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MCRP 3-01A

Rifle Marksmanship

U.S. Marine Corps

PCN 144 000091 00

To Our Readers

Changes: Readers of this publication are encouraged to submit suggestions and changes that
will improve it. Recommendations may be sent directly to Commanding General, Marine
Corps Combat Development Command, Doctrine Division (C 42), 3300 Russell Road, Suite
318A, Quantico, VA 22134-5021 or by fax to 703-784-2917 (DSN 278-2917) or by E-mail to
morgann@mccdc.usmc.mil. Recommendations should include the following information:

l Location of change
Publication number and title
Current page number
Paragraph number (if applicable)
Line number
Figure or table number (if applicable)
l Nature of change
Add, delete
Proposed new text, preferably double-spaced and typewritten
l Justification and/or source of change

Additional copies: A printed copy of this publication may be obtained from Marine Corps
Logistics Base, Albany, GA 31704-5001, by following the instructions in MCBul 5600,
Marine Corps Doctrinal Publications Status. An electronic copy may be obtained from the
Doctrine Division, MCCDC, world wide web home page which is found at the following uni-
versal reference locator: http://www.doctrine.usmc.mil.

Unless otherwise stated, whenever the masculine gender is used, both
men and women are included.

DEPARTMENT OF THE NAVY
Headquarters United States Marine Corps
Washington, D.C. 20380-1775

29 March 2001

FOREWORD

1. PURPOSE

Marine Corps Reference Publication (MCRP) 3-01A, Rifle Marksmanship, provides techniques
and procedures for Marine Corps rifle marksmanship.

2. SCOPE

Every Marine is first and foremost a rifleman. MCRP 3-01A reflects this ethos and the Marine
Corps’ warfighting philosophy. This publication discusses the individual skills required for
effective rifle marksmanship and standardizes the techniques and procedures used throughout the
Marine Corps. It constitutes the doctrinal basis for all entry-level and sustainment-level rifle
marksmanship training.

3. SUPERSESSION

MCRP 3-01A supersedes the discussion of rifle marksmanship in Fleet Marine Force Manual
(FMFM) 0-8, Basic Marksmanship, and FMFM 0-9, Field Firing for the M16A2 Rifle. The
discussion of pistol marksmanship in FMFM 0-8 remains in effect until it is superseded by
MCRP 3-01B, Pistol Marksmanship, which is currently under development.

4. CERTIFICATION

Reviewed and approved this date.

BY DIRECTION OF THE COMMANDANT OF THE MARINE CORPS

B. B. KNUTSON, JR.
Lieutenant General, U. S. Marine Corps
Commanding General
Marine Corps Combat Development Command
Quantico, Virginia

DISTRIBUTION: 144 000091 00

MAGTF Intelligence Analysis and Production 1-2 .MCWP 2-12.

. . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 Main Group Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table of Contents Chapter 1. . . . 2-5 2004 Ammunition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 Extracting. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 Charging Handle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-2 Mental Preparation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 2006 Function Check . . 2-6 M199 Dummy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 2007 User Serviceability Inspection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 Reassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 2005 Preventive Maintenance . . . . 2-8 Inspection. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 Selector Lever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 Feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1003 Combat Mindset . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 Cocking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 1002 Conditions Affecting Marksmanship in Combat . . . . . 2-1 Magazine Release Button . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 Firing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 Physical Preparation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to the M16A2 Service Rifle 2001 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-4 Ejecting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-7 Cleaning. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 M855 Ball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 Unlocking . . . . 1-2 Chapter 2. 2-6 M196 and M856 Tracer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 2002 Operational Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-9 Lubrication. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Introduction to Rifle Marksmanship 1001 Role of the Marine Rifleman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-2 Bolt Catch . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-3 2003 Cycle of Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 M200 Blank . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-6 Magazine Disassembly . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 M193 Ball . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 Chambering . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-5 Locking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . 3-3 Fire . . . . . 3-6 3006 Reloading the Rifle. . . 3-5 Filling the Magazine Using a 10-round Stripper Clip and Magazine Filler . . . . . . . . . . . . ________________________________________________________________________________________________ iv MCRP 3-01A 2008 Field Maintenance . . 3-8 Tactical Carry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 Unloading and Showing the Rifle Clear . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dry Desert . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3004 Weapons Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7 Observe for Indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 Condition 1 Reload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3003 Determining a Weapon’s Condition (Chamber Check) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 Chapter 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-8 3008 Weapons Carries. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7 Audible Pop or Reduced Recoil. . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 Stowing Magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Stowing. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 Arctic or Low Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-6 Principles of Reloading . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 Withdrawing Magazines . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and Withdrawing Magazines . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 Hot. 3-3 Unloading the Rifle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Weapons Handling 3001 Safety Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-11 2009 Cleaning the Rifle in Various Conditions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 3009 Weapons Transports . . 3-3 Making the Rifle Ready . . . . 3-7 Dry Reload . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 Strong Side Sling Arms Transport (Muzzle Up) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-2 Loading the Rifle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-4 3005 Filling. . 3-8 Alert Carry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-3 Cease-Fire . . . . . . 2-11 Hot. . . . . . . 2-11 Heavy Rain and Fording . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-5 Filling the Magazine with Loose Rounds . . . 3-7 3007 Remedial Action. . . . . . Wet Tropical . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-1 3002 Weapons Condition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-9 Ready Carry . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 Types of Trigger Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-10 Cross Body Sling Arms Transport. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Sight Alignment. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Observation of the Enemy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 Left Hand . . . . 4-5 Breath Control During All Other Combat Situations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Show Clear Transfer . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Hasty Sling. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-3 5003 Factors Common to All Shooting Positions. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 Trigger Finger Placement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7 Chapter 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Stability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-4 4002 Breath Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-7 Follow-Through . . . . . . . . 4-1 Sight Picture. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 Breath Control During Long-range or Precision Fire (Slow Fire) . . . . . . . . . . . Fundamentals of Marksmanship 4001 Aiming . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Purpose of a Clearing Barrel . . . . . 4-7 Recovery . 4-2 Acquiring and Maintaining Sight Alignment and Sight Picture . . . . . .Rifle Marksmanship __________________________________________________________________________________________ v Weak Side Sling Arms Transport (Muzzle Down) . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12 Procedures for “Make Ready” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 4004 Follow-Through/Recovery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-2 Loop Sling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Procedures for “Load” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-2 Factors Affecting Sight Alignment and Sight Picture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-4 Rifle Butt in the Pocket of the Shoulder . . . 3-10 3010 Transferring the Rifle. . . 4-4 Size and Distance to the Target . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 Condition Unknown Transfer . . . . . . . . 5-1 5002 Types and Uses of the Rifle Web Sling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12 Procedures for “Unload and Show Clear” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 Resetting the Trigger . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-1 Importance of Correct Sight Alignment . . . . . . . . . . 5-1 Mobility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rifle Firing Positions 5001 Selecting a Firing Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-6 Grip . . . . . . . . . . . 3-11 3011 Clearing Barrel Procedures . . . . . . . 3-12 Procedures for “Unload” . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-12 Chapter 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4-5 4003 Trigger Control . . . . .

. . . . 5-7 Natural Point of Aim . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15 Description . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 Muscular Tension/Relaxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 Muscular Relaxation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 Straight Leg Prone Position with the Hasty Sling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14 Open Leg Sitting Position with the Hasty Sling . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 Stock Weld . ________________________________________________________________________________________________ vi MCRP 3-01A Grip of the Right Hand. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15 Assuming the Kneeling Position . . . . 5-9 Straight Leg Prone Position with the Loop Sling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 Crossed Leg Sitting Position with the Hasty Sling . . . . . . . . . . 6-8 . . . . . . Use of Cover and Concealment 6001 Cover and Concealment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18 5008 Standing Position . . 6-2 6002 Supported Firing Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 Right Elbow . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-17 Medium Kneeling Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 Bone Support . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 Assuming the Prone Position . . . . . . . . . 5-18 Standing Position with the Parade Sling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 Breathing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15 High Kneeling Position with the Hasty Sling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-8 Application. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-10 Cocked Leg Prone Position with the Hasty Sling . . . . . . . 5-11 5006 Sitting Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 Crossed Ankle Sitting Position with the Hasty Sling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-19 Chapter 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Firing From Specific Types of Cover . 5-11 Cocked Leg Prone Position with the Loop Sling . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-13 Crossed Leg Sitting Position with the Loop Sling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-16 High Kneeling Position with the Loop Sling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-6 5004 Elements of a Good Shooting Position. . . . . . . 6-4 Considerations Using Cover and Concealment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18 Standing Position with the Hasty Sling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-15 5007 Kneeling Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-7 5005 Prone Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-4 Seven Factors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 Crossed Ankle Sitting Position with the Loop Sling . . . . . . . . . . 5-17 Low Kneeling Position. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-6 Types of Supported Positions . . . . . . . 6-1 Common Cover Materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-1 Types of Cover. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-18 Description . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-14 Open Leg Sitting Position with the Loop Sling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 8-1 Physical Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 Range . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10 Rollout Technique . . . . . . . . 8-2 Precipitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-11 Chapter 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Effects of Weather 8001 Physical Effects of Wind on the Bullet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Zeroing 9001 Elements of Zeroing. . 8-2 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4 8003 Physical and Psychological Effects of Weather on Marines . . . . 6-10 Combining Techniques . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4 Purpose . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ vii 6003 Searching for and Engaging Targets From Behind Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rifle Presentation 7001 Presentation of the Rifle. 9-1 Line of Sight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6-10 Pie Technique . . . . . . . . 8-5 Chapter 9. 9-1 Aiming Point . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-1 Determining Windage Adjustments to Offset Wind Effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 Battlesight Zero (BZO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-3 7002 Search and Assess . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-4 Searching and Assessing to a Higher Profile. 6-10 6004 Moving Out From Behind Cover . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 Zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-2 Presenting the Rifle From the Weak Side Sling Arms Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 Presenting the Rifle From the Alert Carry and From the Ready Carry . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 Trajectory. 8-1 8002 Physical Effects of Temperature and Precipitation on the Bullet and the Rifle . . . . . . . . 9-2 True Zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4 Wind . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4 Precipitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 Presenting the Rifle From the Tactical Carry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4 Light. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 9002 Types of Zeros . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7-1 Presenting the Rifle From the Strong Side Sling Arms Transport . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-4 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-1 Centerline of Bore . 7-4 Chapter 8. . . . . 7-4 Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . 9-5 9008 Factors Causing a BZO to be Reconfirmed . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 Front Sight Post . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7 Two-Shot Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3 10002 Range Estimation . 9-4 Windage Rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-3 Rear Sight Elevation Rule . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 Front Sight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7 Single Shot Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Engagement Techniques 10001 Target Detection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6 9009 Factors Affecting the Accuracy of a BZO . . . . . . . . . 10-3 Remembering Target Location . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-5 Known Strike of the Round . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 9007 Battlesight Zero . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7 Sustained Rate of Fire . . . . . _______________________________________________________________________________________________ viii MCRP 3-01A 9003 M16A2 Sighting System . 9-2 9004 Windage and Elevation Rules . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7 Three-Round Burst Technique. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-2 Rear Sight. 9-3 Front Sight Elevation Rule. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 Target Indicators . . . . . . . . . . 9-6 Ground Elevation . . . . . . . . . . 10-2 Maintaining Observation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6 Temperature . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6 Climate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7 10005 Engaging Immediate Threat Targets . . . 9-7 Chapter 10. . 9-4 Rear Sight Elevation Knob . . . . . . . 10-4 10003 Offset Aiming. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-1 Identifying Target Location . . . . . . . . . 9-6 Uniform . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 9005 Initial Sight Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3 Factors Affecting Range Estimation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 9006 Zeroing Process . . . . . . . . 10-5 Point of Aim Technique . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-6 Maintenance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-6 10004 Techniques of Fire . . . 9-6 Ammunition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9-4 Windage Knob . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-3 Range Estimation Methods . . . . . . . .

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12 Types of Illumination . . . . . . . . . . . 10-7 Prioritizing Targets . . . . . . 10-13 Effects of Illumination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11 Hasty Sight Setting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12 Searching Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14 10010 Engaging Targets while Wearing the Field Protective Mask . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8 Types of Moving Targets. . . . . . . . . . . 10-14 Appendices A Data Book . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A-1 Recording Data Before Firing . . . . . . . . . . . B-1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8 Firing Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11 10008 Engaging Targets at Unknown Distances . .A-2 Recording Data After Firing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .Rifle Marksmanship _________________________________________________________________________________________ ix 10006 Engaging Multiple Targets. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8 Technique of Engagement . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-11 Point of Aim Technique. . . . . . . . 10-9 Engagement Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-9 Leads . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A-5 B Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-8 10007 Engaging Moving Targets . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12 Night Vision. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-10 Marksmanship Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-12 10009 Engaging Targets During Low Light and Darkness . . . . . . . . . . .A-1 Data Book . 10-14 Firing Position . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10-14 Marksmanship Fundamentals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A-1 Recording Data During Firing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

At one end is war. Training in combat. simply know marksmanship techniques and proce- liver accurate fire against the enemy under the most dures. which is characterized by large-scale. flash. uncertainty) dictate out thorough training in the use of their individual that the Marine be both physically and mentally pre- weapons carries undue risks for every Marine in the pared to engage enemy targets. MOOTW normally does not a number of men or objects irregularly spaced along involve combat. there may be very lit- mission. promoting peace. prepared to protect themselves and respond to chang- ing threats and unexpected situations. share a common set of values. there are no “rear area” Marines. INTRODUCTION TO RIFLE MARKSMANSHIP All Marines share a common warfighting belief: “Every Marine a rifleman. COMBAT MINDSET To be combat ready. CHAPTER 1. When flemen cannot be depended upon to accomplish their a target presents itself in combat. unnecessarily escalating the level of violence or caus. poorly trained riflemen either fail to tle time to take action. fleeting. adverse conditions. sustained combat oper- ations. The Marine must develop the mental discipline . well trained riflemen can de. As such. and after combat operations. position other than prone in order to fire effectively The proficient rifleman handles this challenge without on the target. the Marine must be skilled in the techniques and procedures of rifle marksmanship and take proper care of his rifle. man must have the versatility. a unit with poorly trained ri. A Marine must be able to en- fire their weapon or they waste ammunition by firing gage the target quickly and accurately. demands of combat (i. and are trained as members of an expeditionary force in readiness. It will not be enough to unit. dust.e. MOOTW focuses on deterring aggres- sion. Usually. the Marine must be con- the best rifle in the world. and skills to deal with a situation at any level of intensity across the entire range of military operations.. resolving conflict. CONDITIONS AFFECTING referred to as military operations other than war MARKSMANSHIP IN COMBAT (MOOTW). vegetation will often require a rifleman to use a ence of noncombatants in close proximity to the target. but will only be visible for a Marine rifleman must be able to deliver well aimed brief moment before taking cover. flexibility. These operations can occur Many factors affect the application of marksmanship before. ROLE OF THE MARINE RIFLEMAN confident that he can help his unit accomplish it’s mis- sion. Sometimes the need for a l The nature of the target. At the other end of the scale are those actions 1002. Marines always need to be covered or concealed areas. irregularities of terrain and well aimed shot may even be heightened by the pres. Even when equipped with In a combat environment. The Marine rifle. To send Marines into harm’s way with. and support- ing civil authorities. the noise or movement. 1003. situation warrants the application of deadly force. among them are— and preparation for MOOTW should not detract from the Corps’ primary mission of training Marines to l Most targets are linear in nature and will consist of fight and win in combat. The Marine rifleman of the next conflict will be as in past conflicts: among the first to confront the enemy and the last to hang his weapon in the rack after the conflict is won. Whenever the l Most targets can be detected by smoke. A well trained rifleman is not only 1001. stress. he is confident that he can protect his fellow Marines and himself.” This simple credo reinforces the belief that all Marines are forged from a common experience. Marine Corps forces are employed across the entire range of military operations. during. shots to eliminate the threat. However. stantly prepared for possible target engagement. and no one is very far from the fighting during expeditionary operations. l The time in which a target can be engaged is often ing unnecessary collateral damage. The unique ineffectively. On the other hand.

the lenge of firing well aimed shots in a combat environ- more concentration he can give to the mental side of ment where the enemy may be returning fire. scanning for targets. fear or un. the Marine must train to per- fect the physical skills of shooting so those skills be. the Marine can prepare himself mentally for con. To es the mission. selection and use of cover. Mastery of physical skills allow The Marine must believe in his ability to engage tar- the Marine to concentrate on the mental aspects of tar. e. the Marine must gage targets. available cover. The key factors in Knowledge of the Combat Environment the development of a combat mindset include both The Marine must be constantly aware of the sur- physical and mental preparation.. application of the marksmanship fundamentals during frontation with the enemy. e. Confidence come second nature.g.. gets accurately in any combat situation. backdrop of the target. tion. . speed alone does not equate to effective tar. Therefore. pects of target engagement. range and field firing. to fire well-aimed shots. certainty of action and to focus on the actions required detection of targets. Plan of Action present the weapon. In the confusion. and then he can fire accurately. In combat. Mastery of rifle marksmanship can only be obtained by quality instruc- While combat is unpredictable and constantly chang. coupled with the often limited time available to en- and stress of the combat environment. factor in a Marine’s level of confidence is the degree to which he has mastered the techniques and proce- Mental Preparation dures of the rifle marksmanship. The Marine must understand the situation. A Marine’s get engagement.g. and the selection and use of cover. iden- get engagement. The more physical challenges will be overcome—particularly the chal- skills that a Marine can perform automatically. This awareness will enable the Marine to select and assume a firing position and to quickly and accu- In combat. targets can present themselves without rately engage targets. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 1-2 MCRP 3-01A to prepare for enemy contact. A key target engagement. it is essential for the Marine to maintain proper balance and control of his weapon at all times so he can quickly assume a firing position. noise. scanning for targets. The stress of battle. Physical Preparation etc. taken. never exceeding his physical develop a plan for target engagement that accomplish- ability to apply the fundamentals of marksmanship. Quality instruction is the foundation for practical ing. requires concentration on the mental as- have the ability to eliminate any hesitation. roundings to include the terrain. The Marine should fire only as fast as tify and evaluate possible courses of action. pos- sible areas of enemy contact. warning. be effective in combat. This is accomplished through establishment of a combat mindset. detection of level of confidence is rooted in the belief that future targets. the situation will dictate the action to be However. and accurately engage the target.

The M16A2 service rifle has a burst. allows the trigger guard to be to be fired with each pull of the trigger.) The rifle fires in either semiautomatic (single- shot) mode or a three-round burst through the use of a The selector lever has three settings—safe. 2-1 shows a right- side view and fig. 2-2. gas-operated. OPERATIONAL CONTROLS millimeter (mm). The trigger Semi guard is equipped with a spring-loaded retaining pin The selector lever in the semi position allows one shot that. air- cooled. It is automatically opened by the action of the bolt carrier. See figure 2-3 on page 2-2. M16A2 Service Rifle (Right Side View). The bore and chamber are chrome- plated to reduce wear and fouling. DESCRIPTION The M16A2 service rifle is a lightweight. (Fig. An ejection port cover prevents for right-handed Marines. .56 2002. CHAPTER 2. An aluminum receiver helps reduce the overall weight of the rifle. The setting selected depends on the firing maximum effective range of 550 meters for individual situation. left-handed dirt and sand from getting into the rifle through the Marines should reverse instructions as ejection port. or point targets. magazine-fed. 2001. shows the left-side Selector Lever view. semi. INTRODUCTION TO THE M16A2 SERVICE RIFLE Note rotated out of the way for access to the trigger while +The procedures in this manual are written wearing heavy gloves. shoulder-fired rifle. The handguards are Safe aluminum-lined and are vented to permit air to The selector lever in the safe position prevents the rifle circulate around the barrel for cooling purposes and to from firing. The ejection port cover should be closed necessary. on page 2-2. Figure 2-1. when the rifle is not being fired. protect the gas tube. when depressed. 5. and selector lever. The muzzle compensator serves as a flash suppressor and assists in reducing muzzle climb.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2-2 MCRP 3-01A Figure 2-2. Each subsequent pull of the trigger results in a When the charging handle is pulled to the rear. If the trigger is bolt carrier group moves to the rear of the receiver. released during the burst and the three-round cycle is See figure 2-5. M16A2 Service Rifle (Left Side View). Selector Lever. the next pull of the trigger fires the rounds remaining in the interrupted three-round cycle. two or three shots may be fired on the first pull of the Charging Handle trigger. . the burst Magazine Release Button cam limits the maximum number of rounds fired to The magazine release button releases the magazine three. The selector lever in the burst position allows the rifle to continue its cycle of operation until interrupted by the burst cam. With each pull of the trigger. Burst interrupted. See figure 2-4. the bolt complete three-round burst unless the trigger is unlocks from the barrel extension locking lugs and the released before the cycle is complete. The burst cam is not “self-indexing. selected. One. Figure 2-3.” If burst is from the magazine well. the burst cam does not automatically reset to the first shot position of the three-round burst.

the bolt carrier group will lock to the rear. Unlocking Figure 2-7 on page 2-4 illustrates unlocking of the bolt. driven by the buffer assembly and pin. into the firing position. This causes the bolt assembly to rotate until the bolt-locking lugs are no longer aligned Figure 2-5. When the bolt car. Firing rier group is locked to the rear and the upper portion of the bolt catch is depressed. a portion of the expanding gas enters the gas port and gas tube. the bolt cam pin follows the path of the cam track located in the bolt carrier. behind the barrel extension locking lugs. driving the firing pin into the round’s primer. . Charging Handle. CYCLE OF OPERATION If the charging handle is pulled to the rear when the lower portion of the bolt catch is depressed. Magazine Release Button. the bolt carrier group will The hammer releases and strikes the head of the firing slide forward. The action spring. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Rifle Marksmanship 2-3 Figure 2-4. primer ignites the powder in the cartridge. Bolt Catch 2003. After the projectile pas- ses the gas port. As the bolt carrier moves to the rear. Gas generated by the rapid burning of powder propels the projectile through the barrel. The gas tube directs the gas rearward into the bolt carrier key and causes the bolt carrier to move rearward. See figure 2-6 on page 2-4.

Figure 2-6. Ejecting. Extracting. located in the bolt face. Extracting As the bolt carrier group continues to move to the rear. Cocking Continuing its rearward travel. . and causes the disconnector to engage the lower hammer hook. the extractor claw withdraws the cartridge case from the chamber. forces it down into the receiver. See figure 2-10. Figure 2-9. Figure 2-10. The cartridge case is thrown out by the action of the ejector and spring. is compressed into the bolt body by the base of the cartridge case. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2-4 MCRP 3-01A Ejecting The ejector. Firing. See figure 2-8. The rearward movement of the bolt carrier group al- lows the nose of the cartridge case to clear the front of the ejection port. Unlocking. See figure 2-9. compresses the hammer spring. the bolt carrier over- rides the hammer. Figure 2-8. Cocking. Figure 2-7.

The extractor claw grips the rim of the cartridge case. Four types of ammunition are authorized for use with See figure 2-12. Figure 2-11. the expansion of the the bolt-locking lugs are forced against the barrel ex- magazine spring forces a round into the path of the tension and the bolt cam pin is forced along the cam bolt. Authorized Ammunition. 2-14). . Feeding. the M16A2 service rifle: ball (M193 and M855). The ejector is forced into its hole. the face of the bolt 2004. and blank (M200) (see fig. compressing the ejector spring. behind the barrel extension locking lugs. pushing a fresh round in front of it. Figure 2-13. See figure 2-13. The weapon pands and sends the buffer assembly and bolt carrier is ready to fire. Chambering. it ex. tracer (M196 and M856). See figure 2-11. dummy (M199). Figure 2-14. The bolt rotates and aligns the bolt locking lugs the rearward motion of the bolt carrier group. Figure 2-12. group forward with enough force to strip a round from the magazine. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Rifle Marksmanship 2-5 Feeding Locking Once rearward motion causes the bolt carrier group to As the bolt carrier group continues to move forward. Ammunition thrusts the new round into the chamber. After the action spring overcomes and absorbs track. Locking. clear the top of the magazine. Chambering As the bolt carrier group continues to move forward.

intermixed with ball ammunition in a ratio no greater l Remove the sling. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2-6 MCRP 3-01A M193 Ball Main Group Disassembly This ammunition is a 5. the Handguards. The M193 ball M16A2 service rifle— ammunition has no identifying marks. lead alloy core bullet. Damage to proper functioning of its all parts. M16A2E W/E (1005-01- well is open to prevent damage to the firing pin. Identified by a green tip.56-mm. for training purposes. M196 and M856 Tracer This ammunition has the same basic characteristics as Figure 2-15. Preventive Maintenance handguards are off the rifle. Figure 2-16. It contains no propellants or primer. Use caution when the 2005. The primer and case are waterproofed. 5. Press down on the Blank ammunition. Before disassembling the The primer and case are waterproofed.56mm centerfire cartridge with The M16A2 service rifle is disassembled into three a 55-grain gilded-metal jacket. The 128-9936). is used slip ring with both hands. 3002). Only issue-type the gas tube adversely cleaning materials maybe used. Upper Receiver To disassemble the upper receiver— M200 Blank This ammunition has the case mouth closed with a l Place the rifle on the butt- seven-petal rosette crimp. and signaling. main groups (see fig. The primer Rifle.56mm centerfire cartridge has better penetration than the M193. It contains no projectile. identified by its violet tip. reducing combat readiness and of the rifle. . Identified by a bright red tip. Improper maintenance affects the functioning can cause stoppages. its 5. 2-15). It has a 62-grain gilded-metal jacket bullet. its primary uses include observation firing. Tracer ammunition should be l Ensure the rifle is in Condition 4 (see para. This ammunition has six grooves along the side of the Operator’s Manual w/Components List case. To facilitate control and ease of disas- sembly. Pull the handguards free (see fig. Three Main Groups. The preferred ratio is one tracer to four balls Note (1:4) to prevent metal fouling in the bore. Removing effectiveness. Handguards pro- vide protection for the Normal care and cleaning of the rifle will result in gas tube. the handguards may be removed M199 Dummy using the “buddy system” as described in Technical Manual (TM) 05538C-10/1A. 2-16). dummy cartridge is used during dry fire and other training purposes. stock. ball ammunition. than 1:1. M855 Ball This ammunition is the primary ammunition for the M16A2 rifle. The rear two-thirds of the core of the projectile is lead alloy and the front one-third is a solid steel penetrator. incendiary effect.

