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MC LC

LI M U .......................................................................... Error! Bookmark not defined.
MC LC ................................................................................................................................. 1

CC DNG TON C BN ............................................................................................... 2
Dng 1: ...................................................................................................................................... 2
Bi ton: Cho mt kim loi (hoc hn hp cc kim loi) tc dng vi dung dch acid khng c tnh oxy ha
mnh nh dung dch acid HCl, HBr, H
2
SO
4
long, ... ......................................................... 2
Mt s bi tp tng t: ........................................................................................................ 5
Dng 2: ...................................................................................................................................... 5
Bi ton: Cho mt kim loi (hoc hn hp cc kim loi) tc dng vi dung dch acid HNO
3
long, dung dch
acid HNO
3
c nng cho ra hn hp kh hp cht ca nit nh NO
2
, NO, N
2
O, N
2
,hoc NH
3
(tn ti dng
mui NH
4
NO
3
trong dung dch). .......................................................................................... 6
Mt s bi tp tng t: ........................................................................................................ 9
Dng 3: .................................................................................................................................... 10
Bi ton: Cho mt kim loi (hoc hn hp cc kim loi) tc dng vi mt dung dch acid acid H
2
SO
4
c
nng cho sn phm l kh SO
2
(kh mi sc), S (kt ta mu vng), hoc kh H
2
S (kh mi trng thi). 10
Mt s bi tp tng t: ...................................................................................................... 12
Dng 4: .................................................................................................................................... 13
Bi ton: Cho mt kim loi (hoc hn hp cc kim loi) tc dng vi mt dung dch hn hp cc acid nh dung
dch hn hp acid HNO
3
long, acid HNO
3
c nng, dung dch acid H
2
SO
4
c nng, ...cho ra hn hp cc kh
... .............................................................................................................................................. 13
Mt s bi tp tng t: ...................................................................................................... 14
Dng 5: Tnh nhanh khi lng mui to thnh trong phn ng oxy ha kh. ...................... 14
Mt s bi tp tng t: ...................................................................................................... 15
Dng 6: Cc bi tp v kim loi qua nhiu trng thi oxy ha nh Fe, Cu ... ........................ 16
Mt s bi tp tng t : .........................................................................................................
Mt s bi tp tng t : ..................................................................................................... 18
Dng 7: Dng ton trong dung dch nhiu cht kh, nhiu cht oxy ha m s trao i electron xy ra ng thi
(thng gp l dng ton kim loi ny y kim loi khc ra khi dung dch mui. ............... 22
Mt s bi tp tng t: ...................................................................................................... 23
Dng 8. p dng LBT electron gii mt s bi ton khc. Bi tp tng hp. .................... 23
Mt s bi tp tng t: ...................................................................................................... 25
TI LIU THAM KHO ........................................................ Error! Bookmark not defined.
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

2


CHNG I
Ni dung nh lut v CC DNG TON C BN


Dng 1:
Bi ton: Cho mt kim loi (hoc hn hp cc kim loi) tc dng vi dung dch acid khng c tnh oxy
ha mnh nh dung dch acid HCl, HBr, H
2
SO
4
long, ...
Gp dng ny cc em cn lu nhng vn sau y:
- Khi cho mt Kim loi hoc hn hp Kim loi tc dng vi hn hp axit HCl, H
2
SO
4
long hoc hn hp
cc a xit long (H
+
ng vai tr l cht oxy ha) th to ra mui c s oxy ha thp v gii phng H
2
.
| + +
+ +
2
2 2 2 nH M nH M
n

- Ch nhng kim loi ng trc H
2
trong dy hot ng ha hc mi tc dng vi ion H
+
. Nh vy ta thy kim
loi nhng i n.e v Hir thu v 2 .e

Cng thc 1: Lin h gia s mol kim loi v s mol kh H
2


Hoc 2.
2
H
n = n
1
.n
M1
+n
2
.n
M2
+.....
(i vi hn hp kim loi)
Trong n :ho tr kim loi
Cng thc 2: Tnh khi lng mui trong dung dch
m
mui
= m
kim loi
+ m
gc acid
(
2
4
SO
m ,

Cl
m ,

Br
m ... )
Trong , s mol gc acid c cho bi cng thc:
n
gc acid
= e
trao i
: in tch ca gc acid
- Vi H
2
SO
4
: m
mui
= m
kim loi
+ 96.
2
H
n
- Vi HCl: m
mui
= m
kim loi
+ 71.
2
H
n
- Vi HBr: m
mui
= m
kim loi
+ 160.
2
H
n
V d 1: Ho tan 7,8g hn hp bt Al v Mg trong dung dch HCl d. Sau phn ng khi lng dung dch axit
tng thm 7,0g. Khi lng nhm v magie trong hn hp u l:
A. 2,7g v 1,2g B. 5,4g v 2,4g C. 5,8g v 3,6g D. 1,2g v 2,4g
p dng nh lut bo ton khi lng ta c :m
H2
= 7,8-7,0 =0,8 gam
Mt khc theo cng thc 1 v theo ta c h phng trnh:
(Khi tham gia phn ng nhm nhng 3 e, magie nhng 2 e v H
2
thu v 2 e)
3.n
Al
+ 2.n
Mg
=2.n
H2
=2.0.8/2 (1)
27.n
Al
+24.n
Mg
=7,8 (2)
Gii phng trnh (1), (2) ta c n
Al
=0.2 mol v n
Mg
= 0.1 mol
T ta tnh c m
Al
=27.0,2 =5,4 gam v m
Mg
=24.0,1 =2,4 gam chn p n B


. V d 2: Cho 15,8 gam KMnO
4
tc dng vi dung dch HCl m c. Th tch kh clo thu c iu kin tiu
chun l:
A. 5,6 lt. B. 0,56 lt. C. 0,28 lt. D. 2,8 lt.

Theo cng thc 1 ta c :Mn
+7
nhng 5 e (Mn
+2
),Cl
-
thu 2.e p dng nh lut bo ton e ta
c :5.n
KmnO4
=2.n
cl2
t suy ra s mol clo bng 5/2 s mol KMnO
4
=0.25 mol t suy ra th tch clo thu
c ktc l:0,25 . 22,4 =0,56 lt
2.
2
H
n = n . n
kim loi

HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

3
V d 3. Ha tan hon ton 20g hn hp Mg v Fe vo dung dch axit HCl d thy c 11,2 lt kh thot ra ktc
v dung dch X. C cn dung dch X th thu c bao nhiu gam mui khan?
A. 55,5g. B. 91,0g. C. 90,0g. D. 71,0g.
p dng cng thc 2 ta c: m
mui
= m
kim loi
+ m
ion to mui
= 20 + 71.0,5=55.5g
Chn p n A.

V d 4. Ha tan 9,14g hp kim Cu, Mg, Al bng mt lng va dung dch HCl thu c 7,84 lt kh X (ktc)
v 2,54g cht rn Y v dung dch Z. C cn dung dch Z thu c m(g) mui, m c gi tr l
A. 31,45g. B. 33,25g. C. 3,99g. D. 35,58g.
p dng cng thc 2 ta c: m
mui
= m
kim loi
+ m
ion to mui
= (9,14-2,54)+ 71.7,84/22,4 =31,45 g
Chn p n A

V d 5: Ha tan ht 7,74 gam hn hp bt Mg, Al bng 500ml dung dch hn hp HCl 1M v H
2
SO
4
0,28M thu
c dung dch X v 8,736 lt kh H
2
(ktc). C cn dung dch X thu c lng mui khan l:
A. 38,93 g B. 25,95 g C. 103,85 g D.77,86 g
Gii: Tng s mol H
+
l: 0,5.(1+2.0,28)=0,78 mol
S mol H
2
l: 8,736:22,4 = 0,39 mol
2H
+
+ 2e H
2

0,78 0,39
Lng H
+
tham gia phn ng va .

p dng cng thc 2 tnh khi lng mui:
m
mui
= m
2 kim loi
+

+
2
4
SO
Cl
m m
= 7,74 + 1.0,5.35,5 + 0,28.0,5.96 =38,3 g
Chn p n A.

V d 6: Cho 24,6 gam hn hp Mg, Al, Fe phn ng ht vi dung dch HCl thu c 84,95 gam mui khan. Th
tch H
2
(ktc) thu c bng:
A. 18,06 lt B. 19,04 lt C. 14,02 lt D. 17,22 lt
Gii: T biu thc tnh khi lng mui:
m
mui
= m
kim loi
+ 71.
2
H
n


84,95 = 24,6 + 71.
4 , 22
2
H
V


2
H
V = 22,4.(
71
6 . 24 95 , 84
) = 19,04 lt
Chn p n B.

V d 7: Chia hn hp hai kim loi A, B c ha tr khng i thnh hai phn bng nhau. Phn 1 ha tan ht
trong dung dch HCl, thu c 1,792 lt kh H
2
(ktc). Phn 2 nung trong oxy thu c 2,84 gam hn hp cc
oxit. Khi lng hn hp hai kim loi trong hn hp u l:
A. 1,56 gam B. 3,12 gam C. 2,2 gam D. 1,8 gam
Gii: t cng thc chung ca hai kim loi A, B l M, c ha tr n.
Phn 1: | + +
+ +
2
2 2 2 nH M nH M
n

e (M nhng) = e (H
+
nhn)

Phn 2:
n
O M nO M
2 2
2 +
e (M nhng) = e (O
2
nhn)
e (H
+
nhn) = e (O
2
nhn)
2
2 2 H e H +
+

0,16
4 , 22
792 , 1

HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

4

+
2
2
2 4 O e O
a 4a
4a = 0,16 a = 0,04 mol O
2
.
Gi m l khi lng ca M trong mi phn.
Ta c: m + 0,04.32 = 2,84 m = 1,56 gam
Vy, khi lng hn hp hai kim loi trong hn hp u l:
2.m = 2. 1,56 = 3,12 gam
Chn p n B.

V d 8: Ha tan ht 2,925 gam kim loi M trong dung dch HBr d, sau phn ng thu c 1,008 lt (ktc). Xc
nh kim loi M.
A. Fe B. Zn C. Al D. Mg
Gii: p dng cng thc 1:
2
H
n = ha tr . n
kim loi

2.
4 , 22
008 , 1
=
M
925 , 2
.n (n l ha tr ca kim loi M)

M = 32,5.n
Chn n = 2, M = 65. Chn p n B.

V d 9: Cho m gam hn hp Mg v Al vo 250 ml dung dch X cha hn hp acid HCl 1M v H
2
SO
4
0,5M thu
c 5,32 lt H
2
(ktc) v dung dch Y (xem th tch dung dch l khng i). Dung dch Y c pH l:
A.1 B.2 C. 7 D. 6
Gii: tnh pH cn tnh s mol H
+
cn li sau phn ng.
Tng s mol H
+
trc phn ng l:
4 2
2
SO H HCl
H
n n n + =
+

5 , 0 5 , 0 . 25 , 0 . 2 1 . 25 , 0 = + = mol
Qu trnh kh H
+
to H
2
: 2H
+
+ 2e H
2

0,475 mol
4 , 22
32 , 5
mol
s mol H
+
phn ng l: 475 , 0
'
=
+
H
n mol
S mol H
+
cn li l: 0,5 0,475 = 0,025 mol
Nng H
+
trong dung dch Y l: [H
+
]=
25 , 0
025 , 0
=0,1 M
pH=-lg[H
+
]=-lg0,1=1.
Chn p n A.

V d 10: Ha tan 7,84 gam Fe vo 200 ml dung dch hn hp hai acid HCl 0,15M v H
2
SO
4
0,25M thy thot ra
V lt kh H
2
(ktc). Gi tr ca V l:
A. 1,456 lt B. 0,45 lt C. 0,75 lt D. 0,55 lt
Gii: S oxy ha st: Fe 2e Fe
2+


56
84 , 7
0,28 (mol)
Tng s mol electron st nhng l:e (nhng) = 0,28 mol.
Tng s mol H
+
l: n
H
+
= 0,2.0,15+0,2.0,25.2=0,13 mol.
S kh H
+
: 2H
+
+ 2e H
2

0,13 0,13 0,065
Tng s mol H
+
nhn l: : e (nhn) = 0,13 mol.
Ta thy : e (nhng) > e (nhn) St d v H
+
chuyn ht thnh H
2
.
Vy th tch kh H
2
(ktc) l: V=22,4.0,065=1,456 lt.
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

5
Chn p n A.

V d 11: Cho 5,1 gam hai kim loi Al v Mg tc dng vi HCl d thu c 5,6 lt kh H
2
(ktc). Thnh phn phn
trm theo khi lng ca Al l:
A. 52,94% B. 47,06% C. 32,94% D. 67,06%
Gii: p nh lut bo ton electron: e (nhng) = e (nh n)
theo ta thy Al nhng 3e , Mg nhng 2e v ra ta c h phng trnh
27.n
Al
+24.n
Mg
=5.1 (1)
3.n
Al
+2.n
Mg
=2.n
H2
(2)
Gii h hai phng trnh (1) v (2), ta c n
Al
=n
Mg
=

0,1
Thnh phn phn trm theo khi lng ca nhm l:
% 94 , 52 100 .
1 , 5
27 . 1 , 0
% = = Al
Chn p n A.

