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G.V.Hari Prasad Dr.P.Rajesh kumar V.srinivasa Rao K.Leela Bhavani Email:leelaklb@gamil.com,gvh.prasad2k@gmail.com Department Of Electronics & Communication Engineering Shri Vishnu Engineering College For Women,JNTU Kakinada University

Abstract

A tunneling transistor is considered to be an element of a future low power, high-density integrated circuit because of a possible ultra-low power operation with a few electrons. In this context, the performance of SET is compared qualitatively and quantitatively with CMOS logic gates. Therefore, although a complete replacement of CMOS by single-electronics is unlikely in the near future, it is also true that combining SET and CMOS one can bring out new functionalities, which are unmirrored in pure CMOS technology. As the hybridization of CMOS and SET is gaining popularity, silicon SETs are appearing to be more promising than metallic SETs for their possible integration with CMOS Simulation of SET and CMOS circuits are required for efficient circuit design and analysis. The macro-modeling technique of SET has been applied to the SPICE simulation of single-electron/CMOS hybrid circuits.

The SET transistor can be viewed as an electron box that has two separate junctions for the entrance and exit of single electrons.

Keywords

– Coulomb Blockade, Transistor,CMOS, Hybrid circuits, SPICE

Single

Electron Fig 1: A Single-electron transistor diagram For an electron to hop onto the island, its energy must equal the Coulomb energy e2/2C. When both the gate and bias voltages are zero, electrons do not have enough energy to enter the island and current does not flow. As the bias voltage between the source and drain is increased, an electron can pass through the island when the energy in the system reaches the Coulomb energy. This effect is known as the Coulomb blockade, and the critical voltage needed to transfer an electron onto the island, equal to e/C, is called the Coulomb gap voltage. If the bias voltage is kept below the Coulomb gap voltage the increase of gate voltage gradually increases the energy of the initial system while the energy of the system with one excess electron on the island gradually decreases. At the gate voltage corresponding to the point of maximum slope on the Coulomb staircase, both of these configurations equally qualify as the lowest energy states of the system. This lifts the Coulomb blockade, allowing electrons to tunnel into and out of the island. There are three fundamentally different approaches to the simulation of single electron circuits: SPICE macro-modeling, Monte Carlo based and Master Equation based .In this paper, the Simulation of SET and CMOS based logic circuits are done by Micro-Cap Simulator. The commonly used simulators are MOSES, SIMON, and KOSEC. These simulators are based on a Monte Carlo method. Micro-Cap is a SPICE compatible method. The SPICE macro-modeling of SET has been successfully applied to the simulation of single-electron/hybrid circuits. Several hybrid circuits such as an SET-NMOS pair and a single electron NOR-gate with CMOS buﬀers have been

Introduction

Recently, there has been great progress in the fabrication of various nano-devices utilizing silicon ULSI processing techniques. Reliable room temperature operations have been demonstrated in a silicon single-electron quantum-dot transistor, a silicon self assembled quantum-dot transistor, and various types of single-electron memory cells. SETs have been widely studied and demonstrated due to the maturity and variety of their process technologies. These devices based on the singleelectron charging effect, i.e., the Coulomb blockade in Si nanostructures, are promising because their operation principle becomes more robust as the device size is scaled down unlike MOSFET, which will be further explained in the following section. Moreover, their power consumption is quite low. However, SETs are not expected to replace the conventional CMOS logic devices because of their inherent limitations such as a low voltage gain and current drivability. In contrast, new functionalities of SETs, such as quantum cellular automata (QCA), binary decision diagram (BDD) devices, and the multi valued logic, have been explored extensively. Single-electron tunneling transistor is a device that exploits the quatum effect of tunneling to control and measure the moment of single electrons.Unlike field-effect transistors, single-electron devices are based on an intrinsically quantum phenomenon: the tunnel effect. This is observed when to metallic electrodes are separated by an insulating barrier about 1nm thick. Electrons at the Fermi energy can “tunnel” through the insulator, even though in classical terms their energy would be low to overcome the potential barrier.

simulated and demonstrated.