) Figure 2-18. Note In combat situations. Any further dis- assembly of the rifle is to be performed by a CAUTION qualified armorer. See figure 2-18. cumstances. l Rotate the bolt cam pin one-quarter turn and lift the bolt cam pin out. l Press in the buffer and depress the buffer retainer. l Press the hammer downward and ease the buffer l Push the bolt back into the bolt carrier to the locked and action spring forward and out of the receiver. Bolt Carrier Disassembled. within the spring. combat situations are the exception. disassemble the rifle in the sequence just performed. Magazine Disassembly retaining pin. 2-17. Be careful not to damage the tip of the firing pin while pushing out the extractor. Lower Receiver Disassembled. put the as it will go and separate the upper and lower large end of the spring in the extractor and receivers. l Press on the extractor’s rear and use the firing pin to push out the extractor-retaining pin. Remove the extractor and spring (the spring is permanently attached to the extractor). The magazine should be disassembled regularly for cleaning to avoid the possibility of malfunction or . _______________________________________________________________________________________ Rifle Marksmanship 2-7 l Move the take down pin from the left to the right as Note far as it will go to allow the lower receiver to pivot The extractor assembly has a rubber insert down from the upper receiver. seat it. the rifle may be par- tially disassembled in any sequence. not the rule. l Tap the base of the bolt carrier against the palm of your hand so the firing pin will drop out. l Remove the firing pin retaining pin. Note It may be necessary to use the edge of the Bolt Carrier charging handle to depress the buffer re- To disassemble the bolt carrier— tainer. (See fig. out of the upper receiver. Do not attempt to re- l Move the receiver pivot pin from left to right as far move it. l Pull back the charging handle and bolt carrier about 3 inches and remove the bolt carrier group. l Withdraw the bolt assembly from the carrier. No further disassembly of the lower receiver is per- formed. Lower Receiver l Remove the charging handle by sliding it back and To disassemble the lower receiver— down. No further disassembly is conducted on the upper re- ceiver group. l Separate the parts. position. How- ever. Under normal operating cir- Figure 2-17. Push in the extractor pin. If the spring comes loose.

chamber. Attach the handle to the cleaning rod section and pull a CLP-moistened 5. l Patch holder section. Cleaning Materials l Attach the chamber brush and one section of the The following cleaning materials are used in preven. l Clean the bolt carrier key with a pipe cleaner. lubricant. Note Do not reverse direction of the brush while it is in the chamber. Remove bore brush and attach the patch holder to the rod with a CLP moistened patch insert the rod into the barrel from the chamber end. Cleaning l Repeat the above steps until the patches come out of the bore clean. and exterior of the and clean rags. gas rings. bolt with the general-purpose brush. patches. and preservative (CLP). one about two turns short of being tight. l Jiggle the spring and follower to remove. . l Dry the bore. Put a few drops of CLP on the bore brush. and pull the brush through the bore. attach the handle. To disassemble the magazine— Basic cleaning of the upper receiver group should in- clude the following: l Pry up and push base plate out from the magazine. pipe cleaners. and clean rags until they come out clean. and pull the patch through the bore.56mm patch through the bore. l Attach the patch holder onto the rod. gas tube. Repeat 3 times. Cleaning Materials. l Inspect the bore for cleanliness by holding the muzzle to your eye and looking into the bore. and the interior of the re- ceiver with rifle patches. Cleaning the Bolt Carrier Group l Cleaner. Figure 2-19. and general purpose. l Scrub the chamber and bolt lugs using a combina- tion of a plunging and clockwise rotating action. Always l Clean the outer and inner surfaces of the bolt carrier shake the bottle well before use. Cleaning the Upper Receiver azines. l Point the muzzle down and insert the non-patch end of the rod into the chamber. swabs. Moisten it well with tive maintenance (see fig. Do not re. l Attach the bore brush to the rod but leave it two turns short of being tight. attach the handle. l Rod in three sections and a handle assembly. See figure 2-19. 2-20): CLP and insert it into the chamber. l Insert a swab into the rear of the bolt and swab out the firing pin recess and gas ports. with a general-purpose brush. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2-8 MCRP 3-01A stoppage of the rifle caused by dirty or damaged mag. l Wipe the barrel. l Attach the three rod sections together but leave each move the follower from the spring. swabs. Then moisten all interior sur- faces with CLP. cleaning rod to the handle. l Clean the interior portion of the upper receiver with the general-purpose brush and CLP. Figure 2-20. Insert the rod into the barrel from the chamber end. chamber. l Clean the locking lugs. l Brushes: bore. and handguards clean with a rag. Magazine Disassembled.

ever. pipe cleaners. l Lightly lube means that a film of CLP barely visible l Clean charging handle assembly with the general. l Lightly lube the inside of the upper receiver. outer surfaces of the barrel. clean patch. CLP is the lu- the extractor lip. shaft of the rear sight. ing pin using the general-purpose brush and CLP. Depress the extractor to align the holes and reinsert the extractor pin. Cleaning the Lower Receiver l Wipe dirt from the firing mechanism using a Upper Receiver general-purpose brush. and swabs. Lubrication is performed as part of the detailed pro. l Generously lube means the CLP should be applied heavily enough that it can be spread with the finger. l Wipe out the inside of the pistol grip and ensure that Bolt Carrier Group it is clean. Report any damaged part to the l Return all cleaning gear into the buttstock of the armorer. Lower Receiver l Wipe dry. purpose brush and patches. maintenance process. l Lightly lube the inside of the lower receiver exten- l Keep the spring lightly oiled. Inspection is a critical step to ensure the rifle and close the buttplate. several times to work lubrication into the spring. bricant for the rifle. extractor at 12 o’clock. Do not switch bolts between rifles. inspect each part for cracks and chips and ensure parts are not Reassembling the Rifle bent or badly worn. firing pin. l Clean the inside of the magazine with the general- purpose brush and CLP. and outside the bolt body. ensuring drain hole is clear of dirt. Depress rear sling swivel. bore. sion. from the bore and chamber before firing. and firing pin retain. l Wipe the inside of the magazine well with a rag. and surfaces under the handguard. chamber. buffer. o’clock. Remember to remove excess CLP l Clean extractor pin. Inspection While cleaning the rifle. Insert the bolt into the bolt carrier with the cedures are also performed in preparation for firing. and ac. and during each succeeding Reassembly step in the preventive maintenance process. l Hold the bolt carrier with the bolt carrier key at 12 cedure for preventive maintenance. them into the buffer tube/stock. _______________________________________________________________________________________ Rifle Marksmanship 2-9 l Clean the extractor with the general-purpose brush. how. combat readiness of your rifle. l Clean the outside of the receiver with the general- purpose brush and CLP. the bolt rings. It is performed nor. to the eye should be applied. l Generously lube the outside of the cam pin area. Lubrication l Insert the bolt into the carrier. l Lubricate the moving parts and elevation screw tion spring. it can be performed throughout the preventive l Place the extractor and spring back on the bolt. Lubrication pro. l Connect the buffer and action spring and insert mally during rifle cleaning (prior to lubrication). Lubricant ensuring all the carbon is removed from underneath In all but the coldest arctic conditions. l Wipe the inside of the buffer tube. Clean the buttplate and l Depress the front sight detent and apply two or three drops of CLP to the front sight detent. . l Generously lube the moving parts inside the lower receiver and their pins. Cleaning the Magazine l Lightly lube the charging handle and the inner and outer surfaces of the bolt carrier.

ceiver groups. Pull the charging handle to the rear three times and release. Place the selector lever on safe. WARNING WARNING WARNING WARNING The hammer should not fall. The hammer should fall. Close the upper and lower re. A Ensure the cam pin is installed in the bolt group l Place the selector lever on semi. l Barrel is clear of obstructions. G l Pull the charging handle to the rear and release. l Replace the firing pin retaining pin. Pull the N or the rifle may explode while firing. 2006. l Slide the base under all four tabs until the base catches. l Ensure magazines are serviceable. Ensure that the magazine can be seated. 3002). place bolt erating condition. Pull the bolt forward until it stops. Ensure that the bolt locks to the rear. left. l Push the charging handle and bolt carrier group into l Place rifle in Condition 4 (see para. l Pull the charging handle to the rear and release. Release the N trigger and pull again. l Conduct a function check. the upper receiver until the charging handle locks. . l Place the charging handle in the upper receiver by Individual Marines must perform user serviceability lining it up with the grooves in the receiver. rier and seat it. l Pull the charging handle to the rear and release. l Attach the sling. A function check is performed to ensure the rifle oper- ates properly. l Ensure the selector lever is on safe before closing l Barrel is tight. l Join the upper and lower receivers and engage the l Check the rifle to ensure the following: receiver pivot pin. Ensure the head of the firing pin retaining pin is recessed inside the 2007. The hammer should fall. To perform a function check: l Depress the upper portion of the bolt catch and observe bolt moving forward on an empty chamber. This the charging handle partially in. l Front sight post is adjustable. l Insert the follower and jiggle the spring to install. Pull the trigger and R hold it to the rear. The firing pin should not fall out when the bolt carrier group is turned upside down. l Drop in the firing pin from the rear of the bolt car. Make sure the printing is on the outside. To reassemble the magazine— l Weapon is properly lubricated for operational con- ditions. The hammer into the bolt. l Compensator is tight. Push in the takedown pin. The hammer should fall. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 2-10 MCRP 3-01A l Rotate the bolt counterclockwise until the cam l Place the weapon in Condition 4 (see para. l Front sight post is straight. Place the selector lever on burst. inspection ensures the weapon is in an acceptable op- l With the bolt in the unlocked position. Function Check l Without depressing the bolt catch. I charging handle to the rear and release. l Gas rings are serviceable. User Serviceability Inspection bolt carrier. Reassembling the Magazine l Stock is tight on the lower receiver. l Rear sight elevation and windage knobs are adjust- able and have distinct clicks. l Handguards are serviceable. Rotate the cam pin 1/4 turn right or should fall. l Insert the bolt cam pin through the bolt carrier and Release the trigger and pull again. 3002). pinhole aligns to the cam pin slot in the bolt carrier. carrier key into the groove of the charging handle. l Load the rifle with an empty magazine. Pull the trigger and hold it to the rear. Push inspections on their weapons before firing them. pull the charging handle to the rear. the upper receiver. En- sure the selector lever is on safe and pull the trigger. l Install the handguards.

2009. Dry Desert locks in the chamber. special knowledge about cleaning and maintaining the l Keep the inside of the magazine and ammunition rifle. so the water can run out. leave the rifle in a protected but cold area ity inspection. temperature. l Keep water out of the barrel if possible. Preventive maintenance in the field is performed when and lubrication will attract more dirt. it should be disassembled and wiped down several times as it warms. must be used below -35 degrees Fahrenheit. Field Maintenance lubrication of the rifle in this type of climate. Hot dry climates are usually areas that contain blow- ing sand and fine dust. Wipe dry and check for corrosion. To perform limited field preventive maintenance— Whenever practical. drain and (if possible) dry with a patch. wet tropical. Cleaning the Rifle in Various l Unload and perform a function check every 30 min- Conditions utes. keep the rifle covered. Corrosion is less likely to form in these environments. possible. If water is in the stock of the l Unload and check the inside of the magazine more weapon. and freezing. causing stoppages. below a temperature of 0 degrees Fahrenheit and l Clean the bolt carrier group. to help prevent freezing of func- tional parts. point the muzzle down and tion to spring-loaded detentes. with forward. hot. l When practical. if possible. ensure the drain hole in the stock is clear frequently. The conditions that will affect the rifle the most wiped dry. It is impera- tive to pay particular attention to the cleaning and 2008. outdoors. Dust and sand will get into the rifle and magazines. l Place the rifle in Condition 4 (see paragraph 3002). If l Reassemble the rifle and perform a user serviceabil. l Perform normal maintenance. The climatic conditions in various locations require l Do not lay a warm rifle in snow or ice. keep the rifle covered. _____________________________________________________________________________________ Rifle Marksmanship 2-11 Ensure the bolt moves completely forward and Hot. when it is moved from outdoors to indoors. if possible. to a cold environment to allow gradual cooling of the rifle. When bringing the rifle inside to a warm place. water will drain. arctic or low pages. detailed disassembly and cleaning is not practical due use lubrication more sparingly. Moisture will freeze and cause stop- are: hot. dry desert. break the seal by doing a chamber check so the l Use lubricant more liberally. to operational tempo or the level of threat. the rifle at room temperature. l Perform normal maintenance. Pay particular atten- If water is in the barrel. hidden surfaces for corrosion. This prevents the condensation of moisture l Clean the bore and chamber. Condensation will form on the rifle l Lubricate the rifle. cating oil. and heavy rain and fording. l Clean the upper and lower receiver groups (without l Keep the rifle covered when moving from a warm further disassembly). arctic weapons (LAW) can be used l Do not disassemble the bolt carrier group further. Heavy Rain and Fording Hot. For this reason. Lubri- l Remove the bolt carrier group. Arctic or Low Temperature l Break the rifle down by removing the rear take down pin and rotating the upper receiver and barrel l Clean and lubricate the rifle in a warm room. . If water l Clean and lubricate your rifle more often. Inspect does get in. l Repeat this procedure with all magazines. l Always try to keep the rifle dry. Wet Tropical l Keep the rifle dry and covered when practical.

cham- Rule 1—Treat every weapon as if it were loaded. unmanned (e. 3003. During combat. If proper weapons handling procedures are not used. magazine removed. a Marine risks his Condition 2. A Marine must know the condition of his weapon at all times. apply the following safety rules at all times: Condition 4. cham- mentally prepared to engage targets. Safe handling of the rifle is critical. safety and the safety of his fellow Marines. magazine inserted. Weapons Conditions +The procedures in this manual are written for right-handed Marines. left-handed Marines should reverse instructions as A weapon’s readiness is described by one of four necessary. Determining a Weapon’s Rule 2—Never point a weapon at anything you do Condition (Chamber Check) not intend to shoot. 3001. determine its condition (see para. A Marine must maintain muzzle awareness at all times. A target must be Situations include coming across an unmanned rifle in identified before taking the weapon off safe and combat. ejection port cover closed. This rule is intended to eliminate the chance of the weapon discharging by accident (e. 3003). A target must be identified before taking the weapon off safe. bolt forward. taking charge of any weapon after it has been moving the finger to the trigger. brush snagging the trigger). magazine inserted. ber empty. and be Condition 3. l Determine if a magazine is present. The steps in the loading and unloading process take the rifle through four specific conditions of readiness for live fire.. he must determine its condition. port cover closed. Weapons handling procedures apply at all levels of training and during combat operations. safely. .. Proper weapons handling procedures ensure the safety of Marines by eliminating negligent discharges and reinforcing positive identification of targets before engagement. conditions. CHAPTER 3. a Marine must react quickly.g. trigger until you are ready to fire. WEAPONS HANDLING Weapons handling procedures provide a consistent and standardized way for a Marine to handle. To ensure that ber empty. To Rule 4—Keep the weapon on safe until you intend determine the condition of the weapon in any of these situations. bolt forward. out of a rifle rack. ejection only the intended target is engaged. bolt forward. and continue applying the other safety rules. Safety Rules Condition 1. Safety on. l Ensure the rifle is on safe. Safety on. he must treat the weapon as if it were loaded. Not applicable to the M16A2 rifle.g. ejection When a Marine takes charge of a rifle in any situation. operate. Safety on. and employ the rifle safely and effectively. When a Marine takes charge of a weapon in Rule 3—Keep your finger straight and off the any situation. or taking charge of another Marine’s weapon. the Marine should: to fire. stored in a vehicle). round in chamber. Note 3002. a Marine must port cover closed.

If time permits. 3-1). Make Ready. This command is used to specify when a Marine must stop target engagement. Cease-Fire. l Remove the magazine (if present) and observe if ammunition is present. insert one finger of the left hand into the ejection port and feel whether a round is present. Weapons Commands l Grasp the charging handle with the index and middle fingers of the right hand. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-2 MCRP 3-01A l Conduct a chamber check. Fire. Left-handed Marines. This command is used to specify when a Marine may engage targets. A chamber check ejection port (see fig. This command is used to take the weapon from any condition to Condition 4. Reinsert the magazine into magazine well. l Tap the forward assist. Chamber Check. port and feel whether a round is present. Right-handed Marines. 3-2). Note l Bring the left hand back against the magazine well. Unload. Figure 3-1. This command is used when an observer must check the weapon to verify Figure 3-2. This command is used to take the weapon from Condition 3 to Condition 1. that no ammunition is present before the rifle is placed in Condition 4. may be conducted at any time. l Close the ejection port cover (if time and the situation permit). CAUTION Pulling the charging handle too far to the rear while inspecting the chamber may cause double feed or ejection of one round of ammunition. The same procedure is used in daylight as l Extend the fingers of the left hand and cover the during low visibility. . 3004. Weapons commands dictate the specific steps required l Pull the charging handle slightly to the rear and to load and unload the rifle. l Release the charging handle and observe the bolt going forward. count the rounds. Position of Hand. Six commands are used in visually and physically inspect the chamber (see weapons handling: fig. This command is used to take the weapon from insert the thumb of the right hand into the ejection Condition 4 to Condition 3. Load. Unload and Show Clear.

rearmost position and release (see fig. and pull the trigger. correct rear sight aperture. l Observe the magazine to ensure it is filled. Making the Rifle Ready Figure 3-4. Cease-Fire On the command “Cease Fire. 3-4). . 3-3). Figure 3-3. take the rifle off rearmost position and release (see fig. Unloading the Rifle Perform the following steps to unload the rifle (take the rifle to Condition 4): l Ensure the weapon is on safe.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-3 Loading the Rifle Perform the following steps to load the rifle (take the rifle to Condition 3): l Ensure the rifle is on safe. Pulling the Charging Handle with the Right Hand. Perform the following steps to make the rifle ready for firing (take the rifle to Condition 1): l To ensure ammunition has been chambered. There are two methods of doing this: l Check the sights (to ensure proper battlesight zero l Grip the pistol grip firmly with the right hand and [BZO] setting. Or grip the handguards firmly with the left hand and Fire pull the charging handle with the right hand to its On the command “Fire. safe. l Fasten the magazine pouch. tug downward on the magazine to ensure it is seated.” aim the rifle. conduct a chamber check (see para. Pulling the Charging Handle with the Left Hand. 3003) to ensure l Pull the charging handle to the rear and release. etc. l Fully insert the magazine in the magazine well.” perform the following steps: l Place your trigger finger straight along the receiver. Without releasing the magazine. l Remove the magazine from the rifle and retain it on your person.). l Withdraw the magazine from the magazine pouch. pull the charging handle with the left hand to its l Close ejection port cover. l Close the ejection port cover. l Place the weapon on safe. a round has been chambered.

l Locks the bolt to the rear and ensures the chamber is empty and that no ammunition is present. l Depress the bolt catch and observe the bolt moving forward on an empty chamber (see fig. The observer— l Visually inspects the chamber to ensure it is empty. l Place any ejected round into the magazine and l Places any ejected round into the magazine and return the magazine to the magazine pouch and returns the magazine to the magazine pouch and close the magazine pouch.). l Pulls the charging handle to the rear and catches the round in the left hand. The Marine. etc. l Cups the left hand under the ejection port. etc. show it clear to an observer (take the rifle to Condition 4). l Depresses the bolt catch and observes the bolt moving forward on an empty chamber. l Pull the charging handle to the rear and catch the Perform the following steps to unload the rifle and round in the left hand (see fig. Observing the Chamber. Observer Inspection. l Removes the magazine from the rifle and retains it. correct rear sight aperture. Catching the Round.). rotate the Unloading and Showing the Rifle Clear weapon until the ejection port faces down. l Lock the bolt to the rear. closes the magazine pouch. rotates the weapon until the ejection port faces down. l Ensure the chamber is empty and that no ammuni- tion is present. l Has another Marine inspect the weapon to ensure no ammunition is present (see fig. l Close the ejection port cover. l Put the weapon on safe if the selector lever would not move to safe earlier. 3-6). 3-5). l Ensures the weapon is on safe. correct l Checks the sights (for proper BZO setting. . rear sight aperture. after receiving acknowledgment that the rifle is clear— Figure 3-6. no ammunition is present. l Check the sights (for proper BZO setting. Figure 3-5. The Marine— l Ensures the weapon is on safe. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-4 MCRP 3-01A l Cup the left hand under the ejection port. and the magazine is removed. 3-7). l Acknowledges the rifle is clear. Figure 3-7. l Closes the ejection port cover.

the 10-round stripper clip (see fig. l Remove a magazine from the magazine pouch. filled magazines are stored with The magazine can also rounds down and projectiles pointing outboard. The recommended number of rounds per Figure 3-8. 3-9). 3-10): and Withdrawing Magazines Filling the Magazine with Loose Rounds Perform the following steps to fill the magazine: l Remove a magazine from the magazine pouch. l Remove the empty stripper clip while holding the magazine filler in place. l Slide the magazine filler into place. magazine is 28 or 29. l Tap the back of the magazine to ensure the rounds Stowing Magazines are seated against the back of the magazine. a closed bolt.. Thirty rounds in the magazine l Tap the back of the magazine to ensure the rounds may prohibit the magazine from seating properly on are seated against the back of the magazine. inserted. Magazine Pouch Filling the In a magazine pouch. l Place a round on top of the follower. filled magazines are stored with Magazine Using a rounds down and projectiles pointing away from the 10-round Stripper body. Filling the Magazine. Thirty rounds in the magazine may prohibit the magazine from seating properly on a closed bolt. press down firmly until all ten rounds are below the feed lips of the magazine. Magazine by touch (i. Filling. Figure 3-10. l Repeat until the desired number of rounds is inserted. The recommended number of rounds per magazine is 28 or 29. Empty or partially filled magazines are stored with the follower up to allow the selection of filled magazines Figure 3-9. Stowing. l Using thumb pressure on the rear of the top cartridge.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-5 Perform the following steps to fill the magazine with 3005. 3-8). l Repeat until the desired number of rounds is l Remove magazine filler and retain it for future use. Filling the Magazine with a Stripper Clip and Magazine Filler. Filler and 10-round . be filled quickly using a 10-round stripper clip and the magazine Empty or Partially Filled Magazines filler (see fig. at night).e. l Place a 10-round stripper clip into the narrow portion of the magazine filler. l Press down until the round is held between the follower and magazine feed lips (see fig. Clip and Magazine Filler Load-bearing Vest In a load-bearing vest.

Figure 3-11. Always reload before leaving cover to take advantage of the protection Load-bearing Vest provided by cover. Magazine Pouch With the right hand. This is acceptable as long as it is l Once the magazine is clear of the pouch. performing a reload. pinch the magazine pouch release to open the magazine pouch. while curling the ring finger and the magazine. The combat situation may and middle finger and lift the magazine directly out dictate dropping the magazine to the deck when of the pouch. withdraw magazines from the magazine 3006.g. the magazine moves sliding the thumb until it rests on the back of the with you. With the left hand. require remedial action. while on the move. feeling for a body so you can see what you are doing and retain base plate indicating a filled magazine. withdraw magazines from the left side of the vest (see fig.. 3-11). retain magazines magazine. To withdraw magazines from a load-bearing vest: When reloading. securely on your person (e. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-6 MCRP 3-01A Withdrawing Magazines l Lift the magazine directly out of the pouch and rotate it up to observe the rounds in the magazine. Do not slam the magazine into the weapon l Grasp the magazine with the thumb. withdraw magazines from the magazine pouch on the right side of the body. When time permits. The first priority when performing a reload is to get the rifle reloaded and back into action. draw the weapon in close to your l Slide the thumb over the magazine. tug on it to ensure it is seated. and cargo pocket). Figure 3-12. in magazine pouch. feeling for a priority when performing a reload is to retain the base plate indicating a filled magazine. ring finger and little finger underneath the magazine and rotate it up to observe rounds in the magazine. your focus should be on moving. curl the picked up before moving to another location. This action will cause a double feed and little finger on top of the base plate. The second l Slide the thumb over the magazines. With the right hand. your focus is on the magazine change. When the new magazine is inserted. When reloading. index finger. Withdrawing a Magazine with the Right Hand. Withdrawing a Magazine . index finger. When moving. 3-12). jacket. withdraw magazines from the right side of the vest therefore every effort should be made to not reload (see fig. Continue magazine so when you move. hard enough to cause a round to partially pop out of and middle finger. l With the thumb and index finger. l Rotate the hand over the magazine while sliding the thumb to the back of the magazine. unfasten the snap on the vest pouch. With the left hand. Reloading the Rifle pouch on the left side of the body. To withdraw magazines from a magazine pouch— Principles of Reloading l Use the thumb and index finger. Take cover before reloading. positive control of the magazine. flak l Grasp the magazine with the thumb.

