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By : ROMDONI SUMARNA SONA GUTAMA DENDI KELAS : XII IPS 1
SMA Negeri 1 Cikarang Selatan Kab. Bekasi
CHAPTER I INTRODUCTION A. Background Legislation (legislation) is a form of legal political institutions are designed and validated the State as the law of corruption eradication. Partially, it can be concluded Indonesian government and the nation a serious fight and eradicate corruption in this country. Selective logging. So about the opinion of some practitioners and observers of the law of motion of the government in handling corruption cases recently. The echo of corruption seemed to be a powerful weapon in the text of a speech attributed officials of State, spoke as if he was clean, anti-corruption. Communities through NGOs and CBOs are not to be outdone, took advantage of the anti-corruption campaign in Indonesia. The discussion about anti-corruption strategy in many dilakakukan seminar room, booming anti-corruption, so be precise. Meanstream fight against corruption also through the establishment dijewantahkan Adhoc, Anti-Corruption Commission (KPK). Gap legal weakness has always been a powerful weapon perpetrators of corruption to avoid lawsuits. Corruption cases of former President Suharto, examples of the most brand-new cases that never get the point of completion. Always dominated the political perspective of law cases in the country this fuel Republican friends. Whereas penyelesaiaan corruption cases such as cases of corruption of Suharto and his cronies, and the BLBI corruption cases will be able to other major menstimulus economic development program in Indonesia. B. Issues How corruption affects economic development in Indonesia? What strategies can be done to minimize these corrupt practices? How multiplier effect for the efficiency and effectiveness of economic development in Indonesia?
CHAPTER II DISCUSSION A. Corruption Meaning Jeremy Pope, in his book Confronting Corruption: The Element of National Integrity System, explained that corruption is a global problem that should concern everyone. Corrupt practices are aligned with the concept of totalitarian rule, the dictator-who put power in the hands of a few people. However, no difference in the socio-political system of democratic no corruption may be more severe and even corrupt practices, if the socio-political life of tolerance and even provide space for corrupt practices to flourish. Corruption also acts violating human rights, continued Pope. According to Dieter Frisch, former Director General for Europe. Corruption is the act increases costs for goods and services, increase the debt of a State, and lowering the quality of a good standard. Development projects are usually selected for reasons of capital involved, not on the urgency of public interest. Corruption always cause socio-economic situation uncertain (uncertainly). This uncertainty is not beneficial for economic growth and a healthy business opportunity. Always happens asymmetric information in economic activities and business. The private sector is often seen as the biggest risk to be borne in running a business, it is difficult to predict how much Return on Investment (ROI) that can be obtained because the cost due to corrupt practices are also difficult to predict. Akhiar Salmi in his paper explained that corruption is a bad deeds, such as embezzlement, bribe receiving and so on. In his paper, Salmi also explained the meaning of corruption according to Hendry Campbell Black who explained that corruption is "An act done with an intent to give some advantage inconsistent with official duty and the rights of others. The act of an official or fiduciary person who unlawfully and wrongfully uses his station or character to procure some benefit for himself or for another person, contrary to duty and the rights of others. "Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 28 Year 1999 on Implementation of State Clean and Free from Corruption, Collusion and Nepotism, chapter 1 explains that the criminal acts of corruption as referred to in the provisions of legislation governing the criminal acts of corruption. So the legislation of the Republic of Indonesia defines corruption as a criminal act. Mubaryanto, Pancasila economic activists, the article describes the corruption that, one of the major problems associated with justice is corruption, which we now softened into "service learning". Change the name from corruption to corruption is probably justified as it related to corrupt practices and nepotism connection. But it can not be denied that the effect of "replacement" is not good because corruption was the word corruption practices diteleransi easier than the use of the word corruption is plain and clear, without additional collusion and nepotism.
