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Triplex Pump

Training Module
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December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
2.3 Fluid End
There are 5 different Dowell Fluid Ends available for the PG Series
Power End. The most common ones are the 'G', 'L' and 'H' ends. The
other fluid ends ('R' and 'S') are for special applications requiring
extremely high pressures such as stimulation work.
Triplex Pump
Training Module
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December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
They are machined from forged AISI 4340 steel or better. The fluid ends
with the higher-pressure ratings are usually Autofrettaged* to lengthen
the fluid end's life. Autofretagging is similar to the process used in making
artillery gun barrels - this improves the metal's resistance to fatigue.
Fluid End Specifications
THO ('H') 5 5,500 10.3 0.00681
TLO ('L') 4 7,000 8.4 0.00553
TGO ('G') 3 10,000 5.8 0.00384
TRO ('R') 3 15,000 3.7 0.00245
It is recommended that you use both discharge ports for flow rates over
8.2 BPM due to the erosion of the discharge port, bushing and also the
discharge manifold. Maximum Fluid End pressure limitations are based on
Power End Maximum Rod Load rather than the pressure limitations of the
fluid end.
*The Maximum flow rate of a Triplex Pump is calculated on the basis of
97% volumetric efficiency.
* Auto frettaging is a heat treatment process where the material is heat-
treated and stress relieved simultaneously at high pressure.
Triplex Pump
Training Module
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December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
The entire assembly of the PG05 Series (steel frame) Triplex Pump,
including chaincase, power end and fluid end weighs 5,250 lbs. (2.4
tones). The PG05 power end is used on offshore skid units like the CPS
362 where unit weight is not a critical factor. It is also used in corrosive
environments such as offshore areas where the PG03 power end, which
has a magnesium frame, would be prone to severe corrosion. The PG03
power end is used on CPT 372, CPT 462 and CPS 310 Heli-Unit because
weight is an important design factor.
CPS 362
CPT 372
Triplex Pump
Training Module
PAGE : 34
December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
3.0 Lubrication System
It is obvious that a pump capable of outpouring 300 HHP (Hydraulic
Horsepower) power requires considerable moving parts which must be
kept lubricated in order to function efficiently at a reasonable temperature.
It must also be dependable, with an acceptable operating life. Each
component - the Chain Case, Power End and the Fluid End - has its own
lubrication system to satisfy its individual requirements.
3.1 Chain Case
Method of lubrication Splash (chains and sprockets)
Grease (bearings and seals)
Lubricant (oil). SAE 40 WT
(grease) moly-based
Capacity 0.5-1 gal
Level Dipstick (full mark, pump stopped)
Each chain case is equipped with either a sight glass or a dipstick for
indicating the oil level in the case. The oil level indicator should be
centerlined with the bottom of the input shaft.

Note: When checking the oil level, always remove the dipstick and allow
the oil level to settle, then check the correct level by re-inserting and
removing the dipstick.
Too much as well as too little oil in the Chain Case can actually cause it
to overheat. When a chain case is overheated, the bearing grease seals
are usually damaged first. If overheating continues, severe damage can
result to the bearings and chain as the overheated oil breaks down
chemically, losing its viscosity and also its lubricating and cooling
properties. The bearing grease is also affected by the high temperature,
resulting in the grease not lubricating the bearings correctly, thus
producing more heat.
Triplex Pump
Training Module
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December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
3.2 PG Series Power end
Method of lubrication Force Feed
Flow rate 15- 20 gpm
Oil pressure 25-45 psi
Lubricant SAE 80w-90 WT
Gear Oil
(above 32 deg F)
SAE 80 WT (below 32 deg F)
Capacity 17 gallons
(This is only the sump volume and does
not include filter and hose capacity)
Level indicator Dipstick or 1/2 " below main bearing caps
Maximum Oil temperature 160 deg F
(70 deg C)
The Power End frame is actually the reservoir for the Power End
It should be noted that when check the oil level always remove the
dipstick and allow air to escape from the tube then replace the dipstick
and check for correct level.
Triplex Pump
Training Module
PAGE : 36
December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
Oil is taken from the power end sump by a mechanically or hydraulically
driven oil pump, and returned under pressure to the power end through a
filter. After the filter, it flows to a cross fitting in the line. At the cross, the
lubricating oil is directed to:
1. Both ends of the main shaft, and to each of the crossheads.
2. A pressure relief valves is used to maintain a constant flow and
maximum system pressure.