To return the weapon to operation— l Seek cover if the tactical situation permits. The steps taken to clear is completely empty to replace it. a Marine performs remedial release it. replace your magazine when you know you are low on ammunition. See figures 3-13 and 3-14. available for future use. A condition 1 reload is performed when the weapon is in condition 1 by replacing the magazine before it runs out of ammunition. Remedial action is the process of investigating l Bang—Sight in and attempt to fire. perform the following steps: l Withdraw a filled magazine from the magazine pouch. l Remove the empty magazine and retain it on your person when time permits. action. Do not wait until the magazine problem before he can clear it. and the action. refill those magazines so they will be returning the weapon to operation. Dry Reload A dry reload is required when the magazine in the weapon has been emptied and the bolt has locked to the rear. With the same hand. l Fasten the magazine pouch. l Rack—Pull the charging handle to the rear and If the rifle fails to fire. l Fully insert the filled magazine into the magazine well and tug downward on the magazine to ensure it is properly seated. Bolt Forward. l Fully insert a filled magazine into the magazine well and tug downward on the magazine to ensure it is properly seated. This Once the rifle ceases firing. the Marine must visually ensures a full magazine of ammunition in the rifle or physically observe the ejection port to identify the should action resume. Remedial Action l Tap—Tap the bottom of the magazine. Ejection Port Cover Closed. Observe for Indicators During a lull in the action. 3007. To perform a condition 1 reload. . l Depress the bolt catch to allow the bolt carrier to move forward and observe the round being Figure 3-14. To perform a dry reload— l Press the magazine release button. Figure 3-13. chambered. l Store the partially filled magazine in the magazine pouch with rounds up and projectiles pointing away from the body. the weapon are based on observation of one of the following three indicators: Condition 1 Reload Indicator: The bolt is forward or the ejection port cover is closed. This places the rifle in Condition 1.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-7 Retain your empty magazines. When there is a lull in the cause of the stoppage. clearing the stoppage. press the magazine button and remove the partially filled magazine so it can be retained in the remaining fingers.

l Conduct a dry reload. of the selector lever (see fig. l Remove the bolt carrier group. Sight in and attempt to fire. the ejection port is facing down. Weapons Carries Conduct a reload. trigger finger straight along Marine must take action to return the the receiver (see fig. allows quick engagement of the enemy. yet it still Figure 3-16. The weapons carry assumed prepares the Marine. See figure 3-15. handle to the rear as far as it will go and shake the rifle to free the round(s). for target engagement. hold the charging handle to the rear and strike the butt of the rifle on the ground or manually clear the round. therefore. If the bolt will not lock to the rear. Audible Pop or Reduced Recoil An audible pop occurs when only a portion of the propellant is ignited. Bolt Locked to the Rear. . and right thumb on top weapon to operation. To clear return the weapon to operation— the rifle while remaining alert to enemy engagement. l Seek cover if the tactical situation permits. See figure Weapons carries provide an effective way to handle 3-16. l Move take down pin from left to right as far as it Figure 3-15. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-8 MCRP 3-01A Indicator: Brass is obstructing chamber area l Seek cover if the tactical situation permits. will go to allow the lower receiver to pivot. the around the pistol grip. A Marine performs the following steps to assume the tactical carry: Note Although a dry weapon is not considered a l Place left hand on the handguards. 3008. the hasty sling should be used in conjunction with the carries. l Attempt to lock the bolt to the rear l Reassemble the rifle. Brass Obstructing the Chamber. It is normally identifiable by reduced recoil and is sometimes accompanied by excessive smoke escaping from the chamber area. l Sight in and attempt to fire. To return the weapon to operation— l Inspect the bore for an obstruction from the chamber end. Tactical Carry A Marine carries the rifle at the tactical carry if no immediate threat is present. right hand true stoppage or mechanical failure. Weapons carries are tied to threat conditions and are assumed in response to a specific threat situation. 3-18). (usually indicating a double feed or failure to eject). The tactical carry permits control of the rifle while a Marine is moving. To clear the rifle in a combat environment: l Place the rifle in Condition 4. hold the charging l Sight in and attempt to fire. If the rounds do not shake free. l Attempt to remove the magazine. both mentally and physically. rotate the rifle so l Conduct a reload. Indicator: The bolt is locked to the rear. l Insert a cleaning rod into the bore from the muzzle end and clear the obstruction. The sling provides additional support for the weapon when firing. 3-17).

Figure 3-20. urban. A Marine can engage the enemy faster from the alert than from the tactical carry. Figure 3-18. l Angle the muzzle downward about 45 degrees and point it in a safe direction or the general direction of likely enemy contact (see fig. jungle). over a long period of time. A Marine performs the l Move the head and the following steps to assume the ready: eyes with the muzzle as it moves. l Angle the muzzle up- ward about 45 degrees Ready Carry in a safe direction. l Position the muzzle in A Marine carries the rifle at the ready if contact with front of the eyes. Figure 3-19. the trigger finger straight along the receiver (see fig. and the right thumb on top of the selector lever (see fig. 3-20). l Place the buttstock along the side of the body at approximately hip level. the trigger finger straight along the receiver (see fig. 3-19). Thumb on Selector Lever. right hand around the pistol grip. . 3-18). but it is very tiring to maintain level (see fig.g. Alert Carry. the enemy is imminent. Straight Trigger Finger. l Place the buttstock in the shoulder. 3-17).. 3-17). the right hand around the pistol grip.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-9 Alert Carry A Marine carries the rifle at the alert if enemy contact is likely. the alert is more tiring than the tactical carry and its use can be physically demanding. l Place the buttstock in the shoulder. The ready allows immediate slightly below eye target engagement. However. The alert is also used for moving in close terrain (e. and the right thumb on top of the selector lever (see fig. Tactical Carry. l Place left hand on handguards. l Point the muzzle in the direction of the enemy. 3- Figure 3-17. 18). A Marine performs the following steps to assume the alert: l Place the left hand on the handguards.

arms (muzzle down) (see Arms Transport fig. They are also used whenever one or both hands are l With the left hand. 3-24): (Muzzle Down). l With the left hand. Weapons waist with the left hand. sling. muzzle down and bring the rifle to a vertical po- sition on the left side of 3009. l Lower the buttstock and bring the rifle to a To assume a cross body vertical position. . l With the right hand. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-10 MCRP 3-01A l Lower the sights to just below eye level so that a l With the left hand. sling transport. place Side Sling Weapons transports are used to carry the rifle over the sling on left shoulder.) provide a more relaxed position for walking. guide the rifle around the right clear field of view is maintained so that a target may shoulder. Normally. 3-23): l Release the hold on the pistol grip. Strong performs the following Figure 3-24. The rifle is slung transport from the tactical across the back with the carry. Ready Carry. This stabilizes the rifle on the shoulder. Weak l With right hand. a Marine performs muzzle up or down. they Arms Transport l Grasp sling above the (Muzzle Down. To assume this transport from the tactical carry. a Marine performs the following steps (see fig. Figure 3-23. apply downward pressure on the sling. direction. be identified (see fig. Strong Side Sling Cross Body Sling Arms Transport Arms Transport (Muzzle Up) A Marine uses the cross To assume the strong side body sling arms transport if he requires both hands for sling arms (muzzle up) work. Weak Side Sling Arms Transport (Muzzle Down) The weak side sling arms (muzzle down) transport can be used in inclement weather to keep moisture out of the rifle’s bore. Transport (Muzzle Up). Figure 3-22. rotate Figure 3-21. The pistol grip is pointed outboard. Cross grasp the sling above the Side Sling Arms steps from weak side sling Body Sling left forearm. the rifle is 3-22): carried with the muzzle down to prevent pointing l Release the hold on the the muzzle in an unsafe pistol grip. Weapons Transports the body. 3-21). back or shoulders when moving for long periods. the following steps (see fig. This stabilizes the rifle on the shoulder. transports are used if no immediate threat is present. apply downward pressure on the needed for other work. a Marine l With the right hand.

The Marine receiving the weapon must: 3-25): l Ensure the rifle is on safe. l Conduct a chamber check to determine the con- 3010. steps from strong side sling arms (muzzle up) (see fig. Transport (Muzzle Up). l Ensure the rifle is on safe. Condition Unknown Transfer l Position the rifle so that Figure 3-25. l With the left hand. Clearing barrel transfer. Depending on the situation. an unmanned rifle from a casualty. The procedures for the condition unknown transfer are conducted by a Marine when he takes charge of a rifle in any situation when the condition of the rifle is unknown (e. the loading. l Slide sling over head. there are two procedures 3011. and unloading and showing clear. a Marine l Leave the bolt locked to the rear and hand the performs the following weapon to the other Marine. a Note rifle stored in a rifle rack). grasp the handguards. l Remove the magazine if it is present. l With the right hand. l Pull up on the rifle with l Close the ejection port cover. forward on an empty chamber. unloading. l Visually inspect the chamber to ensure there is no To assume a cross body ammunition present. grasp l Visually inspect the chamber to ensure there is no the sling. sling transport. passes a weapon to another l Close the ejection port cover. following procedures: l Pull up on the rifle with both hands. l Position the rifle so that it rests comfortably across the back. There are times when time or the tactical situation across the back. It is the responsibility of the Marine receiving or taking charge of a weapon to determine its condition. grasp the sling. l Release the bolt catch and observe the bolt going grasp the pistol grip.Rifle Marksmanship ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3-11 l With the right hand. l Slide the sling over the head. l Remove the magazine and observe if ammunition is present. count the rounds. Marine picks up a weapon. both hands. If time permits. the Marine must in a safe direction when assuming this perform the following procedures: transport. the procedures are identical to the weapons handling . Purpose of a Clearing Barrel Show Clear Transfer The sole purpose of a clearing barrel is to provide a safe direction in which to point a weapon when When time and the tactical situation permit. Clearing Barrel Procedures that can be used to transfer a rifle from one Marine to another Marine: show clear transfer and condition unknown transfer. Cross it rests comfortably Body Sling Arms. Marine should transfer the rifle using the show clear See figure 3-26 on page 3-12. l Ensure the rifle is on safe. To properly pass a rifle between Marines. Transferring the Rifle dition of the weapon (see para. Proper weapons handling is required every time a l Insert the magazine into the magazine well. Marine. l Lock the bolt to the rear. ammunition present. 3003). Marine handing off the rifle must perform the l With the left hand. or receives a weapon from another Marine. does not permit a show clear transfer of the rifle.g.. To properly take charge of Ensure the muzzle of the rifle is maintained a rifle when its condition is unknown.

n Or grip the handguards firmly with the left hand l Pull the charging handle to the rear and catch the and pull the charging handle with the right hand round in the left hand.).” the Marine will perform the round in the left hand (see fig. Procedures for “Unload and Show Clear” Procedures for “Make Ready” On the command “Unload and Show Clear. etc. l Check the sights (to ensure proper BZO setting. and pull the charging handle with the left hand to rotate the weapon until the ejection port is facing its rearmost position and release. ammunition is present. l Observe the magazine to ensure it is filled.). l Check the sights (for proper BZO setting. l Ensure the rifle is on safe. l Ensure the weapon is on safe. point the rifle in the l Ensure that the chamber is empty and that no clearing barrel. l Without releasing the magazine. l Release the charging handle and observe the bolt moving forward on an empty chamber. 3-17). Procedures for “Load” rotate weapon until the ejection port is facing down. point the rifle in the Marine will perform the following steps to take the clearing barrel. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 3-12 MCRP 3-01A procedures for the rifle for the loading. l Withdraw a magazine from the magazine pouch. down. . Procedures for “Unload” On the command “Unload. l Place any ejected round into the magazine and return the magazine to the magazine pouch and l Fasten the magazine pouch. the Marine will “Make Ready” at the clearing barrel. l While cupping the left hand under the ejection port. point the rifle in the clearing barrel. to its rearmost position and release. and l To ensure ammunition has been chambered. Condition 3: l Put weapon on safe if not already on safe. l Remove the magazine from the rifle and retain it on Figure 3-26. l Pull the charging handle to the rear and release. On the command “Make Ready. l Close the ejection port cover. etc. l Remove the magazine from the rifle and retain it on There are two methods of doing this: your person. conduct a chamber check. your person. following steps to take the rifle from Condition 4 to l Lock the bolt to the rear. l Fully insert the magazine into the magazine well. rifle from Condition 3 to Condition 1: l Ensure the weapon is on safe. l With a straight trigger finger. correct rear sight aperture.” the Marine will perform the following steps to take the rifle from any condition to Condition 4: l With a straight trigger finger. tug downward on the magazine to ensure it is seated. n Grip the pistol grip firmly with the right hand l While cupping the left hand under the ejection port.” the l With a straight trigger finger. l Pull the charging handle to the rear and catch the On the command “Load. Clearing Barrel.” the If standard operating procedures (SOP) or rules of Marine will perform the following steps to take the engagement (ROE) require the rifle to be carried in rifle from any condition to Condition 4: Condition 1. correct rear sight aperture. close the magazine pouch. unloading and showing clear. l Close the ejection port cover. unloading. l Close the ejection port cover. l Lock the bolt to the rear.

). n Visually inspects chamber to ensure it is empty. etc. close the magazine pouch. l Close the ejection port cover. l Place any ejected round into the magazine and n Ensures the weapon is on safe. return the magazine to the magazine pouch and n Acknowledges the rifle is clear. the Marine releases the bolt l Have an observer inspect the weapon to ensure no catch and observes the bolt moving forward on an ammunition is present. . rear sight aperture.Rifle Marksmanship ______________________________________________________________________________________ 3-13 l Ensure the chamber is empty and no ammunition is l After receiving acknowledgment from the observer present. that the rifle is clear. no ammunition is present. and the magazine is l Check the sights (for proper BZO setting. correct removed. The observer: empty chamber.

Correct Sight Alignment. l Center the tip of the front sight post vertically and horizontally in the rear sight aperture. This relationship is the most critical to aiming and must remain consistent from shot to shot. become less critical to accuracy. CHAPTER 4. These skills must be developed so that they are applied in- stinctively. l Imagine a vertical line drawn through the center of the rear sight aperture. A rifleman who merely sprays shots in the vicinity of the enemy produces little effect. To be accurate at longer ranges. Note To achieve correct sight picture. place the tip of the + The procedures in this manual are front sight post at the center of the target while main- taining sight alignment (see fig. During combat. Center mass is written for right-handed Marines. form the basis for delivering accurate fire on enemy targets. while still necessary. These techniques provide the foundation for all marksmanship principles and skills. At longer rang- es. the fundamentals of marksmanship must be applied in a time frame consistent with the size and the distance of the target. FUNDAMENTALS OF MARKSMANSHIP The fundamentals of marksmanship are aiming. The line will appear to bisect the front sight post. Correct Sight Picture. and the distance to the target decreases. 4-1): Figure 4-1. 4-2). Aiming Sight Alignment Sight alignment is the relationship between the front sight post and rear sight aperture and the aiming eye. To achieve correct sight alignment (see fig. The fundamentals are more critical to accurate engagement as the range to the target increases. For rifle fire to be effective. As the size of the target increases. it must be accurate. The fundamentals of marksmanship. the funda- mentals. the enemy must be engaged quickly before he engages the Marine. At short- er ranges. when applied correctly. the Marine must take the time to slow down and accurately apply the fundamentals. Correct sight alignment but improper sight placement on the target will cause the bullet to impact the target incorrectly on the spot where the Figure 4-2. left- handed Marines should reverse instructions as necessary. and trigger control. the target appears to be smaller and a more precise shot is required to accurate- ly engage the target. . Sight Picture Sight picture is the placement of the tip of the front sight post in relation to the target while maintaining sight alignment. The top of the front sight post will appear to touch this line. 4001. breathing. sights were aimed when the bullet exited the muzzle. l Imagine a horizontal line drawn through the center of the rear sight aperture.

ture and the aiming eye. The error grows proportionately greater as the distance to the target increases. remains constant regardless of the distance to the Eye relief is the distance between the rear sight aper- target. See figure 4-5. An error in sight picture. While eye relief varies slightly from one Stock Weld position to another. Normal eye relief is two to six inches from the rear sight aperture. The eye func- tions best in its natural forward position. perception of the rear sight aperture. Changing the In combat. the correct aiming point so that point of aim/point of The head should be as erect as possible to enable the impact is achieved. how. A consistent and proper stock weld is critical to the aiming process be- Importance of Correct Sight Alignment cause it provides consistency in eye relief. A sight alignment error results in a misplaced shot. aiming eye to look straight through the rear sight aper- ture. his eyebrow. targets are often indistinct and oddly placement of the cheek up or down on the stock from shaped. The center mass hold provides a consistent shot to shot may affect the zero on the rifle due to the aiming point (see fig. which af- fects the ability to align the sights. See figure 4-6. Eye Relief ever. Factors Affecting Sight Alignment and The distance between the aiming eye and the rear sight Sight Picture aperture depends on the size of the Marine and the fir- ing position. cheek and the stock of the rifle. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-2 MCRP 3-01A Figure 4-3. 4-3). See figure 4-4. it is important to have the same Stock weld is the point of firm contact between the eye relief for all shots fired from a particular position. the eye will be strained. If the position of the Marine’s head causes him to The sighting system for the M16A2 rifle is designed to look across the bridge of his nose or out from under work using a center mass sight picture. . Examples of Correct Sight Picture.

Figure 4-5. Stock Weld. Figure 4-6. Importance of Correct Sight Alignment. Proper Eye Relief. .Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-3 Figure 4-4.

4-8). more precise shot is required to accurately engage the making it difficult to detect minute errors in sight target. Sight alignment and sight picture are more crit- alignment. For accurate shooting. the target until correct sight alignment and sight pic- ture are obtained. it will be difficult to line up the front sight post in the rear sight aperture (see fig. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-4 MCRP 3-01A If the eye is too close to the rear sight aperture. The rifle butt’s placement in the shoulder serves as the Figure 4-7. When the shot is must be applied in a time frame consistent with the fired. tain sight alignment and sight picture. a Marine vi- be difficult to acquire the target and to maintain a pre. 4-7). . Acquiring and Maintaining Sight Alignment and Sight Picture Size and Distance to the Target The human eye can focus clearly on only one object at a time. it is important to focus During combat. As rifle If the eye is too far from the rear sight aperture. Figure 4-8. During combat. a Marine’s focus shifts back to the front sight post to place the tip of the post on the target Wearing of Glasses and obtain sight alignment and sight picture. To main- Wearing glasses can alter the perception of sight align. Proper stock weld and placement of the rifle butt in the shoulder aid in establishing sight alignment quickly. it will sights become level with the aiming eye. If wearing glasses. Moving the eye back from the rear sight aperture will make the aperture appear smaller and allow the tip of the front sight post to be easily lined up inside the rear sight aperture. the fundamentals of marksmanship on the tip of the front sight post. the target appears smaller and a longer than a few seconds can distort the image. focus must be on the tip of the front sight post. Extended Eye Relief. The rear sight and the target will appear blurry. a Marine will look at the target as the rifle is presented. Long-range Engagements Staring or fixing the vision on the front sight post for At longer ranges. sually locates the target through the rear sight aperture. pivot point for presenting the rifle up to a fixed point on the cheek (stock weld). the Marine’s fo- ment and sight picture. Shortened Eye Relief. size and the distance to the target. As the rifle settles. peripheral vision will include the rear sight and the target. it is critical cus should shift repeatedly from the front sight post to to look through the optic center of the lens. This enables the detection of minute errors in sight alignment and sight picture. cise aiming point (see fig.

the target (see fig. Dur- ing the pause. the fundamentals. lows: and sight alignment becomes less critical to accuracy. 4-10). point of natural respiratory pause before firing a long- dency to look at the target by lowering the tip of the range shot or a precision shot from any distance. This movement A Marine in a combat environment may not have the time to fire a shot during the natural respiratory pause. Short-range Engagements. A natural pause ly aim at the center of mass and attempt to maintain a of 2 to 3 seconds occurs between each respiratory cy- center mass sight picture. A Marine must conscious. Since the It is critical that Marines interrupt their breathing at a Marine must see the target to engage it. the Marine proper sight picture. As distance to the target ral respiratory pause. a target is unique to each individual. . The pause can be extended up to 10 seconds. Inhaling and ex- miss the target completely. Although a l Fire the shot during the natural respiratory pause. To minimize At shorter ranges. The time required to engage l Exhale and stop at the natural respiratory pause. At very short ranges. Note If the sight picture does not sufficiently settle to allow the shot to be fired. Marine must engage the target rapidly. making it difficult to establish a center of mass hold (see fig. some sem- blance of sight alignment is still required to be accu- rate. Breathing causes the body to move. To be accurate at longer ranges. there is a ten. Figure 4-9. Breath Control During Long-range or As the distance to the target increases. haling each require about 2 seconds. the front sight Precision Fire (Slow Fire) post covers more of the target. cle. This causes shots to impact low or respiratory cycle lasts 4 to 5 seconds. the front sight post is in the rear sight aperture and on l Take a slightly deeper breath. resume normal breathing and repeat the process. the enemy must be engaged quickly movement. Breath Control Breath Control During All Other Combat Situations Proper breath control is critical to the aiming process. a deviation in sight alignment l Breathe naturally until the sight picture begins to can still produce accurate results as long as the tip of settle.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-5 ical to accurate engagement as the range to the target transfers to the rifle making it impossible to maintain increases. Sight Picture at Long-range Engagements. breathing muscles are relaxed and the Short-range Engagements sights settle at their natural point of aim. Sight Picture at Figure 4-10. A front sight post. Breath control allows the Marine must take the time to slow down and accurately apply to fire the rifle at the moment of least movement. 4-9). Marines must fire the shot during the natu- before he engages the Marine. The basic technique is as fol- decreases. 4002. the size of the target appears to increase.

con- ger that causes the rifle to fire without disturbing sight tinuous pressure rearward on the trigger until the shot alignment or sight picture. The basic technique is as follows: l Take a deep breath filling the lungs with oxygen. but maintain the pressure on the trigger. Trigger Control Uninterrupted Trigger Control The preferred method of trigger control in a combat environment is uninterrupted trigger control. The trigger finger should not contact the position to fire the next shot without having to reestab- rifle receiver or trigger guard. See ward motion on the trigger until the shot is fired. There are two techniques of trigger control: uninter- rupted and interrupted 4003. l Hold the breath and apply pressure to the trigger. while pulling the trigger is a physical process. Grip. the grip should til sight picture is achieved. continue the rear- straight to the rear without disturbing the sights. . un- operate the safety. obscured. The fingers l Move the trigger to the rear until an error is detected and the thumb are placed around the pistol grip in a lo. stop the rearward motion on the rally on the trigger and the thumb in a position to trigger. Controlling the trigger is a is fired. be firm enough to allow manipulation of the trigger l When the sight picture settles. in the aiming process. the finger from the trigger. To establish a firm grip on the rifle. Marine to pause until the sights return to his aiming ration of the shot. lish trigger finger placement. l When this occurs. The trigger finger should contact the trig. A Marine should not make an ex- aggerated effort to perform breath control. forcing the of trigger control and it is maintained through the du. A natural respiratory pause will help stabilize the shooter’s sight picture. Resetting the Trigger Trigger Finger Placement During recovery. Do not remove alignment. Figure 4-11. To perform interrupted trigger control: position the “V” formed between the thumb and index finger on the pistol grip behind the trigger. After ob- Trigger control is the skillful manipulation of the trig- taining sight picture. Types of Trigger Control l Fire the shots. Once established. An example of this is extremely windy con- The grip is established before starting the application ditions when the weapon will not settle. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-6 MCRP 3-01A It may be necessary to take several deep breaths before holding the breath. figure 4-11. This places the trigger in ger naturally. cation that allows the trigger finger to be placed natu. Interrupted Trigger Control Interrupted trigger control is used at any time the sight Grip alignment is interrupted or the target is temporarily A firm grip is essential for effective trigger control. mental process. point. Note It may be necessary to take several deep breaths quickly before holding the breath. the Marine applies smooth. release the pressure on the trigger Correct trigger finger placement allows the trigger to slightly to reset the trigger after the first shot is deliv- be pulled straight to the rear without disturbing sight ered (indicated by an audible click).

Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 4-7 the impact of the round by keeping the rifle as still as 4004. In covery starts immediately after the round leaves the combat. Shot re- fundamentals until the round has exited the barrel. follow-through is important to avoid altering barrel. a Marine must physically bring the sights back on target as quickly as possible. Recovery Follow-Through It is important to get the rifle sights back on the target Follow-through is the continued application of the for another shot. To recover quickly. This is known as recovery. Follow-Through/Recovery possible until the round exits the barrel. .

and standing. mobility required to move to new cover or to another area. be used. yet allow observation of the enemy.g. standing) is based on terrain. There are four basic firing positions: prone. Manmade structures and terrain features (e. left-handed Marines should reverse instructions as Observation of the Enemy necessary. vegetation. on the target. the same sling adjustment bility for firing. and observation. engage- ment time. for right-handed Marines. mobility. emy. and other limiting factors. but it usually allows the most exposure to the en- The selection of a firing position (prone. Using the same sling adjustment will ensure the accuracy of rounds on Mobility target. when adjusted properly. earth 5001. Note sition allows the least mobility and allows limited lat- +The procedures in this manual are written eral movement. the parade sling may engagement of widely dispersed targets. During training. This allows for rapid reengagement of Once a sling adjustment is found that provides maxi- the enemy. Note ty. sively will affect the strike of the bullet. If the position is sol. maximum cover and concealment from the enemy. Modifications to the basic positions may have to be made to adjust to the combat environment. guided by a series of precise movements until the Marine assumes a correct position. There are two basic types of rifle sling adjust- A firing position must provide a Marine with the ments: the hasty sling and loop sling. Selecting a Firing Position contours) often dictate the shooting position. and observation of the ene- my. The purpose of this is to ensure that the Marine correctly applies all of the factors that assist him in holding the rifle steady. Varying the sling tension exten- the least stability. 5002. available cover. and maximum observation of the target. persion of targets. and other limiting factors. . RIFLE FIRING POSITIONS In a combat environment. Types and Uses of the Rifle Web Stability Sling A firing position must provide a stable platform for accurate and consistent shooting. The standing position permits maximum mobili. the front sight can be held steady and the rifle imum stability for the weapon. The prone position normally allows the least ex- ing. dis. but it usually provides a limited field of view. it may not be possi- ble to assume a textbook firing position due to terrain. a Marine learns positions in a step-by-step process. which will make maintaining a BZO difficult. provides max- id. sitting. A firing position must limit a Marine’s exposure to the enemy. kneeling. These positions provide a stable foundation for effective shooting. kneel. See paragraph 5008. The rifle sling. mobility. The prone po. The Marine must strive to assume a position that offers stability for firing. Any firing position must provide stability. The Marine will gradually become accus- tomed to the feel of the positions through practice and eventually will be able to know instinctively whether his position is correct. mum control of the weapon. A Marine must select a position that offers stability. available cover.. sitting. while the standing position provides should be maintained. posure. and helps hold the front sights should recover after recoil to the same position sight still and reduce the effects of the rifle’s recoil. The standing position normally provides the best field of view. In combat. CHAPTER 5. dispersion of targets. The prone position provides the most sta. and it also allows the most lateral movement for In training situations. a Marine must be prepared to engage the enemy under any circumstance.