Mt s bi tp tng t:

01. Cho 7,68 gam hn hp X gm Mg v Al vo 400 ml dung dch Y gm HCl 1M v H
2
SO
4
0,5M. Sau khi phn
ng xy ra hon ton thu c 8,512 lt kh (ktc). Bit trong dung dch, cc acid phn li hon ton thnh cc
ion. Phn trm v khi lng ca Al trong X l:
A. 25% B. 75% C. 56,25% D. 43,75%
02. Ho tan 7,8g hn hp bt Al v Mg trong dung dch HCl d. Sau phn ng khi lng dung dch axit tng
thm 7,0g. Khi lng nhm v magie trong hn hp u l:
A. 2,7g v 1,2g B. 5,4g v 2,4g C. 5,8g v 3,6g D. 1,2g v 2,4g
03. Cho 15,8 gam KMnO
4
tc dng vi dung dch HCl m c. Th tch kh clo thu c iu kin tiu chun
l:
A. 5,6 lt. B. 0,56 lt. C. 0,28 lt. D. 2,8 lt.
04. Ha tan hon ton 20g hn hp Mg v Fe vo dung dch axit HCl d thy c 11,2 lt kh thot ra ktc v
dung dch X. C cn dung dch X th thu c bao nhiu gam mui khan?
A. 55,5g. B. 91,0g. C. 90,0g. D. 71,0g.
05. Ha tan 9,14g hp kim Cu, Mg, Al bng mt lng va dung dch HCl thu c 7,84 lt kh X (ktc) v
2,54g cht rn Y v dung dch Z. C cn dung dch Z thu c m(g) mui, m c gi tr l
A. 31,45g. B. 33,25g. C. 3,99g. D. 35,58g.
06. Cho 11,3 gam hn hp Mg v Zn tc dng vi dung dch H
2
SO
4
2M d th thu c 6,72 lt kh (ktc). C cn
dung dch thu c sau phn ng thu c khi lng mui khan l:
A. 40,1g B. 41,1g C. 41,2g D. 14,2g
07. Cho 40 gam hn hp vng, bc, ng, st, km tc dng vi O
2
d nung nng thu c m gam hn hp X.
Cho hn hp X ny tc dng va dung dch HCl cn 400 ml dung dch HCl 2M (khng c H
2
bay ra). Tnh
khi lng m.
A. 46,4 gam B. 44,6 gam C. 52,8 gam D. 58,2 gam
08. Cho m gam Fe tc dng vi dung dch H
2
SO
4
long to 1,792 lt kh ( ktc). Cng cho m gam Fe tc dng vi
HNO
3
long th thy thot ra V lt kh (ktc) kh N
2
O. Gi tr V l:
A. 0,672 lt B, 1.344 lt C. 4,032 lt D. 3,36 lt
09. Ho tan 1,92 gam kim loi M ( ha tr n ) vo dung dch HCl v H
2
SO
4
long va thu c 1,792 lt kh H
2
.
Kim loi M l:
A. Fe B. Cu C. Zn D. Mg
10. Cho 5,1 gam hn hp hai kim loi Al v Mg tc dng vi dung dch HCl d thu c 5,6 lt H
2
(ktc). Tnh
thnh phn theo khi lng ca Al trong hn hp u l:
A. 52,94% B. 32,94% C. 50% D. 60%

Dng 2:

HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

6
Bi ton: Cho mt kim loi (hoc hn hp cc kim loi) tc dng vi dung dch acid HNO
3
long, dung dch acid
HNO
3
c nng cho ra hn hp kh hp cht ca nit nh NO
2
, NO, N
2
O, N
2
,hoc NH
3
(tn ti dng mui
NH
4
NO
3
trong dung dch).
Khi gp bi tp dng ny cn lu :
- Kim loi c nhiu s oxy ha khc nhau khi phn ng vi dung dch acid HNO
3
long, dung dch acid
HNO
3
c nng s t s oxy ha cao nht .
- Hu ht cc kim loi phn ng c vi HNO
3
c nng (tr Pt, Au) v HNO
3
c ngui (tr Pt, Au,
Fe, Al, Cr), khi N
+5
trong HNO
3
b kh v cc mc oxy ha thp hn trong nhng hn cht kh
tng ng.
- Cc kim loi tc dng vi ion

3
NO trong mi trng axit H
+
xem nh tc dng vi HNO
3
. Cc kim
loi Zn, Al tc dng vi ion

3
NO trong mi trng kim OH
-
gii phng NH
3
.
p dng nh lut bo ton eledtron, ta ghi cc bn phn ng (theo phng php thng bng in t hoc
phng php ion-electron). Gi n
i
, x
i
l ha tr cao nht v s mol ca kim loi th i; n
j
l s oxy ha ca N trong
hp cht kh th j v x
j
l s mol tng ng. Ta c:
Lin h gia s mol kim loi v sn phm kh:
n
i
.x
i
= n
j
.x
j

Lin h gia HNO
3
v sn phm kh:
Vi N
2
:
2 2 3
). 0 5 ( 2 . 2
N N HNO
n n n + =
Vi N
2
O:
O N O N HNO
n n n
2 2 3
). 1 5 .( 2 . 2 + =
Vi NO:
NO NO HNO
n n n ). 2 5 (
3
+ =
Vi NO
2
:
3 2 2
(5 4).
HNO NO NO
n n n = +
Vi NH
4
NO
3:
3 4 3 4 3
). 3 5 ( . 2
NO NH NO NH HNO
n n n + + =
Lin h gia ion NO
-
v sn phm kh (khng c sn phm kh NH
4
NO
3
)
Tng s mol NO
-
=10.n
N2
+ 8.n
N2O
+3.n
NO
+1.n
NO2
Tnh khi lng mui trong dung dch:
m
mui
= m
kim loi
+

3
NO
m = m
kim loi
+ 62.e (trao i)
i ton hn hp kim loi tan ht trong HNO
3
hoc H
2
SO
4
khng to mui amoni NH
4
NO
3

Cn ch : - HNO
3
, H
2
SO
4
c ngui khng tc dng vi Al, Fe, Cr
- S dng phng php bo ton e:
=

nhn (kim loi) cho (cht kh)
e e
- hi lng mui
-
3
NO : (m
anion to mui
= m
anion ban u
m
anion to kh
) (II)

3
3
kim loi mui NO (trong mui)
etraoi NO (trong mui kim loi )
+ m = m n
n = n

- hi lng mui
4
2 -
SO :

2
4
2
4
kim loi mui SO (trong mui)
e trao i SO (trong mui kim loi )
+ m = m n
2* n = n

- Cn nh mt s cc bn phn ng sau:
2H
+
+ 2e H
2
NO
3
-
+ e + 2H
+
NO
2
+ H
2
O
SO
4
2
+ 2e + 4H
+
SO
2
+ 2H
2
O NO
3
-
+ 3e + 4H
+
NO + 2H
2
O
SO
4
2
+ 6e + 8H
+
S + 4H
2
O 2NO
3
- + 8e + 10H
+
N
2
O + 5H
2
O
SO
4
2
+ 8e + 10H
+
H
2
S + 4H
2
O 2NO
3
-
+ 10e + 12H
+
N
2
+ 6H
2
O
NO
3
-
+ 8e + 10H
+
NH
4
+
+ 3H
2
O
V d 1 Cho 1,86 g hn hp Mg v Al vo dung dch HNO
3
long d sau phn ng thu c 560 ml N
2
O ( ktc)
l sn phm kh duy nht . Tnh v khi lng ca mi kim loi trong hn hp ban u.
Theo bi ta thy khi tham gia phn ng Mg nhng 2.e ,Al nhng 3.e v NO
3
-
(+5e) thu 4.2.e N
2
O(+1)
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

7
p dng nh lut bo ton e v bi ta c h phng trnh 24.n
Mg
+27.n
Al
=1,86 (1)
2.n
Mg
+ 3.n
Al
=8.n N
2
O=8.0,025 =0,2(2)
Gii h phng trnh ta c n
Mg =
0,01 v n
Al
=0,06 t suy ra m Al =27.0,06 =1,62 gam
V m
Mg
=0,24 gam => Al =1,62/1,86*100 =87,10 v Mg =12,90
V d 2:Cho 1,35g X gm Cu, Mg, Al tc dng ht vi HNO
3
thu c 0,01 mol NO v 0,04 mol NO
2
. Tnh khi
lng mui.
A. 5,69 gam B.4,45 gam C. 5,5 gam D. 6,0 gam-
dng ()hi lng mui
-
3
NO : (m
anion to mui
= m
anion ban u
m
anion to kh
)

3
3
kim loi mui NO (trong mui)
etraoi NO (trong mui kim loi )
+ m = m n
n = n

Nhng e: Cu
2
Cu
+
+ 2e Mg
2
Mg
+
+ 2e Al
3
Al
+
+ 3e
n
Cu
n
Cu
2.n
Cu
n
Mg
n
Mg
2.n
Mg
n
Al
n
Al
3.n
Al
Thu e:
5
N
+
+ 3e
2
N
+
(NO)
5
N
+
+ 1e
4
N
+
(NO
2
)
0,03 0,01 0,04 0,04
p dng s bo ton electron, ta c:
2n
Cu
+ 2.n
Mg
+ 3.n
Al
= 0,03 + 0,04 = 0,07
v 0,07 cng chnh l s mol

3
NO .
Khi lng mui nitrat l: 1,35 + 620,07 = 5,69 gam. p n C

V d 3:Ha tan hon ton 11,9 g hn hp gm Al v Zn bng H
2
SO
4
c nng thu c7,616 lt SO
2
(ktc), 0,64
g S v dung dch X. Khi lng mui trong dung dch X l:
A. 50,3 g B. 30,5 g C. 35,0 g D. 30,05 g-
p dnh hi lng mui
4
2 -
SO :

2
4
2
4
kim loi mui SO (trong mui)
e trao i SO (trong mui kim loi )
+ m = m n
2* n = n



V d 4. Ha tan 18,5 g hn hp X gm Fe, Cu bng dung dch HNO
3
d thu c 6,72 lt (ktc) hn hp kh
B gm NO v NO
2
c khi lng 12,2 g. Khi lng mui nitrat sinh ra l:
A. 45,9 g B. 49,5 g C. 59,4 g D. 95,4 g
V d 5: (Cu 19 - M 182 - Khi A - TSH - 2007)
Ha tan hon ton 12 gam hn hp Fe, Cu (t l mol 1:1) bng axit HNO
3
, thu c V lt ( ktc) hn hp kh X
(gm NO v NO
2
) v dung dch Y (ch cha hai mui v axit d). T khi ca X i vi H
2
bng 19. Gi tr ca V
l
A. 2,24 lt. B. 4,48 lt. C. 5,60 lt. D. 3,36 lt.

Gii: t n
Fe
= n
Cu
= a mol 56a + 64a = 12 a = 0,1 mol.
Qu trnh oxy ha kim loi:
Fe Fe
3+
+ 3e Cu Cu
2+
+ 2e
0,1 0,3 0,1 0,2
Qu trnh kh N
+5
:
N
+5
+ 3e N
+2
N
+5
+ 1e N
+4

3x x y y
p dng nh lut bo ton electron
3x + y = 0,5
Mt khc: Do t khi ca hn hp X vi H
2
l 19
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

8
30x + 46y = 192(x + y).
x = 0,125 ; y = 0,125.
V
hh kh (ktc)
= 0,125222,4 = 5,6 lt.
Chn p n C.

V d 7: Hn hp X gm hai kim loi A v B ng trc H trong dy in ha v c ha tr khng i trong cc
hp cht. Chia m gam X thnh hai phn bng nhau:
- Phn 1: Ha tan hon ton trong dung dch cha axit HCl v H
2
SO
4
long to ra 3,36 lt kh H
2
.
- Phn 2: Tc dng hon ton vi dung dch HNO
3
thu c V lt kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht).
Bit cc th tch kh o iu kin tiu chun. Gi tr ca V l:
A. 2,24 lt. B. 3,36 lt. C. 4,48 lt. D. 6,72 lt.
Gii: t hai kim loi A, B l M.
- Phn 1: M + nH
+
M
n+
+
2
n
H
2
(1)
- Phn 2: 3M + 4nH
+
+ nNO
3

3M
n+
+ nNO + 2nH
2
O (2)
Theo (1): S mol e ca M cho bng s mol e ca 2H
+
nhn;
Theo (2): S mol e ca M cho bng s mol e ca N
+5
nhn.
Vy s mol e nhn ca 2H
+
bng s mol e nhn ca N
+5
.
2H
+
+ 2e H
2
v N
+5
+ 3e N
+2

0,3 0,15 mol 0,3 0,1 mol
V
NO
= 0,122,4 = 2,24 lt. Chn p n A.

