
35. State the advantages of inter cropping and crop rotation over single cropping?
Ans: inter cropping and crop rotation ensures maximum utilisation of the nutrients supplied, and also prevents pests
and diseases from spreading to all the plants belonging to one crop in a field. This way, both crops can give better
returns.
36. What do we call milk producing female animals and animals used for farm labour.
Ans: Milk-producing females animals are called milch animals (dairy animals), while the animals used for farm labour
are called draught animals
37. How is a major problem of the lack of availability of good quality seed in fish farming overcome?
Ans: To overcome this problem, ways have now been worked out to breed these fish in ponds using hormonal
stimulation. This has ensured the supply of pure fish seed in desired quantities
38. What is genetic manipulation? How it is useful in agriculture?
Ans: : Genetic manipulation is a process in which genes of desirable characters are taken from a plant and transferred
to another plant by the technique of hybridisation. Genetic manipulation helps in obtaining desirable agronomic
characters liked Dwarfness in cereals and tallness and profuse branching in fodder crops. It is useful in developing
varieties with higher yield, good quality, biotic and abiotic resistance, short maturity period, wider adoptability and
desirable agronomic characteristics.
39. Name two Indian bee variety.
Ans: A. dorsata, the rock bee
40. For increasing production, what is common in poultry, fisheries and bee-keeping?
Ans: For increasing production cross breeding and use of imported species are common in poultry, fisheries and bee-
keeping.
41. What are bio-fertilizer?
Ans: bio-fertilizer are micro organism which enrich the soil in nutrients by their biological activity eg. Rhizobium or
cyanobacteria
42. How Rhizobium or cyanobacteria enrich the soil with nutrients
Ans: Rhizobium or cyanobacteria fix free nitrogen of atmosphere into nitrogen compound that increase soil fertility.
43. Mention three agronomic characteristics for crop improvement?
Ans: Tallness and profuse branching are desirable characters for fodder crops. Dwarfness is desired in cereals.
44. Explain the desirable traits obtain after cross breeding indigenous and exotic breed of poultry bird?
Ans: (i) number and quality of chicks;
(ii) dwarf broiler parent for commercial chick production;
(iii) summer adaptation capacity/tolerance to high temperature;
(iv) low maintenance requirements;

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(v) reduction in the size of the egg-laying bird with ability to utilize more fibrous cheaper diets formulated using
agricultural by-products
45. : What are the advantages of inter-cropping and crop rotation over single cropping?
Ans: Inter-cropping and crop rotation are used to obtain maximum benefit. Inter-cropping helps in preventing pests
and diseases to spread throughout the field. It also increases soil fertility, whereas crop rotation prevents soildepletion,
increases soil fertility, and reduces soil erosion. Both these methods reduce the need for fertilizers. It also helps in
controlling weeds and controls the growth of pathogens and pests in crops.
II. Short Answer Questions I (2 marks) Previous Years Questions
1. List any two methods adopted in farming for the health of the cattle. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Proper cleaning and shelter facilities
2. List the two types of food requirements of dairy animals. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Animal feed includes: (a) roughage, which is largely fibre, and (b) concentrates, which are low in fibre and
contain relatively high levels of proteins and other nutrients
3. What are Rabi crops? State any two examples. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: The crops are grown in the winter season from November to April is called the rabi crops . wheat, gram, peas,
mustard, linseed are rabi crops
4. List two demerits of the continuous use of fertilizers. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: water pollution and loss of fertility
5. List any two advantages of crop rotation. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: The growing of different crops on a piece of land in a pre-planned succession is known as crop rotation.
Rotation of crops improves the fertility of the soil . Saves nitrogenous fertilizers and help in weed control and pest
control.
6. List two characteristics each of roughage and concentrate in relation to animal feed. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Roughage has large amount of fibre and concentrates have low amount of fibre and contain relatively high
levels of proteins and other nutrients.
7. Mention the two types of food requirements of dairy animals. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans : roughage and proteins
8. "Removal of weeds from cultivated fields during the early stages of growth of crops is essential for a good harvest".