efficient

interface

characteristics

are

**REVIEW OF SPICE MACRO-MODELING OF SETS
**

SPICE simulation of SET circuits is possible by the macro modeling of SETs. The macro modeling scheme is compatible with the standard method of SPICE simulation, consisting of the device modeling using an equivalent circuit, parameter extraction and subsequent circuit simulation. Figure 2 shows the schematic diagram of an SET and its equivalent circuit. The macro-model representation of the equivalent circuit is summarized in Fig.2 In Fig. 2, R1 , R2 , and R3 is expressed with a cosine function to describe the Coulomb oscillation And D2, D3, Vp, and −Vp are expressed to describe the Coulomb staircase. The parameter values, CF 1 = 60,CV p = 0.015, CI2 = 0.2 × 10−9 , CR1 = 300 × 106 , and CR2 = 100 × 106 , give the best ﬁt of the current-voltage characteristics when C = 1.6 aF, Cg = 4.8 aF, Rt =100 M Ω, and T = 30 K.

Fig.3. SET based inverter schematic

Fig 2 a. Macro –modeling of an SET (equivalent circuit of an SET)

**SIMULATION OF SET & CMOS BASED LOGIC GATES
**

We can construct single-electron logic circuits in which SETs can operate analogously to MOSFETs of CMOS logic circuits. The Simulation of SET and CMOS based logic circuits are done by Micro-Cap and SPICE software respectively.Since most of the readers are very familiar with CMOS logic circuits,Schematic of SET logic circuits only are presented here.. Inverter Complementary single-electron inverter,a fundamental circuit element for single-electron CMOS-type logic can be constructed by using twp similar SETs. An equivalent circuit is shown in Fig.3 Each SET has two gates. One of them acts as an input gate, and other acts as a control gate by which we can use the same SET as a p-switch or an nswitch.

Let us first assume the followings for the inverting buffer circuit, as depicted in Fig.2. logic ‘0’=Vd=0mv, logic ‘1’=Vd=Vs~qe/C1.The inverting buffer is composed of 2 SET transistors, where the upper transistor T1 consists of the circuit elements J1,J2,Cg1,Cb1 and the lower transistor T2 consists of the circuit elements J3,J4,Cg2,Cb2. When the buffer’s output values changes, a charge transport of 1qe occurs through one of these two transistors.the initial tunnel event occurs in either junction J1 (followed by a tunnel event in junction J2), or in junction J4 (followed by a tunnel event in junction J3).In each of these two cases, the delay associated with the initial tunnel event is approximately one order of magnitude larger than the delay of the second tunnel event. The total capacitive load attached to a transistor island (nodes n1 and n3) is assumed to be approximately ½[C1].As a result, the critical voltage Vc of each tunnel junction is approximately Vs, Focusing on T1,and assuming that the input Vin is logic ‘0’ and that the charges on nodes n1 and n2 are both 0, the initial tunnel event occurs through J1. Afterwards, the charge on node n1 is qe while the charge on node n2 remains 0.Consequently, the voltage across junction J2 resulting from the initial tunnel event is approximately Vs. In contrast the initial tunnel event in J1 is triggered when the input Vin switches between logic ‘0’ and ‘1’.The Fig.4. Shows the Screen shot of SET inverter using Micro-cap.

Fig. 6. SET- NAND input & output waveforms

Fig.4. Screen shot-SET inverter in Micro-cap

Fig. 7. SET- NOR input & output waveforms

**SIMULATION OF SET/CMOS HYBRID CIRCUITS
**

Figure 8 shows two typical examples of hybrid circuits. Figure 8(a) shows an inverter consisting of an SET with an NMOS load. The bias voltage (Vdd) is 0.015 V and the gate bias of the NMOS load (Vgg) is 0.5 V so that the NMOS load operates in the sub threshold region. The output of the inverter is connected to the 3-stage CMOS buﬀers. Figure 8(b) shows a hybrid circuit consisting of a single electron NOR-gate connected with 4-stage CMOS buﬀers. The parameters of MOS transistors are notiﬁed in the ﬁgure where Wn , Wp , L, tox , VT N , and VT P denote the NMOS channel width, the PMOS channel width, the channel length, the gate oxide thickness, the NMOS threshold voltage, and the PMOS threshold voltage, respectively. The channel widths of the ﬁrst CMOS inverter are narrower than those of the others to reduce the load capacitance seen by the SEC. Multi-stage CMOS buﬀers are used for the ampliﬁcation of the output signal (Vout ) up to the full swing (±1 V).

Fig .5.Inverter input & output waveforms

Fig.5.shows the CMOS based inverter input & output waveforms. From these waveforms it’s very clear that the SET based inverter switches very fast without much delay and voltage swing.Fig.6 & Fig.7 shows the waveforms of NAND and NOR.