V d 8: Cho 3 kim loi Al, Fe, Cu vo 2 lt dung dch HNO
3
phn ng va thu c 1,792 lt kh X (ktc) gm
N
2
v NO
2
c t khi hi so vi He bng 9,25. Nng mol/lt HNO
3
trong dung dch u l:
A. 0,28M. B. 1,4M. C. 1,7M. D. 1,2M.
Gii: Ta c:
( )
2 2
N NO
X
M M
M 9,25 4 37
2
+
= = =
l trung bnh cng khi lng phn t ca hai kh N
2
v NO
2
nn:

2 2
X
N NO
n
n n 0,04 mol
2
= = =
v 2NO
3

+ 12H
+
+ 10e N
2
+ 6H
2
O
0,48 0,4 0,04 (mol)
NO
3

+ 2H
+
+ 1e NO
2
+ H
2
O
0,08 0,04 0,04 (mol)
56 , 0 08 , 0 48 , 0
3
= + = =
+
H
HNO
n n (mol)

| |
3
0,56
HNO 0,28M.
2
= = Chn p n A.
V d 9 Th tch dung dch HNO
3
1M (long) t nht cn dng ho tan hon ton 18 gam hn hp gm Fe v
Cu trn theo t l mol 1 : 1 l: (bit phn ng to cht kh duy nht l NO):
A.1,0 lt B. 0,6 lt C. 0,8 lt D. 1,2 lt
Gii: Gi n
Fe
= n
Cu
= a mol 56a + 64a = 18
a = n
Fe
= n
Fe
= 0,15 mol.
- Do th tch dung dch HNO
3
cn dng t nht, nn st s b ha tan ht bi HNO
3
va to mui Fe
3+
,
Cu
tc dng va vi Fe
3+
to mui Cu
2+
v Fe
2+
. Sau phn ng ch thu c hai mui Cu(NO
3
)
2
v
Fe(NO
3
)
2
.
Fe - 2e Fe
2+

0,15 0,3
Cu - 2e Cu
2+
0,15 0,3
e (nhng) = 2.(0,15 + 0,15) = 0,6 mol .
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

9
NO
3
-
+ 4H
+
+ 3e NO + 2H
2
O
4a 3a
e (nhn) = 3a mol
- Theo nh lut bo ton electron: 3a = 0,6 a = 0,2
8 , 0 2 , 0 . 4 4
3
= = = =
+
a n n
H
HNO
mol
[HNO
3
] =
1
8 , 0
=0,8 lt. Chn p n C.
Mt s bi tp tng t:

01. Ho tan hon ton m gam Al vo dung dch HNO
3
rt long th thu c hn hp gm 0,015 mol kh N
2
O v
0,01mol kh NO (phn ng khng to NH
4
NO
3
). Gi tr ca m l:
A. 13,5 gam. B. 1,35 gam. C. 0,81 gam. D. 8,1 gam.
02. Ha tan hon ton 1,2g kim loi X vo dung dch HNO
3
d thu c 0,224 lt kh N
2
(ktc). Gi thit phn ng
ch to ra kh N
2
. Vy X l:
A. Zn B. Cu C. Mg D. Al
03. Mt hn hp gm hai bt kim loi Mg v Al c chia thnh hai phn bng nhau:
- Phn 1: cho tc dng vi HCl d thu c 3,36 lt H
2
.
- Phn 2: ho tan ht trong HNO
3
long d thu c V lt mt kh khng mu, ho nu trong khng kh (cc
th tch kh u o ktc). Gi tr ca V l:
A. 2,24 lt. B. 3,36 lt. C. 4,48 lt. D. 5,6 lt.
04. ( tuyn sinh H-C khi A-2007)
Hon tan hon ton 12 g hn hp Fe, Cu ( t l mol 1: 1) bng HNO
3
thu c V lt hn hp kh ( ktc) gm
NO, NO
2
v dung dch Y cha 2 mui v axit d. T khi ca X so vi H
2
l 19. Gi tr V l:
A. 5,6 B. 2,8 C. 11,2 D. 8,4
05. Cho 1,35 gam hn hp Cu, Mg, Al tc dng vi HNO
3
d c 896 ml hn hp gm NO v NO
2
c M 42 = . Tnh
tng khi lng mui nitrat sinh ra (kh ktc).
A. 9,41 gam. B. 10,08 gam. C. 5,07 gam. D. 8,15 gam.
06. Ha tan ht 4,43 gam hn hp Al v Mg trong HNO
3
long thu c dung dch A v 1,568 lt (ktc) hn hp
hai kh (u khng mu) c khi lng 2,59 gam trong c mt kh b ha thnh mu nu trong khng kh.
Tnh s mol HNO
3
phn ng.
A. 0,51 mol. A. 0,45 mol. C. 0,55 mol. D. 0,49 mol.
07. Ha tan hon ton m gam hn hp gm ba kim loi bng dung dch HNO
3
thu c 1,12 lt hn hp kh D (ktc)
gm NO
2
v NO. T khi hi ca D so vi hiro bng 18,2. Tnh th tch ti thiu dung dch HNO
3
37,8% (d =
1,242g/ml) cn dng.
A. 20,18 ml. B. 11,12 ml. C. 21,47 ml. D. 36,7 ml.
08. Ha tan 6,25 gam hn hp Zn v Al vo 275 ml dung dch HNO
3
thu c dung dch A, cht rn B gm cc kim
loi cha tan ht cn nng 2,516 gam v 1,12 lt hn hp kh D ( ktc) gm NO v NO
2
. T khi ca hn hp D
so vi H
2
l 16,75. Tnh nng mol/l ca HNO
3
v tnh khi lng mui khan thu c khi c cn dung dch
sau phn ng.
A. 0,65M v 11,794 gam. B. 0,65M v 12,35 gam.
C. 0,75M v 11,794 gam. D. 0,55M v 12.35 gam.
09. Ha tan hon ton 9,4 gam ng bch (hp kim Cu Ni ) vo dun dch HNO
3
long d. Khi phn ng xy ra
hon ton thu c 0,09 mol NO v 0,003 mol N
2
. Phn trm khi lng Cu trong hn hp l:
A. 74, 89% B. 69.04% C. 27.23% D. 25.11%
10. Ha tan ht 35,4 g hn kim loi Ag v Cu trong dung dch HNO
3
long d thu c 5,6 lt kh duy nht khng
mu ha nu trong khng kh. Khi lng Ag trong hn hp.
A. 16,2 g B. 19,2 g C. 32,4 g D. 35,4g
11. Ho tan Fe trong ung dch HNO
3
d thy sinh ra hn hp kh cha 0,03 mol NO
2
v 0,02 mol NO. Khi
lng Fe b tan:
A. 0,56g B. 1,12 g C. 1,68g D. 2,24g
12. Cho 11g hn hp Fe, Al tc dng ht vi dung dch HNO
3
long thu c 0,3 mol kh NO. Tnh khi lng
Al.
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

10
A. 49,1g B. 50,9g C.36,2g D. 63,8g
13. Cho 18,5 gam hn hp Z gm Fe v Fe
3
O
4
tc dng vi 200 ml dung dch HNO
3
long un nng v khuy
u. Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c 2,24 lt kh NO duy nht (ktc) dung dch X v cn li 1,46
gam kim loi. Nng mol/ lt ca dung dch HNO
3
l:
A. 3,5 M B. 2,5 M C. 3,2 M D. 2,4 M
14. Cho m gam Cu phn ng ht vi dung dch HNO
3
thu c 8,96 lt hn hp kh NO v NO
2
(ktc) c khi
lng l 15,2 gam. Gi tr m l:
A. 25,6 B. 16 C. 2,56 D. 8
15. Ho tan hon ton 32 gam kim loi M trong dung dch HNO
3
d thu c 8,96 lt
(ktc) hn hp kh gm NO
2
v NO, c t khi so H
2
bng 17. Kim loi M l:
A. Cu B. Zn C. Fe D. Ca
16. Mt hn hp gm 2 kim loi Mg v Al c chia lm 2 phn bng nhau.
- Phn 1: Cho tc dng vi HCl d thu c 3,36 lt kh H
2
( ktc).
- Phn 2: Hon tan ht trong HNO
3
long d thu c V lt kh khng mu ha nu trong khng kh ( cc th
tch kh o cng iu kin ). Gi tr ca V:
A. 2,24 lt B. 11,2 lt C. 22,4 lt D. Kt qu khc
17. Cho 13,5 gam Al tc dng va vi dung dch HNO
3
thy thot ra mt hn hp kh gm NO v N
2
O c t
khi so vi H
2
l 19,2. S mol NO trong hn hp l:
A. 0,05 B. 0,1 C. 0,15 D. 0,2
18. Nung n hon ton 0,05 mol FeCO
3
trong bnh kn cha 0,01 mol O
2
thu c cht rn A. ha tan A bng
dung dch HNO
3
(c, nng) th s mol HNO
3
ti thiu l:
A. 0,14 B. 0,25 C. 0,16 D. 0,18.
19. Cho 2,16 gam Mg tc dng vi dung dch HNO
3
d. Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c 0,896 lt kh
NO (ktc) v dung dch X. Khi lng mui khan thu c kh c cn dung dch X l:
A. 8,88 g B. 13,92 g C. 6,52 g D. 13,32 g
20. Ha tan ht 0,02 mol Al v 0,03 mol Ag vo dung dch HNO
3
d ri c cn v nung nng n khi lng
khng i th thu c cht rn nng:
A. 4,26g B. 4,5g C. 3,78g D. 7,38g
21. Ly 0,1 mol Cu tc dng vi 500 ml dung dch KNO
3
0,2M v HCl 0,4M thu c bao nhiu lt kh NO (ktc).
A. 2,24 B. 1,12 C. 3,36 D. 8,96
22. Ha tan 3,06 g M
x
O
y
(ha tr ca M khng i) trong ung dch HNO
3
d thu c 5,22g mui. Khi lng
mol ca M
x
O
y
.
A. 153 B. 40 C. 160 D. 232
23. Ha tan hon ton 3,28g hn hp Fe v R c ha tr II bng dung dch HCl d c 2,464 lt H
2
(ktc). Cng
lng hn hp kim loi trn tc dng vi dung dch HNO
3
long thu c 1,792 lt kh NO (ktc). Kim loi R
l:
A. Al B. Mg C. Cu D. Zn
24. 2,8 gam bt Fe ngoi khng kh mt thi gian thy khi lng tng ln 3,44 gam. Tnh phn trm Fe
phn ng. Gi s phn ng ch to nn Fe
3
O
4
.
A. 48.8% B. 60% C. 81.4 % D. 99.9%
25. Ha tan ht 0,1 mol Zn vo 100 ml dung dch HNO
3
nng a M th khng thy kh thot ra. Tnh gi tr a ca
HNO
3
.
A. 0,25 M B. 1,25 M C. 2,25 M D. 2,5M
26. Cho 0,8 mol Al tc dng vi dung dch HNO
3
thu c 0,3 mol kh X ( khng c sn phm khc). Kh X l:
A. NO
2
B. NO C. N
2
O D. N
2
27. Hon tan 7,68 gam kim loi M ( ha tr n ) vo dung dch HNO
3
va thu c 1,792 lt kh NO. Kim loi M
l:
A. Fe B. Cu C. Zn D. Al
Dng 3:

Bi ton: Cho mt kim loi (hoc hn hp cc kim loi) tc dng vi mt dung dch acid acid H
2
SO
4
c nng
cho sn phm l kh SO
2
(kh mi sc), S (kt ta mu vng), hoc kh H
2
S (kh mi trng thi).
Khi gp bi tp dng ny cn lu :
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

11
- Kim loi c nhiu s oxy ha khc nhau khi phn ng vi dung dch acid H
2
SO
4
c nng s t s oxy
ha cao nht.
- Hu ht cc kim loi phn ng c vi H
2
SO
4
c nng (tr Pt, Au) khi S
+6
trong H
2
SO
4
c nng
b kh v cc mc oxy ha thp hn trong nhng sn phm nh l kh SO
2
, H
2
S hoc S.
- Mt s kim loi nh Al, Fe, Cr, th ng trong H
2
SO
4
c ngui.
p dng nh lut bo ton electron, ta ghi cc bn phn ng (theo phng php thng bng in t hoc
phng php ion-electron). Gi n
i
, x
i
l ha tr cao nht v s mol ca kim loi th i; n
j
l s oxy ha ca S trong
sn phm kh th j v x
j
l s mol tng ng. Ta c:
Lin h gia s mol kim loi v sn phm kh:
n
i
.x
i
= n
j
.x
j

Lin h gia H
2
SO
4
v sn phm kh:
=
4 2
SO H
n s mol sn phm kh +
2
1
s mol electron nhn
Vi SO
2
:
2 2 4 2
). 4 6 (
2
1
SO SO SO H
n n n + =
Vi S:
S S SO H
n n n ). 0 6 (
2
1
4 2
+ =
Vi H
2
S:
S H S H SO H
n n n
2 2 4 2
). 2 6 (
2
1
+ + =
Tnh khi lng mui trong dung dch:
m
mui
= m
kim loi
+
2
4
SO
m = m
kim loi
+ 96.
2
1
e (trao i)
V d 1: Ha tan ht 29,6 gam hn hp X gm Fe, Mg, Cu theo t l mol 1:2:3 bng H
2
SO
4
c ngui c
dung dch Y v 3,36 lt SO
2
(ktc). C cn dung dch Y c khi lng mui khan l:
A. 38,4 gam B. 21,2 gam C. 43,4 gam D. 36,5 gam
Gii: Gi x l s mol Fe trong hn hp X, n
Mg
= 2x, n
Cu
=3x.
56x+24.2x+64.3x=29,6 x= 0,1 mol.
n
Fe
= 0,1 mol, n
Mg
=0,2 mol, n
Cu
=0,3 mol
Do acid H
2
SO
4
c ngui, nn st khng phn ng.
SO
4
2-
+ 2e S
+4
0,3
4 , 22
36 , 3

Theo biu thc: m
mui
=m
Cu
+m
Mg
+
2
4
SO
m = m
Cu
+m
Mg
+ 96.
2
1
e (trao i)
=64.0,3+24.0,2 +96.
2
1
0,3 = 38,4 gam.
Chn p n A.