Justify the statement.[2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Weeds compete for food, space and light. Weeds take up nutrients and reduce the growth of the crop. Therefore
Removal of weeds from cultivated fields during the early stages of growth of crops is essential for a good harvest
9. Farmers use bee-keeping as an additional income generating activity. Give two reasons.[2010 (T-I)]
Ans: it requires low investments and and In addition to honey, the beehives are a source of wax which generate extra
income.
10. (a) Name any one bottom feeder that can be grown in composite fish culture. [2010 (T-I)]
(b) What are the problems faced in such a culture ? How are they overcome?
Ans: (a) Mrigals and Common Carps are bottom feeders that can be grown in composite fish culture
(b) A major problem in fish farming is the lack of availability of good quality seed. To overcome this problem we allow
fish
to breed in ponds using hormonal stimulation. This has ensured the supply of pure fish seed in desired quantities.
11. The shorter the duration of the crop the more economical is the variety. Justify this statement. [2010 (T-I)]

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Ans: The shorter the duration of the crop from sowing to harvesting, the more economical is the variety. This is
because short durations allow farmers to grow multiple rounds of crops in a year. This reduces the cost of crop
production.
12. What are the long term benefits of using manure in crop production? [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Manure helps in enriching soil with nutrients and organic matter and increasing soil fertility
13. What are macro-nutrients and why are they called macronutrients?
Ans: Nutrients that are required in large quantities by plants for growth are called macronutrients. Since They are
required in larger amount so they are known as macronutrients. Eg - nitrogen , phosphorus , potassium , calcium ,
magnesium and sulphur
14. How can insect/pests in crop plants and stored grains be controlled? [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: One of the most commonly used methods is the use of pesticides, which include herbicides, insecticides and
fungicides. These chemicals are sprayed on crop plants or used for treating seeds and soil.
15. What is meant by the term 'green manure'? State its role in agriculture. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: When green plants plough into the soil they decompose and turn into manure. These manure are called green
manure .Green manure helps in enriching the soil in nitrogen and phosphorus.
16. How is green maturing done? How is it useful for the soil? [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Some plants like sun hemp or guar are grown and then mulched by ploughing them into the soil. These green
plants thus turn into green manure which helps in enriching the soil in nitrogen and phosphorus.
17. What is pasturage and has how is it related to honey production? [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Pasturage refers to the flower from where bees collect nectar. Pasturage is related to honey production because
it determines the taste of honey and the quantity of honey
18. What are the desirable characters of bee varieties suitable for honey production? [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: (a) have high honey collection capacity
(b) stay in a given beehive for long periods, and breed very well.
19. How do biotic and abiotic factors affect crop production?[2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Biotic factors such as pests, insects and diseases reduce the crop production. A pest causes damage to our
crops by feeding. Weeds also reduce crop productivity by competing with the main crop for nutrients and light.
Similarly, abiotic factors such as temperature, wind, rain etc. affect the net crop production. For example droughts and
floods have a great impact on crops sometimes, destroying the entire crop.
20. What is meant by organic farming? [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Organic farming is a farming system in which we focus the maximum use of organic manures in place of
chemicals fertilizers .Eg. blue green algae
21. Compare the use of manure and fertilizers in maintaining soil fertility. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Manures contains many organic substances of biological origin which can be easily degraded and absorbed by
plants. Its helps in recycling of biological waste they increase soil fertility of the soil for long duration without causing
any harm. The chemical fertilizers on other hand, improve soil fertility for short duration but cause environmental
hazards.Continose use of fertilizers in particular area causes destruction of the soil fertility.
22. What is meant by sustainable agriculture? [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Agriculture that increase food production without degrading our environment and disturbing the ecological
balances.
Note: - The concept of sustainable agriculture includes activities such as keeping the use of fertilisers and pesticides
as low as possible while still producing high-yielding and good quality crops. This ensures that any adverse effects on

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the environment are minimised and helps to improve conditions for members of the local community by providing jobs
and caring for the environment.
23. How do plants get nutrients?. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Nutrients are supplied to plants by air, water and soil. Air supplies carbon and oxygen, hydrogen comes from
water, and soil supplies the other thirteen nutrients to plants.