Fig. 8. Schematic diagrams of hybrid circuits. (a) An inverter, consisting of an SET with an NMOS load, connected with 3-stage CMOS buffers. (b) A single electron NOR-gate connected with 4-stage CMOS buﬀers. Figure 9 shows the SPICE macro-model simulation results of the hybrid circuit shown in Fig. 8(a). Figure 9(a) shows the current (Ids) of the SET and the voltage (Vt) at the SET/NMOS node as a function of the input bias (Vin). Figure 9(b) shows the Vt , Vi (output of the ﬁrst CMOS buffer), and Vout (output of the third CMOS buffer) when the square pulse is applied to Vin .The ﬁnal output Vout exhibits a pulse with the amplitude of 2 V. Figure 6 shows the SPICE macro-model simulation results of the hybrid circuit shown in Fig. 8(b). The input voltage (Vg1 and Vg2 ) range is ±8 mV and the output of the single electron NOR-gate (VNOR) is with in the range of ±4 mV. Especially, the low level of VN OR shows level splitting of ±1 mV and ±4 mV . However, the ﬁnal output (Vout) exhibits full swing of ±1 V and does not show any level splitting. The range of VN OR signal is completely in the transition region of the ﬁrst stage CMOS inverter. The high and the low signal gradually diverge from each other as they go through the CMOS buﬀer stages. The level splitting disappears at the ﬁnal

Fig. 9. SPICE macro-model simulation results of the hybrid circuit shown in Fig. 8(a). (a) Ids of the SET and Vt at the SET/NMOS node as a function of Vin. b) Transient characteristics of Vt , Vi , and Vout when the square pulse is applied to Vin . buffer stage where the logic levels are settled at the full swing of ±1 V. However, the above CMOS buffer circuits consisting of CMOS inverters have some problem from a practical viewpoint because of the noise margin or MOS device parameter variation. In the future, we will be able to simulate hybrid circuits consisting of SEC circuits and new circuits such as the comparators over 10 bits with SPICE macro-model of SETs because the comparators over 10 bits can be designed independently enough to the noise margin or MOS device parameter variation.

AND2 NAND2 NOR2

4 4 2

One SEB One SEB+2 SET One SEB+2 SET

DELAY ESTIMATION Rising time and falling time of the signal can be estimated using(1) Tr(or)tf = -RC ln((VDD-Vout)/VDD) (1)

Tr- Rising time, tf – Falling Time R- Circuit resistance, C- circuit capacitance, S- VDD- Supply Voltage,Vout-output Voltage. Fig. 10. SPICE macro-model simulation results of the hybrid circuit shown in Fig. 8(b). Propagation Delay Time(PDT) can be estimated from the time constant of the circuit RC.The sum of the rise time, fall time & propagation delay gives the total delay time(2). Total Delay TD =tr+tf+PDT (2)

COMPARISON

All the simulation results reported above clearly show that SET based logic gates take approximately zero delay time in propagating the input signal to output side. A number of SET circuits are discussed and simulated using the macro model for single electron transistor. The possibility of simulating hybrid circuits was one of the motivations for developing a macro model for a single electron transistor. Also a comparison between the power consumption of single electron transistor and CMOS circuits are made. TABLE l The theoretical comparisons between SET and CMOS are: CMOS circuit 10-10s 100m nA none high >3000C[1 6] SET circuit 10-15s 100µV afew electrons γ high difficult at 300K

TABLE 3 COMPARISON BASED ON DELAY CMOS(ns) SET(ps) Tr(or) tf 16.95 116.5 PDT 36.95 316.5 TD 70.85 549.5

POWER LOSS ESTIMATION The power loss estimation of logic system is described in the following section. Dynamic Power Loss is calculated using (3) PT= (CPD+CL) VDD2f (3)

Maximal switching speed Supply voltage range Current range RBC sensitivity Maximum voltage gain Maximum operation temperature

CPD - Power Dissipation Capacitor CL - Load Capacitance VDD – Supply Voltage f – Switching frequency Static power loss can be estimated from the equivalent circuit diagram an the parameter mentioned It’s very clear from (3) that the power dissipation increases with increase in frequency and decreases with decrease in voltage level.