V d 2: Ha tan 0,1 mol Al v 0,2 mol Cu trong dung dch H
2
SO
4
c d thu c V lt SO
2
( 0
0
C, 1 atm). Gi
tr ca V l:
A. 3,36 B. 4,48 C. 7,84 D. 5,6
Gii: 0
0
C, 1 atm l iu kin tiu chun. p dng nh lut bo ton electron:
2.n
Cu
+3.n
Al
=(6-4).n
2
so
2.0,1+3.0,2=(6-4).n
2
so

n
2
so
= 0,35 mol V
2
so
=0,35.22,4=7,84 lt.
Chn p n A.

V d 3: Ha tan va hn hp X 10,08 lt SO
2
duy nht. Nng % ca dung dch H
2
SO
4
l:
A. 82,89% B. 89,2% C. 7,84% D. 95,2%
Gii: p dng nh lut bo ton electron:
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

12
9 , 0
4 . 22
08 , 10
. 2 2 ). 4 6 .(
2
1
2 2 2 4 2
= = = + =
SO SO SO SO H
n n n n mol
% 89 , 82 100 .
70 . 52 , 1
98 . 9 , 0
100 .
.
100 . % = = = =
V D
m
m
m
C
acid
dd
acid
. Chn p n A.

V d 4: Cho 5,94g Al tc dng va vi dung dch H
2
SO
4
c nng thu c 1,848 lt sn phm ( X ) c lu
hunh ( ktc), mui sunfat v nc. Cho bit ( X ) l kh g trong hai kh SO
2
, H
2
S ?
A. H
2
S B. SO
2
C. C hai kh D. S
Gii: n
Al
= 5,94 : 27 = 0,22 mol
n
X
= 1,848 : 22,4 = 0,0825 mol
Qu trnh oxy ha Al : Al - 3e Al
3+
0,22 0,66
n
e
(cho) = 0,22.3 = 0,66 mol
Qu trnh kh S
6+
: S
+6
+ ( 6-x )e S
x

0,0825(6-x) 0,0825
n
e
(nhn) = 0,0825(6-x) mol
( x l s oxy ha ca S trong kh X )
p dng nh lut bo ton electron, ta c : 0,0825(6-x) = 0,66 x = -2
Vy X l H
2
S ( trong S c s oxy ha l -2). Chn p n A.

V d 5: Ho tan ht 16,3 gam hn hp kim loi gm Mg, Al v Fe trong dung dch H
2
SO
4
c, nng thu c
0,55 mol SO
2
. C cn dung dch sau phn ng, khi lng cht rn khan thu c l:
A. 51,8 gam B. 55,2 gam C. 69,1 gam D. 82,9 gam
Gii: S dng phng php bo ton electron vi cht kh l cc kim loi Mg, Al, Fe, cht oxy ho H
2
SO
4
.
S
+6
+ 2e S
+4
0,55.2 0,55
Khi lng mui khan l:
m
mui
=m
kim loi
+
2
4
SO
m = m
kim loi
+ 96.
2
1
e (trao i)
1 , 69 2 . 55 , 0 .
2
1
. 96 3 , 16 = + = gam . Chn p n C.
Mt s bi tp tng t:
01. Ha tan 2,4 g hn hp Cu v Fe c t l s mol 1:1 vo dung dch H
2
SO
4
c, nng. Kt thc phn ng thu
c 0,05 mol mt sn phm kh duy nht c cha lu hunh. Xc nh sn phm :
A. SO
2
B. H
2
S C. S D. H
2

02. Thi mt lung CO qua hn hp Fe v Fe
2
O
3
nung nng c cht kh B v hn hp D gm Fe, FeO, Fe
2
O
3
,
Fe
3
O
4
. Cho B li qua dung dch nc vi trong d thy to 6 gam kt ta. Ha tan D bng H
2
SO
4
c, nng
thy to ra 0,18 mol SO
2
cn dung dch E. C cn E thu c 24g mui khan. Xc nh thnh phn ca Fe:
A. 58,33% B. 41,67% C. 50% D. 40%
03. Cho 8,3 gam hn hp hai kim loi Al v Fe tc dng vi dung dch H
2
SO
4
c d thu c 6,72 lit kh SO
2

(ktc). Khi lng ca mi kim loi trong hn hp ban u:
A. 2,7g; 5,6g B. 5,4g; 4,8g C. 9,8g; 3,6g D. 1,35g; 2,4g
04. a gam bt st ngoi khng kh, sau mt thi gian s chuyn thnh hn hp A c khi lng 75,2 gam gm
Fe, FeO, Fe
2
O
3
, Fe
3
O
4
. Cho hn hp A phn ng ht vi dung dch H
2
SO
4
m c, nng thu c 6,72 lit kh
SO
2
( ktc). Khi lng a gam l:
A. 56g B. 11,2g C. 22,4g D. 25,3g
05. Khi cho 9,6gam Mg tc dng ht vi dung dch H
2
SO
4
m c thy c 49gam H
2
SO
4
tham gia phn ng to
mui MgSO
4
, H
2
O v sn phm kh X. X l:
A. SO
2
B. S C. H
2
S D. SO
2
,H
2
S
06. Ha tan ht 16,3 gam hn hp kim loi gm Mg, Al v Fe trong dung dch H
2
SO
4
c, nng thu c 0,55
mol SO
2
. C cn dung dch sau phn ng, khi lng cht rn khan thu c l:
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

13
A. 51,8g B. 55,2g C. 69,1g D. 82,9g
07. Ha tan hon ton 4,0 gam hn hp Mg, Fe, Cu bng dung dch H
2
SO
4
c nng d, thu c 2,24 lt kh SO
2

duy nht (ktc) v dung dch cha m gam mui. Gi tr ca m l:
A. 23,2. B. 13,6. C. 12,8. D. 14,4.
08. Cho 0,01 mol mt hp cht ca st tc dng vi dung dch H
2
SO
4
c nng d, thot ra 0,112 lt kh (ktc) kh
SO
2
(l sn phm kh duy nht). Cng thc ca hp cht l:
A. FeCO
3
. B. FeS
2
. C. FeS. D. FeO.
09. Ha tan 23,4 gam hn hp gm Al, Fe, Cu bng mt lng vu dung dch H
2
SO
4
, thu c 15,12 lt kh
SO
2
(ktc) v dung dch cha m gam mui. Gi tr ca m l:
A. 153,0. B. 95,8. C. 88,2. D. 75,8.
09. Ha tan hon ton 9,6 gam mt kim loi M trong dung dch H
2
SO
4
c nng thot ra 3,36 lt kh SO
2
(ktc).
Kim loi M l:
A. Mg. B. Al. C. Fe. D. Cu.
10. Cho 1,44g hn hp gm kim loi M v oxit ca n MO, c s mol bng nhau, tc dng ht vi H
2
SO
4
c,
un nng. Th tch kh SO
2
(ktc) thu c l 0,224 lt. Cho bit rng ho tr ln nht ca M l II. Kim loi M l:
A. Cu B. Fe C. Al D. Zn
Dng 4:

Bi ton: Cho mt kim loi (hoc hn hp cc kim loi) tc dng vi mt dung dch hn hp cc acid nh dung
dch hn hp acid HNO
3
long, acid HNO
3
c nng, dung dch acid H
2
SO
4
c nng, ...cho ra hn hp cc kh ...
Cc lu v cch gii ging vi dng 2 v dng 3.

V d 1: Ha tan 15 gam hn hp X gm hai kim loi Mg v Al vo dung dch Y gm HNO
3
v H
2
SO
4
c thu
c 0,1 mol mi kh SO
2
, NO, NO
2
, N
2
O. Phn trm khi lng ca Al v Mg trong X ln lt l:
A. 63% v 37%. B. 36% v 64%. C. 50% v 50%. D. 46% v 54%.
Gii: theo Ta c:
24 n
Mg
x + 27n
Al
= 15. (1)
Qu trnh oxy ha:
Mg Mg
2+
+ 2e Al Al
3+
+ 3e
n
Mg
2.n
Mg
n
Al
3.n
Al
Tng s mol e nhng bng (2.n
Mg
+ 3.n
Al
).
Qu trnh kh:
N
+5
+ 3e N
+2
2N
+5
+ 24e 2N
+1

0,3 0,1 0,8 0,2
N
+5
+ 1e N
+4
S
+6
+ 2e S
+4

0,1 0,1 0,2 0,1
Tng s mol e nhn bng 1,4 mol.
Theo nh lut bo ton electron:
2.n
Mg
+ 3.n
Al
= 1,4 (2)
Gii h (1), (2) ta c: n
Mg
= 0,4 mol ; n
Al
= 0,2 mol.

27 0,2
%Al 100% 36%.
15

= =
%Mg = 100% 36% = 64%. p n B.

V d 2: Mt hn hp X c khi lng 18,2g gm 2 Kim loi A (ha tr 2) v B (ha tr 3). Ha tan X hon ton
trong dung dch Y cha H
2
SO
4
v HNO
3
. Cho ra hn hp kh Z gm 2 kh SO
2
v N
2
O. Xc nh 2 kim loi A, B
(B ch co th l Al hay Fe). Bit s mol ca hai kim loi bng nhau v s mol 2 kh SO
2
v N
2
O ln lt l 0,1 mol
mi kh.
A. Cu, Al B. Cu, Fe C. Zn, Al D. Zn, Fe
Gii: Qu trnh kh hai anion to kh l:
4H
+
+ SO
4
2-
+ 2e SO
2
+ 2H
2
O
0,2 0,1
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

14
10H
+
+ 2NO
3

+ 8e N
2
O + 5H
2
O
0,8 0,1
e (nhn) = 0,2 + 0,8 = 1 mol
A - 2e A
2+
a 2a
B - 3e B
3+
b 3b
e (cho) = 2a + 3b = 1 (1)
V s mol ca hai kim loi bng nhau nn: a = b (2)
Gii ( 1), (2 ) ta c a = b = 0,2 mol
Vy 0,2A + 0,2B = 18,2 A + B = 91 A l Cu v B l Al.

Mt s bi tp tng t:

01. Cho 18,4 g hn hp kim loi A, B tan ht trong dung dch hn hp gm HNO
3
c v H
2
SO
4
c, nng thy
thot ra 0,3 mol NO v 0,3mol SO
2
. C cn dung dch sau phn ng, khi lng cht rn thu c l:
A. 103g B. 63,3g C. 79,6g D. 84,4g
02. Ha tan va 6g hn hp 2 kim loi X,Y c ha tr tng ng I, II vo dung dch hn hp 2 axit HNO
3
v
H
2
SO
4
th thu c 2,688 lit hn hp kh B gm NO
2
v SO
2
(ktc) v c tng khi lng l 5,88g. C cn
dung dch sau cng th thu c m(g) mui khan. Tnh m?
A. 8,54g B. 8,45g C. 5,84g D. 5,45g
03. Ha tan 3 gam hn hp A gam kim loi R ha tr I v kim loi ha tr II M vi hn hp dung dch cha HNO
3

v H
2
SO
4
c nng, thu c 2,94 gam hn hp kh Y gm NO
2
v SO
2
. Th tch ca Y l 1,344 lt (ktc).
Khi lng mui khan thu c l:
A. 6,36g. B. 7,06g. C. 10,56g. D. 12,26g.
04. Cho 3,84 gam Cu phn ng vi 80ml dung dch HNO
3
1M thot ra V
1
lt kh NO. Cho 3,84 gam Cu phn ng
vi 80ml dung dch HNO
3
1M v H
2
SO
4
0,5M thot ra V
2
lt kh NO. Bit NO l sn phm kh duy nht cc
th tch kh o trong cng iu kin. Quan h gia V
1
v V
2
l:
A. V
2
= V
1
. B. V
2
= 2,5V
1
. C. V
2
= 2V
1
. D. V
2
= 1,5V
1
.
05. Cho 12,9 gam hn hp Mg v Al phn ng vi 100 ml dung dch hn hp 2 axit HNO
3
4M v H
2
SO
4
7M thu
c 0,1 mol mi kh SO
2
, NO v N
2
O( khng c sn phm kh khc). Thnh phn theo khi lng ca Al
trong hn hp u l:
A. 62,79% B. 52,33% C. 41,86% D. 83,72%
06. Ha tan hon ton 14,8g hn hp kim loi Fe v Cu vo lng d dung dch hn hp HNO
3
v H
2
SO
4
m
c, nng. Sau phn ng thu c 10,08 lt kh NO
2
v 2,24 lt SO
2
(ktc). Khi lng Fe trong hn hp:
A. 5,6g B. 8,4g C, 18g D. 18,2g
07. Cho 3,2 gam bt ng tc dng vi 100 ml dung dch hn hp gm HNO
3
0,8 M v H
2
SO
4
0,2 M. Sau khi cc
phn ng xy ra hon ton, sinh ra V lt kh NO (l sn phm kh duy nht, ktc). Gi tr ca V l:
A. 0,746 B. 0,448 C. 1,792 D 0,672

Dng 5: Tnh nhanh khi lng mui to thnh trong phn ng oxy ha kh.