24. Which of the following conditions will give the most benefits? Why?
(a) Farmers use high-quality seeds, do not adopt irrigation or use fertilizers.
(b) Farmers use ordinary seeds, adopt irrigation and use fertilizer.
(c) Farmers use quality seeds, adopt irrigation, use fertilizer and use crop protection measures.
Ans: (c) Farmers using good quality seeds, adopting irrigation, using fertilizers, and using crop protection measures
will derive most benefits.
(i) The use of good quality seeds increases the total crop production. If a farmer is using good quality seeds, then a
majority of the seeds will germinate properly, and will grow into a healthy plant.
(ii) Proper irrigation methods improve the water availability to crops.
(iii) Fertilizers ensure healthy growth and development in plants by providing the essential nutrients such as nitrogen,
phosphorus, potassium, etc.
(iv) Crop protection measures include various methods to control weeds, pests, and infectious agents. If all these
necessary measures are taken by a farmer, then the overall production of crops will increase.
25. What are the desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements?
Ans. The desirable agronomic characteristics for crop improvements are:
(i) Tallness and profuse branching in any fodder crop.
(ii) Dwarfness in cereals.
These desirable agronomic characteristic shelp in increasing crop productivity.
26. What factors may be responsible for losses of grains during storage?
Ans. During the storage of grains, various biotic factors such as insects, rodents, mites,fungi, bacteria, etc. and
various abiotic factors such as inappropriate moisture, temperature, lack of sunlight, blood, etc. are responsible for
losses of grains. These factors act on stored grains and result in degradation, poor germinability, discolouration, etc.
27. What management practices are common in dairy and poultry farming?
Ans. Common management practices in dairy and poultry farming are:
(i) Proper shelter facilities and their regular cleaning.
(ii) Some basic hygienic conditions such as clean water, nutritious food, etc.
(iii) Animals are kept in spacious, airy, and ventilated place.
(iv) Prevention and cure of diseases at the right time is ensured.
28.What are the differences between broilers and layers and in their management?
Ans. Layersare meant for egg production, whereas broilers are meant for poultry meat. Nutritional, environmental, and
housing conditions required by broilers are different from those required by egg layers. A broiler chicken, for their
proper growth, requires vitamin rich supplementse specially vitamin A and K. Also, their diet includes protein rich food
and enough fat. They also require extra care and maintenance to increase their survival rate in comparison to egg
layers.
29. How are fish obtained?
Ans. Fish can be obtained by two ways:
(i) Capture fishing: It is the process of obtaining fish from natural resources.
(ii) Culture fishery: It is the practice of farming fishes. Farming can be done in both freshwater ecosystem

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(which includes river water, pond water) and marine ecosystem
30. Which method is commonly used for improving cattle breeds and why?
Ans: Cross breeding between a two good variety called hybridization also results with a new improved variety.
Another way of improving the crop is by introducing a gene that would provide the desired characteristic. This results
in genetically modified crops
Short Answer Questions(3 Marks) PreviousYears Questions
1. Distinguish between intercropping and mixed cropping. List any two advantages of intercropping over mixed
cropping. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Mixed cropping is growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same piece of land, for example, wheat +
gram, or wheat + mustard,
Inter-cropping is growing two or more crops simultaneously on the same field in a definite pattern. for example,
soyabean + maize, or finger millet (bajra) + cowpea (lobia).
Intercropping ensures maximum utilisation of the nutrients supplied, and it prevents pests and diseases from
spreading to all the plants belonging to one crop in a field.
2. What are the types of food requirements of dairy animals? Why external and internal parasites live on and in the
cattle can be fatal. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Roughage and concentrates are the types of food requirements of dairy animals.
The external parasites live on the skin and mainly cause skin diseases. The internal parasites like worms, affect
stomach and intestine while flukes damage the liver.
3. Explain that livestock production needs to be improved. Why there is necessity of animal husbandry? [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: To fulfil growing demand for milk, eggs and meat and providing self employment livestock production needs to be
improved.