B. Political Corruption and Economic Law Corruption is an urgent problem that must be overcome, in order to achieve economic growth and a healthy stretch. Various records of corruption every day reported by the mass media both print and electronic, reflected the improvement and development of models of corruption. Anti-corruption rhetoric was not powerful enough to stop this despicable practice. Legislation and regulation which is part of the political laws made by the government, becomes meaning less, if not accompanied with sincerity for the manifestation of the laws and regulations that exist. Political law is not enough, if there is no recovery against the executor or legal principals. This constellation of political reasons reinforce the law that was designed by the government not only meet the more meanstream is happening. Political dimension which is the law "enforcement policy" or "Enactment policy", is a very dominant enforcement policies in developing countries, where legislation is often used as political instruments by the government, authorities precisely, for things that are negative or positive. And the concept of legislation in this dimension as the dominant place in Indonesia, which actually opened the door for the entry of corrupt practices through legislation weaknesses. Look at the Law economics Juwana Hikmahanto analysis, such as the Law of Limited Liability Company Law, the Capital Market Law, Law on Copyright Liability, Corporate Documents Act, Bankruptcy Law, Banking Law, Law of Business Competition, Consumer Protection Law, Law Construction Services, Bank Indonesia Law, Law on Foreign Exchange Transaction, the Arbitration Act, Telecommunications Act, fiduciary law, the Trade Secret Act, Act Industrial Design Act and many other economic areas. Almost all laws and regulations have legal policy dimensions "enforcement policy", and provide space for the occurrence of corrupt practices. C. Corruption and Decentralization Decentralization is the most striking change after the reforms initiated. Decentralization in Indonesia by many economic observers is the biggest case of decentralization in the world, so that the implementation of decentralization in Indonesia has become a case study of interest to many economists and political analysts in the world. Surface complexity of the problems arise, the most striking is the some cases of corruption of local bureaucrats and local legislators. This is a fact that the practice of corruption has been rooted in the socio-political life, Indonesia's economy. The local government became one of the ram motor of economic development. However, too often made more severe high cost economy in Indonesia, because of the emergence of levies that were born through legislation (law) is made in order to increase revenue (revenue) that open spaces in the new corruption. They do not realize, because the practice is, investors refrained to enter the area and select the areas that have potential for low cost with little corrupt practices. As a result of it all, poverty increased as the field narrows and work in regional economic development hampered.. There are several
weights that determine the competitiveness of regional investment. First, institutional factors. Second, the infrastructure factor. Third, social factors political. Fourth, local economic factors. Fifth, the employment factor. The results of the research D. Combating Corruption for Development Economics In addition to inhibiting economic growth, corruption also hamper the development of democratic governance system. Corruption fosters a beneficial act tradition yourself or a group, the exclusion of the public interest. Thus corruption sealed weak people the opportunity to enjoy economic development, and quality of life better. The most powerful approach in the fight against corruption in Indonesia. First, starting from improving standards of governance - through the construction of national integrity. Modern governance systems to promote accountability, in this order should come with a free press limits law should also support the creation of government and public administration free from corruption. Similarly with the court. Court which is part of governance, the judiciary, no longer a slave master. However, having the freedom to uphold the rule of law and regulations. Thus the virtuous circle is created that allows all parties to conduct surveillance, and others watched. However, this concept is very easy to recognize authors are written or said than done. We need at least long enough to build the pillars of national integrity of the building that do their job effectively, and managed to make corruption a risky behavior is very high with little results. Construction of national integrity, is like the holy Aqsa Mosque is supported by the pillars of the judiciary, parliament, the auditor's office, state and private, the ombudsman, a free media and civil society anti-corruption. Building above the sacred nan no economic development for the quality of life for the better, the ideal legal order, public awareness and moral values are strong national umbrella of undermining the integrity of the corruption that hamper the development of the plenary. Second, the most difficult and fundamental of all the struggle against corruption is how to build the political will (political will). Political will is not merely the wishes of the politicians and the people involved in the political sphere. However, there are more important than that. Namely, the political will manifested in the form of courage that social intelligence is supported by civil society or citizens of the various elements and social strata. So that political office is no longer used are easy to enrich himself, but as responsible for managing and responsible for formulating the movement achieve national and state life is good. Political risk is usually the main obstacle in the fight against corruption way national economic development. Therefore, why the awareness of civil society important?.
CHAPTER III CLOSING CONCLUSION A way with words for the change is easy. However, implementing a series of words in the form of movement is sometimes very difficult. It takes intelligence and courage to break through and knock down the pillars of corruption that became the main obstacle latest plenary and economic development in Indonesia. Corruption that has too long been a plague that was never finished, because the murder of plague have not been targeted like "the headache, how to treat the hand". Eradication of corruption as just a political commodity, material attractive sympathy powerful rhetoric. Thus civil society is needed intelligence to oversee and make political decisions to prevent further spread of the disease in Indonesia gross corruption. Not easy to do.
Reading Akhiar Salmi, Paper 2006, "Understanding the Law on the Eradication of Corruption", MPKP, FE, UI. Kompas Daily, 13 June 2006, Scholastic Hikmahanto Juwana, Paper 2006, "Political Economy of Law Law in Indonesia", MPKP, FE.UI. Mubaryanto, article, "Pro and Justice", Journal of Economic Peoples, UGM, 2004 Jeremy Pope, "Confronting Corruption: The Element of National Integrity System", Transparency International, 2000. Robert A Simanjutak, "Implementation of Fiscal Decentralization: Problema, Prospects, and Policy", LPEM UI, 2003 Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 32 Year 2004 on Regional Government. Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 33 Year 2004 on Financial Balance and Regional Center.