The it in the “V” formed by the thumb and forefinger. provides stability for the rifle. This hand placement. Sling Against the Wrist. Slide the arm up through the sling below the half twist. Donning the Hasty Sling A Marine performs the follow- ing steps to form a hasty sling: l Hold the rifle vertical with the barrel pointing upward. and reduces the effects of the rifle’s recoil. with a straight vary based on the individual locked wrist. grasp the handguard by pinching The hasty sling is used in all firing positions. . enabling the rifle sights to be held steady. (The distance will fig. Position of Forward Hand. l While holding the rifle with the right hand. sight of the rifle. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-2 MCRP 3-01A Hasty Sling the arm just below the triceps. See figure 5-2. l Move the left hand as required to level the rifle with l Loosen the sling keeper. but the J-hook will Figure 5-1. See figure 5-1. J-hook der the handguards and serves to stabilize the front usually hang approximate. When using the hasty sling. ly 3 to 10 inches below the rifle butt. The same sling setting can be used for all fir- ing positions. the rifle. away from the rifle. J-hook sling makes contact low on Turned Outboard. controlled muscle tension is applied to offer resistance against the sling. The Figure 5-2. above the elbow. the hasty sling sup- ports the weight of the weapon. the line of sight. If properly adjusted.) Secure the sling l Move the feed end of the sling in or out of the sling keeper. Figure 5-4. Placement of the forward hand l Adjust the sling until the controls the tension on the sling between the back J-hook hangs below the ri. hasty sling is advantageous in combat because it can The sling lies flat against the back or side of the be acquired quickly and it provides added stability to wrist or on the arm near the wrist. See figure 5-3. l Attach the J-hook to the lower sling swivel so the open end of the J-hook fac- es outboard. of the wrist or arm and the upper sling swivel (see fle butt. place the left arm through the sling near the lower sling swivel. Location. keeper to adjust the hasty sling. will cause the sling to pull straight un- Marine. The sling lies flat on the back of the arm. l Unhook the J-hook from the lower sling swivel. Sling tension is in- l Turn the sling a half turn outboard to allow the sling to lay flat against the arm. 5-4). Figure 5-3. Application l With the left hand.

a stable hold at the desired aiming point is impos- sible to achieve. Loop Sling Application The loop sling provides the greatest amount of stabili- ty during firing. l Position the M-buckle on the outside of the left arm. Position of Left Elbow. The sling must pull from the center of justed so it supports the rifle. This adjustment varies with every indi- vidual and every firing position. See figure l Tighten the loop on the left arm. To adjust the sling for the proper length. Forming a Loop. as allow the left elbow to push outboard against the tension is applied to the sling in the firing position. feed the sling through the top of the M-buckle to form a loop large enough to slip over the arm. l Locate the sling keeper near the feed end of the sling and secure so the backside or flat end of the sling keeper is against the arm. Figure 5-7.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-3 creased by pushing the elbow outboard. excessive pulse beat is transmitted through the rifle sling to the rifle and causes a noticeable. . If blood flow is restricted. In this way. and kneeling positions. rhythmic movement of the rifle sights. loosen the sling keeper and pull up or down (toward or away) from the loop. loop tightens. When this oc- curs. or long-range shot. Position of M-buckle. See figure 5-7.) It is important for the hasty sling to be ad. This stability allows the Marine to perfect marksmanship fundamentals. Figure 5-5. ensuring the 5-5. The loop is high on the left arm above the biceps muscle in such a position that it does not transmit pulse beat to the rifle. Therefore. l Give the loop a half turn outboard and insert the left arm through the loop. M-buckle moves toward the center of the arm as the tions. The sling setting must the arm to be properly positioned. it has limited combat application and is best used where stability of hold is needed for a precision Figure 5-6. See figure 5-6. A loop sling takes longer to don or remove than a hasty sling. l Disconnect the J-hook from the lower sling swivel. (This enables one sling setting to fit all posi. l With the M-buckle near the hook. The loop sling is used in the prone. sitting. Donning the Loop Sling l Place the rifle butt on the right hip and cradle the ri- fle in the right arm. positioning the loop above the biceps. the loop will tighten. sling so the elbow is not inverted under the rifle. The loop should not be tightened excessively on the arm.

the sling must make contact on the arm just below the triceps. In addition. push out against the sling far enough so that the elbow is not under the rifle. See figure 5-9. main the same. Figure 5-8. The sling keeper should be positioned near the feed sling. but the principles of each factor re. the sling is attached to shoulder. ated by the sling affects how the position is estab- lished. the elbow should be pushed outboard across the palm of the hand. the rifle rests in the “V” formed by the thumb and in- bow. the fingers will not curl around the hand- guards. the elbow must be pushed outboard. stock weld. Position of Left Elbow for each position. the rifle sling must be lengthened. Loop Sling Donned. Instead. tension created the rifle sling. See figure 5-8. Therefore. wrist. the picture. the position of the shooter’s body must almost face the target as opposed Move the left hand as required to achieve desired sight to being perpendicular to the target. The tension cre- the tension. against the sling. left hand and the left elbow. Instead. Factors Common to All Shooting Positions There are seven factors that are common to all shoot- ing positions that affect the ability to hold the rifle steady. There are fundamental differences between the Move the sling keeper toward the left arm and secure application of the seven factors when using the hasty it. dex finger. eye relief. Adjust the length of the sling for proper sling hasty sling must be loosened to allow the elbow to tension and support. When the elbow is under the rifle with the hasty sling donned. The most obvious of these is placement of the end of the sling. Place the left hand over the sling from the left side and To maximize the support provided by the hasty sling. The way these factors are applied differs slightly Figure 5-9. the hand should be rotated up so Placement of the left hand affects placement of left el. and forearm should be straight with the wrist locked in place. To increase tension on the left arm is placed in the hasty sling. with Hasty Sling. This serves to keep the butt plate in the the upper and lower sling swivels of the rifle. To stabilize the front sight of the rifle. the forward Left Hand hand. above the elbow. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-4 MCRP 3-01A Tension on the rifle sling is correct when it causes the Hasty Sling rifle butt to be forced rearward into the pocket of the In a hasty sling configuration. and sling tension. To achieve this. the sling must be shortened. under the rifle. the sling pulls down on the sling swivel dis- rupting the center of balance and causing the muzzle to drop. The rifle handguard should rest in the the left elbow should not be inverted and under the ri- “V” formed between the thumb and forefinger and fle. 5003. To lessen by the sling travels from side to side. When shoulder pocket during recoil. To enable this. Outboard tension on the sling by the elbow drives the buttstock into the pocket of the shoulder. maintain sight alignment. and control the trig- ger. they will pinch the handguard slightly . The tension on the sling created by the hasty sling causes the center of balance to change on the rifle.

which can degrade acquisition of lows the front sight to be stabilized. See figure 5-10. the only resistance created is where the sling meets the triceps. See figure 5-12. but should apply only the minimum amount of Figure 5-12. when the rifle rests across the palm of the hand. with Loop Sling. head to the stock. Loop Sling With the loop sling donned. it makes stabilizing the front sight more difficult. the handguard of the rifle rests in the “V” formed by the thumb and index finger of the left hand.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-5 to keep the hand from slipping on the handguard dur. Since the resistance is further from the muzzle of the rifle. Loop Sling With the loop sling donned. The sling is in contact with the back or side of the bring the stock up to his head. sight alignment and sight picture. helps steady the rifle. with Hasty Sling. The left elbow should be positioned under the weapon to create bone support and a consistent resis- tance to recoil. Rifle Butt in the Pocket of the Shoulder ing recoil. Position of Left Hand the buttstock into the pocket of the shoulder. Outboard tension on the sling by the left elbow drives Figure 5-10. handguard. The rifle butt should be placed high in the shoulder to When the wrist of the left hand is straight and locked. achieve a proper stock weld. rather than lower his wrist or on the arm near the wrist. In contrast. The body is squared to the target to provide a pocket for the butt of the weapon. This resistance al. Position of Left Hand Figure 5-13. See figure 5-13. The rifle butt placed firmly in the pocket formed in the right shoulder provides resistance to recoil. Buttstock in the Shoulder with Loop Sling. allowing the Marine to it creates resistance on the sling close to the muzzle. The fingers can curl around the hand- guard. The rifle rests across the heel of the hand. Buttstock in the Shoulder pressure to prevent the hand from slipping on the with Hasty Sling. Hasty Sling With the hasty sling donned. See figure 5-11. the toe of the rifle butt is placed in the pocket of the shoulder. Consistent place- ment of the rifle butt in the shoulder pocket is essential to maintaining a BZO and firing tight shot groups. the butt of the rifle is placed in the pocket of the shoulder. and prevents the rifle butt from slip- ping in the shoulder during firing. Figure 5-11. .

Muscular Tension/Relaxation Muscular Tension–Hasty Sling With the hasty sling donned. However. with the thumb and remain. The trigger finger should be placed natu- Figure 5-14. vents the head from bouncing off the stock during re- reducing the effects of coil. If the elbow is correctly po. Right Elbow. and pre- firmly in the shoulder. the shooter must apply an amount of controlled muscular tension in the left arm to keep the sling taut and stabilize the weapon sights. eye to look straight through the rear sight aperture. Breathing causes chest movement and a corresponding sitioned. Breathing vide balance to the position and create a pocket in the shoulder for the rifle butt. ing fingers wrapped Consistency of stock weld is achieved through proper around the pistol grip. tremble. Grip of the rally on the trigger and Right Hand. it helps to form a pocket in the right shoulder movement in the rifle and its sights. Muscular Relaxation–Loop Sling When using the loop sling. Resistance against the hasty sling controls the point at which the rifle sights will settle. duces excessive movement. Stock weld provides should be exerted to quick recovery between rapid fire shots. Proper placement of the right hand high on the pistol grip al- lows the trigger to be moved straight to the rear with- out disturbing sight alignment. Stock Weld. or experience fatigue. If proper relaxation is . The exact placement of the control will minimize this movement and the effect it elbow varies with each shooting position but should has on aiming. should remain firm and consistent from shot to shot. with the loop sling). ensuring the resis- tance to recoil remains constant. Figure 5-16. der. A firm contact between the cheek and the stock enables consistent eye relief and enables the head and Firm rearward pressure rifle to recoil as a single unit. The muscular tension is applied outward against the sling rather than in an effort to hold the rifle up. remain consistent from shot to shot. placement of the rifle butt in the pocket of the shoul- See figure 5-14. keeps the help keep the rifle butt aiming eye centered in the rear sight aperture. care should be taken to ensure that the trigger finger can move independently without dragging on the side of the receiver. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-6 MCRP 3-01A Grip of the Right Hand Stock Weld Grasp the pistol grip with the right hand and place the The placement of the shooter’s cheek against the stock forefinger on the trigger. Applying breath where the rifle butt rests. See figure 5-15. Right Elbow The right elbow should be positioned naturally to pro. the muscles should be re- laxed. The head should remain erect to allow the aiming recoil (this type of pres. muscular tension should not be excessive to cause the shooter to shake. Relaxation prevents undue muscle strain and re- Figure 5-15. See sure is particularly true figure 5-16.

the body’s bones For each shooting position. close the eyes. Since the rifle becomes an extension of the body. process. if the natural point of aim is are achieved. When the eyes The body’s skeletal structure provides a stable founda. til the rifle sights settle naturally on the desired aiming cular relaxation. muscle tension. the Marine can relax as much as pos- lower the muzzle of the weapon. mus. To attain a correct shooting position. In all positions. and natural point of aim. natural point of aim. however. are opened. l Moving the stock lower in the shoulder to raise the sistance to recoil. causing the sights sible while minimizing weapon movement due to to settle lower on the target. achieving a Proper use of the sling provides additional support. a well-aimed shot. adjusting body alignment in relation to the target. the tip of the front sight post should rest on the of aim. and relax as much as possible. it There are three elements of a good shooting position may be necessary to adjust the position of the body un- that apply when using a loop sling: bone support. When proper bone support and muscular relaxation In the prone position.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-7 achieved. the tip of the front sight post should be po- tion to support the rifle’s weight. point on the target. the position of the tip of the front sight post will still achieved with the hasty sling. A weak shooting po. muscular tension is indicate the natural point of aim. Elements of a Good Shooting The point at which the rifle sights settle when in a fir- Position ing position is called the natural point of aim. One method of checking for natural point of aim is to aim in on the target. tle lower on the target. sitioned on the desired aiming point while maintaining sition will not withstand a rifle’s repeated recoil when sight alignment. firing at the sustained rate or buffeting from wind. Muscular relaxation cannot be muzzle of the weapon. When completely re- applied rather than muscular relaxation. hasty sling. Natural Point of Aim 5004. natural point of aim and sight alignment are making it possible to apply trigger control and deliver more easily maintained. causing the sights to settle achieved without bone support. applies to both the loop sling and the desired aiming point. above or below the desired aiming point. the natural point of aim can be adjust- The weight of the weapon should be supported by ed by— bone rather than muscle because muscles fatigue whereas bones do not. take a couple of Bone Support breaths. During the shooting higher on the target. the muscles of the body must be relaxed as l Natural point of aim can be adjusted right or left by much as possible. By establishing a strong foundation for the rifle utiliz- l Moving the left hand forward on the handguards to ing bone support. causing the sights Muscular Relaxation to settle higher on the target. Muscular relaxation helps to hold the rifle steady and l Moving the stock higher in the shoulder to lower increase the accuracy of the aim. Muscles that are tense will cause ex. ements of a shooting position applied with the loop sling do not apply in the same way as when firing with When in a shooting position with proper sight align- a hasty sling. specific adjustments will must support as much of the rifle’s weight as possible. l Moving the left hand back on the handguards to raise the muzzle of the weapon. the rifle will settle onto the aiming point. ate a minimum arc of movement and consistency in re. The three el. l Varying the placement of the left hand in relation to the handguards. l Varying the placement of the stock in the shoulder. While some degree of bone support is ment. cessive movement of the rifle. Muscular relaxation the muzzle of the weapon. Once bone support is achieved. move the . muscles are relaxed. causing the sights to set- also permits the use of maximum bone support to cre. Natural point laxed. disturbing the aim. cause the rifle sights to settle center mass.

The prone position can be assumed by either moving forward or dropping backward into position. stand erect and face l Place the left hand on the handguard. Assuming the Prone Position Figure 5-18. To drop back into the prone position. 5-19). However. the Marine performs the following steps: To move forward into the prone position. the right hand the target. natural point of aim can be adjusted by varying the placement of the left elbow on the knee. l Pulling the body backward causes the sights to set- tle higher on the target. l Place the left hand on the handguard. 5005. the prone position is the least mobile of the shooting positions and may restrict a Marine’s field of view for observation. Prone Position Application The prone position provides a very steady foundation for shooting and presents a low profile for maximum concealment. causing the sights to set- tle lower on the target. the Marine’s weight is evenly distributed on the elbows. Dropping to Both Knees. l If the fall was broken using the left hand. See figure 5-18. apart (approximately shoulder width). l With the hasty sling donned. In the kneeling and sitting positions. reestab- lish the hasty sling. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-8 MCRP 3-01A body slightly forward or back using the left elbow as a l Lower yourself into position by dropping to both pivot and by digging the toes in. In this posi- tion. l Squat to the ground and break the fall with either hand (see fig. Moving Forward Into Position. or to avoid covering uncleared Moving Forward into Position terrain. knees (see fig. the right hand on the pistol grip. Dropping Back into Position ing on the combat situation. l Kick both legs straight to the rear (see fig. the Marine performs the following steps: l Face the target. causing the sights to settle higher on the target. muzzle of the weapon. . keeping the feet a comfortable distance on the pistol grip. 5-17). l Pushing the body forward causes the sights to settle lower on the target. depend. providing maximum support and good stabili- ty for the rifle. It may be necessary to drop backward into position to avoid crowding cover. l Then shift the weight forward to lower the upper body to the ground using the right hand to break the forward motion. 5-20). l Moving the left elbow back on the knee raises the Figure 5-17. l Moving the left elbow forward on the knee lowers the muzzle of the weapon.

Straight Leg Prone Position with the Hasty Sling Figure 5-21.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-9 feet a comfortable distance apart with the toes pointing outboard and the inner portion of the feet in contact with the ground. l Rotate the left hand up. Breaking the Fall. Spread the or right. The elbows should provide a tripod of sup- port with the body. Apply the seven factors to this position (para. l Lower the head and place the cheek firmly against the stock to allow the aiming eye to look through the rear sight aperture. extend your left elbow in front thumb and forefinger by rotating the pistol grip left of you. (closing the “V” elevate the muzzle). Right View. 5003). pinching the handguard be- tween the thumb and forefinger. 5-21. weapon recoil is ab- sorbed by the whole body and not just the shoulder. Front View. rotate the handguard left or right in the “V” formed by the l Once on the ground. To adjust for elevation: Straight Leg Prone Position with the n Move the left hand rearward or forward on the Hasty Sling handguards (moving the hand rearward elevates the muzzle). . l If body alignment is correct. justments. l Slide both elbows outboard on the ground so there is outboard tension against the sling (moving the el- bows out tightens the sling) and both shoulders are level. l As much of the body mass should be aligned direct- ly behind the rifle as possible. l Grasp the pistol grip with the right hand and place the rifle butt in the right shoulder pocket. and 5-23): l To adjust for a minor cant in the rifle. Figure 5-23. Figure 5-19. Stretch your legs out behind you. either move forward or drop back into po. l Adjust the position of the left hand on the hand- guard to allow the sling to support the weapon and Figure 5-20. the front sight to be centered in the rear sight aper- ture. Figure 5-22. Kicking Back Into Position. sition (see figs. To assume the straight leg prone position with the n Open or close “V” of the left hand for small ad- hasty sling. Left View. 5-22.

weapon recoil is ab- Sling sorbed by the whole body and not just the shoulder. tion with the loop sling. Straight Leg Prone Position with the Loop l If body alignment is correct. rifle butt into the right shoulder pocket. outboard and the inner portion of the feet in contact l Move the left hand to a location under the hand- with the ground. Figure 5-25. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-10 MCRP 3-01A Straight Leg Prone Position with the Loop Sling Figure 5-24. guard. This may require that you ly behind the rifle as possible. Figure 5-26. Front View. stability for the weapon. remove the rifle from the shoulder to reposition the left hand. roll the body to the left side as right hand pulls and holds the rifle in the shoulder. l Lower the head and place the cheek firmly against Stretch your legs out behind you. l Grasp the rifle butt with the right hand and place the Apply the three elements and seven factors to this po. 5004). . Figure 5-29. The l Once on the ground. Cocked Leg Prone Position with the Hasty Sling Figure 5-27. either move forward or drop back into position (see figs. Front View. Right View. Left View. 5-25. Figure 5-28. 5-24. you extend and invert the left elbow on the ground. which provides maximum bone support and l As much of the body mass should be aligned direct. Right View. Spread the feet a the stock to allow the aiming eye to look through comfortable distance apart with the toes pointing the rear sight aperture. sition (para. Left View. To assume straight leg prone posi- l Grasp the pistol grip with the right hand. and 5-26): l Rotate the body to the right while the elbow is low- ered to the ground so the shoulders are level.

placed behind the rifle to aid in absorbing recoil. Right View. 5-31. Turn the right leg sling (moving the elbows out tightens the sling). l Grasp the rifle butt with the right hand and place the guard to allow the sling to support the weapon and rifle butt into the right shoulder pocket. straight line. and foot outboard so the inside of the right boot is in The right shoulder is higher than the left shoulder in contact with the ground. the stock to allow the aiming eye to look through The left leg is stretched out behind you. tween the thumb and forefinger. This allows the mass of the body to be forefinger by rotating the pistol grip left or right. Figure 5-31.Rifle Marksmanship ______________________________________________________________________________________ 5-11 Cocked Leg Prone Position with the the front sight to be centered in the rear sight aper- Hasty Sling ture. l Once on the ground. elbow to the ground. . hasty sling. Slide both elbows outboard on Then bend the right leg and draw it up toward the the ground so there is outboard tension against the body to a comfortable position. 5003). To adjust for elevation— n Move the left hand rearward or forward on the Apply the seven factors to this position (para. making breathing easier. almost in a the rear sight aperture. Cocking the leg will raise the dia. 5-27. To assume the cocked leg prone with the ground. l Turn the toe of the left foot inboard so the outside of l Roll the body to the right while lowering the right the left leg and foot are in contact with the ground. This allows the mass of the body to be l Rotate the left hand up. Cocked Leg Prone Position with the Loop Sling Figure 5-30. and 5-29): justments (closing the “V” elevates the muzzle). 5004). pinching the handguard be. To adjust for a minor cant in the rifle. position with the loop sling. l Once on the ground. either move forward or phragm. either move forward or drop back into po- n Open or close “V” of the left hand for small ad- sition (see figs. roll the body to the left side. rotate the hand- The left leg is stretched out behind you. drop back into position (see figs 5-30. Front View. Sling Bend the right leg and draw it up toward the body to a comfortable position. and 5-32): l Grasp the pistol grip with the right hand and place the rifle butt in the right shoulder pocket. Left View. handguards (moving the hand rearward elevates To assume the cocked leg prone position with the the muzzle). roll the body to the left side l Lower the head and place the cheek firmly against and extend and invert the left elbow on the ground. making breathing easier. l Turn the toe of the left foot inboard so the outside of Cocked Leg Prone Position with the Loop the left leg and foot are in contact with the ground. l Adjust the position of the left hand on the hand. the diaphragm. placed behind the rifle to aid in absorbing recoil. Cocking the leg will raise the cocked leg position. almost in a guard left or right in the “V” formed by the thumb and straight line. 5-28. Figure 5-32. Turn the right leg and foot Apply the three elements and seven factors to this po- outboard so the inside of the right boot is in contact sition (para.