4. List any three ways by which the insect/pests attack the plants. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: insect pests attack the plants in three ways: (i) they cut the root, stem and leaf, (ii) they suck the cell sap from
various parts of the plant, and (iii) they bore into stem and fruits
5. What factors may be responsible for losses of grains during storage? Also mention any two preventive measures to
control loss of grains during storage. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Factors responsible for losses are biotic insects, rodents, fungi, mites and bacteria, and abiotic
inappropriate moisture and temperatures in the place of storage.
Cleaning of the produce before storage, proper drying of the produce first in sunlight and then in shade, and
fumigation are preventive measures to control loss of grains during storage.
6. List any six factors for which variety improvement in crops is done. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Higher yield, improved quality, Biotic and abiotic resistance, Change in maturity duration, wider adaptability,
Desirable agronomic characteristics
7. (a) What is composite fish culture system? (b) Mention one merit and one demerit of this system. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: The Composite fish culture system is a technology to grow both local and imported fish species in the water in
the paddy field.
One problem with such composite fish culture is that many of these fish breed only during monsoon mixed with other
species
One of the advantage is that fish do not compete for food
8. (a) Why would a cattle breeder choose to cross breed a Jersey cow with a Red Sindhi? State two reasons.
(b) Why should weeds be constantly removed from cultivated fields? [2010 (T-I)]

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Answer: (a) Jersey cows are selected for long lactation periods, while local breeds like Red Sindhi for excellent
resistance to diseases. The two can be cross-bred to get animals with both the desired qualities.
(b) Weeds take up nutrients and reduce the growth of the crop
9. Write four methods of weed control. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: spraying weedicides, mechanical removal, timely , sowing of crops, intercropping and crop rotation also help in
weed control
10. Name any three methods of irrigation and briefly describe them. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: (a) drip irrigation: In this kind of irrigation , water is supplied drop by drop near the roots of the crops or plants.
They are generally used in the areas where there is a scarcity of water. However, it is very expensive.
(b) Sprinkler system: In this system, the water escapes from the revolving nozzles and is sprinkled like rain on the
crops. This system is used for sandy soils and uneven land.
(c) Surface irrigation : Method to supply water to agricultural lands from well,river,Dam etc
11. A farmer grows a leguminous crop between two cereal crops. What kind of advantage he gets by such crop
rotation? [2011]
Ans: Rotation of crops helps in saving on nitrogenous fertilizers, because leguminous plants grown during the rotation
of crops can fix atmospheric nitrogen in the soil with the help of nitrogen fixing bacteria.
12. State three advantages of shorter duration of the crop from sowing to harvesting. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Short durations allow farmers to grow multiple rounds of crops in a year.
Short duration also reduces the cost of crop production.
Uniform maturity makes the harvesting process easy and reduces losses during harvesting.
13. List the nutrients supplied by air, water and soil to the plants. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Nutrients supplied by air are Oxygen and Nitrogen
Nutrient supplied by water is Hydrogen
Nutrients supplied by soil are iron, manganese, magnesium, molybdenum etc
14. Define manures. What are its three different kinds? State two limitations of manures. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Manure is an organic matter prepared by the decomposition of animal excreta and plant waste.
They are : Compost ,vermi-compost and Green manure.
Two limitations of manures are: (i) Supplies small quantities of nutrients to the soil (ii) Loses about half the available
nitrogen(iii) Releases greenhouse gases
15. What is meant by bee-keeping? Name:
(a) the variety commonly used for commercial honey production.
(b) the variety having high honey collection capacity.
State how pasturage is related to honey production. [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: beekeeping is the practice of rearing bee for making honey
(a) Indian bee,
(b) The Italian bees have high honey collection capacity.
Pasturage is the availability of flowers to the bees for nectar and pollen collection. Pasturage is related to honey
production because it determines the taste of honey and the quantity of honey
16. A farmer observed parthenium plant growing along with wheat crop. What is parthenium ? What should he do to
protect his crop? Why? [2010 (T-I)]
Ans: Parthenium (gajar ghas) is a kind of weed that competes for food, space and light. Weeds take up nutrients and
reduce the growth of the crop and need to remove.