Trong cc phn ng oxy ha kh, sn phm to thnh c cha cc mui m ta thng gp nh mui sunfat
SO
4
2-
(c in tch l -2), mui nitrat NO
3
-
, ( c in tch l -1), mui halogen X
-
( c in tch l -1), ... Thnh
phn ca mui gm caction kim loi (hoc cation NH
4
+
),v anion gc acid. Mun tnh khi lng mui to thnh
trong dung dch ta tnh nh sau:
m
mui
= m
kim loi
+ m
gc acid

Trong : m
gc acid
= M
gc acid
.e (nhn)/(s in tch gc acid)

V d 1: Cho 6,3 g hn hp Mg v Zn tc dng ht vi dung dch HCl thy thot ra 3,36 lt H
2
(ktc). Khi lng
mui to ra trong dung dch l:
A. 15,69 g B. 16,95 g C. 19,65 g D. 19,56 g
Gii: Ta c: 2H
+
+ 2e H
2

HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

15
0,3
4 , 22
36 , 3

Vy khi lng mui trong dung dch l:
m
mui
= m
kim loi
+ m
gc acid
= 6,3+35,5.0,3/1=16,95 g.
p n B.

V d 2: Oxy ha hon ton 7,2 g hn hp X gm Al, Mg, Zn bng oxy d c 12,8 g hn hp oxit Y. Ha tan ht
Y trong dung dch H
2
SO
4
long thu c dung dch T. C cn dung dch T thu c lng mui khan l:
A. 50,8 g B. 20,8 g C. 30,8 g D. 40,8 g
Gii: T Y X
SO H O

4 2 2

Khi lng oxy l: 6 , 5 2 , 7 8 , 12
2
= =
O
m g
Ta c: O
2
+ 4e 2O
2-


32
6 , 5
0,7
m
mui
= m
kim loi
+ m
gc acid
= 8 , 40
2
7 , 0 . 96
2 , 7 = + g. p n D.

V d 3: Cho 7,4 gam hn hp kim loi Ag, Al, Mg tan ht trong H
2
SO
4
c nng thu c hn hp sn phm kh
gm 0,015 mol S v 0,0125 mol H
2
S. C cn dung dch sau phn ng c lng mui khan l:
A. 12,65 g B. 15,62 g C. 16,52 g D. 15,26 g
Gii: S
+6
+ 6e S
0
v S
+6
+ 8e S
-2

0,09 0,015 0,1 0,0125
m
mui
= m
kim loi
+ m
gc acid
= 52 , 16
2
) 1 , 0 09 , 0 .( 96
4 , 7 =
+
+ g. p n C.

V d 4: Cho 11,8 g hn hp Al, Cu phn ng vi hn hp dung dch HNO
3
v H
2
SO
4
d, thu c 13,44 lt (ktc)
hn hp kh SO
2
v NO
2
c t khi vi H
2
l 26. Khi lng mui to ra trong dung dch l:
A. 55,8 g B. 50 g C. 61,2 g D. 56 g
Gii: Da vo s ng cho ta tnh c
2 , 0
2
=
SO
n mol, 4 , 0
2
=
NO
n mol
S
+6
+ 2e S
+4
v N
+5
+ 1e N
+4

0,4 0,2 0,4 0,4
m
mui
= m
kim loi
+ 8 , 55
1
4 , 0 . 62
2
4 , 0 . 96
8 , 11
3
2
4
= + + = +

NO SO
m m g. p n A.
Mt s bi tp tng t:

01. Cho 5,3g hn hp Zn v Fe tc dng vi dung dch HCl thy thot ra 0,5g kh H
2
. Khi lng mui clorua
trong dung dch l:
A. 23,05 g B. 23,50 g C. 32,05 g D. 32,50 g
02. Oxy ha hon ton 14,3g hn hp bt cc kim loi Mg, Al, Zn bng oxy d thu c 22,3g hn hp oxit. Cho
hn hp ny tc dng vi dung dch HCl d th lng mui to thnh trong dung dch l:
A. 36,6 g B. 32,05 g C. 49,8 g D. 48,9 g
03. Ha tan hon ton 58 g hn hp A gm Fe, Cu, Ag trong dung dch HNO
3
thu c 0,15 mol kh NO, 0,05
mol kh N
2
O, v dung dch D. C cn dung dch D lng mui khan thu c l:
A. 120,4 g B. 89.8 g C. 11,7 g D. 90,3 g
04. Ha tan ht 4,2 g hn hp kim loi Zn v Fe bng dung dch H
2
SO
4
c nng thu c 0,025 mol S (sn
phm kh duy nht). C cn dung dch sau phn ng cht rn khan thu c l:
A. 14,1 g B. 11,4 g C. 6,6 g D. 1,14 g
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

16
05. Cho 8,5 g cc kim loi Al v Mg tan ht trong dung dch hn hp HNO
3
long v H
2
SO
4
long, thu c 11,2
lit (ktc) hn hp kh B gm NO v H
2
c t khi so vi H
2
l 8. C cn dung dch sau phn ng c lng
mui khan l:
A. 59 g B. 69 g C. 79 g D. 89 g
06. Ha tan hon ton 11,9 g hn hp gm Al v Zn bng H
2
SO
4
c nng thu c7,616 lt SO
2
(ktc), 0,64 g S v
dung dch X. Khi lng mui trong dung dch X l:
A. 50,3 g B. 30,5 g C. 35,0 g D. 30,05 g
07. Ha tan 18,5 g hn hp X gm Fe, Cu bng dung dch HNO
3
d thu c 6,72 lt (ktc) hn hp kh B
gm NO v NO
2
c khi lng 12,2 g. Khi lng mui nitrat sinh ra l:
A. 45,9 g B. 49,5 g C. 59,4 g D. 95,4 g
08. Dung dch A ch cha ba ion H
+
, NO
3
-
, SO
4
2-
,. em ha tan 6,28 g hn hp B gm 3 kim loi M, M, M c
ha tr tng ng l I, II, III vo dung dch A thu c dung dch D v 2,688 lt kh X gm NO
2
v SO
2
(ktc).
C cn dung dch D c m gam mui khan, bit rng kh X c t khi vi H
2
l 27,5. Gi tr ca m l:
A. 15,76 g B. 17,56 g C. 16,57 g D.16,75 g
09. Cho 2,16 g kim loi Mg tc dng vi dung dch HNO
3
d thu c 0,896 lt kh NO (ktc) v dung dch X.
Khi lng mui khan thu c khi lm bay hi dung dch X l:
A. 13,92 g B. 8,88 g C. 13,32 g D. 6,52 g
10. Ha tan ht 12 g hn hp kim loi X, Y vo dung dch HNO
3
thu c m gam mui khan v 1,12 lt kh N
2

(ktc). Tm gi tr ca m:
A. 34 g B. 44 g C. 43 g D. 33 g
11. Cho 1,35g X gm Cu, Mg, Al tc dng ht vi HNO
3
thu c 0,01 mol NO v 0,04 mol NO
2
. Tnh khi lng
mui.
A. 5,69 gam B.4,45 gam C. 5,5 gam D. 6,0 gam
12: Cho 1,35 gam hn hp A gm Cu, Mg, Al tc dng vi HNO
3
d c 1,12 lt NO v NO
2
c khi lng trung
bnh l 42,8. Bit th tch kh o ktc. Tng khi lng mui nitrat sinh ra l: [6]
A. 9,65g B. 7,28g C. 4,24g D. 5,69g

Dng 6: Cc bi tp v kim loi qua nhiu trng thi oxy ha nh Fe, Cu ...

Cc kim loi ny c nhiu trng thi oxy ha nn khi oxy ha chng thng thu c hn hp cc oxit v c
th c kim loi cha b oxy ha. Thng thng, bi ton cho ton b lng oxit kim loi chuyn v mt trng thi
oxy ha cao nht. gii quyt dng bi tp ny cn ch :
- Ch quan tm n trng thi oxy ha u v cui ca kim loi, khng cn quan tm n cc trng thi oxy
ha trung gian.
- t n s vi cht ng vai tr cht kh.

V d 1: Nung x gam Fe trong khng kh, thu c 104,8 gam hn hp rn A gm Fe, FeO, Fe
2
O
3
, Fe
3
O
4
. Ha
tan A trong dung dch HNO
3
d, thu c dung dch B v 12,096 lit hn hp kh NO v NO
2
(ktc) c t khi i
vi He l 10,167. Gi tr ca x l:
A. 85,02g B. 49,22g C. 78,4g D. 98g
Gii: Da vo s ng cho tnh c s mol NO v NO
2
ln lt l 0,18 v 0,36 mol.

3 3 4 3 3 2
) ( ) , , , (
3 2
NO Fe O Fe FeO O Fe Fe hhA Fe
HNO O

Cc phn ng c th xy ra:
Trong khng kh st tc dng vi oxy to ra cc oxit
2Fe + O
2
2FeO
4Fe + 3O
2
2Fe
3
O
4

3Fe + 2O
2
Fe
2
O
3

Hn hp B tc dng vi dung dch HNO
3
:
Fe + 4HNO
3
Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ NO + 2H
2
O
3FeO + 10HNO
3
3Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ NO + 5H
2
O
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

17
3Fe
3
O
4
+ 28HNO
3
9Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ NO + 14H
2
O
Fe
2
O
3
+ 6HNO
3
2Fe(NO
3
)
3
+ 3H
2
O
Ta thy, qu trnh phn ng ton b lng Fe kim loi c chuyn thnh Fe
3+
nn ta c qu trnh nhng e:
Fe - 3e Fe
3+

56
x

56
3x

e (nhng) =
56
3x
mol
Qu trnh nhn e:
5 4
3 2
N(NO)1e N(NO)
+ +

+

0,36 0,36

5 2
3
N(NO)3e N(NO)
+ +

+

3.0,18 0,18
O
2
+ 4e 2O
2-

a 4a (vi a l s mol O
2
oxy ha Fe)
e (nhn) = 0,36 + 0,18.3 + 4a = 0,9 + 4a (mol)
Theo LBT electron, ta c: e nhn = e nhng
<=> 0,9 + 4a =
3x
56

Mt khc, theo LBTKL: khi lng hn hp rn A l:
m
Fe
+ m
O2
= 104,8 (gam)
hay x + 32a = 104,8 (2)
Gii h hai phng trnh (1) v (2), ta c x = 78,4 gam. Chn p n C.

V d 2: (Trch thi vo HSP H Ni 1998) m gam bt st (A) ngoi khng kh, sau mt thi gian bin
thnh hn hp (B) c khi lng 12 gam gm Fe, FeO, Fe
3
O
4
, Fe
2
O
3
. Cho B tc dng hon ton vi dung dch
HNO
3
thy sinh ra 2,24l kh NO duy nht ktc. Tnh m.
A. 20,08 g B. 30,08 g C. 21,8 g D. 22,08 g
Gii:
3 3 4 3 3 2
) ( ) , , , (
3 2
NO Fe O Fe FeO O Fe Fe hhA Fe
HNO O

S mol e do Fe nhng phi bng s mol e do oxy thu v
5 +
N ca HNO
3
thu:
Ta c: 3 .
4 , 22
24 , 2
4 .
32
12
3 .
56
+

=
m m

Gii ra m = 20,08g. p n A.

V d 3: a gam bt st ngoi khng kh, sau mt thi gian s chuyn thnh hn hp A c khi lng l 75,2
gam gm Fe, FeO, Fe
2
O
3
v Fe
3
O
4
. Cho hn hp A phn ng ht vi dung dch H
2
SO
4
m c, nng thu c
6,72 lt kh SO
2
(ktc). Khi lng a gam l:
A. 56 gam. B. 11,2 gam. C. 22,4 gam. D. 25,3 gam.
Gii: S mol Fe ban u trong a gam:
Fe
a
n
56
= mol.
S mol O
2
tham gia phn ng:
2
O
75,2 a
n
32

= mol.
Qu trnh oxy ha:
3
Fe Fe 3e
a 3a
mol mol
56 56
+
+ (1)
S mol e nhng:
e
3a
n mol
56
=
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

18
Qu trnh kh: O
2
+ 4e 2O
2
(2)
SO
4
2
+ 4H
+
+ 2e SO
2
+ 2H
2
O (3)
T (2), (3)
cho 2 2
e O SO
n 4n 2n = +

75,2 a 3a
4 2 0,3
32 56

= + =
a = 56 gam. Chn p n A.