The logic circuit diagrams show that the no of transistor require to relize different logic gates is less in case of SET based logic system.The number of transistors require for realizing different logic gates using both CMOS & SET technology are given in the Table 2 TABLE 2 COMPARISON BASED ON NUMBER OF TRANSISTOR CMOS SET NOT 6 2 SET OR2 6 One SEB

Table 4 summarizes the power estimation results,which provide the qualitative comparison of CMOS and SET logic circuits.It shows that the SET based logic circuit Consume very low power (pico-watt range) where as CMOS circuits consume more power (milli-watt range). TABLE 4 COMPARISON BASED ON POWER CONSUMPTION & SPEED POWER PRODUCT

Freq (Mhz) 5V Sys. 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 9.43 11.05 27.25 189.2 5 1809 18009

CMOS PT(mw) 2.5V 1.8V Sys. Sys. 4.35 4.76 8.81 49.3 454 450 4 1.20 1.43 3.5 24.2 231 2301 SPP (pJ) 1.886 2.21 5.55 37.85 361.8 3601

SET PT (pw) 25.00 25.62 25.89 28.54 55 319.6 SPP (aJ) 2.56 2.56 2.56 2.854 5.5 31.96

As mentioned before the higher integration density is due to the fact that these single electron quantum devices are few nanometers in dimension, this enables more number of devices to be accommodated in a smaller area. Again these devices are also very power economic in the sense the voltage level at which these devices work is very less say a few milli-volts when compared to a CMOS device which needs a few volts for its working. Also the voltage drop across these devices is also very low resulting in very low power dissipation and also low temperature rise again enabling more integration density.

[4] K.K. Likharev, “Single-electron devices and their applications,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 87, pp. 606-632, April 1999. [5] L. Guo, E. Leobandung and S. Y. Chou, Science 275, 649 (1997). [6] K. Uchida, J. Koga, A. Ohath and A. Toriumi, Tech. Dig. Of Silicon Nanoelectronics Workshop, 59 (1998). [7]C.Wasshuber and H.Kosina,”A single-electron device and circuit simulator,” Superlattices and Microstructures,vol.21,no.1,1997. [8] K.Uchida,K.Matsuzawa,J.Koga,R.Ohba,S.Takagi,and A.Toriumi,”Analytical single-electron transistor(SET) model for design and analysis of realistic SET circuits,”Jpn.J.Appl.Phys.,vol.39,pp.2321-2324,2000. [9] Y.S. Yu, H.S. Lee, and S.W. Hwang, “SPICE macromodeling for the compact simulation of single electron circuits,” Journal of Korean Physical Society, vol. 33, pp. S269S272, Nov. 1998 [10] Y. S. Yu, H. S. Lee and S. W. Hwang, SSDM 98’, 196 (1998). [11]Y. S. Yu, S. W. Hwang and D. Ahn, IEEE Tran. Electron Devices. 46, 1667 (1996). [12] M. Kirihara, N. Kuwamura, K. Taniguchi, and C. Hamaguchi, “Monte Carlo study of single-electronic devices,” in Ext. Abstr. 1994 Int. Conf. Solid State Devices and Materials, Tokyo, 1994, pp. 328–330

CONCLUSION

In this paper,the analysis of Nano technology based SET logic gates quantitatively as well as qualitatively and compared its performamce with conventional CMOS technology based logic gates.The comparison result shows that the SET based gates consume ultra low power, and switches with very high speed. The number of transistors require for realizing different logic gates using SET are also less.These facts indicate that the future ULSI technology, which requires higher integration, fast switching and ultra low power consumption can be realized with SET based logic system. The macro-modeling technique of SET has been applied to the SPICE simulation of singleelectron/CMOS hybrid circuits. This technique is simple to perform and does notrequire any modiﬁcation of the SPICE internal source code.

REFERENCES

[1] K.K.Likharev,”Correlated discrete transfer of single electrons in ultra small tunnel junctions,” IBMJ.Res.Develop., vol.32,pp.144-158,Jan.1988 [2] R. H. Chen, A. N. Korotkov, and K. K. Likharev, “Singleelectron transistor logic,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 68, pp. 1954– 1956, Apr. 1996 [3] Y. S. Yu, S.W. Hwang, and D. D. Ahn, “Macro modeling of single-electron transistors for efficient circuit simulation,” IEEE Trans. Electron Devices, vol. 46, pp. 1667–1671, Aug. 1996.

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