Right View. on There are three variations of the sitting position: the left leg just below the knee. The sitting position provides sling to support the weapon and the front sight to be greater elevation than the prone position while still centered in the rear sight aperture. it limits lateral movement and maneuver toward the body. l Push backward with the feet to extend the legs and l Lower the head and place the cheek firmly against place the buttocks on the ground. Sitting Position tween the thumb and forefinger. l Bend forward at the waist and place the flat portion of the back of the left arm. Figure 5-35. or draw the feet up slightly stable base. 5003). Apply the seven factors to this position To adjust for a minor cant in the rifle. To adjust for elevation: Crossed Ankle Sitting Position with the Hasty Sling l Move left hand rearward or forward on handguards (moving the hand rearward elevates the muzzle). just above the elbow. and open leg. l Open or close the “V” of the left hand for small ad- ble shooting position. Figure 5-34. l Square the body to the target. This position places most of the justments (closing the “V” elevates the muzzle). The right shoulder is higher l Bend at knees and break the fall with the right hand. pinching the handguard be- 5006. crossed leg. 5-35)— forefinger by rotating the pistol grip left or right. l Grasp the pistol grip with the right hand and place l Move the left hand to a location under the hand- the rifle butt in the right shoulder pocket. Front View. l Lower the head and place the cheek firmly against the stock to allow the aiming eye to look through the rear sight aperture. To tight- en the sling: square the body more to the target. ability. than the left shoulder in the cocked leg position. body’s weight behind the weapon and aids in quick shot recovery. Left View. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-12 MCRP 3-01A l Grasp the pistol grip with the right hand. l Adjust the position to adjust sling tension. vides the most stability for firing. 5-33. l Place the right elbow on the inside of the right knee. crossed ankle. l Roll the body to the right while lowering the right l Grasp the handguard with the left hand. guard which provides maximum bone support and stability for the weapon. Experiment with all the variations and select the position that pro. The crossed ankle sitting position is an extremely sta. . guard left or right in the “V” formed by the thumb and tion with the hasty sling (see figs. l Rotate the left hand up. or Although the sitting position provides an extremely move the left elbow out. the rear sight aperture. rotate the hand- (para. 5-34. having a fairly low profile. the stock to allow the aiming eye to look through l Cross the left ankle over the right ankle. elbow to the ground. Crossed Ankle Sitting Position with the Hasty Sling Figure 5-33. To assume the crossed ankle sitting posi. It has several variations that can be adapted to l Adjust the position of the left hand to allow the the individual Marine.

l Grasp the handguard with the left hand. hasty sling (see figures 5-38. 5003). l Bend forward at the waist and place the left elbow on the left leg below the knee. Front View. To assume crossed ankle sitting position with the loop sling (see figs. l Grasp the rifle butt with the right hand and place the l Bend at the knees while breaking the fall with the rifle butt into the right shoulder pocket. Figure 5-37. 5-39. Front Figure 5-40. base of support and places some of the body's weight l Place the left hand under the handguard. Right View. Right View. Crossed Ankle Sitting Position with the l Move the left hand to a location under the hand- Loop Sling guard. 5-36 and 5-37)— Crossed Leg Sitting Position with the Hasty Sling l Position the body at approximately a 30-degree an. l Push backward with the feet to extend the legs and To assume the crossed leg sitting position with the place the buttocks on the ground. The crossed leg sitting position provides a medium gle to the target. l Cross the left leg over the right leg. l Bend at knees and break the fall with the right hand. Left View. l Lower the head and place the cheek firmly against the stock to allow the aiming eye to look through l Grasp the pistol grip with the right hand and place the rear sight aperture. l Lower right elbow to the inside of the right knee. which provides maximum bone support and stability of the weapon. . l Place the buttocks on the ground as close to the feet as you comfortably can. 5004). Crossed Leg Sitting Position with the Hasty Sling Figure 5-38. the rifle butt in the right shoulder pocket.Rifle Marksmanship ______________________________________________________________________________________ 5-13 Crossed Ankle Sitting Position with the Loop Sling Figure 5-36. and 5-40)— l Cross the left ankle over the right ankle. right hand. l Grasp the pistol grip with the right hand. Figure 5-39. l Square the body to the target. Apply the three elements and seven factors to this po- sition (para. Apply the seven factors to this position (para. behind the weapon for quick recovery after each shot.

bow into the bend of the knee or placing the flat l Grasp the rifle butt with the right hand and place the portion of the back of the left arm. the rear sight aperture. tween the thumb and forefinger. 5-44. l Move the left hand to a location under the hand- l Adjust the position of the left hand to allow the guard which provides maximum bone support and sling to support the weapon and the front sight to be stability of the weapon. Left View. crossed legs as you comfortably can. Front View. rotate the hand. from a forward slope. l Grasp the pistol grip with the right hand. l Place the right elbow on the inside of the right knee. of support and is most commonly used when firing l Open or close the “V” of the left hand for small ad. and To adjust for a minor cant in the rifle. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-14 MCRP 3-01A l Lower the head and place the cheek firmly against l Bend at the knees while breaking the fall with the the stock to allow the aiming eye to look through right hand. bow. the rear sight aperture. Figure 5-43. centered in the rear sight aperture. 5-42. l Square the body to the target. 5003). Right View. . l Place the buttocks on the ground as close to the l Rotate the left hand up.to 60-degree angle to target. Open Leg Sitting Position with the Hasty To adjust for elevation: Sling l Move left hand rearward or forward on handguards The open leg sitting position provides a medium base (moving the hand rearward elevates the muzzle). Apply the seven factors to this justments (closing the “V” elevates the muzzle). l Bend forward at the waist while placing the left el- l Bend forward at the waist while placing the left el. l Place the feet approximately shoulder width apart. Squaring l Lower the head and place the cheek firmly against the body more to the target or drawing the feet clos. l Position body at a 45. Crossed Leg Sitting Position with the l Grasp the handguard with the left hand. rifle butt into the right shoulder pocket. Figure 5-42. 5-46)— guard left or right in the “V” formed by the thumb and forefinger by rotating the pistol grip left or right. the stock to allow the aiming eye to look through er together tightens the sling by forcing the left el. l Lower the head and place the cheek firmly against l Place the left hand under the handguard. l Push backward with the feet to extend the legs and sition (para. bow outboard. Loop Sling l Bend at the knees while breaking the fall with the right hand. tion with loop sling (see figs. position (para. 5-45. To assume the open leg sitting position with the hasty sling (see figs. Crossed Leg Sitting Position with the Loop Sling Figure 5-41. 5-41. bow on the left leg into the bend of the knee. the stock to allow the aiming eye to look through l Cross the left leg over the right leg. in front of the knee. l Lower right elbow to the inside of the right knee. just above the el. Apply the three elements and seven factors to this po. To assume crossed leg sitting posi. place the buttocks on the ground. pinching the handguard be. the rear sight aperture. l Adjust the position to adjust sling tension. 5004). and 5-43)— l Grasp the pistol grip with the right hand and place the rifle butt in the right shoulder pocket.

rotate the hand. l Move the left hand to a location under the hand- l The position of the left hand to allow the sling to guard which provides maximum bone support and support the weapon and the front sight to be cen. l Bend at the knees while breaking the fall with the tween the thumb and forefinger. l Adjust the position to adjust sling tension. l Place the flat portion of the back of the left arm. The kneeling position is quick to assume and easy to To adjust for a minor cant in the rifle. on the combat situation. ing the stance tightens the sling by forcing the left l Lower the head and place the cheek firmly against elbow outboard.Rifle Marksmanship ______________________________________________________________________________________ 5-15 Open Leg Sitting Position with the Hasty Sling Figure 5-44. depending gle to the target. Description justments (closing the “V” elevates the muzzle). or to avoid covering uncleared terrain. the rear sight aperture. To assume the open leg sitting position with the loop sling (see figs. position (para. 5004). Kneeling Position l Move left hand rearward or forward on handguards (moving the hand rearward elevates the muzzle). it may be neces- l Place the feet approximately shoulder width apart. stability of the weapon. Figure 5-46. maneuver from. l Lower right elbow to the inside of the right knee. and right knee when Open Leg Sitting Position with the Loop the Marine assumes the position. It is usually assumed after initial en- guard left or right in the “V” formed by the thumb and gagement has been made from a standing position. Right View. rifle butt into the right shoulder pocket. pinching the handguard be. Front View. in front of the knee. providing a stable Sling foundation for shooting. 5-48. just l Push backward with the feet to extend the legs and above the elbow. To adjust for elevation: 5007. l Place the right elbow on the inside of the right knee l Place the left elbow on the inside of the left knee. fer resistance to recoil. and Assuming the Kneeling Position 5-49 on page 5-16)— The kneeling position can be assumed by either mov- l Position the body at approximately a 30-degree an. l Open or close the “V” of the left hand for small ad. can easily be adapted to available cover. or place the flat portion of the back of the right arm. right hand. A tripod is formed by the left foot. It forefinger by rotating the pistol grip left or right. in front of the left knee. There must be some controlled the stock to allow the aiming eye to look through muscular tension in the legs to hold them up and of. sary to drop back into position to avoid crowding cov- l Place the left hand under the handguard. Left View. . l Grasp the rifle butt with the right hand and place the just above the elbow. Widen. For example. er. place the buttocks on the ground. tered in the rear sight aperture. Figure 5-45. The kneeling position also presents a higher profile to facilitate a better field of Apply the three elements and seven factors to this view as compared to the prone and sitting positions. right foot. l Rotate the left hand up. ing forward or dropping back into position. 5-47.

Contact with the heel provides more sta- Marine steps forward toward the target with his left bility to the position. Front View. Right View. The To drop back into the kneeling position. Figure 5-51. 5-50. on the left knee or the weight of the body. with the toe of the l Place the flat portion of the back of the upper left boot in contact with the ground and curled under by arm. Figure 5-49. The left hand will not grasp the slip ring or the magazine. sling. it is not mandatory foot and kneels down on his right knee. . either move forward or drop back into position l Rotate the left hand up. Right View. The maga- l Square the body to the target. 5003). l Grasp the pistol grip with the right hand and place High Kneeling Position with the Hasty the rifle butt in the right shoulder pocket. To provide a leaves his left foot in place and steps backward with wider base of support. the stock to allow the aiming eye to look through To assume the high kneeling position with the hasty the rear sight aperture. Front View. the Marine left foot must be flat on the ground. slide the right knee and left his right foot and kneels down on his right knee. Left View. Sling l Lower the head and place the cheek firmly against Apply the seven factors to this position (para. foot outboard to form a tripod with the right foot. zine must be on the inside of the left arm. the right heel. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-16 MCRP 3-01A Open Leg Sitting Position with the Loop Sling Figure 5-47. against the inside of the left knee so it is in firm High Kneeling Position with the Hasty Sling Figure 5-50. l Place the left foot forward to a point that allows the Dropping Back into Position shin to be vertically straight. the heel should be directly under the knee. For the shin to be ver- tical. Left View. that the buttocks make contact. Moving Forward into Position l Place the right portion of the buttocks on or over the To move forward into the kneeling position. and 5-52): tween the thumb and forefinger. pinching the handguard be- (see figs. Figure 5-48. 5-51. however. Figure 5-52. l Keep the right ankle straight. just above the elbow.

The upper portion of the triceps or the arm. l Move the left hand to a location under the hand- tion with the loop sling. l Bend the right elbow to provide the least muscular tension possible and lower it to a natural position. which provides maximum bone support and back into position (see figs. boot in contact with the ground and curled under by l Bend the right elbow to provide the least muscular the weight of the body. Figure 5-54. justments (closing the “V” elevates the muzzle). The point of the left elbow will extend just slightly past the left knee. l Grasp the pistol grip with the right hand. be supporting the majority of the weight. tension possible. 5-54. . board will allow the sling to be tightened. Left View. either move forward or drop guard. same way as the high kneeling position with the ex- High Kneeling Position with the Loop Sling Figure 5-53. guard left or right in the “V” formed by the thumb and forefinger by rotating the pistol grip left or right. Widen. on the left knee so it is in firm l Move left hand rearward or forward on handguards contact with the flat surface formed on top of the (moving the hand rearward elevates the muzzle). Medium Kneeling Position l Place the left hand under the handguard. right heel. l Place the left foot forward to a point that allows the l Adjust the position of the left hand to allow the shin to be vertically straight. Right View. bent knee.Rifle Marksmanship ______________________________________________________________________________________ 5-17 contact. High Kneeling Position with the Loop l Lower the head and place the cheek firmly against Sling the stock to allow the aiming eye to look through the rear sight aperture. The upper portion of l Open or close the “V” of the left hand for small ad. l Lean slightly forward into the sling for support. To adjust for a minor cant in the rifle. Apply the three elements and seven factors to this po- sition (para. l Keep the right ankle straight. 5-53. The left foot must be flat on the ground since it will centered in the rear sight aperture. just above the elbow. with the toe of the pit will not rest on the knee. the heel should be directly under the knee. rotate the hand. and 5-55): stability for the weapon. lowering it to a natural position. 5004). contact with the heel provides more sta- ing the stance by moving the left foot and knee out. l Grasp the rifle butt with the right hand and place the rifle butt into the right shoulder pocket. To assume the high kneeling posi. Assume the medium kneeling position in the proximately parallel to the target (45 to 90 degrees). l Position the body at a 45-degree angle to the target. This is also referred to as the bootless kneeling posi- l Kneel down on right knee so right lower leg is ap. To adjust for elevation: l Place the flat portion of the back of upper left arm. For the shin to be ver- sling to support the weapon and the front sight to be tical. bility to the position. l Place the right portion of the buttocks on or over the l Adjust the position to adjust sling tension. tion. Figure 5-55. Front View. the triceps or the armpit will not rest on the knee.

and 5-60)— l Square the body to the target. The buttocks are in contact with the legs and feet and provides a small area of contact with heel of the right foot. Ensure the head is erect so in contact with the inside of the foot. Moving the left elbow out or squaring the body more to the Description target tightens the sling. forefinger by rotating the pistol grip left or right. The right ankle is straight and sition is often used for immediate combat engagement. 5-59. l Rotate the left hand up. Standing Position justments (closing the “V” elevates the muzzle). l Adjust the position of the left hand on the hand- guard to allow the sling to support the weapon and front sight to be centered in the rear sight aperture. (moving the hand rearward elevates the muzzle). Figure 5-56. . maintaining balance is critical in this position. pinching the handguard be- tween the thumb and forefinger. Therefore. l Distribute the weight evenly over both feet and hips. l Open or close the “V” of the left hand for small ad- 5008. See figure 5-57. To adjust for elevation: l Move left hand rearward or forward on handguards Figure 5-57. 5-58. To assume the standing position with the hasty sling (see figs. the aiming eye can look through rear sight aperture. the foot is stretched out with the bootlaces in contact The standing position is supported by the shooter’s with the ground. Assume the low l Grasp the pistol grip with the right hand and place kneeling position in the same way as the high kneeling the rifle butt in the right shoulder pocket. l Adjust the position to adjust sling tension. Medium Kneeling Position. l Spread the feet apart to a comfortable distance with the left foot slightly in front of the right foot. To adjust for a minor cant in the rifle. Turn the right ankle so the outside of the ering the head to the sights and place the cheek foot is in contact with the ground and the buttocks are firmly against the stock. Balance will shift forward slightly to reduce Low Kneeling Position recovery time and increase the stability of the hold. This distance may be wider than shoulder width. the body’s center of gravity is high above the ground. 5003). The standing position is the quickest position to as. It allows guard left or right in the “V” formed by the thumb and greater mobility than other positions. The low kneeling position is most commonly used when firing from a forward slope. The legs should be slightly bent for balance. l The left hand will be under the handguard with the thumb on the outboard side of the handguard. the ground. See figure 5-56. Standing Position with the Hasty Sling Apply the seven factors to this position (para.The left hand will not grasp the slip ring or magazine. position with the exception of the placement of the l Bring the rifle sights up to eye level instead of low- right foot. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 5-18 MCRP 3-01A ception of the right foot. rotate the hand- sume and the easiest to maneuver from. In addition. The standing po. l Hold the right elbow in a natural position. The magazine must be on the inside of the left arm. Low Kneeling Position.

l Place feet approximately shoulder width apart. down through the upper sling swivel. Right View. perform the fol. fundamentals while firing from the standing position on KD courses during entry-level training. lowing steps: l Lower right elbow to a natural position. l Rest left arm naturally against rib cage. Front View. Standing Position with the Parade Sling l Place left hand under handguard.Rifle Marksmanship ______________________________________________________________________________________ 5-19 Standing Position with the Hasty Sling Figure 5-58. proper positioning of the parade sling. l Move sling keeper down near feed end of sling. . l Grasp pistol grip with right hand. l Place cheek firmly against stock to obtain a firm l Attach sling to rifle by placing feed end of sling stock weld. Figure 5-61. line of fire. l Place feed end of sling through sling keeper and lock into place. Standing Position with l Face approximately 90 degrees to the right of the the Parade Sling. Left View. l Attach J-hook to lower sling swivel. l Lock sling keeper into place. To achieve l Invert left elbow across rib cage. Perform the following steps to assume the standing position with a parade sling (figure 5-61): l Stand erect. Figure 5-60. Figure 5-59. The parade sling is used to emphasize marksmanship l Place rifle butt into right shoulder pocket. l Pull feed end of sling through sling keeper until sling is taut.

left-handed fire can be used for cover. Concealment is anything that hides a Marine Broken stone (rubble) 20 from enemy view. l Concealment from enemy observation. 6001. frontal cover should be thick crease protection and decrease the bullet’s ability to enough to stop small arms fire. Minimum Thickness for Protection Against Small Arms. Cover is (in inches) anything that protects a Marine from enemy fire. A Marine Wet sand 35 can use any object or terrain feature that protects him from enemy fire. the composition of l Unobstructed view of the sector of fire. Types of Cover Sandbags Cover can be improved and positions can be fortified by filling sandbags with dirt/sand and placing them Frontal Cover around the position. Cinder Bocks Cinderblocks are not impenetrable cover. USE OF COVER AND CONCEALMENT Note Common Cover Materials +The procedures in this manual are written Any material that protects a Marine from small arms for right-handed Marines. Some common materials in- Marines should reverse instructions as clude sandbags. but it may not afford protection. and skillful use of ground contours. but it still does not ensure protection from small arms fire. and rear protection from direct and phone poles and railroad ties. l Free use of personal weapons. Overlapping sandbags in- fragments. and provides support for a Earth (packed) 48 firing position. 6-1 presents some common materials and their mini- mum thickness required for protection from small arms fire. Material Minimum In a combat environment. trees. logs. Cov- er may be an existing hole. hides him from enemy view. Cover and Concealment Table 6-1. from projectiles than untreated wood. trees. sandbags is required to stop small arms fire. Although l A concealed route in and out. such as tele- l Overhead. or a Concrete 7 well-prepared fighting position with overhead protec- tion. packed because bullets can easily penetrate moist or vides protection from small arms fire and indirect fire loosely packed sandbags. allows Logs (oak) 40 him to observe the enemy. they are made of a dense material. a cinderblock is so brittle that a bullet can shatter the . offers better protection indirect fire. Table necessary. Live trees have a The ideal cover provides: greater resistance to bullet penetration than dead trees. a Marine must be prepared Thickness to fire from any type of cover or concealment. Sandbags should be tightly A firing position should have frontal cover that pro. a hastily dug shelter. Trees/Logs Wood is a relatively dense material and offers good cover and protection. Ideally. vide cover when firing to the left or right edge of a sector of fire. 24 Concealment can be obtained from buildings. flank. Bullets have a tendency to frag- Ideal Cover ment when they penetrate wood. and building debris. Dry sand crops. high enough to provide penetrate the sandbag. Wood that has been treated with creosote. CHAPTER 6. A minimum thickness of three protection from enemy fire. and wide enough to pro.

of the fighting hole so the left forearm rests against the back of the parapet. See figure 6-4. sandbags or other supports to fit his height. . The Marine can establish a supported or unsupported der and grasp the pistol grip with the right hand. A Marine must adapt firing positions to the type of cover available. Fighting Hole Position. After a Marine enters the fighting hole. Rooftop Position l Extend the left arm and elbow over the forward side Supported by the Apex. Several types of cover provide support. Figure 6-2. l Lean forward until the chest is against the forward wall of the fighting hole. Fighting Hole A Marine should use fighting holes if available. Window l Place the rifle butt into the pocket of the right shoul. Firing From Specific Types of Cover Effective cover allows a Marine to engage enemy tar- gets while protecting himself from enemy fire. A Marine can establish an unsupported bow rest of the fighting hole or sandbags placed position back from the opening of the window so that around the fighting hole. Figure 6-4. Rooftop If possible. See figure 6-2. l Place the right elbow on solid support using the el- Unsupported. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6-2 MCRP 3-01A block upon impact. and con- cealment and do not interfere with target engagement. Rooftop Position Behind the Apex. This can cause injury to a Marine by secondary fragmentation. Unsupported Window Position. the muzzle does not protrude and interior shadows provide concealment so as not to provide a silhouette to the enemy. Figure 6-3. place the left arm over the apex of the roof to hold the weight of the body. he adds or removes dirt. See figure 6-3. Ex- pose as little of the head and shoulders as possible. Figure 6-1. a Marine’s entire body should be posi- tioned behind the apex of the rooftop. protection. See figure 6-1. To assume a firing position. If the body cannot be positioned behind the apex. using the apex to support the rifle. a Marine per- forms the following steps: l Place the right foot to the rear as a brace. position from a window.

When additional stability is needed. Vehicle In many combat situations. From this position. When using a vehicle for cover. Position in a Vehicle. the Marine may fire over. Firing Around Front of Vehicle. the Marine may fire over the hood of the vehicle while using the engine block for protection. Establishing a Supported (Forearm on Support). Supported Window Position (Handguards on Support). the engine block pro- vides the most protection from small arms fire.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 6-3 Supported. Firing Over Front of Vehicle. The Marine should establish a position behind the front wheel so the engine block is between him and the tar- get (see figs. Figure 6-5. 6-7 and 6-8). particularly in urban envi- ronments. a Marine can establish a supported position by placing the rifle handguards or his forearm in the “V” formed by the side and bottom of the windowsill. a vehicle may be the best form of cover. cles that are high off the ground. . This is a particularly effective position for larger vehi- Figure 6-7. Figure 6-8. under or around the vehicle. The Marine can establish additional support for the ri- fle by positioning himself behind the doorjamb (frame of door) and placing the rifle against the “V” formed by the open door and doorframe (see figure 6-9). Supported Window Position Figure 6-9. A drawback to this technique is that the muzzle of the weapon and the Marine may be exposed to view. See figures 6-5 and 6-6. From this position. Figure 6-6.

urban. Figure 6-10. left hand. fire from the left side. 6-11). a Marine’s height in rela- provide cover.g. The firing position selected should be adjusted to fit the type of cover to: l Provide stability. A Marine can use any available support (e. For example. pocket of 6002.e. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6-4 MCRP 3-01A However. Firing from the Right Side of Cover. The position should be adjusted to stabilize the rifle sights and allow the management of recoil to recover on target. grip of right hand) to support the rifle or the position. sandbags or walls) to stabilize Firing From the Right his firing position. if desert. .g. 6-10). Figure 6-11.g. standing. To minimize exposure and maximize the cover’s pro- Considerations Using Cover and tection. Supported Firing Positions shoulder. rocks. such as balance and stability. l Allow observation of the area/enemy while mini- mizing exposure to the enemy. If the Marine must shoot from the back tion to the height of the cover aids in the selection of a of the vehicle. kneeling. Supports are foundations for positions. the firing position should be adjusted exposure of any part of his to fit or conform to the shape of the cover. The firing position is adjusted to fit the type of cover by adjusting the seven factors (i.. aware of the head. Be especially a sound firing position. he must position himself directly be. or Left Side of Cover ment dictates the type of support and position used. right el- must be incorporated and adjusted to fit the situation bow. knees or any other and type of cover. and provide protection from enemy ob- servation and fires. sitting. The type of cover can dictate which shooting position (e. jungle). l Permit mobility. ty of the rifle.. left-handed Marine should gardless of the combat environment (e. Using the Back of a Vehicle for Cover. To maximize the support the A Marine should minimize position provides.. stock weld. this position limits lateral mobility and it is Adjusting the Shooting Position more difficult to maneuver from. firing position. possible (see fig. positions are Keeping the Entire Body Behind Cover foundations for the rifle. a right-handed Ma- Concealment rine should fire from the right side of cover and a Cover and concealment considerations are similar. The position should be adjusted to permit lateral engagement of dispersed targets and movement to other cover. The surrounding combat environ. Elements of body to fire. hind the wheel as much as possible (see fig. re. maximize the stabili- beyond the cover. A supported firing position should body part that may extend minimize exposure to the enemy. logs.. only the axle and the wheel most effective. and prone) will be the At the back of the vehicle. right elbow.

6003) to engage sill. however. When firing over the top of cover. Figure 6-12. the rifle should be as close to the top of cover as possible. a Marine must re- left side of cover. a right-handed Maintaining Muzzle Awareness Marine must fire from the When firing over the top of cover. the position may be supported and stabilized by resting the handguard or the left forearm on the cover (see fig. window (see para. If the ejection port is blocked. The Marine should keep as low a profile as possible.g.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 6-5 If. he fires member that the sights are higher than the barrel and right-handed but adjusts his remain aware of the location of his muzzle. Firing from the Left Side of Cover. Figure 6-13. picture on the target (see figs. 6-14a and 6-14b). Figures 6-14a and 6-14b. Firing Over the Top of Cover Firing over the top of cover provides a wider field of view and lateral movement. Clearing the Ejection Port Ensure the cover does not obstruct the ejection port. See figure 6-12. 6-13). Firing Over the Top of Cover.. Therefore. the obstruction can inter- fere with the ejection of the spent cartridge case and cause a stoppage. top of wall) as he obtains sight alignment/sight the target. . position behind cover and a Marine must maintain a position that ensures the uses the rollout technique muzzle is high enough to clear the cover (e. Clearing Cover with the Muzzle.