Mt s bi tp tng t :
) i tp v kim loi tc dng vi dung dch axit
i 1 : Cho 1,86 g hn hp Mg v Al vo dung dch HNO
3
long d sau phn ng thu c 560 ml N
2
O ( ktc) l
sn phm kh duy nht . Tnh v khi lng ca mi kim loi trong hn hp ban u.
i 2 : Cho 8,32 gam Cu tc dng va vi 120 ml dung dch HNO
3
sau phn ng thu c 4,928 lit (ktc)
hn hp NO v NO
2
. tnh nng mol ca dung dch HNO
3
ban u.
i 3: Ho tan hon ton 1,35 gam mt kim loi M bng dung dch HNO
3
d un nng thu c 2,24 lit NO v
NO
2
(ktc) c t khi so vi H
2
bng 21 ( khng cn sn phm kh khc). Tm kim loi M
i 4: Ho tan hon ton 2,16 gam Al trong dung dch HNO
3
1M thu c 1,232 lt hn hp B gm NO v N
2
O
(ktc) . tnh t khi ca B so vi H
2
( khng c spk khc)
i 5: Ho tan hon ton 5,2 gam kim loi M vo dung dch HNO
3
d thu c 1,008 lit ( ktc) hn hp 2 kh NO
v N
2
O l sn phm kh duy nht . sau phn ng khi lng dung dch tng ln 3,78 gam so vi ban u. tm M
i 6: Ho tan hon ton 3,3 gam hn hp X gm Fe v kim loi R c ho tr khng i trong dung dch HCl d
thu c 2,688 lit H
2
. Nu cng ho tan 3,3 gam X trn bng dung dch HNO
3
d thu c 0,896 lit hn hp
N
2
O v NO c t khi so vi H
2
l 20,25( cc th tch o ktc). Tm R v v khi lng ca hn hp X
i 7: Cho 5,4 gam Al tc dng vi 200 ml dung dch H
2
SO
4
2M (long) thu c dung dch B. Cho x ml dung
dch NaOH 1M vo B v khuy u . vi gi tr no ca x kt ta ln nht; khng c kt ta
i 8: Cho 10 gam hn hp Mg, Fe, Zn tc dng vi 100ml dung dch hn hp H
2
SO
4
0,8M v HCl 1,2 M, sau
phn ng thu c x lit H
2
ktc. Tnh x
i 9: Cho 5,4 gam mt kim loi R vo cc cha 146 gam dung dch HCl 20 , sau khi phn ng kt thc thu
c 6,72 lit H
2
(ktc) . Tm R
i 10: hn hp X gm Al v kim loi M c ho tri 2 v khi lng nguyn t nh hn ca Al. Cho 7,8 gam X
vo dung dch H
2
SO
4
long d thy kim loi tan ht v thu c 8,96 lit H
2
(ktc) . Tm M v v khi lng
trong X
i 11: Cho 3,84 gam Cu tc dng vi 80 ml dung dch hn hp gm HNO
3
1M v HCl 1M s thu c ti a
bao nhiu lit NO (ktc)
i 12: So snh th tch kh NO ( duy nht ) thot ra trong 2 th nghim sau:
a) cho 6,4 gam Cu tc dng vi 120 ml dung dch HNO
3
1M
b) Cho 6,4 gam Cu tc dng vi 120 ml dung dch hn hp( HNO
3
1M v H
2
SO
4
0,5M). C cn dung dch
trng hp b s thu c bao nhiu gam mui khan ( gi thit cc phn ng xy ra hon ton , cc kh o cng k)
i 13: Ho tan hon ton 1,62 gam Al trong 280 ml dung dch HNO
3
1M c dung dch A v kh NO ( l sn
phm kh duy nht ). Mt khc cho 7,35 gam hai kim loi kim thuc hai chu k lin tip vo 500 ml dung dch
HCl c dung dch B v 2,8 lit H
2
(ktc) . khi trn dung dch A vo dung dch B thy to thnh 1,56 gam kt ta.
Xc nh tn hai lim loi v tnh nng mol ca dung dch HCl dng.
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

19
i 14: cho 7,68 gam Cu vo 120 ml dung dch hn hp gm HNO
3
1M v H
2
SO
4
1M, sau khi phn ng hon
ton thu c bao nhiu lt NO (ktc) l spk duy nht. C cn dung dch thu c bao nhiu gam mui khan.
i 15: Cho 1,92 gam Cu vo 100 ml dung dch cha KNO
3
0,16M v H
2
SO
4
0,4M thy sinh ra mt cht kh c t
khi so vi H
2
l 15 v dung dch A
a) Tnh th tch kh sinh ra ktc
b) Tnh th tch dung dch NaOH 0,5M ti thiu cn cho vo dung dch A kt ta ton b ion Cu
2+
c trong
dung dch A
i 16: Cho 3,87 gam hn hp A gm Mg v Al vo 250 ml dung dch X cha HCl 1M v H
2
SO
4
0,5M thu c
dung dch B v 4,368 lit H
2
ktc. Cho thm H
2
O vo dung dch B c 1100ml dung dch D
a) Tnh pH ca dung dch D
b) Tnh v khi lng ca mi kim loi trong hn hp A
c) c cn dung dch B thu c bao nhiu gam mui khan
i 17:Cho a gam bt st tc dng vi oxi trong iu kin thch hp thu c hn hp B gm (Fe, FeO, Fe
2
O
3
,
Fe
3
O
4
) c khi lng l 21,6 gam. Cho hn hp B tc dng vi dung dch HNO
3
long d sau khi phn ng kt
thc thu c 2,24 NO l sn phm kh duy nht .Tnh a

i 18: Cho 8,4 gam Fe tc dng vi 400ml dung dch HNO
3
1M , sau phn ng thu c dung dch X v sn
phm kh duy nht l NO. C cn dung dch X th thu c bao nhiu gam mui khan.
i 19: cho m gam st tc dng vi dung dch HNO
3
sau phn ng thu c dung dch Y; 0,1mol NO (spk duy
nht ) v 2 gam kim loi. Tnh m
i 20: cho 11,2 gam Fe vo 1lit dung dch HNO
3
0,6M thu c dung dch X v NO l spk duy nht . sau phn
ng c cn dung dch X th thu c bao nhiu gam mui khan.
i 21: cho 25,6 gam Cu vo dung dch HNO
3
sau phn ng thu c hn hp X v 4,48lt (ktc) kh NO duy
nht . Cho tip 100ml dung dch HCl 0,8 M vo X th c thu c kh na khng, bao nhiu lit(ktc)
i 22: Cho 12gam Mg vo 200ml dung dch HNO
3
1M sau phn ng thu c hn hp Y v kh NO (gi s l
spk duy nht ). Cho tip 500ml dung dch H
2
SO
4
1M(long) vo Ygi s ch to ra 2 spk l NO v H
2
vi tng th
tch l x lt (ktc) , tnh x
i 23: Hoa tan hoan toan m gam hon hp 2 kim loai X, Y (co hoa tr duy nhat) trong dung dch axit
HNO
3
thu c hon hp kh B gom 0,03 mol NO
2
va 0,02 mol NO. So mol HNO
3
a tham gia phan ng
la:
i 24: Hoa tan va u 6 gam hon hp 2 kim loai X, Y (co hoa tr duy nhat) trong dung dch hon hp 2 axit
HNO
3
va H
2
SO
4
th thu c 2,688 lt hon hp kh B gom NO
2
va SO
2
(ktc) co khoi lng la 5,88 gam. Co
can dung dch sau phan ng thu c m gam muoi khan. Gia tr cua m la:
i 26: Cho 4,04 gam hon hp X gom Fe, FeO, Fe
3
O
4
phan ng het vi dung dch HNO
3
d thu c 336 ml
kh NO (ktc, san pham kh duy nhat). So mol HNO
3
a phan ng la:
i 27: Cho 10,4 gam hon hp Fe va C trong o Fe chiem 53,85% ve khoi lng phan ng vi dung dch
HNO
3
ac nong, d thu c V lt kh (ktc), gia tr cua V la:
i 28: e hoa tan het 0,06 mol Fe th can so mol HNO
3
toi thieu la (san pham kh duy nhat la NO):
i 29: Nung 8,96 gam Fe trong khong kh c hon hp A gom FeO, Fe
2
O
3
va Fe
3
O
4
. e hoa tan hoan toan
A can toi thieu 0,5 lt dung dch HNO
3
1M, thoat ra kh NO duy nhat (ktc). So mol kh NO bay ra la:
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

20
i 30: Hoa tan het hon hp gom 0,1 Cu
2
S, 0,1 mol CuFeS
2
va a mol FeS
2
trong dung dch HNO
3
thu c
dung dch X ch cha muoi sunphat. Cho X tac dung vi dung dch Ba(OH)
2
d roi lay ket tua em nung en
khoi lng khong oi thu c m gam chat ran, m co gia tr:
i 31: e kh hoan toan 3,04 gam hon hp X gom FeO, F
2
O
3
, Fe
3
O
4
can 0,05 mol H
2
. Mat khac hoa tan hoan
toan 3,04 gam hon hp X trong dung dch H
2
SO
4
ac thu c V lt (ktc) kh SO
2
duy nhat. Gia tr cua V la:
i 32: Cho 16,2 gam kim loai M (co hoa tr khong oi) tac dung het vi 0,6 mol O2 thu c chat ran X. Cho
X tac dung hoan toan vi dung dch HCl thu c 13,44 lt kh H2 (ktc). Kim loai M la:
i 33: e hoa tan hoan toan m gam hon hp ba kim loai X, Y, Z (eu co hoa tr duy nhat) can toi thieu 250
ml dung dch HNO3 a M khong thay kh thoat ra va thu c dung dch A. Neu cho NaOH vao dung dch A
thay thoat ra kh lam xanh quy am. Neu co can dung dch A can than thu c (m + 21,6) gam muoi khan. Gia
tr cua a la:
i 34: Hoa tan hoan toan hon hp gom 0,01 mol S, 0,03 mol FeS va a mol FeS2 trong dung dch HNO3 thu
c V lt kh NO duy nhat (ktc) va dung dch X ch cha muoi suafat. Gia tr cua V la:
i 35: Hoa tan hoan toan 49,6 gam hon hp X gom Fe, FeO, Fe2O3, Fe3O4 bang H2SO4 ac nong thu c
dung dch Y va 8,96 lt kh SO2 (ktc). Khoi lng muoi co trong dung dch Y la:
Cu 36: X l kim loi thuc phn nhm chnh nhm II (hay nhm IIA). Cho 1,7 gam hn hp gm kim loi X v
Zn tc dng vi lng d dung dch HCl, sinh ra 0,672 lt kh H
2
( ktc). Mt khc, khi cho 1,9 gam X tc dng
vi lng d dung dch H
2
SO
4
long, th th tch kh hiro sinh ra cha n 1,12 lt ( ktc). Kim loi X l
Cu 37: Cho 3,6 gam Mg tc dng ht vi dung dch HNO
3
(d), sinh ra 2,24 lt kh X (sn phm kh duy nht,
ktc). Kh X l
Cu 38: Ho tan ht 7,74 gam hn hp bt Mg, Al bng 500 ml dung dch hn hp HCl 1M v H
2
SO
4
0,28M thu
c dung dch X v 8,736 lt kh H
2
( ktc). C cn dung dch X thu c lng mui khan l
Cu 39: Cho 3,2 gam bt Cu tc dng vi 100 ml dung dch hn hp gm HNO
3
0,8M v H
2
SO
4
0,2M. Sau khi
cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, sinh ra V lt kh NO (sn phm kh duy nht, ktc). Gi tr ca V l
Cu 40: Cho 2,16 gam Mg tc dng vi dung dch HNO
3
(d). Sau khi phn ng xy ra hon ton thu c 0,896
lt kh NO ( ktc) v dung dch X. Khi lng mui khan thu c khi lm bay hi dung dch X l
Cu 41: Cho m gam hn hp X gm Al, Cu vo dung dch HCl (d), sau khi kt thc phn ng sinh ra 3,36 lt kh
( ktc). Nu cho m gam hn hp X trn vo mt lng d axit nitric (c, ngui), sau khi kt thc phn ng sinh
ra 6,72 lt kh NO
2
(sn phm kh duy nht, ktc). Gi tr ca m l
Cu 42: Th tch dung dch HNO
3
1M (long) t nht cn dng ho tan hon ton mt hn hp
gm 0,15 mol Fe v 0,15 mol Cu l (bit phn ng to cht kh duy nht l NO)
Cu43: Cho 17,7 gam hn hp Cu, Zn, Mg tc dng vi dung dch HNO
3
d thu c dung dch X, c cn dung
dch X thu c 67,3gam mui khan( khng c NH
4
NO
3
).Nung hn hp mui khan ny n khi lng khng
i th thu c bao nhiu gam cht rn.
Cu 44: Cho 16,6 gam hn hp X dng bt trn u gm Al, Mg, Cu tc dng vi dung dch HNO
3
long, d
thu c dung dch Y, c cn Y thu c 91 gam mui khan ( khng cha NH
4
NO
3
). mt khc cho 13,3 gam X
tc dng vi oxi d th thu c bao nhiu gam oxit.
Cu45: ho tan hon ton 0,368 gam hn hp nhm v km cn va 2,5 lit dung dch HNO
3
0,01M th khng
thy c kh thot ln, sau phn ng ta thu c 3 mui. Tnh v khi lng ca mi kim loi c trong hn hp.
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