Since pressure in any hydraulic system is a result of resistance and this is
a hydraulic system. Also since the flow rate will vary with engine RPMs.
The pump is sized that it will still maintain adaquate oil pressure at low
engine speeds, not idle, but as the components wear lower oil pressure
will result. This can create problems when the powerend is working at
very low rates and high discharge pressures, the engine is at to low of
RPMs to create enough oil pressure to maintain a good film of oil on the
eccentric bearings and the rod load is high, the two combined create
catastraphic powerend failures. This is just one reason it is always
important to watch and maintain powerend oil pressure. Proper sizing of
the fluid end can prevent these type of failures.
There are two different styles of powerend oil filters and arrangements
used, one being internal by-pass (parker brand is the new style) the other
being external by-pass (old style). A by-pass around the oil filter ensures
continued flow of oil in the event the filter becomes plugged. This is
controlled by the by-pass relief valve. On the old style it is usually
mounted directly to the filter and has a hose, which directs any by-pass
flow to the downstream side of the filter. On the new style the by-pass is
internal of the filter housing and has a pre-determined differential setting.
The new style filters have an indicator which clearly indicates when and if
the filter is by-passing. Color coded- green being good and Red being By-
passing. This indicator only works when the oil is flowing through it and
should be checked during the job and recorded on the STEM I report.
The oil pressure is controlled by a relief valve in the system usually
mounted directly to the bottom of the power end frame. A pressure gauge
mounted on the control panel or directly on the power end lube oil circuit
lets the operator monitor the system oil pressure on each pump. The oil
must be kept clean at all times. A milky appearance usually indicates
water contamination. (Refer to section on Care & Maintenance of the
Power End and also the Trouble Shooting Guide in the Appendix to help
identify possible problems and correct them.
Triplex Pump
Training Module
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December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
It should be noted that there are oil seals inside the either main shaft
bearing cap of the power end. When these seals wear the result will be
lower oil pressure, primarily seen on the gauge, because the gauge is tied
in directly to the cap.
Brown & Sharpe
Triplex Pump
Training Module
PAGE : 38
December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
Below are pictures of a pressure relief valve. These valves are very easy to
adjust the setting. Simple remove the large cap turning the adjustment screw
clockwise will increase pressure, turning it counter clockwise will reduce the
pressure setting. Always consult your maintenance department before tampering
with any adjustments.
Triplex Pump
Training Module
PAGE : 39
December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
Below are pictures of a power end lube pump on a CAT 3176 Deck engine of a
CPT 372. This is a vane type hydraulic pump. This pump is directly mounted to
the gear train on the engine via a splined input shaft. If the shaft seal were to
leak on this type mounting, typically the result would be a noticeable increase in
the engine oil level.
Triplex Pump
Training Module
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December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
Triplex Pump
Training Module
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December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
Here are pictures of a Tyrone Brand power end lube pump. This is a gear type
hydraulic pump. When these pumps are mounted on one of the rear auxiliary
drive gears of a Detroit Diesel Engine. It must be mounted using an angle drive
adapter, which reduce the input Rpms. The auxiliary drive on these engines
rotates at twice the engine Rpms. The Tyrone pump uses a straight input shaft,
special care must be taken when installing the tapered drive adapter on this
style pump. The spacing of the drive gear is critical so the gear will set correctly
in the center of the driving gear of the angle drive. Failure to do so can result in
loose of oil pressure to the power end in critical situations. Special instructions
are located in the Maintenance Bulletins and in the Maintenance CD Set. Again
if the seal were to leak on this style mounting it would increase the oil level in the
engine, this would be noticed long before noticing a decrease in the power end
oil level due to the differences in volumes between the engine and the power
Triplex Pump
Training Module
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December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
Triplex Pump
Training Module
PAGE : 43
December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
Another of the power end lube pumps is the Webster Brand pump; these gear
type pumps are obsolete and must be replaced with Tyrone pump. When doing
so a complete kit must be ordered for replacement, as the angle drive must be
machined to except a mounting adapter and special mounting screws.
Triplex Pump
Training Module
PAGE : 44
December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
Some earlier model units used Brown and Sharpe gear type lube pumps.
