In a chemistry book, I found the shapes of various orbitals and their corresponding wave functions. Then I asked myself, how they got those solutions. So I look
for the answer in the internet and finally I found the equation that I am looking for:
nIm
=
_
_
2
no
0
]
3
(n l  1)!
2n(n + l)!
c

nu
0 _
2r
no
0
]
I
I
nI1
2I+1
_
2r
no
0
]
I
m
(0, )
It looks so simple but there are terms that should be expanded.
I
nI1
2I+1
_
2r
no
0
] =
[
2r
no
0
2I1
c
2
nu
0
(n  l 1)!
J
nI1
J [
2r
no
0
nI1
(c
2nu
0
_
2r
no
0
]
n+I
)
I
m
(0, ) = (1)
m
_
(2l + 1)(l  m)!
4n(l + m)!
P
I
m
(cos 0)c
mq
P
I
m
(cos 0) = (1)
m
(1  cos
2
0)
m
2
J
m
Jcos
m
0
P
I
(cos 0)
P
I
(cos 0) =
1
2
I
l!
J
I
Jcos
I
0
(cos
2
0 1)
I
And combining the second to last equations.
I
m
(cos 0) =
sin
m
0
2
I
l!
_
(2l +1)(l m)!
4n(l +m)!
c
mq
J
m
J0
m
__
1
sin0
]
m
J
I
J0
I
sin
I
0 _
To simplify the first equation, we use
J
u
J [
2r
no
0
u
=
J
u
Jr
u
[
no
0
2
u
Then the equation becomes.
I
nI1
2I+1
_
2r
no
0
] =
r
(2I1)c
2r
nc
0
(n  l 1)!
J
nI1
Jr
nI1
_r
(n+I)c

2r
nc
0
_
Combining the two new equations and we have.
nIm
=
1
2
I
l!
_
(2l + 1)(l  m)!
n(o
0
3
)(n
4
)(n +l)! (l +m)! (n l  1)!
__
2r
no
0
]
I
c
nu
0
r
2I+1
_
J
Jr
]
nI1
_r
n+1
c

2
nu
0___sin
m
0 c
mq
J
m
J0
m
__
1
sin0
]
m
J
I
J0
I
sin
I
0__
This is the expanded general solution to the wave function of hydrogen atom.
With that equation we can derive the nature of the quantum numbers. Because a negative factorial is not impossible so we are to impose the following
restrictions on the quantum numbers.
l u (1)
n = u (2)
n + l u (S)
n  l 1 u (4)
l m u (S)
l +m u (6)
Also, we are given that all the quantum numbers are integers. So combining eq. 3 and 4
2n 1 u
n
1
2
Since n is an integer, so we could rewrite it as
n 1
Therefore n is a natural number. If we manipulate eq. 4.
n l  1 u
n 1 l
And combining it with eq. 1.
u l n  1
So that is the nature of the l quantum number. We try to manipulate eq. 5 and 6:
l m u
l m
l +m u
m l
Combining the resulting equations, we have.
l m l
So, we can summarize the nature of the quantum numbers as follows:
n 1
u l n  1
l m l