21
Cu 46: Ho tan hon ton 31,2g hn hp Al, Mg bng dung dch HNO
3
long, d thu c dung dch A v 8,96
lit hn hp kh B (ktc) gm N
2
, N
2
O (khng cn spk khc), d
B/H2
=20. Tnh s mol HNO
3
phn ng v khi
lng mui khan thu c khi c cn A
Cu 47: Ho tan hon ton 23,1g hn hp Al, Mg, Zn , Cu bng dung dch HNO
3
long, d thu c dung dch A
v hn hp kh B gm 0,2 mol NO, 0,1 mol N
2
O (khng cn spk khc). Tnh s mol HNO
3
phn ng v khi
lng mui khan thu c khi c cn A
Phn trc nghim
01. ( tuyn sinh H-C Khi B nm 2007)
Nung m gam st trong oxy d thu c 3 gam hn hp cht rn X. Ha tan ht hn hp X trong dung dch
HNO
3
d thot ra 0,56 lt kh (ktc) NO (l sn phm kh duy nht). m l :
A. 2,22 g B. 2,62 g C. 2,52 g D. 2,32 g
02. m gam bt st ngoi khng kh sau mt thi gian thu c 6 gam hn hp cc cht rn. Ha tan hon ton
hn hp bng dung dch HNO
3
thu c 1,12 lt kh NO duy nht (ktc). Gi tr ca m l :
A. 10,08 g B. 1,08 g C. 5,04 g D. 0,504 g
03. a gam bt st ngoi khng kh sau mt thi gian thu c 75,2 gam hn hp cht rn X. Ha tan ht hn
hp X trong dung dch H
2
SO
4
c nng (d), thot ra 6,72 lt ( ktc) SO
2
(l sn phm kh duy nht). Gi tr
ca a l:
A. 56 gam. B. 11,2 gam. C. 22,4 gam. D. 25,2 gam.
04. Cho 16,2 gam kim loi M, ha tr n tc dng vi 0,15 mol O
2
. Cht rn thu c sau phn ng cho ha tan
hon ton vo dung dch HCl d thu c 13,44 lt kh H
2
(ktc). Kim loi M l :
A. Fe B. Al C. Cu D. Zn
05. X l hn hp gm Fe, FeO, Fe
2
O
3
, Fe
3
O
4
c t l mol ln lt l 1 :2 :3 :4. ha tan hon ton 76,8 gam X bng
HNO
3
thu c 4,48 lt hn hp kh Y gm NO v NO
2
. Th tch dung dch HNO
3
ti thiu cn dng l :
A. 0.8375 B. 0,575 C. 0,4375 D. 0,7365
06. 27 gam Al ngoi khng kh, sau mt thi gian thu c 39,8 gam hn hp X gm Al v Al
2
O
3
. Cho X tc
dng vi H
2
SO
4
c nng d thu c V lt kh SO
2
(ktc). Gi tr ca V l :
A. 15,68 lt B. 16,8 lt C. 33,6 lt D. 31,16 lt
07. t 12,8 gam Cu trong khng kh. Ha tan cht rn thu c vo dung dch HNO
3
0,5M thy thot ra 448 ml
kh NO duy nht (ktc). Tnh th tch ti thiu ung dch HNO
3
cn dng ha tan ht cht rn.
A. 420 ml B. 840 ml C. 480 ml D. 240 ml
08. Nung m gam st trong khng kh , sau mt thi gian ngi ta thu c 104,8 gam hn hp rn A gm Fe,
FeO, Fe
2
O
3
, Fe
3
O
4
. Ha tan hon ton A trong HNO
3
d thu c dung dch B v 12,096 lt kh hn hp kh
NO v NO
2
(ktc) c t khi so vi He l 10,167. Gi tr ca m l:
A. 72 B. 69,54 C. 91,28 D. 78,4
09. t chy 5,6 gam bt Fe trong bnh ng O
2
thu c 7,36 gam hn hp A gm Fe
2
O
3
, Fe
3
O
4
v Fe. Ha tan
hon ton lng hn hp A bng dung dch HNO
3
thu c V lt hn hp kh B gm NO v NO
2
. T khi ca
B so vi H
2
bng 19. Th tch V ktc l:
A. 672 ml. B. 336 ml. C. 448 ml. D. 896 ml.
10. Cho a gam hn hp A gm oxit FeO, CuO, Fe
2
O
3
c s mol bng nhau tc dng hon ton vi lng va l 250
ml dung dch HNO
3
khi un nng nh, thu c dung dch B v 3,136 lt (ktc) hn hp kh C gm NO
2
v NO c
t khi so vi hiro l 20,143. Tnh a.
A. 74,88 gam. B. 52,35 gam. C. 61,79 gam. D. 72,35 gam.
11. Cho lung kh CO i qua ng s ng m gam Fe
2
O
3
nhit cao mt thi gian ngi ta thu c 6,72 g hn
hp gm 4 cht rn khc nhau A. em ha tan hon ton hn hp ny vo dung dch HNO
3
d thy to thnh
0,448 lit kh B duy nht c t khi so vi H
2
bng 15. m nhn gi tr l:
A. 5,56g B. 6,64g C. 7,2g D. 8,8g
12. Trn 0,81 gam bt Al vi hn hp X gm Fe
2
O
3
, v CuO ri thc hin phn ng nhit nhm, thu c hn
hp Y. Ha tan ht Y trong dung dch HNO
3
d thu c hn hp kh gm NO v NO
2
c th tch ln lt l:
A. 0,336 lt v 1,008 lt B. 0,224 lt v 0,672 lt
B. 0,504 lt v 0,448 lt C. 0,108 lt v 0,112 lt
13. Cho H
2
i qua ng s cha a gam Fe
2
O
3
un nng, sau mt thi gian thu c 5,2 gam hn hp X gm 4 cht
rn. Ha tan ht hn hp X bng HNO
3
c, nng thu c 0,785 mol kh NO
2
.Gi tr a l:
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

22
A. 11,48 B. 24,04 C. 17,46 D. 8,34
14. Cho CO qua ng s cha m gam Fe
2
O
3
, un nng. Sau mt thi gian ta thu uc 5,2g hn hp X gm Fe v 3
oxit kim loi. Ha tan X bng HNO
3
c, nng th thu c 0,05 mol kh NO
2
. Tnh gi tr m.
A. 5,6g B. 4,7g C. 4,76g D. 4,04g

Dng 7: Dng ton trong dung dch nhiu cht kh, nhiu cht oxy ha m s trao i electron xy ra ng thi
(thng gp l dng ton kim loi ny y kim loi khc ra khi dung dch mui.
Gp bi ton loi ny cn lu
- Tnh s mol kim loi v ion kim loi trong mui v s mol electron tng ng.
- So snh s mol electron nhng v nhn xc nh cht d v cht ht.
- Xc nh cht rn v tnh ton.
V d 1: Ha tan ht hn hp bt gm 6,5 gam Zn v 4,8 gam Mg cn V ml dung dch Y cha CuSO
4
0,5 M v
AgNO
3
0,2 M. Gi tr ca V l:
A. 200 B. 300 C. 400 D. 500
Gii: n
Zn
=0,1 mol, n
Mg
=0,2 mol. Gi V lt l th tch dung dch.
Zn - 2e Zn
2+
Cu
2+
+2e Cu


0,1 0,2 0,5V1V
Mg -2e Mg
2+
Ag
+
+1e Ag
0,2 0,4 0,2V0,2V
e (nhng)=0,2+0,4=0,6 mol e (nhn)=0,2V+V=1,2V mol
hn hp bt b ha tan ht th: e (nhng)= e (nhn)
1,2V=0,6 V=0,5 lt = 500 ml. p n D.

V d 2: Mt hn hp X gm Al v Fe c khi lng 8,3g. Cho X vo 1lit dung dch A cha AgNO
3
0,1M v
Cu(NO
3
)
2
0,2M. Sau khi phn ng kt thc c cht rn B (hon ton khng tc dng vi dung dch HCl) v
dung dchC (hon ton khng c mu xanh ca Cu
2+
). Tnh khi lng cht rn B v %Al trong hn hp.
A. 23,6g; %Al = 32,53 B. 24,8g; %Al = 31,18
C. 28,7g; %Al = 33,14 D. 24,6g; %Al = 32,18
Gii: Chiu sp xp cc cp oxy ha kh trong dy in ha:

3 2 2
Al Fe CuAg
Al Fe CuAg
+ + + +

- Ag b kh trc Cu
2+
; dung dch b mt ht mu xanh ca Cu
2+
nn Cu
2+
v Ag
+
u b kh ht to Ag v
Cu kim loi.
- Al phn ng xong ri n Fe; cht rn B khng phn ng vi HCl, do Al v Fe phn ng ht.
Vy, hn hp B gm Cu v Ag

m
B
= m
Cu
+ m
Ag
n
Ag
= 0,1mol ; n
Cu
= 0,2mol

m
B
= 0,1x108 + 0,2x64 = 23,6(g)
Gi hn hp X X
Al:x(mol)
;m8,3g27x56y8,3
Fe:y(mol)

=+=

(1)
Qu trnh nhng e: Al - 3e Al
3+

x 3x
Fe - 2e Fe
2+

e nhng = 3x + 2y(mol)
y 2y
Qu trnh nhn e: Cu
2+
+ 2e Cu


0,2 0,4
Ag
+
+ e Ag

e nhn = 0,4 + 0,1 = 0,5(mol)


0,1 0,1
Theo LBT electron: e nhng = e nhn 3x + 2y = 0,5 (2)
T (1) v (2), suy ra: Al
x0,1
0,1.27.100
%m 32,53%
y0,1 8,3
=
= =


Vy p n ng l A.
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

23
V d 3: Hn hp A gm 2 kim loi R
1
, R
2
c ho tr x, y khng i (R
1
, R
2
khng tc dng vi nc v
ng trc Cu trong dy hot ng ha hc ca kim loi). Cho hn hp A phn ng hon ton vi dung dch
HNO
3
d thu c 1,12 lt kh NO duy nht ktc. Nu cho lng hn hp A trn phn ng hon ton vi dung
dch HNO
3
th thu c bao nhiu lt N
2
. Cc th tch kh o ktc.
A. 0,224 lt. B. 0,336 lt. C. 0,448 lt. D. 0,672 lt.


Gii : Trong bi ton ny c 2 th nghim:
TN1: R
1
v R
2
nhng e cho Cu
2+
chuyn thnh Cu sau Cu li nhng e cho
5
N
+
thnh
2
N
+
(NO). S
mol e do R
1
v R
2
nhng ra l

5
N
+
+ 3e
2
N
+

0,15 05 , 0
4 , 22
12 , 1
=
TN2: R
1
v R
2
trc tip nhng e cho
5
N
+
to ra N
2
. Gi x l s mol N
2
, th s mol e thu vo l
2
5
N
+
+ 10e
0
2
N
10x x mol
Ta c: 10x = 0,15 x = 0,015

2
N
V = 22,4.0,015 = 0,336 lt. p n B.

Mt s bi tp tng t:

01. Cho hn hp bt gm 6,5 gam Zn v 4,8 gam Mg vo 200 ml dung dch Y cha CuSO
4
0,5M v AgNO
3
0,3M.
Sau khi cc phn ng xy ra hon ton, thu c m gam cht rn. Gi tr ca m l:
A. 19,38 g B. 21,06 g C. 22,14 g D. 24,05 g
02. Cho 8,3 gam hn hp X gm Al v Fe c s mol bng nhau vo 100 ml dung dch Y gm Cu(NO
3
)
2
v AgNO
3
,
sau khi phn ng kt thc thu c cht rn A gm ba kim loi. Ha tan A vo ung dch HCl d thy c 1,12
lt kh thot ra (ktc). V cn li 28 gam cht rn khng tan B. Nng C
M
ca Cu(NO
3
)
2
v AgNO
3
ln lt
l:
A. 2M v 1M B. 1M v 2M C. 0,2M v 0,1M D. 0,2M v 0,3M
03. Dung dch X gm AgNO
3
v Cu(NO
3
)
2
c cng nng . Ly mt lng hn hp gm 0,03 mol Al; 0,05 mol Fe
cho vo 100 ml dung dch X cho ti kh phn ng kt thc thu c cht rn Y cha 3 kim loi. Cho Y vo HCl
d gii phng 0,07 gam kh. Nng ca hai mui l:
A. 0,3M. B. 0,4M. C. 0,42M. D. 0,45M.
04. Mt hn hp X gm Al v Fe c khi lng 8,3g. Cho X vo 1 lt dung dch A cha AgNO
3
0,1M v Cu(NO
3
)
2

0,2M. Sau khi phn ng kt thc c cht rn B (hon ton khng tc dng vi dung dch HCl) v ung dch
C (hon ton khng c mu xanh ca Cu
2+
). Tnh khi lng cht rn B v Al trong hn hp.
A. 23,6g; %Al = 32,53 B. 24,8g; %Al = 31,18
C. 28,7g; %Al = 33,14 A. 24,6g; %Al = 32,18
Dng 8. p dng LBT electron gii mt s bi ton khc. Bi tp tng hp.