These pumps were typically driven by a hydraulic pump and mounted under the
frame of trucks or on some Offshore skids.
All of these pumps are positive displacement type pumps.
Triplex Pump
Training Module
PAGE : 45
December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
Fluid End Lubrication Systems
Next we will discuss the two different Fluid End lubrication systems. The first of
which uses an air-driven pump to transfer packing oil to the plungers. Check
valves are installed directly to the fluid end in the event of complete packing
failure, product such as cement will not migrate into the small oil lines.
The divider block is used in these systems.
3.3 Fluid End
For optimum packing life, it is essential that the plungers and the packing
be properly lubricated. It takes only a few seconds for improperly
lubricated packing to begin leaking. This in turn will ruin the plungers by
damaging their polished surface, especially when pumping abrasive fluids
such as cement slurry or drilling mud. Inadequate lubrication also causes
heat generation, which also shortens the life of the packing. The type of
oil used plays an important roll in packing life. A good oil to use is a
Steam Cylinder oil, when if you look at it a triplex pump is just that a
Cylinder. Steam cylinder oils have a large amount of tactafiers this allows
it to stick to the plunger much longer than conventional motor oil. Steam
Cylinder oils usually have a high viscosity above 400 to 1000, the best
one to use depend on your climate. The Alemite pump used for the
lubrication system is actually a grease pump so the high viscosity is not a
problem for this pump. Another factor is the high viscosity decreases the
oil consumption tremendously, which offsets any cost differentials.
Note: Never reuse packing oil as dirt and debre will always
contaminate the system and damage the pump and plug the divider
Triplex Pump
Training Module
PAGE : 46
December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
Triplex Pump
Training Module
PAGE : 47
December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
Triplex Pump
Training Module
PAGE : 48
December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
The Divider blocks uses a code with either the number 12 or 24, the number 12
indicates that the block will discharge out of one side. The number 24 indicates
the block will discharge out of both sides. This cannot be changed. The block
cannot be plugged in any port, because the block must complete its cycle
plugging any hole will stop the cycle and shut down the whole lubrication
system. If it becomes necessary to abort lubrication to a centrifugal pump for
example. The hose can be rerouted to the reservoir to allow the block to
continue its cycle.
Triplex Pump
Training Module
PAGE : 49
December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
Lubrication System No. 1- Alemite Pump
Method of lubrication Force Feed(air-driven Alemite pump)
Lubricant Packing Lubrication oil
Capacity 20 gals (average)
The air-operated pump (Alemite Pump) delivers lubricating oil to a divider
block (McCord Divider Block) which in turn delivers oil equally to each
plunger. The outlet from the divider block is connected through a check
valve to each individual fluid end-packing bore. From there, it goes into
the fluid end and enters the lantern gland for even distribution to the
packing. The Alemite pump also provides lubrication to the C-Pumps via a
parallel discharge line, or on older units via the divider block.
The current Alemite pump used on the PG series (cementing) pumps is
the Model 9668 medium pressure (5:1 ratio) pump. The pump section
works in conjunction with the Pneumatic Logic Air Motor Model 338066-
Triplex Pump
Training Module
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December 1999
Schlumberger Confidential
To adjust the Alemite pump rate, first set the air pressure regulator to
between 110-120 psi. Then control the desired amount of packing lube oil
by regulating the metering valve on the discharge side of the pump.
Unlike previous model Alemite pumps, adjusting the lubrication by the
sound of the air motor will cause over lubrication and will not help to
minimize environmental waste.
On the Model 338066-A1 Pneumatic Logic Air Motors, an air lubricator
system must not be used as on previous Alemite pumps. These motors
are already packed with Teflon lubricant and require no additional
lubricate except during service/repair. But does require clean dry air.
A blockage in any of the oil delivery lines will normally mean the failure of
the entire plunger lubricating system, since the McCord Divider Block will
not operate at all if any of its outlet ports are blocked. Accordingly, on all
current-generation pump units, a lube oil filter is installed downstream of
the Alemite pump.
Refer to the section on Care & Maintenance in this manual for
maintenance and trouble-shooting of the Alemite Pump, Lube Oil Filter,
and the McCord Divider Block. Additional information can also be found in
the Maintenance Manual (Section 1-Lubrication, Bulletin Numbers
804 and 982).