Bottom of Magazine on Support. Seven Factors The rifle’s handguards may rest on the support. barrel may not (see fig. 6-18). . muscular tension) are applied when firing back to accommodate the cover and the additional from cover. right elbow. rifle in shoulder pocket. If the handguards are resting on the cover. the left hand Figure 6-15. 6-19). Left Hand The support should be used to help stabilize both the CAUTION firing position and the rifle to enable the Marine to The back of the magazine should not be maintain sight alignment and sight picture. 6-15. grip of the right hand. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6-6 MCRP 3-01A Resting the Magazine slightly to accommodate the artificial support provid- The bottom. however. Side of Magazine on Support. Placement of left hand stock weld. Figure 6-17. on the handguard may have to be adjusted forward or breathing. some may have to be modified support provided by the rifle resting on the cover. tion of the bottom of the left hand on the support and rest the rifle in the “V” formed by the thumb and fore- finger of the left hand (see fig. Front of Magazine on Support. pulled back against support because it can cause a stoppage by not allowing a round to The forearm or left hand can contact the support to sta- bilize the weapon. and 6-17). Rest the forearm or the meaty por- feed from the magazine. front or side of the rifle magazine can rest ed the rifle and position. Figure 6-16. but the The seven factors (left hand. on or against support to provide additional stability (see figs. 6-16.

or forearm rest on cover. Rifle in Shoulder Pocket Grip of the Right Hand Regardless of the combat situation or the height of the If rifle handguards. This enables the Marine to use Right Elbow cover to support his body weight. Figure 6-20. Ensure Figure 6-18. To create balance and support for the position. the Marine may shift his body weight into or against the support (see fig. must be adjusted behind cover to enable the rifle to be placed in the shoulder. Proper stock weld provides quick recovery between shots and keeps Muscular Tension the aiming eye centered in the rear sight aperture. port to stabilize the weapon and the position. position to the enemy. stabilize the rifle. and back and down on the pistol grip to further stabilize maintain the rifle’s battlesight zero. reducing the need The right elbow can be placed on or against the sup. The firing position the weapon in the shoulder and on the support. Forearm Resting on Cover. 6-20). . Handguards Resting on Cover. Shifting Body Weight into Cover. forward hand. the firing position must be ad- justed to allow stock weld to be achieved.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 6-7 can pull down on the handguards to further stabilize the elbow is not extended beyond cover revealing the the weapon. the grip of the right hand should pull to manage the effects of recoil. Regardless of the cover. Figure 6-19. Breathing Breathing does not change when firing from a support- Stock Weld ed position. for muscular tension. the rifle butt must remain in the shoulder pocket cover for support.

from cover of various sizes.. the Marine must not tele- graph his position behind the cover with his knee. If possible. Supported Prone Behind Narrow Cover—Rear View. Narrow Cover—Front View. forearm. if the cover is narrow. l The kneeling position allows shooting from all sides and from cover of varying sizes. See figure 6-24. or the magazine on or against support (see fig. a Marine should use the supported prone position when firing from behind cover. l In the kneeling position. Supported Sitting For example. the position (e. or the magazine on or against support. a log. When shooting around the sides of cover. 6-22 and 6-23). or almost any type of cover. the Marine may not wall. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6-8 MCRP 3-01A Types of Supported Positions and directly behind the rifle (see figs. Supported Prone. This presents a smaller target to the enemy Supported Prone and provides more body mass to absorb recoil. In addition. the additional mobility over the prone position. the supported kneeling position may be appropriate. a l If the rifle is resting on support. l The prone position can be assumed behind a tree. forearm. 6-26). the side of the body) may rest against support (see fig. This position may be altered to maximize the use of cover or sup- port by assuming a variation of the kneeling posi- tion (high. and When the prone position cannot be used because of the provides maximum protection from enemy fire. the Marine should strive to keep his right knee in line with his left foot so as not to reveal the position to the enemy. The body should be in line with the rifle top of cover when mobility is not as critical. the Figure 6-21. 6-25). keep the legs A supported sitting position may be used to fire over the together. l Support the position by placing the handguards. The kneeling position provides l Support the position by placing the handguards. This position Supported Kneeling is the steadiest. It is flexible need to stabilize the weapon by placing his left el- and allows shooting from all sides of cover and bow on his knee (see fig. Supported Prone Behind Figure 6-23. l The body must be adjusted to conform to the cover. A sitting position can be comfortably assumed for a longer peri- od of time than a kneeling position and it can conform to higher cover when a prone position cannot be used. Figure 6-22. medium or low). 6-21). height of the support. a knee. provides the lowest silhouette. .g.

tree. Supported Kneeling.g. Figure 6-25.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 6-9 Figure 6-24. The supported standing position is effectively used behind high cover (e.g. Figure 6-26. telephone pole). Supported Standing The supported standing position provides greater mo- bility than the other positions and usually provides greater observation of the enemy. . Supported Sitting. Supported Sitting with Marine leans his body forward or against support to Rifle on Support. stabilize the weapon and the position. Supported Kneeling with Rifle Resting on Support.. l If the rifle is resting on support. the Marine may not need to stabilize the weapon by placing his left or right elbows on his legs (see fig. l Support the position by placing the handguards. or the magazine on or against support (see fig. window. over a wall) or narrow cover (e. the forearm.. Supported Kneeling with Body Against Support. l To assume the supported standing position. Figure 6-27. 6-28). 6-27). the Figure 6-28.

a doorway). the position (e. In unknowingly expose himself to the enemy. orienting the muzzle on the leading edge of the cover. To be accurate in engaging tar. However.g. the side of the body) l Assume a firing position and lower the rifle sights may rest against support (see fig. applied. the rifle should be taken off safe before moving Pie Technique out using the rollout technique. corner of a building. muz- zle. one foot to facilitate rolling out. if the Marine is too tion and fires. sary. the Marine must be ready to fire if a target is located. Additionally. . ensuring the muzzle is just behind the cover. it may be necessary to combine the situation will dictate the distance you should move pie and rollout techniques to search an entire area for back and away from the cover. To perform the pie technique: Combining Techniques l Staying behind cover. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 6-10 MCRP 3-01A l Support the position by placing the handguards. Chang- back the Marine is from cover. the muzzle should move (eyes. Wherever the eyes move.) l Taking small side steps. Supported Standing. (In a build- ing. The muzzle should remain on the lead- ing edge of cover. sweep the safety. Figure 6-29. the further targets (e. covering the field of view with the aiming eye and muzzle of the weapon. move back and position the body so it is in line with the leading edge of the cover. the Marine must expose as l Assume a firing position and come to the Ready. enough to have a clear field of view. area is clear before moving. l Continue taking small side steps and moving out from cover until a target is identified or the area is found to be clear. l When a target is identified. Keeping the feet in place. Rollout Technique To perform the rollout technique: 6003. l If a target is identified before moving out from cov- er. slowly move out from be- hind the cover. he may forearm. the greater his area of ing from one technique to another may permit the observation.. move back and away from the leading edge of the cover. addition. Generally. and standing positions. the baseboards serve as a reference point for the muzzle of the rifle when searching for targets. serving as a pivot point when moving out. sweep the safety. staying too close to cover decreases the Marine to minimize his exposure to enemy observa- area of observation. Both techniques are used in the kneeling identified or the area is found to be clear. or the magazine on or against support. 6-29). See page 6-6 for a discussion of seven factors. push up on the ball of engage targets or to move to another location if neces. These techniques are also used to enter a building l Continue rolling out from cover until a target is or structure. place gets using either technique. l When a target is identified.g. and engage the target. the seven factors must be the finger on the trigger. The surroundings and In some situations. place the finger on the trigger. Searching for and Engaging Targets From Behind Cover l Staying behind cover.. target). and engage the target. per body out to the side just enough to have a clear These techniques minimize the Marine’s exposure to field of view and allow the muzzle to clear the cov- enemy fire while placing the Marine in a position to er. roll the up- targets from behind cover are: the pie and rollout. ensuring that no part of the body extends be- To locate targets when behind cover or to ensure the yond the cover. little of himself as possible to the enemy. the far back from the leading edge of cover. Two techniques that can be used to locate and engage l Canting the head and weapon slightly.

the Marine should Once the Marine is committed to moving.Rifle Marksmanship ______________________________________________________________________________________ 6-11 fore moving from his present position. ensuring the head and eyes are exposed for as short a time as possible. When moving from cover to cover. A Marine must be constantly aware of his surround- ings and available cover. He should avoid obvious danger areas and move quickly If necessary. the Marine should conduct a Condition 1 through danger areas that cannot be avoided. all focus select the next covered location and plan his route be. reload before moving from cover. Moving Out From Behind Cover quickly looking from behind cover to ensure the area is clear. should a threat appear. . This is done by 6004. should be on moving until cover is reassumed.

jungle). 7-2). written for right-handed Marines. To maintain an advan- tage. shift the focus back to dition 1. equipment. Do not easily carried for long periods of time. As the rifle sights settle. RIFLE PRESENTATION Note n Grip the handguards firmly with the left hand. A carry is also established based on the situation such as moving in a close quarter environment. urban. Two meth. + The procedures in this manual are Pull the charging handle with the right hand to its rearmost position and release (see fig. Continue to look at the target. sually locate the target through the rear sight aper- place the rifle in Con. l As the sights become level with the aiming eye.g. with Right Hand. and ods can be used to place the tip of the post center mass on the target to place rifle in Condi. . This carry permits the rifle to be of the shoulder to obtain proper stock weld. Figure 7-1. The Marine uses the Tactical Carry when no immedi- l Level the rifle while pulling it firmly into the pocket ate threat is present. etc. Presenting the Rifle From the Tactical l As the rifle is being presented. Pulling Charging Handle ing over or under objects. take the rifle off safe Carry and place the trigger finger on the trigger (see figs. 7001. Figure 7-2. 7-1). the Marine carries his weapon in a position appropriate to the threat level that permits the rifle to be both easily carried and presented as quickly as pos- sible. but it does not move the head down to meet the stock of the rifle. with Left Hand. Presentation of the Rifle In a combat environment. 7-3a. ture. permit the quickest presentation to a target.. obtain sight picture. to its rearmost po- sition and release The Marine uses the Ready Carry when enemy contact (see fig. The Alert is also used for moving in close ter- with the left hand rain (e. Pulling Charging Handle is imminent. left- handed Marines should reverse instructions as necessary. 7-3b. CHAPTER 7. a Marine performs the following steps to present the rifle from Note the Tactical Carry once a target appears: If the rifle is in the shoulder properly. targets may present them- selves with little or no warning. vi- l At the same time. and 7-3c on page 7-2). mov. the aiming eye will be able to look through the l Extend the rifle toward the target keeping the muz. rear sight as soon as the stock makes zle slightly up so the buttstock clears all personal contact with the cheek. Pull the The Marine uses the Alert Carry when enemy contact charging handle is likely. tion 1 if it is in Con- dition 3: Presenting the Rifle From the Alert Carry n Grip the pistol grip and From the Ready Carry firmly with the right hand. If the situ- ation changes and a target presents itself. the front sight post to obtain sight alignment.

ing to present the rifle from Strong Side Sling Arms: . pull the rifle firm. Do not Once a target appears. 7-3b. level the and raise right elbow rifle to obtain proper stock weld. rear sight as soon as the stock makes con. l While looking at the tar- a Marine performs the following steps once a target get. tact with the cheek. 7-5) and pull it to its rearmost the front sight post to obtain sight alignment. and position and release. l Continue pulling the rifle forward with the left hand while rotating the rifle parallel to the deck. bring the muzzle up by shoulder. 7-3b. place the tip of the post center mass on the target to l Establish a firing grip with right hand while keeping obtain sight picture. deck. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7-2 MCRP 3-01A Figures 7-3a. allowing the rifle butt to pivot l Reach under the right in the shoulder. arm with the left hand ly into the pocket of the shoulder. If the rifle is in the shoulder properly. and 7-3c. the right arm is free of the sling and the rifle clears sually locate the target through the rear sight aper. the trigger finger straight along the receiver. when l As the sights become level with the aiming eye. pull down on the sling l As the stock makes contact with the cheek. raising the left hand. To present the rifle from the Alert and from the Ready. shift the focus back to right hand (see fig. At the same time. take the rifle off safe handguards. Sweeping the Safety. 7-3a. l Roll the right shoulder Note forward and release the Figure 7-4. pull rifle forward off the shoulder with left hand. As the rifle sights settle. the hand once the hand- aiming eye will be able to look through the guards have cleared the elbow. and 7-3c). vi. 7-3b. At the same time. lean forward slight- appears: ly to facilitate removal of the rifle from the l While looking at the target. l Take rifle off safe and place the trigger finger on the Presenting the Rifle From the Strong Side trigger (see figs. 7-4). a Marine performs the follow. out and parallel to the l Do not move the head down to meet rifle stock. between the sling and the body and grasp the l As the rifle is being presented. grasp the charging handle with the ture. all personal gear. Grasping sling from the right the Handguards. Sling Arms Transport l Level the rifle while pulling it firmly into the pocket of the shoulder to obtain proper stock weld. At the same time. and 7-3c). move the head down to meet the stock of the rifle. 7-3a. See figure and place the trigger finger on the trigger (see figs.

Figure 7-7. and place the tip of the post center mass on the target to contact with the cheek. l Take the rifle off safe and place the trigger finger on the trigger (see figures 7-3a. obtain sight picture. l Rotate the rifle counterclockwise while extending the muzzle to- ward the target. Figure 7-5. . Presenting the Rifle From the Weak Side Sling Arms Transport The hasty sling should be maintained while presenting the rifle from this transport. contact with the cheek. l Continue extending the rifle to- ward the target to ensure the rifle clears all personal gear. and 7-3c).Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 7-3 l Grasp handguards with left hand (the index finger points toward the muzzle). See figure 7-6. Clearing Gear and Grasping the finger straight along the receiver. Do not rear sight as soon as the stock makes move the head down to meet the stock of the rifle. vi- If the rifle is in the shoulder properly. 7- Note 3b. Grasping the Charging Handle. shift the focus back to rear sight as soon as the stock makes the front sight post to obtain sight alignment. a Marine performs the follow- ing steps once a target appears: l While looking at the target. To present the rifle from Weak Side Sling Arms. the l Level the rifle while pulling it firmly into the pocket aiming eye will be able to look through the of the shoulder to obtain proper stock weld. the sually locate the target through the rear sight aper- aiming eye will be able to look through the ture. If the rifle is in the shoulder properly. l Establish a firing grip with right hand while keeping the trigger Figure 7-6. 7-7). Clearing Gear and Grasping the Charging Handle. lean forward slightly to facilitate removal of rifle from the shoulder. l Grasp the charging handle with the right hand and pull it to its rearmost position and release (see fig. l Grasp the sling with the right hand to prevent the rifle from falling off the shoulder. As the rifle sights settle. Note l As the sights become level with the aiming eye. Handguards.

and rifle left and right (ap- proximately 45 degrees from center) to cover the immediate area. Searching and assessing enables the Marine to ing steps: avoid tunnel vision that can restrict the focus so that an indication of other targets is overlooked. and Searching and Assessing to a Higher place the tip of the post center mass on the target to Profile obtain sight picture. Depending on the tactical situation. l Assume a kneeling position and search and assess cease engagement. 7002. Purpose push up off the deck to both knees (see figs. 7-9a The Marine searches the area for additional targets or and 7-9b). 7-8). pocket of the shoulder. search the area and assess the results of his engage. for cover. lower the rifle butt out of the shoulder. l Drop the left hand to the deck and. Technique Sitting to Kneeling After searching and assessing at the sitting position. shift the focus back to the front sight post to obtain sight alignment. he must immediately After searching and assessing at the prone position. move to a kneeling position by performing the follow- ment. (see fig. l Place the trigger finger straight along the receiver (see fig. l Once a Marine determines the area is clear of ene- sually locate the target through the rear sight aper. To search and assess. The Marine assesses the situation to deter. Pushing Up Off Figure 7-8. bringing it back. etc. assume a more stable position. the Deck to Both Knees. eyes. The muzzle moves with the head and eyes in one fluid motion while searching. As the rifle sights settle. l Grasp the handguard with the left hand and place mine if he needs to re-engage a target. Figures 7-9a and 7-9b. Keep both eyes open to increase the field of view. take cover. Straight Trigger Finger. engage a new the rifle butt in the pocket of the shoulder. 7-10). a Marine performs the following move to a kneeling position by performing the follow- steps: ing steps: l Keeping the buttstock in the shoulder. target. he places the rifle on safe. vi. l Search the area and assess the situation/threat by moving the head. Search and Assess Prone to Kneeling After a Marine engages a target. ture. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 7-4 MCRP 3-01A l As the sights become level with the aiming eye. lower the l Maintain control of the rifle with the rifle butt in the muzzle of the rifle slightly to look over the sights. l While maintaining control of the pistol grip. my threat. . the Marine may choose to increase his area of observation by searching and assessing to a higher profile position.

Tucking the Right Foot. and stand while continuing to Note search and assess. 7-12). the right hand to assist in rolling up to a l Tuck the right foot underneath the left thigh. Figure 7-11. Kneeling Search and Assess.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 7-5 l Uncross the legs to an open leg position. Figure 7-12. 7-11). Rolling Up to a Kneeling Position. maintain control of the rifle with the rifle butt in the pocket of the shoulder. as kneeling position. . It may be necessary to release the rifle with the right hand and push off the deck with Figure 7-10. l Lean forward and to the right and roll on to the right Kneeling to Standing knee to a kneeling position and search and assess After searching and assessing at the kneeling position. (see fig. close to the buttocks as possible (see fig.

The wind de. and rain). There are three factors that affect the amount of deflection of the bullet: l Velocity of the wind—The greater the velocity of the wind. temperature. The effect of wind on the bullet as it travels effects. Deflection increases as the distance to the target increases. Determining Windage Adjustments to Physical Effects Offset Wind Effects The weather condition that presents the greatest prob. sleet. Figure 8-2. Marines must use techniques to offset the effects of wind. The bullet’s exposure time to the wind determines the amount the bullet is deflected from its original trajec- tory. mine velocity within 5 mph. If Marines can classify wind values and deter- down range is referred to as deflection. and precipitation can affect the trajectory of the bullet. temper- ature. or by observing direction of a flag (in training). they can effectively en- flects the bullet laterally in its flight to the target (see gage targets in windy conditions. l Range to the target—As the distance to the target increases. to the bullet must be determined to offset the wind’s jectory. the speed of the bullet slows allowing the wind to have a greater effect on shot placement. fig. by feeling the wind blow against the body. The clock system indicates wind direction and value (see fig. Winds can be classified as half Figure 8-1. all weather conditions have a physical and psychological effect on Marines. Clock System. light. 8-2). The velocity and direction of the wind in relationship lem to shooting is the wind. Wind Direction Determine wind direction by observing direction veg- etation is moving. . Deflection of a Bullet. Through proper training. EFFECTS OF WEATHER Wind. Wind Value Classifications Winds are classified according to the direction from which they are blowing in relation to the direction of fire. In ad- dition. Wind affects a bullet's tra. Physical Effects of Wind on the velocity will not be affected by the wind as much as Bullet a bullet with a low muzzle velocity. CHAPTER 8. the more the bullet will be deflected. l Velocity of the bullet—A bullet with a high muzzle 8001. Marines can develop the confidence required to reduce the physical and psychological ef- fects of weather during combat situations. and precipitation (snow. 8-1).

match the wind velocity. move into the direction of the wind. Windage Adjustments ty: observation and flag. This method teaches able the bullet to strike the target are estimated in the Marines to relate the effect a given wind condition has following ways: on the natural surroundings in order to develop the base of knowledge used during the observation meth. training tool on the known distance (KD) range to and wind velocity. the windage knob. wind classification. the windage knob causing the rear sight aperture to l 16 to 25 mph winds cause large trees to sway. Figure 8-3. Flag Method. this allows the bullet to travel faster and experi- ence less deflection from the wind. Hot air is less dense than cool air and provides less resistance to the bullet. tion. the rifle’s chamber pressure increases causing the bullet to exit the muzzle at a higher velocity and im- pact the target above the point of aim. as rifle chamber pressure decreases. Information given is based on a dry flag. The target is always lo. Note cated at 12 o’clock. and range to the target to the information in the chart l 3 to 5 mph winds can be felt lightly on the face. Using the windage chart provided in be felt on the face. rection. to determine the correct number of clicks to apply to l 5 to 8 mph winds keep tree leaves in a constant mo. full value. Once the number of windage clicks is determined. Using the windage chart pro- od. match the wind velocity. and the bullet im- pacts the target below the point of aim. The presence of a slight wind figure 8-5. this caus- es the bullet to travel slower and experience greater deflection from the wind. A wet flag is heavy and gives a false reading. or no value. The observation method is the primary method vided in figure 8-4. Cold air is dense and provides the bullet with more resistance. l 8 to 12 mph winds raise dust and loose paper. See figure 8-3. The flag method is used as a After identifying wind direction. The following are guidelines used during the chart to estimate the correct number of clicks to the observation method: apply to the windage knob. Wind Velocity There are two methods used to determine wind veloci. wind di- used to estimate wind velocity and direction in a tacti. In cold weather. can be detected by drifting smoke.) Flag Method The flag method is primary method used on the KD 8002. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8-2 MCRP 3-01A value. the bullet exits the muzzle at a lower velocity. l Under 3 miles per hour (mph) the wind can hardly Flag Method. (See chapter 9. This fluctuation is caused by changes in the propellant’s temperature. . Observation Method. wind direction. and range to the target to the information in cal situation. To estimate wind velocity in miles per hour: Temperature and Precipitation on the Bullet and the Rifle Estimate the angle created between the flagpole and the flag in degrees. Extreme changes in temperature cause fluctuation in the rifle’s chamber pressure. In extreme heat. windage adjustments needed to en- learn the observation method. Physical Effects of range. l Divide the angle by four to estimate wind velocity Temperature in miles per hour. turn l 12 to 15 mph winds cause small trees to sway.

Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 8-3 Figure 8-4. Windage Click Chart for the Flag Method. Figure 8-5. Windage Click Chart for the Observation Method. .

Protect sights as much as possible proper mental attitude. a change in temperature of 20 heat stroke. trigger control. Increased flu- below the point of aim. Once the barrel has been holding the hand in place on the hand guards so the drained. Precipitation Extreme Cold Extreme cold may affect a Marine’s ability to concen- Freezing rain and other types of precipitation may trate. and the target shape or the appearance of the front sight it may freeze if re-exposed to the cold. a Marine’s comfort level. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 8-4 MCRP 3-01A Once the rifle is zeroed. tigue. heat exhaustion. a Marine should re-zero fects of extreme heat. he will have diffi- make the rifle difficult to handle. and reduced concentration degrees or more can cause the bullet to strike above or levels that result in inaccurate shooting. . such as increasing muscular tension. blurred vision. Care should be taken to ment. Precipitation 8003. turn the rifle muzzle up to allow the water to hand does not slip while wearing mittens. Physical and Psychological Precipitation (rain. Condensation may form on and in the rifle. drain out of the stock. Figure 8-6. pull the charging handle open the trigger guard. The hasty sling can assist in the muzzle points down. Heat waves or mirages may also distort cation. Heat can cause muscle cramps. Therefore. sleet) can affect target Effects of Weather on Marines engagement. a Marine may experience rapid fa. To drain the bore. a Marine should wear arctic mittens or gloves. cause a target to appear indistinct and to drift from it should not be brought immediately into a warm lo. The Marine can combat the wind in a number of ways: l Make subtle changes to the basic shooting posi- tions. A mirage created by the heat of the barrel reduc- inside the rifle may cause it to malfunction. hail. If the rifle To operate the rifle while wearing arctic mittens or has been submerged. This allows easier access to the slightly to the rear and hold for a few seconds while trigger. snow. If a Marine’s hands are numb. ensure the bore is drained before gloves. cause irritation and make it difficult to see the sights. Temperature Extreme Heat In extreme heat. to re- duce movement of the rifle sights. Ice that forms post. target. The amount and type of precipi- tation may obscure or completely hide the target and it Wind may reduce a Marine's ability to establish an accurate sight picture. Extreme heat also can create ground mirages that If the rifle is exposed to below freezing temperatures. foul the rifle and culty holding a frigid rifle and executing effective cause stoppages. if the temperature id intake and good physical condition can offset the ef- changes 20 degrees or more. and a Marine’s ability to concentrate. Ice can es a Marine's ability to see the sight clearly. keep the barrel and muzzle free of water. To protect the hands in a cold environ- tor and cause erratic shots. a Marine depresses the trigger guard plunger to firing. l Select a more stable firing position. To over- form on the rear sight aperture due to condensation. a Marine should maintain a center of mass hold. come the effects of heat and accurately engage a making it impossible to acquire sight alignment. Sweat running into the eyes can the rifle. l Seek support to stabilize the rifle. Open Trigger Guard. or build up in the barrel or compensa. l Hold the shot and apply the fundamentals during a lull in the wind. side to side. Precipitation collecting on rear sight ap- Marines can shoot effectively in windy conditions if erture can make it difficult to establish sight alignment they apply a few basic techniques and develop the and sight picture. See figure 8-6.

Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 8-5

during periods of precipitation. It is easy to lose con- indistinct the target appears, ensures the best chances
centration when wet and uncomfortable. Proper dress for an effective shot.
reduces the effects of precipitation on the Marine.
Overcast
Light An overcast condition exists when a solid layer of
clouds blocks the sun. The amount of available light
Light conditions can change the appearance of a tar- changes as the overcast thickens. Overcast conditions
get. Light affects each Marine differently. Light can can make a target appear larger and closer. As a result,
affect range estimation, visual acuity, or the placement it is easy to underestimate range. During a light over-
of the tip of the front sight on the target. By maintain- cast, the target appears very distinct and the rifle sights
ing a center of mass hold, the effects of light can be re- appear very distinct, making it easy to establish sight
duced. alignment. As the overcast thickens, it becomes diffi-
cult to identify the target from its surroundings.
Bright Light
Bright light conditions exist under a clear blue sky Haze
with no fog or haze present to filter the sunlight. Hazy conditions exist when fog, dust, humidity or
Bright light can make a target appear smaller and far- smoke is present. Hazy conditions can make a target
ther away. As a result, it is easy to overestimate range. appear indistinct making it difficult to establish sight
Maintaining a center of mass hold, regardless of how picture.

CHAPTER 9. ZEROING

To be combat effective, it is essential for the Marine to know how to zero his rifle.
Zeroing is adjusting the sights on the weapon to cause the shots to impact where
the Marine aims. This must be done while compensating for the effects of weather
and the range to the target. It is critical that Marines can zero their rifles and make
the sight adjustments required to engage targets accurately.

See the appropriate technical manual for procedures on boresighting and zeroing
with supplemental aiming devices (e.g., laser, night vision devices).

Note Aiming Point
+ The procedures in this manual are The aiming point is the precise point where the tip of
written for right-handed Marines; left-
the front sight post is placed in relationship to target.
handed Marines should reverse instructions
as necessary.
Centerline of the Bore
Centerline of the bore is an imaginary straight-line be-
9001. Elements of Zeroing ginning at the chamber end of the barrel, proceeding
out of the muzzle, and continuing indefinitely.

There are five basic elements involved in zeroing a ri- Trajectory
fle: line of sight, aiming point, centerline of the bore,
trajectory, and range. See figure 9-1. In flight, a bullet does not follow a straight line but
travels in a curve or arc, called trajectory. Trajectory is
Line of Sight the path a bullet travels to the target. As the bullet exits
the muzzle, it travels on an upward path, intersecting
The line of sight is a straight line, which begins with the line of sight (because the sights are above the muz-
the shooter’s eye, proceeds through the center of the zle). As the bullet travels farther, it begins to drop and
rear sight aperture, and passes across the tip of the intersects the line of sight again.
front sight post to a point of aim on a target.

Figure 9-1. Elements of Zeroing.