V d 1: Khi t nng 22,05 gam mui KClO
3
thu c 2,24 lit kh O
2
v mt hn hp cht rn gm mui kali
peclorat v kali clorua. Xc nh khi lng cc mui to thnh.
A. 4,97 g KCl v 13,88 g KClO
3
B. 7,0775 g KCl v 14,9725 g KClO
4
C. 7,0775 g KCl v 11,7725 g KClO
4
A. 11,7725 g KCl v 10,2775 g KClO
3
Gii:
3 2
KClO O
22,05 2,24
n 0,18(mol);n 0,1(mol)
122,5 22,4
== ==

Gi s mol ca KCl v KClO
4
ln lt l x v y.
Qu trnh nhng e:
5 1
Cl 6e Cl
+
+

x 6x x
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

24
Qu trnh nhn e:
5 7
Cl 2e Cl
+ +


y 2y y
2O
2-
- 4e O
2
0,4 0,1
Theo LBT electron: 6x = 0,4 + 2y 6x - 2y = 0,4 3x - y = 0,2 (1)
Mt khc: x + y = 0,18 (2)
T (1), (2) suy ra:
4
KCl
KClO
m0,095.74,57,0775(g)
x0,095
m0,085.138,511,7725(g)
y0,085
= = =


= =
=


Vy p n ng l C.

V d 2: Ha tan hon ton 17,4 gam hn hp 3 kim loi Al, Fe, Mg trong dung dch HCl thy thot ra 13,44 lit
kh. Nu cho 8,7 gam hn hp tc dng dung dch NaOH d thu c 3,36 lit kh (ktc). Vy cho 34,8 gam hn
hp trn tc dng vi dung dch CuSO
4
d, lc ly ton b cht rn thu c sau phn ng tc dng vi dung
dch HNO
3
nng, d th thu c V lit kh NO
2
. Th tch kh NO
2
(ktc) thu c l:
A. 26,88l B. 53,76l C. 13,44l D. 44,8l
Gii:
2
H
13,44
n 0,6(mol)
22,4
= =

Xt ton b qu trnh phn ng th: Al, Mg, Fe nhng e; H
+
(HCl), Cu
2+
nhn e.
M: 2H
+
+ 2e H
2;
Cu
2+
+ 2e Cu u nhn 2 electron.
Nn e(H
+
) nhng = e(Cu
2+
) nhn


2
2
H Cu
Cu
n n n + = =

Qu trnh nhn e ca HNO
3
:
5 4
N e N
+ +
+

e(
5
N
+
) nhn = e(Cu) nhng
Trong 34,8g hn hp:
2
NOCu
n 2n2.0,6.22,4(mol) = = =


2
NO
V2,4.22,453,76(l) = =
. p n B.

V d 3: t chy a gam FeS trong O
2
d, thu kh SO
2
. Trn SO
2
vi 1 lng O
2
ri nung hn hp c xc tc
V
2
O
5
c hn hp kh X. Cho X vo dung dch nc brm, va ht 0,08 mol Br
2
v thu c dung dch Y. Cho Y
tc dng vi dung dch NaOH trung ha ht lng axit c trong Y va ht 0,8mol NaOH. Tnh a.
A. 24,64g B.25,52g C. 26,25g D. 28,16g
Gii: X c th tc dng vi nc brom nn X cn cha SO
2
.
Gi s mol ca SO
2
v SO
3
trong hn hp X ln lt l x v y.
Qu trnh nhng e:
4 6
S 2e N
+ +


x 2x x

Qu trnh nhn e: Br
2
+ 2e 2Br
-
0,08 0,16 0,16
Theo LBT electron: 2x = 0,16 x = 0,08
Dung dch Y c: HBr: 0,16 mol ; H
2
SO
4
:(x + y) mol

2
HOH HO
+
+

0,8 0,8

0,16 + 2(x + y) = 0,8 x + y = 0,32

y = 0,24
2
SO FeS
nxy0,32(mol)n0,32(mol) =+= =

FeS
m0,32.8828,16(g) = =
. Chn p n D.

HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

25
V d 4: Trn 60 gam bt Fe vi 30 gam bt lu hunh ri un nng (khng c khng kh) thu c cht rn A.
Ho tan A bng dung dch axit HCl d c dung dch B v kh C. t chy C cn V lt O
2
(ktc). Bit cc phn
ng xy ra hon ton. V c gi tr l:
A. 11,2 lt. B. 21 lt. C. 33 lt. D. 49 lt.
Gii: V
Fe S
30
n n
32
> = nn Fe d v S ht.
Kh C l hn hp H
2
S v H
2
. t C thu c SO
2
v H
2
O. Kt qu cui cng ca qu trnh phn ng l Fe v
S nhng e, cn O
2
thu e.
Nhng e: Fe Fe
2+
+ 2e

60
mol
56

60
2
56
mol

Nhn e: S S
+4
+ 4e

30
mol
32

30
4
32
mol
Thu e: Gi s mol O
2
l x mol.
O
2
+ 4e 2O
-2

x mol 4x
Ta c:
60 30
4x 2 4
56 32
= + gii ra x = 1,4732 mol.

2
O
V 22,4 1,4732 33 = = lt. p n C

Mt s bi tp tng t:

01. Cho m gam nhm tc dng vi m gam clo (gi s phn ng c hiu sut 100), sau phn ng thu c cht
rn A. Cho cht rn A tc dng vi dung dch HCl d thu c ung dch B v 8,904 lt H
2
(ktc). C cn
dung dch B thu c lng cht rn khan l:
A. 56,7375 gam B. 32,04 gam C. 47,3925 gam D. 75,828 gam
02. Lc 0,81 gam bt Al trong 200 ml dung dch cha AgNO
3
v Cu(NO
3
)
2
mt thi gian thu c cht rn A v
dung dch B. Cho A tc dng vi NaOH d thu c 100,8 ml kh H
2
(ktc) v cn li 6,012 gam hn hp hai
kim loi. Cho B tc dng vi NaOH d thu c kt ta, nung kt ta n khi lng khng i thu c 1,6
gam mt oxit. Nng mol ca AgNO
3
v Cu(NO
3
)
2
trong dung dch ban u ln lt l:
A. 0,22M v 0,19M B. 0,25M v 0,09M
C. 0,225M v 0,19M C. 0,29M v 0,22M
03. C 200 ml dung dch hn hp AgNO
3
1M v Cu(NO
3
)
2
0,5M. Thm 2,24 gam bt Fe vo ung dch , khuy
u cho phn ng hon ton thu c cht rn A v dung dch B. Khi lng cht rn A l:
A. 8,04 gam B. 4,08 gam C. 5,6 gam D. 8,4 gam
04. ( tuyn sinh H-C khi B-2007)
Nung m gam bt st trong oxy thu c 3 gam hn hp cht rn X. Ha tan ht hn hp X trong dung dch
HNO
3
d thot ra 0,56 lt NO (ktc) l sn phm kh duy nht. Gi tr ca m l:
A. 2,52 g B. 1,96 g C. 3,36 g D. 2,10 g
05. ( tuyn sinh H-C khi A-2007)
Ha tan 5,6 gam Fe bng dung dch H
2
SO
4
long d thu c dung dch X. Dung dch X phn ng va vi
V ml ung dch KMnO
4
0,5M. Gi tr ca V l:
A. 20 ml B. 40 ml C. 60 ml D. 80 ml
06. Cho m gam hn hp Mg, Al vo 250 ml dung dch X cha hai aicd HCl 1M v H
2
SO
4
0,5M thu c 5,32 lt
kh H
2
(ktc) v dung dch Y coi th tch dung dch khng i. Dung dch Y c pH l:
A. 1 B. 2 C. 6 D. 7
07. ( tuyn sinh H-C khi A-2008)
Cho 3,2 gam Cu tc dng vi 100 ml dung cha hai acid HNO
3
0,8M v H
2
SO
4
0,2 M. Sau khi phn ng xy
ra hon ton sinh ra V lt kh NO (ktc) l sn phm kh duy nht. Gi tr ca V l:
HOCHOAHOC.COM Chuyn trang hc Ha Hc

26
A. 0,746 B. 0,448 C. 1,792 D. 0,672
08. ( tuyn sinh H-C khi A-2008)
Nung m gam hn hp bt Al v Fe
2
O
3
(trong mi trng khng c khng kh) n phn ng xy ra hon ton
thu c hn hp cht rn Y, chia Y thnh hai phn bng nhau:
- Phn 1: Cho tc dng vi H
2
SO
4
long d,sinh ra 3,08 lt kh H
2
(ktc).
- Phn 2: Cho tc dng vi NaOH d sinh ra 0,84 lt kh H
2
(ktc). Gi tr m l:
A. 22,75 B. 2,904 C. 29,4 D. 29.43

09. Ho tan hon ton 19,2 gam Cu bng dung dch HNO
3
, ton b lng kh NO thu c em oxy ha thnh
NO
2
ri chuyn ht thnh HNO
3
. Tnh th tch kh oxy (ktc) tham gia vo qu trnh trn.
A. 3,36 lt B. 33,6 lt C. 2,24 lt D. 22,4 lt
10. Cho 16,2 gam kim loi M (ha tr khng i) tc dng vi 0,15 mol oxy. Cht rn thu c sau phn xong cho
ha tan hon ton vo dung dch HCl d thu c 13,44 lt H
2
(ktc). Xc nh kim loi M (bit cc phn ng xy
ra hon ton). A. Al B. Fe C. Cu D. Mg
11. Trn 0,54 g bt nhm vi bt Fe
2
O
3
v CuO ri tin hnh phn ng nhit nhm thu c hn hp A. Ho tan
hon ton A trong dung dch HNO
3
c hn hp kh gm NO v NO
2
c t l s mol tng ng l 1 : 3. Th
tch (ktc) kh NO v NO
2
ln lt l:
A. 0,224 lt v 0,672 lt. B. 0,672 lt v 0,224 lt.
C. 2,24 lt v 6,72 lt. D. 6,72 lt v 2,24 lt.
12. Ho tan hon ton m gam Fe
3
O
4
vo dung dch HNO
3
long d, tt c lng kh NO thu c em oxy ho
thnh NO
2
ri sc vo nc cng dng kh O
2
chuyn ht thnh HNO
3
. Cho bit th tch kh oxy (ktc)
tham gia qu trnh trn l 3,36 lt. Khi lng m ca Fe
3
O
4
l gi tr no sau y?
A. 139,2 gam. B. 13,92 gam. C. 1,392 gam. D. 1392 gam.
13. Ho tan hon ton hn hp FeS v FeCO
3
bng dung dch HNO
3
c nng thu c hn hp kh A gm hai
kh X, Y c t khi so vi hiro bng 22,805. Cng thc ho hc ca X v Y theo th t l:
A. H
2
S v CO
2
. B. SO
2
v CO
2
.
C. NO
2
v CO
2
D. NO
2
v SO
2

14. Ha tan hon ton 28,8 g kim loi Cu vo dung dch HNO
3
long, tt c kh NO thu c em oxy ha thnh
NO
2
ri sc vo nc c dng oxy chuyn ht thnh HNO
3
. Th tch kh oxy ktc tham gia vo qu
trnh trn l:
A . 100,8 lt B. 10,08lt C . 50,4 lt D. 5,04 lt
15. Cho hn hp gm FeO, CuO, Fe
3
O
4
c s mol ba cht u bng nhau tc dng ht vi dung dch HNO
3
thu
c hn hp kh gm 0,09 mol NO
2
v 0,05 mol NO. S mol ca mi cht l:
A. 0,12 mol. B. 0,24 mol. C. 0,21 mol. D. 0,36 mol.
16. Cho mt lung kh CO i qua ng s ng m gam Fe
2
O
3
nung nng. Sau mt thi gian thu c 10,44 gam
cht rn X gm Fe, FeO, Fe
2
O
3
v Fe
3
O
4
. Ha tan ht X trong dung dch HNO
3
c, nng thu c 4,368 lt
NO
2
(sn phm kh duy nht ktc). Tnh m ?
A. 12 gam B. 24 gam C. 21 gam D. 22 gam