_______________________________________________________________________________________________
9-2 MCRP 3-01A

Range position, spring-loaded detent
(see fig. 9-2). To adjust for
Range is the KD from the rifle muzzle to the target. elevation, use a pointed in-
strument (or the tip of a car-
tridge) to depress the detent
9002. Types of Zeros and rotate the front sight post
(see fig. 9-3). To raise the
strike of the bullet, rotate the
Battlesight Zero (BZO) post clockwise (in the direc-
tion of the arrow marked UP)
A BZO is the elevation and windage settings required or to the right. To lower the Figure 9-3. Front
to place a single shot, or the center of a shot group, in a strike of the bullet, rotate the Sight Adjustment.
predesignated location on a target at 300 yards/meters, post counter-clockwise (in the
under ideal weather conditions (i.e., no wind). A BZO opposite direction of the ar-
is the sight settings placed on your rifle for combat. In row) or to the left.
combat, your rifle’s BZO setting will enable engage-
ment of point targets from 0–300 yards/meters in a no- Rear Sight
wind condition.
The rear sight consists of two sight apertures, a windage
knob, and an elevation knob. See figure 9-4. The large
Zero
aperture marked 0-2 is used for target engagement dur-
A zero is the elevation and windage settings required ing limited visibility, when a greater field of view is de-
to place a single shot, or the center of a shot group, in a sired, or for engagements of targets closer than 200
predesignated location on a target at a specific range, yards/meters. The unmarked aperture (small aperture) is
from a specific firing position, under specific weather used for zeroing and normal firing situations.
conditions.

True Zero
A true zero is the elevation and windage settings re-
quired to place a single shot, or the center of a shot
group, in a predesignated location on a target at a spe-
cific range other than 300 yards/meters, from a specif-
ic firing position, under ideal weather conditions (i.e.,
no wind).

9003. M16A2 Sighting System

The sighting system of the M16A2 service rifle
consists of a front sight post and two rear sight Figure 9-4. Rear Sight.
apertures windage and elevation knob. Scales of the
sighting system may be applied accurately to both yard
and meter measurements. For example, a rear sight
elevation setting of 8/3 may be used for 300 yards/
meters.
Elevation Knob
The rear sight elevation knob is used to adjust the sight
for a specific range to the target. The elevation knob is
Front Sight indexed as shown in figure 9-5. Each number on the
The front sight post is used to knob represents a distance from the target in 100-yard/
adjust for elevation. The front meter increments. To adjust for range to the target, ro-
sight consists of a square, ro- tate the elevation knob so the desired setting is aligned
tating sight post with a four- with the index on the left side of the receiver.
Figure 9-2. Front
Sight.

elevation knob or wind- age knob one graduation or notch is referred to as moving one “click” on the sight. To move the strike of the round to the left. Elevation Knob.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 9-3 ber 4. (about a quarter inch) between the rear sight housing and the upper receiver (see fig. See figure 9-8. rotate the windage knob counterclockwise. there will be a considerable gap marked R). Aligning the num.5 engagement distance of the enemy. 600 or 700 yards/meters. 9-7). . Windage and Elevation Rules Moving the front sight post. Windage Knob The windage knob is used to adjust the strike of the Figure 9-5. Rear Sight Elevation Knob Set for 300 Yards/Meters. 5. If a clockwise rotation is continued. respec- tively. Rear Sight Elevation Knob sight elevation or rear sight windage for each 100 Set for 800 Yards/Meters. To move the strike of the round to the right. 500. The windage knob is marked with an arrow and the letter R that shows the direction the If the elevation knob is turned so the number 8/3 strike of the round is being moved. centimeters for every 100 meters of range to the target.25 elevation knob to the number that corresponds with the inches for every 100 yards of range to the target or 3. Hasty sight settings for ranges of 400 to One click of front sight elevation adjustment will move 800 yards/meters are applied by rotating the rear sight the strike of the round on target approximately 1. The windage and ele- vation rules define how far the strike of the round will move on the target for each click of front and rear Figure 9-7. yards/meters of range to the target. Figure 9-8. rotate the When the rear sight elevation knob is set on 8/3 for windage knob clockwise (in the direction of the arrow 800 yards/meters. 9004. Windage Knob. 9-6). Figure 9-6. round right or left. 6 or 7 with the elevation index line places the elevation at 400. the 3 indicates 300 yards/meters (see fig. aligns with the elevation index line. the number 8/3 appears for the second time on the elevation index line and indicates an 800 yard/meter elevation. A hasty sight setting is the setting placed on the rear Front Sight Elevation Rule sight elevation knob to engage targets beyond 300 yards/meters.

See figure 9-9. it must be adjusted by a qualified armorer. If the sight fails to move centimeters for every 100 meters of range to the target. Once a BZO is established. Aligning Index Line. every 100 yards of range to the target or 1. he may begin the zeroing process by using the previously established BZO sight settings.25 centime- ters for every 100 meters of range to the target. the rear sight elevation the strike of the round on the target approximately 1 knob should be three clicks counterclock- inch for every 100 yards of range to the target or 2. rotate Front Sight Post windage knob until the index line located on the top of To set the front sight post to initial sight setting. Initial Sight Settings Initial sight settings are those settings that serve as the starting point for initial zeroing from which all sight adjustments are made. the front sight post should never be Figure 9-9. 9005. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9-4 MCRP 3-01A Rear Sight Elevation Rule Note One click of rear sight elevation adjustment will move Once bottomed out. See figure 9-10. all elevation adjustments are made on the front sight post. Rear Sight Elevation Knob To set the elevation knob at the initial sight setting.) To set the sights to initial sight settings: Windage Knob To set the windage knob to initial sight setting. moved. See figure 9-11. Elevation Knob Set at 8/3. de. Figure 9-11. three clicks counterclockwise from 8/3. the large rear sight aperture aligns with the centering press the front sight detent and rotate the front sight on the windage index scale located on the moveable post until the base of the front sight post is flush with base of the rear sight assembly. 9006. (If the Marine already has a Figure 9-10. the front sight housing. Windage Rule l Rotate rear sight elevation knob clockwise until the One click of windage adjustment will move the strike number 8/3 aligns with the index mark located on of the round on the target approximately 0. (The rear sight elevation knob is used for dialing in the range to .5 inch for the left side of the upper receiver. Zeroing Process During the zeroing process. BZO established on his rifle. except when rezeroing the rifle. Bottoming Out Elevation Knob. perform the following: l Rotate the rear sight elevation knob counterclock- wise until the moveable rear sight housing is bot- tomed out on the upper receiver.5 wise from 8/3.

. dient BZO can be established at a reduced range of 36 l Make lateral adjustments on the windage knob to yards/30 meters. When a rifle is zeroed for 300 yards/ move the center of the shot group to the center of meters. Figure 9-12. Triangulating Shot Group.) Zeroing is conducted at a range of 300 l Repeat preceding steps until shot group is centered. determine the val- steps to zero the rifle: ue and direction of the wind and remove the number of clicks added to the windage knob (if necessary) to l Fire a 3-shot group. To prepare a rifle for zeroing. If l Determine the horizontal distance from the center a 300-yard/-meter range is not available. Battlesight Zero l Make elevation adjustments on the front sight post to move the center of the shot group to the center of the target. figure 9-12. Perform the following Once the sight setting is confirmed. l Determine the vertical distance in inches from the center of the shot group to the center of the target. Zeroing is conducted at a range of 300 yards/meters. It first the target. 9007. the bullet crosses the line of sight twice. This becomes l Triangulate the shot group to find the center. sights must be adjusted to the initial sight settings as outlined in paragraph 9005. a field expe- of the shot group to the center of the target. the rifle l Fire a 4-round shot group to confirm sight setting. yards/meters. See the BZO setting for the rifle. compensate for current wind conditions.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 9-5 the target.

and es in air density. Marines are responsible for maintaining a BZO on Ground Elevation their rifles at all times. Temperature ry at 36 yards/30 meters. However. meters when a 300-yard/-meter range is not available. since wind Climate does not affect the round at 36 yards/30 meters. their BZOs will change. Bullet Crossing the Line of Sight Twice. 20 degrees or BZO may be established at a distance of 36 yards/30 more) will cause the elevation BZO to change. wind. firm a BZO. Figure 9-13.e. Therefore a rifle’s An extreme change in temperature (i. soon as possible. This causes shots to impact the target high in hot temperatures and low in To establish a field expedient BZO at 36 yards or 30 cold temperatures. and again farther down range at 300 yards/meters (see fig. . Chang- meters and the same BZO will be effective at 300 es in temperature cause chamber pressure to increase yards/meters. moisture content. it is critical that the rifle be rezeroed as they will be wearing while engaging targets. Any of these elements can affect sis. If maintenance their BZOs while wearing the uniform and equipment was performed.e. temperature or barometric pressure. Changing climates (i.. temperature or temperature can cause BZOs to change on a daily ba- barometric pressure. If Marines zero their rifles in utility uniform and fire in full battle gear. Factors Causing a BZO to be Inconsistencies in the production of ammunition lots Reconfirmed can change a rifle’s BZO. a Marine may begin the zeroing process by using the previously established BZO sight settings Uniform rather than placing the sights at initial sight setting. from the muzzle of the rifle. Many factors influence the Drastic changes in ground elevation can create chang- BZO of a rifle. The following factors cause a BZO to be reconfirmed. moving from a dry climate to age is not added nor is it removed from the windage a tropical climate) can mean changes in air density. 9-13). The wearing Maintenance of full battle gear changes eye relief. To con. Atmospheric conditions. If operating in a combat environment. knob after confirming the BZO. Marines should confirm their BZO as often as possible. when hot and decrease when cold. supported on the handguard. Marines must establish sonnel perform maintenance on a rifle. humidity. a Marine performs the same steps as the zeroing pro- cess outlined in paragraph 9006. the rifle’s BZO. To be accurate. Ammunition 9008.. _______________________________________________________________________________________________ 9-6 MCRP 3-01A crosses the line of sight on its upward path of trajecto. and the way the rifle is It is possible for the BZO to change if ordnance per. the target must be placed exactly 36 yards (or 30 meters) moisture content. placement of the rifle in the shoulder pocket. Any of these elements can affect the rifle’s BZO.

The following factors. l Stability of hold. It further affects the accuracy of shot placement.Rifle Marksmanship ________________________________________________________________________________________ 9-7 l Any of the seven factors (left hand. . stock weld. Factors Affecting the Accuracy of pocket of the shoulder. grip of the right hand. and muscular relax- ation/tension). diminish the accuracy of a BZO: l Sight picture. right a BZO elbow. when ap. plied inconsistently. the accuracy of his BZO. l Trigger control. breathing. rifle butt in the 9009. Anything the Marine changes from shot to shot affects l Sling tension.

and accu- Improper Camouflage rately engage the targets. fear. and shape. A Marine’s combat mindset allows him to engage the enemy rapidly and focus on the actions required to fire well-aimed shots. The reliability of this sudden movement. stationary or moving. can be easy to detect in a wooded area. flash. However. While observing . He must remember that speed alone does not equate to effective target engagement. The Marine need not be looking indicator depends upon visibility and the experience of directly at an object to notice movement. head and shoulders. Target indicators are anything that reveals an individual’s position to the enemy. determine the range to targets. Most targets on the battlefield are detected due to im- field may be single or multiple. category include objects that stand out against (con- jerky movements. Indicators in this target will be harder to detect than one with quick. and web gear are recognizable even from a distance. weapons. Shine is created from reflective objects such as Target Indicators metal or glass. A Marine must also employ effective engagement techniques that enable acquisition and engagement of a variety of targets in diverse combat conditions. He must possess a combat mindset that eliminates hesitation. sound alone. snow or sand. and contrast with the background. line of objects such as the body. He should fire only as fast as he can fire accurately. Outline. dust. or talking. He should never exceed his physical capability to engage a target effectively. such as helmets or ri- Sound may be made by movement. Enemy targets on the battle. There are many variables There are three indicators caused by improper camou- affecting a Marine’s ability to detect and determine the flage: shine. It may also come from pools of water Most combat targets are detected at close range by and even the natural oils from the skin. range to combat targets. surface. Target Detection the presence of a target and increase his probability of locating it through other indicators. many times an observa- or completely hidden from view. tions be revealed. Shine acts as a smoke. and improper camouflage. and their positions. fle barrels. Most enemy soldiers will camouflage them- These indicators are grouped into three general areas: selves. The degree the observer. The human eye will often pick up a recogniz- Movement able shape and concentrate on it even if the object can- The human eye is attracted to movement. of difficulty in locating moving targets depends pri- marily on the speed of movement. Geometric shapes. For instance. CHAPTER 10. detailed searching will these posi- recognize target indicators. a Marine rifleman must be able to de- tect targets. their equipment. Success in locating tion post or enemy firing position will blend almost an enemy target will depend upon the observer’s posi. a Marine must train to perfect the physical skills of target engagement (such as pre- senting the weapon and assuming a shooting position) until they become instinc- tive. and his ability to extremely careful. Shine. proper camouflage. outline. trast with) a background because of differences in col- or. rattling equipment. perfectly with the natural background. sound can alert the Marine to 10001. his skill in searching an area. To be effective in combat. Sound provides only a general location of Fresh soil around a fighting hole contrasts with the the enemy. making it difficult to pinpoint a target by otherwise unbroken ground surface. A slowly moving Contrast With the Background. a target wearing a Sound dark uniform would be clearly visible in an area of Sound can also be used to detect an enemy position. noise or movement. and are usually beacon to the target’s position. However. Only through tion. or uncertainty of action. especially not be identified immediately. sound. seen only momentarily. The out- movement. To be proficient. ENGAGEMENT TECHNIQUES A Marine must maintain the ability to react instinctively in a combat environ- ment—day or night.

areas that may provide cover or conceal- of the area while affording cover and concealment. searching rather than sweeping the eyes across the terrain in one continuous movement. These positions may be ideal points for top to bottom or side to side. Searching the Terrain in Overlapping Strips. After a thorough search of target indicators. greatest potential danger and should be searched first. such as a lone tree in a field or a pile of hasty search. A detailed search is a systematic ex- ing detected. pose an immediate danger. the detailed search should begin with the indicator that appears to pose Methods for Searching an Area the greatest threat. served during the hasty search. a de- tailed search should be made of the entire observation Hasty Search. When a Marine moves into a new area.e. the eyes must be focused briefly on specific A good position is one that offers maximum visibility points (i. Marine to scan all the areas of observation and offer enough concealment to prevent his position from be. The detailed search should be made from rocks on a hill. amination of a specific target indicator or of the entire observation area. the area nearest the observer offers the pending on the terrain. Figure 10-1. In searching an area. . increase your chances of spotting a hidden enemy. The Marine should search the everything in exacting detail. This search is known as the hasty search and should take about 30 seconds. The 50-meter overlapping strip method is nor- he must quickly check for enemy activity that may mally used. This method of search is effective because it takes ad- Identifying Target Location vantage of peripheral vision. 50 meters in depth. There are two techniques for search. Normally. Detailed Search. For this technique to be ef- fective. A detailed search should be conduct- The Marine should avoid positions that are obvious or ed immediately on target indicators located during the stand out. the Marine will be looking for target indicators. but they will also make it easier for ject in exact detail. dicators were located during the hasty search. Begin the search at one flank. systematically searching Quickly glance at various points throughout the area the terrain at the front in 180-degree arcs. take note of anything that looks out of place or area nearest him first since it poses the greatest poten- unusual and study it in more detail. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10-2 MCRP 3-01A an area. This will greatly tial for danger. de. area. If multiple indicators were ob- the enemy to locate the Marine.. See figure 10-1. observing the entire ob- easy observation. The optimal observation position should allow the ment for the enemy). Peripheral vision enables the detection of any movement in a wide area around Observation Position the object being observed. or if no in- ing an area: the hasty search and the detailed search.

Figure 10-2. When entering a new area. To use this method. enhances the chance of survival. ficient. The combat situation will dictate the method of main- taining observation of an area. See Method figure 10-2. Once you have located a target and only a portion of the ground between a Marine and indicator. For exam- Most targets are seen only briefly and most areas con. A To engage targets at unknown distances. Whenever possible. This is known as range estimation. Range Estimation Rifle Front Sight Post Method The area of the target covered by the rifle’s front sight post can be used to estimate range to a target. meters of the area examined during the first search. Remembering Target Location The greatest limitation of this method is that its accura- cy is related to the amount of visible terrain. A a target. A Marine then uses this as a known point. periodically con- duct a detailed search of the area. systematically cover mines if a target can be effectively engaged using the the area between 40 and 90 meters from your position. Marine must practice this method frequently to be pro- ence point to determine the distance and general direc. 10002. If you are observing as an individual. Generally. de- vise a plan to ensure that the area of observation is completely covered. and deter- . and then estimates how Maintaining Observation many of these units will fit between him and the target. The guide to determine range over an unknown distance. it becomes difficult to use the gage it successfully. Since a hasty search may fail to detect some indicators. select a known feature and use it as a refer. object. A detailed search should also be conducted any time your attention has been diverted from the search area. a Marine visualizes a distance of 100 meters on the ground. ple. a Marine Marine notes the appearance of the front sight post on must determine the distance from his location to a a known-distance target. ability to determine range is a skill that must be devel- Because the apparent size of the target changes as the oped if a Marine is to successfully engage targets at distance to the target changes. This technique ensures complete coverage of the area. To help remember the location of unit of measure method to estimate range accurately. This determines the total distance to the target. and then verify the actual range by either pacing or using another accurate mea- surement. the target can be seen. the amount of the target unknown distances. Range Estimation Methods Continue the overlapping strip search method for as Unit of Measure Method far as you can see. Precise range estimation enhances covered by the front sight post varies based on the accuracy. Unit of Measure Method. if a target appears at a range of 500 meters or more tain multiple targets. imme- diately conduct a hasty search. estimate the range. Sequence of Observation Observation is often conducted by a two-man team. One team member should constantly observe the en- tire area using the hasty search technique and the other team member should conduct a detailed overlapping strip search. you will need to remember its location to en. a Marine should select an tion to the target. the observa- tion method will include a combination of hasty and detailed searches. rifle’s existing BZO or if a new sight setting or point The second search of the terrain includes about 10 of aim is required.Rifle Marksmanship ______________________________________________________________________________________ 10-3 After reaching the opposite flank.

the target has a clear body outline. The color of the skin and closer than one with an irregular outline such as a equipment are still identifiable. Nature of the Target tail and facial features are distinguished l An object with a regular outline such as a steel hel- l At 200 meters. and the head becomes indistinct from the l If the target is less than the width of the front sight shoulders. of estimation. A Marine also should study the appearance of other familiar objects such as rifles and vehicles. He should note the man’s size. A Marine must be aware of these factors al guidelines: and attempt to compensate for their effects. the target is clearly observed. possible distance and the greatest possible distance to the target. Front Sight Post Method. l The front sight post covers the width of a man’s chest or body at approximately 300 meters. A A Marine should estimate the range using two meth- Marine should observe a man while he is standing. terrain. or two Marines kneeling. Halving Method To use the halving method. and any other pertinent details. The average of the two 100 to 500 meters. the average of 300 meters and 500 meters is 400 meters. face color usually remains accurate. Visible Detail Method The amount of detail seen at various ranges can pro- vide a Marine with an estimate of the target’s distance. estimates should be close to the actual range to target. ods and then compare the estimates. a Marine estimates the dis- tance halfway between him and the target. a Marine’s eye relief and percep. the target is in excess of 300 meters and the ri- fle’s BZO cannot be used effectively. the body shape begins to taper at the ends. way distance is doubled when estimating the total dis- tance. tion of the front sight post affect the amount of the tar. In addition. Bracketing Method This method of range estimation estimates the shortest See figure 10-3. characteristics/size of his uniform and equipment. l At 500 meters. . ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10-4 MCRP 3-01A range. any error made in judging the half- Figure 10-3. Visibility (such as weather. the target is clearly observed in de. a Marine applies the following gener. the body outline is clear. rifle. There met. Combination Method To use this method. a Marine must details are blurred. The Marine then uses this as a guide to determine range over an unknown dis. To The following specific factors will affect the accuracy use this method. but remaining get that is visible. Factors Affecting Range Estimation tance. or darkness) limits the effectiveness of this method. A Marine must take care when judging the distance to the halfway point. The estimated distances are aver- aged to determine the estimated range to the target. or vehicle on a clear day will appear to be is a loss of facial detail. l At 300 meters. For example. then dou- bles that distance to get the total distance to the target. camouflaged object. l At 600 meters. a Marine estimates that a tar- get may be as close as 300 meters but it could be as far away as 500 meters. a Marine must be familiar with the The methods previously discussed require optimal size and various details of personnel and equipment at conditions with regard to the target. post. l At 100 meters. smoke bility in order to obtain an accurate range estimation. target is less than 300 meters and can be engaged point of aim/point of impact using the rifle’s BZO. the headless. the body appears wedge-shaped and l If the target is wider than the front sight post. and visi- known distances. To use this method. For example. apply the following guidelines: l At 400 meters. and in the prone position at known ranges of can compare their estimates. but remain- ing detail is blurred.

l Smooth terrain such as sand. The position of the light source significantly affects a Marine’s ability to estimate range. rain. The point of aim technique is the shifting of the point of aim (sight picture) to a predetermined location on or l A partially exposed object will appear to be farther off the target to compensate for a known condition away than it is. l When range to the target is estimated to be beyond 300 meters out to 400 meters. Each predeter- l A target will appear to be farther away if the target mined location is known as a point of aim. or anything that obscures the battlefield. is little or no contrast between the target and the back- ground. tally. Offset aiming is used aim are only guidelines at these distances to compensate for the distance and size of the target. Target contrast is another factor to con.g. 10003. Limited Visibility Figure 10-4. making it difficult to acquire sight aim technique and known strike of the round. or snow gives the illusion of greater distance. because the front sight will mask the target wind. . hold two points of aim. the target will appear closer.g. distance.g. the tip of the front ther away. illustrates points of aim for elevation. Predetermined points of aim sector the target horizon- gled light. an... the target will appear farther away. The conditions of rifle fire in combat may not permit mechanical adjustments of the sights. the target will appear Marine must apply the following guidelines: farther away. a target appears fur. wind. water. l Terrain that slopes downward gives the illusion of greater distance. Nature of the Terrain l Terrain that slopes upward gives the illusion of shorter distance. head shot) inside the BZO the background. If there is Beyond the BZO. If there is a target beyond the BZO capability of the rifle or to contrast (e. a tree). (i. The tip of the front sight post held at shoulder Generally.. picture. a target generally sight post held at the top of the target’s head is consid- appears closer. level is considered one point of aim. when the sun is bright. fog. a Marine may be required to aim It is better to apply a hasty sight setting at his rifle at a point on the target other than center mass. color variation) between the target and engage a small target (e. Points of Aim for Elevation. Note get during combat. ranges beyond the rifle’s BZO. To engage a tar. l Terrain with dead space makes the target appear to be closer. ered two points of aim. hold one point of aim. Points of This is known as offset aiming. To use the point of aim technique an object between the target and the shooter that will to engage a target beyond the BZO of the rifle. and movement). There when the front sight is held above center are two primary techniques for offset aiming: point of mass. If there of the weapon.. a distract the shooter (e.Rifle Marksmanship ______________________________________________________________________________________ 10-5 l A target that contrasts with its background will Point of Aim Technique appear to be closer than a target that blends in with its background. aim to compensate for the elevation required to engage ed between the shooter and the target. Figure 10-4 is smaller than the objects surrounding it. Offset Aiming l When the range to the target is estimated to be be- yond 400 meters out to 500 meters. Other factors that Elevation affect range estimation include smoke. and speed and angle of a moving target.e. When the sky is overcast. A Marine uses these points of sider when estimating range as well as obstacles locat.

g. Table 10-1 provides points of aim head of an enemy soldier). the trajectory of the bullet for full value winds. Inside the BZO.5 inches (11 centimeters) above of measure are applied off the target for holds of addi- the line of sight at a distance of approximately 175 tional points of aim. For example. a Marine aims an equal dis- ly (see fig. If the rifle is properly zeroed for 300 front sight post held on the edge of the target into the yards/meters.5 inches above the point of and when there is no time to adjust the rifle’s sights.. he may shoot over the top of the target if the target is small and at a distance less This offset aiming technique shifts the aiming point than 300 yards/meters. tance from center mass opposite the known strike of tered on the edge of the target into the wind is the round. the trailing edge of the left. ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10-6 MCRP 3-01A Figure 10-5. the strike of the compensate for wind affecting the strike of the round bullet will be less than 4. a Marine aims an equal and opposite distance low and right. To engage a Predetermined points of aim sector the target vertical. Figure 10-6. These points of aim are used to yards (160 meters). The same units rise approximately 4. if the round strikes high and considered one point of aim. Trajectory and Point of Aim/Point of Impact for 300 Yard BZO. Only at 36 yards/30 meters and 300 yards/meters when a lead is required to engage a moving target does the point of impact coincide with the point of (points of aim for moving targets are discussed in aim. . The tip of the front sight post cen. If a Marine does Known Strike of the Round not consider trajectory. 10-6). may have to be taken into consideration when firing at a distance less than 300 yards/meters. target using this method. At other distances. the trajectory (path of the bullet) will wind is considered two points of aim. the paragraph 10007). Points of Aim. The known strike of the round method is Windage used if the strike of the round is known. See figure 10-5. If only a portion of the target is visible (e. or aim. (sight picture) to compensate for rounds that strike off target center.

e. 25 meters or less). proper sight alignment is always the goal. Single Shot Technique uninterrupted trigger control). perfect sight alignment is not as critical to accuracy on target. partially exposed). is likely in close terrain (e. jungle). At short rang- es (i. Techniques of Fire Marine places the selector lever on burst. include quick presentation and compression of the fundamentals (i. The size and distance to the target should dictate the technique of fire.e.. Management of recoil is critical to bring the proper mindset allows a Marine to react instinctively sights back on target after the shot is fired. it can best be engaged with a aperture. 3 rounds on Medium 200-300 1 target). firing on three-round burst Strong 200-300 2 can be an effective technique to place rounds on a man-sized target quickly to increase trauma on the tar- get. aims center mass. The rounds Aim fire as fast as the weapon will function and cause the muzzle to climb during recoil. the Marine acquires sight picture for each of view and detection of targets. quick acquisition of sight picture.. 10005. To execute the two-shot ture (0-2) could be placed up to provide a wider field technique. an effective technique for eliminating a threat is to rapidly fire more than one shot on the tar- get.. the 10004. A Marine’s stability of hold and sight alignment are more critical to accurate engage- ment of long-range or small targets. the front sight post must be in the rear sight (i. the Marine must slow 10006. When engaging multiple targets. This type of engagement break out of the tunnel vision often associated with fir. blood loss) on the target. the Marine must control the jump angle of the Strong 0-200 1 weapon to maintain the sights on target.e. . and to control the pace of the battle rather than just re- acting to the threat. in. Marksmanship skills shot fired (each pull of the trigger). and acquires sight picture once for the single trigger pull. precision shot. Firing two shots enables the Marine to sponse to engage an enemy. a Marine must priori- Sustained Rate of Fire tize each target and carefully plan his shots to ensure successful target engagement. shock.. urban. The minute.Rifle Marksmanship ______________________________________________________________________________________ 10-7 Table 10-1. less than 50 meters) creasing the Marine’s chances of quickly eliminating with little or no warning that requires an immediate re- the threat.. Mental preparedness An effective method for delivering suppressive fire is and the ability to make split-second decisions are the to fire at the sustained rate of 12 to 15 rounds per key to successful engagement of multiple targets. To execute the three-round burst technique. To engage a target with the single shot technique. Engaging Multiple Targets down the application of the fundamentals and place one well-aimed shot on target.e. Engaging Immediate Threat Two-Shot Technique Targets In combat. Points of Aim for Full Value Winds. The ability to manage Light 0-300 0 recoil is extremely important when firing the rifle on burst. the large rear sight aper- mine follow-on action.e.. Three-Round Burst Technique Wind Distance Points When set on burst. the design of the rifle permits three (yards/meters) of shots to be fired from a single trigger pull. Two shots fired in rapid succession will increase Immediate threat target engagement is characterized the trauma (i. single. by short-range engagement (i.g..e. If this ing in combat and then assess the situation to deter. At close ranges. If the target is at a long range or if the target is small However. To achieve the desired effect (i. type of engagement is likely.

greatest firepower) should widely-dispersed multiple targets difficult. a Marine must be aware of his surround. a Marine must imme. gagement. The target that poses the ited lateral movement. the forward arm can be moved by pivoting cess. of the position. proximity. up- factors such as proximity. and engage the targets. The principal method is to determine the level of threat for each target so all Sitting may be engaged in succession from the most threaten. Multiple targets are engaged by rotating the up- weapon is coming down in its recovery. terrain and select a firing position that provides good diately engage the next target and continue to engage cover and concealment. A Marine should make a quick observation of the target before it disappears. two situations will be the same. Like the prone position. the Marine performs the the waist to move the forward arm in the direction of following steps: the target.. He must rapidly with flexibility of movement. While engaging mul. maintain constant awareness and continuously search the terrain for additional targets. Firing Position In combat. therefore. Changes in threat level. A Marine moves from one target to another by rotating at To engage multiple targets. the selected position must provide the Marine ings and not fixate on just one target. Target priority is based on firmly placed on the ground in the prone position. lateral range Technique of Engagement of motion since only one elbow is used for support. the Marine per body to a position where the sights can be aligned physically brings the sights onto the desired target. it is unlikely that a target will remain sta- tionary. Engaging Moving Targets have been engaged. the sitting position allows lim- ing to the least threatening. avoids poorly placed shots that can result from an un- l When possible. the longer it will take a Marine to elim- quence. a Marine must quickly engage a moving gets. Prioritizing targets is an ongoing pro. persed. as well as the flexibility to en- targets until they are eliminated. firing position. A Marine also must inate multiple targets. closest. Standing l The recoil of the rifle can be used to direct the re- The standing position allows maximum lateral move- covery of the weapon on to the next target. Prone The prone position limits left and right lateral move- Prioritizing Targets ment and is. gage multiple targets. a Marine must remain alert to changes in a target's threat level and proximity and other target op- portunities as the battle progresses. not recommended for engaging The combat situation will usually dictate the order of short-range dispersed targets. As the ment. establish an engagement se. l The preceding steps are repeated until all targets 10007. threat. no per body movement is restricted. but this movement disturbs the stability itself may cause a Marine to revise his priorities. and opportunity. or the target on the elbow. This makes engagement of greatest threat (e. If severe or radical adjustments Pressure is maintained on the trigger throughout re- are required to engage widely dispersed targets. on the desired target. Therefore. a covery and trigger control is applied at a rate con- Marine moves his feet to establish a new position rath- sistent with the Marine’s ability to establish sight er than give up maximum stability of the rifle. . ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 10-8 MCRP 3-01A After the first target is engaged. such as when all targets are of equal stable position. threat. Therefore. This picture on the desired target. If enemy targets are widely dis- tiple targets. either right or left. Because the elbows are multiple target engagement. the Marine should engage targets in a direc- tion that maximizes his ability to support and con- trol the weapon. exposing himself for the shortest possible time.g. The more restrictive the prioritize the targets. The enemy will move quickly from cover to The selection and effective use of a firing position are cover. l The first target with two rounds. critical to the successful engagement of multiple tar. To ease en- be engaged first. Kneeling The kneeling position provides a wider.

l At a range of 200 meters or less. When a shot is fired at a moving target. Time of flight increases as range to l At a range of 300 meters. Range. Lead is determined by the rifle’s distance to For a slow walking target (approximately 2 to 2. These guidelines Amount of Lead Required do not consider wind or other effects of weather. One There are two types of moving targets: steady moving arm and over half the back or chest are visible. The target is moving obliquely across a Marine's line of sight (at a 45-degree angle). Half. This targets and stop and go targets. This target stationary target because it is not moving across his is most vulnerable to fire at the beginning and end of line of sight. This target requires a full lead be- cause it will move the greatest distance across a l At a range of 100 meters or less. aim. This time of flight could allow a target to move out of the bullet’s path if the round was fired di. l At a range of 200 meters or less. Lead is the distance in advance to engage a moving target. aim in the direction the target is moving. For a fast walking target (approximately 4 mph/6. Three Types of Leads: Full. its movement to new cover because the target must gain momentum to exit its existing cover and then slow down to occupy a new position. no lead is required. the line of sight relative to the flight of the bullet deter- mines the type (amount) of lead. hold one point of aim in the target increases. hold one point of Marine’s line of sight during the flight of the bullet. If a man is running. a Marine must aim in front of the target.2 to 4 kph) moving directly across the line of target continues to move during the time the bullet is sight (full lead)— in flight. The same units of measure are applied off the tar- Therefore. 10-7. l At a range of 300 meters.5 the target. . the trailing edge of the front sight post held on the When a shot is fired at a moving target. No lead is re- it reestablishes cover. The tip of the front sight post centered on the lead- Leads ing edge of the target is considered one point of aim. leading edge of the target is considered two points of tinues to move during the time the bullet is in flight. and angle of movement. A stop and away from a Marine and presents a full view of both go target will present itself for only a short time before arms and the entire back or chest. Body Factors that affect the amount of lead are the target’s width in these examples is considered to be 12 inches range. the direction the target is moving. the target con. (30 centimeters) (side view of the target). rectly at the target. Steady moving targets target requires half of a full lead because it will move in a consistent manner and remain in a Marine’s move half as far as a target moving directly across a field of vision. No l Full Lead. speed. hold two points of aim in the direction the target is moving. An enemy moving from cover to quired. Therefore. A stop and go target ap. A walking or running man is an exam. The target is moving directly toward or pears and disappears during its movement. the shot will fall behind the target. The target is moving straight across a For a target running (approximately 6 mph/9. creased as the distance to the target increases. the mph/3. hold one point of Angle of Movement. This is of aim are used to compensate when a lead is required called leading a target. These points otherwise. The angle of movement across aim in the direction the target is moving. A Marine engages this target as if it were a cover is an example of a stop and go target. Marine’s line of sight during the flight of the bullet. Point of Aim Technique Predetermined points of aim sector the target vertical- ly. ple of a steady moving target. the lead must be in. tablish a lead for a moving target at various ranges and speeds (see fig.Rifle Marksmanship ______________________________________________________________________________________ 10-9 Types of Moving Targets l Half Lead.4 Speed.7 kph) Marine's line of sight with only one arm and half directly across the line of sight (full lead)— the body visible. l No Lead. a greater lead is required kph) moving directly across the line of sight (full because the man will move a greater distance than a lead)— walking man will while the bullet is in flight. get for holds of additional points of aim. on page 10-10). The following guidelines of the target that the rifle sights are placed to accurate- apply if a Marine uses the point of aim technique to es- ly engage the target when it is moving.

. See figure 10-9. the target moves into the pre- at a steady pace over a well-determined route. but the direction the target is moving. Points of Aim. rifle sights will not be cen- tered on the target and instead will be held on a lead in front of the target. sitting. hold two points of aim in post and the target while acquiring sight picture. For a target moving at a 45-degree angle (an oblique l Engage the target once sight picture is acquired target) across the line of sight. The point of aim may be on the target or some point in front of the target depending upon the target’s range. with the rifle’s front sight post while maintaining sight alignment and a point of aim on or ahead of (leading) the target until the shot is fired. the focus must be on the tip of the front sight post when the shot is fired. The ambush method is used when it is difficult to track the target with the rifle. l Swing rifle muzzle through the target (from the rear of the target to the front) to the desired lead (point of aim). speed. as in the prone.10-10 _____________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3-01A Figure 10-7. Tracking Method. The lead required to effectively The Tracking Method engaging the target determines the engagement point. l Continue to track in case a second shot needs to be Engagement Methods fired on the target. and angle of movement. If a determined engagement point and creates the desired Marine uses the tracking method. the lead is one half of while maintaining the proper lead. When establishing a lead on a moving target. A Marine performs the following steps to execute the tracking methods: l Present the rifle to the target. Moving targets are the most difficult targets to engage. The tracking method is used for a target that is moving With the sights settled. However. See figure 10-8. let exits the muzzle. they can be engaged successfully by using The Ambush Method the tracking or the ambush method. l At a range of 200 meters. he tracks the target sight picture. the lead that is required for a target moving directly l Follow-through so the lead is maintained as the bul- across the line of sight. l Track and maintain focus on the front sight post while acquiring the desired sight picture. or any supported position. It may be necessary to shift the focus between the front sight Figure 10-8.

picture. he bases his sight picture on the target’s range. if the rear sight elevation knob is set at 8/3 and a target appears at 500 meters. be lost or have to be adjusted to reassume proper sight sion and the desired sight picture is established. When using the tracking method. The rifle’s sighting system allows sight set- tings for distances out to 800 meters in 100-meter in- crements. speed. every 15 seconds). a Marine performs the following steps: cal to the execution of shots. Hasty Sight Setting While a BZO is considered true for 300 meters. ger until sight picture is established. a Marine dials the ap- propriate range numeral on the rear sight elevation knob that corresponds to the range to the target. Note Upon completion of firing with a hasty sight setting for extended ranges. return the Figure 10-9. a Marine establishes a bullet exits the muzzle. . To execute the ambush As with any target engagement.. from the support so the target can be tracked smoothly. tracking as trigger control is applied to ensure the shot l Follow-through so the rifle sights are not disturbed does not impact behind the moving target. A Marine can apply pres- sure on the trigger prior to establishing sight picture. Stable Position To engage moving targets using the tracking method. then he fires the shot at the moment the target appears. Marksmanship Fundamentals the rifle must be moved smoothly and steadily as the target moves. Ambush Method. A Marine should look ing targets.Rifle Marksmanship _____________________________________________________________________________________ 10-11 The trigger is pulled simultaneously with the estab. low-through so the desired lead is maintained as the Once a pattern is determined. l Select an aiming point ahead of the target. as the bullet exits the muzzle. a Ma- rine must be capable of engaging targets beyond this distance. and angle of Distances movement. i. Trigger Control lishment of sight picture. If a Marine must establish a BZO for extended ranges. rear sight to the BZO setting. To achieve a hasty sight setting. A stable position steadies the rifle sights Engaging moving targets requires concentration and while tracking.g. Sight Picture Typically. continue l Engage the target once sight picture is acquired. Elbows may be moved manship are critical to engagement of moving targets. rotate the knob to the 5 setting. tracking and trigger control.e. but there should be no rearward movement of the trig- l Obtain sight alignment on the aiming point. the target is expected to appear. it is referred to a hasty sight setting. Interrupted trig- ger control is not recommended because the lead will l Hold sight alignment until the target moves into vi. sight alignment may be established on a point of aim in front of the target. For example. Engaging Targets at Unknown If a Marine engages a moving target. he continues to track the target during fol- for a pattern of exposure (e. sight picture is the target’s center of mass. Follow-through A variation of the ambush method can be used when If a Marine uses the tracking method to engage mov- engaging a stop and go target. trigger control is criti- method. Additional rearward pressure may be adherence to the fundamentals of marksmanship.. 10008. The applied to the pistol grip to help steady the rifle during following modifications to the fundamentals of marks. Continuous tracking also en- lead by aiming at a point in front of the area in which ables a second shot to be fired on target if necessary.

Bright light will eliminate night vision and require readaptation. it is adaptation while permitting the performance of some about 6 to 10 degrees away from the object. never look directly at the object you are ob- tensity red light (similar to the light used in a photog. vision. You will see the object much better by using rapher’s darkroom) for about 20 minutes. tion focused on an object without looking directly at it quiring night vision in total darkness. a Marine’s vision is extremely limited. 10-10). must develop skills that allow him to engage targets l Long exposure to sunlight. A Marine must apply the techniques of night l Fatigue. the sights. Night Vision l Headaches. To maintain night vision— curs because the eye has nothing on which . Some daylight observation techniques (e. n Minimize the time spent using a flashlight. a Marine can use offset aiming techniques l When using a flashlight to read a map or any other to apply a point of aim for elevation to engage the tar. searching for target indicators) also apply during There are two methods used to obtain night vision.10-12 _____________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3-01A Point of Aim Technique l Avoid looking at any bright light. n Put one hand over the glass to limit the area illu- minated and the intensity of the light.. followed by off-center vision. above about 10 minutes in darkness without the red light. the Some physical factors may affect your night vision principles of night vision must be applied and target and reduce your ability to see as clearly as possible in detection is applied differently. the Marine can Obtaining Night Vision locate targets. steps should be taken to protect Searching Methods night vision once it is obtained. Maintaining Night Vision Note Because the eyes take a long time to adjust to dark. written material: get. To search for targets using off-center method is to remain in a darkened area under low in. l Heavy smoking. from spotlights ity of the rifle and time does not permit adjustment of or from headlights. Once night vision has been acquired. serving. Light and Darkness n Cover the light with a red filter to help reduce the loss of night vision. right. A Marine can improve his ability to see during periods l Consumption of alcohol within the past 48 hours. If the distance to the target is beyond the BZO capabil. and he l Lack of oxygen. Off-center Vision doors. This oc- acquired. See paragraph 10003. it is important to protect night vision once it is may make it appear to be moving. or about a tasks during the adjustment period. Although Factors Affecting Night Vision basic marksmanship fundamentals do not change. Staring at a stationary object in the dark ness. l Illness. This area can be indoors or out. Since adapting to night vision is a slow and gradual process. night vision. observation in order to detect potential targets. under these conditions. of darkness or low light by obtaining and maintaining l Improper diet. l Drugs. The first method is to remain in an area of darkness for about 30 minutes. For most people. Keeping one eye shut will reduce the amount of night vi- 10009.g. The major disadvantage of this approach is that Off-center vision is the technique of keeping the atten- an individual is not able to perform any tasks while ac. The second (see fig. Look slightly to the left. Engaging Targets During Low sion lost. fist's width at arm’s length. l Shield eyes from parachute flares. Combat targets are frequently engaged during periods of darkness or under low-light conditions. Experiment and practice to find This method produces almost complete night vision the best off-center angle for you. These factors include— darkness or low light. During periods of low light or darkness. periods of darkness or low light. or below the object.

10-11). irregular movements over and around the area. to reference the exact position of the object. such as a finger at arm’s length. Once a target indicator is detect. and stars). Variations occur in ambient light due to the time of day. Both ambient light and artificial illumination can affect target perception (distance and size) and night vision capabilities. It is more effective to scan from a prone position or a A common method of scanning is to move the eyes in position closer to the ground than the object being ob- a figure eight pattern (see fig. sound. Sound seems louder at night than during daylight. of separate movements across the objective area. Objects in bright moonlight/starlight cast shadows just as in sunlight. While you are observing. A Marine moves served. moon. aligning the object against something else. there may be periodic black- outs of night vision due to simple fatigue. Types of Illumination There are two types of illumination that assist engage- ment during low light or darkness: ambient light and artificial illumination. the sun. l Artificial illumination is the light produced by a process other than natural means. weather conditions. and at it. since the eyes cannot focus on a still object while in This illusion can be prevented by visually motion. can be used to illuminate an area for target detection . Off-center Vision. time of year. focus is concentrated in that area. Pause a few seconds at each point of observation improper camouflage.e. Rest the eyes frequently when scanning. terrain. the eyes in short. This creates a silhouetted view of the object. Night vision will Scanning is the use of off-center vision to observe an quickly return after the eyes are moved and blinked a area or object and involves moving the eyes in a series few times. look and listen for the same ed. but not directly target indicators as in daylight: movement. and vegetation. This is nor- Scanning/Figure Eight Scan mal and is not a cause for alarm.Rifle Marksmanship _____________________________________________________________________________________ 10-13 Figure 10-10. When scanning an area.. Figure Eight Scan. abrupt. Artificial light Figure 10-11. l Ambient light is the light produced by natural means (i.

body size and shape and his ability to adapt to the tigue. and placement of the buttstock in and a target illuminates the front of the target and the shoulder. protective mask. the seal of the field protective mask to break. However. Breath Control ette and makes it appear farther away than it is. trol because breathing may be more difficult. a ments are unique to each Marine and based on his Marine is under considerable stress caused by fear.10-14 _____________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3-01A or to illuminate a specific target to pinpoint its posi. Ambient light also can cause a blinding effect. Firing Position 10010. a Marine must be able to operate under any bat. If this come any restrictions caused by the mask. may cause the NBC environment. illumination may assist a Marine in locating targets. this light can affect perception of the target Marksmanship Fundamentals and disrupt night vision. and chemical (NBC) threat. tion.g. head position. Stock weld will not be as the target. His stress is further ag. eye l Light behind a Marine or light between the Marine relief. biological. This movement creates and fire while holding a full breath of air (inhaling changing shadows on any illuminated target caus. control. How- ever. Adjustments should be minor. while wearing the mask. a Marine should take a deep breath they descend to the ground. Stock Weld tlefield condition.. mask. This can make modifications to his aiming and breath control cause a temporary blinding because night vision was techniques. The adjust- While engaging targets in a combat environment. abruptly interrupted. Therefore. process and the ability to locate targets. its bulk and affect the rifle’s BZO. develop occurs. Tempo- rary fogging of the lens also may be experienced. a Marine should ob- reduced visibility can affect his firing position which tain a BZO for the rifle in full mission-oriented protec- in turn affects the rifle’s zero and his ability to engage tive posture gear. If the lens of the field protective mask fogs up . and develop a plan of action. a Marine should prac. If l Air illumination devices are in constant motion as fogging occurs. including an NBC environment. and the noise of battle. it is easier to see and easier Wearing the field protective mask affects breath con- to engage. There are two types of artificial illumination This plan should address how the rifle is presented to used in combat: air and ground. cheek to be pressed too firmly against the stock. fa. clears the fog). how long the mask is worn. ing a stationary target to appear as if it is moving. a Marine may experience tempo. Aiming rary blindness or reduced night vision if a bright moon Wearing the field protective mask affects the aiming suddenly appears from behind the clouds. This allows him to over. and the likeli- hood of enemy contact. due to the mask. The field protective mask’s added bulk and other restrictions may require a Marine to make changes to his firing position. The bulk of the mask may require an adjustment to stock weld. If the target is silhouetted. and the Field Protective Mask stability during firing. quickly clear the mask and resume a firing po- confidence in his ability to execute well-aimed shots sition. If a Marine expects to wear the Effects of Illumination mask for an extended period and enemy contact is likely. comfortable or feel as solid as it does without the field ing position and the application of marksmanship fun. The introduction of artificial light requires the eyes to make a sudden. The loss of sensitivity between the damentals to counter the additional gear worn in an cheek and the stock. Therefore. If a Changing the placement of the cheek on the stock may Marine wears the field protective mask. drastic ad. ambient light and artificial that his first rounds are on target. A Marine must make adjustments to his fir. all fir- gravated by the fear and uncertainty associated with a ing positions will be affected in the following areas: nuclear. e. Wearing the field protective mask requires a Marine to justment to the amount of light received. l Light beyond the target displays the target in silhou. he should consider adjusting the rifle sights so In some combat situations. makes it appear closer than it is. the target. However. Engaging Targets while Wearing A good firing position provides balance. Press- tice wearing his field protective mask when he is not ing the cheek too firmly against the stock can cause in a combat environment.

the point of impact may not coincide with the point of aim. However. Marine may alter the hold of the rifle to bring the aim- ture it may be difficult to acquire the target and to ing eye in line with the sights. ferred method of obtaining sight alignment. If the eye is too far from the rear sight aper. For example. high difficult to achieve. on offset aiming and the known strike of the round taining sight alignment. . Clear the mask and resume the Placement of the buttstock in the shoulder pocket may firing position.Rifle Marksmanship _____________________________________________________________________________________ 10-15 while in a firing position. Canting the rifle drasti- maintain sight picture. the cally affects the rifle’s zero. See paragraph 10003 for a discussion should keep his head as erect as possible while main. If the rifle is canted. this indicates that the mask’s Placement of Buttstock in the Shoulder seal has been broken. A Marine should cant the rear sight can hit the mask. The Marine and to the right. a Marine may place the buttstock of the Eye Relief rifle just outside the pocket of the shoulder to achieve sight alignment. a right- Head Position handed Marine's point of impact is usually high and to The mask’s shape and bulk can make sight alignment the left of center mass (for a left-handed Marine. a the stock. technique. If the rifle is canted. weld and proper sight alignment. Therefore a Marine the mask may force a Marine to roll or tilt his head has to offset aim an equal and opposite distance low over the stock to achieve sight alignment. possibly breaking a lens rifle only as much as is needed to obtain a good stock or its seal. crease eye relief because the head is farther back along if sight alignment cannot be achieved in this position. when wearing the mask. if the eye is too close. Holding the rifle straight is the pre- The added bulk of the field protective mask may in. have to be altered due to the mask’s added bulk. The restrictive vision caused by and to the right of center mass).

Recording Data Before Firing. the data book. In the BEFORE Prior to firing. If wind conditions are FIRING section of the data book. When used properly it will assist the Marine in establishing and maintaining Wind a battlesight zero (BZO). Recording information in the data book prior to firing saves valuable time on the firing line that should be Wind used to prepare for firing. Data Book l 300 yards: 8/3 l 500 yards: 5 Of all the tools that assist the Marine in firing accu. Specifics pertaining to each Rear Elevation program are contained in the ELR and SLR Circle the rear sight elevation knob setting under lesson plans. a sight adjustment will have to be made prior (see fig. check the wind. It contains a complete setting may be plus or minus one or two record of every shot fired and the weather conditions clicks off of 5. Appendix A DATA BOOK Note True Zero The principles for recording data in the data book are the same for the Entry Level Rifle Front Elevation (ELR) Program and the Sustainment Level Enter the front sight post setting by recording the num- Rifle (SLR) Program. A-1): to firing to ensure shots impact the center of the target. Recording Data Before Firing ter the rear sight windage knob setting by recording the number of clicks right (clockwise) or left (counter- clockwise) under WIND. Some information can be re- corded before going to the firing line. . the rear sight elevation knob is the most valuable asset. En- 2. the R represents clicks right on the rifle from the initial sight setting and the L represents clicks left on the rifle. Under the WIND column under TRUE ZERO. and their effects on shooting. vides generic information for completing the data book. record the following present. if properly used. REAR ELEV for the yard line firing from— l 200 yards: 8/3-2 1. ber of clicks up (+) or down (-) under FRONT ELEV. This appendix pro. At 500 yards. Figure A-1. Note rately and consistently.

the target. windage adjustment needed to compensate for it in the WIND row under CALL number 1. number 1 in the block marked CALL. record it in As soon as the second shot is fired and the target is the WIND column. Recording Data During Firing through the clock indicating the direction the wind is blowing. Remember this location so it Wind will affect the strike of the round right or left on can be plotted after firing the second shot.A-2 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3-01A Direction Determine the direction of the wind and draw an arrow 3. Then check the wind flag to see if the wind changed speed or direction. Then immediately check the wind flag to see if the speed or direction of the wind Observe the flag on the range and circle the appropri- changed. pulled into the pits. . The Look at the clock to determine if the wind is full. add the number of clicks cir- cled under the flags to the rear sight windage knob set- ting from TRUE ZERO. This ZE. A-2): HALF to indicate the wind value. Under VALUE. calling and plotting is done while the target is in the pits being marked. RO will be the TRUE ZERO plus the rear sight windage setting to compensate for the effects of wind. a data entry is not needed. record the exact location where the tip of the Zero front sight was on the target at the exact instant the shot was fired (assuming sight alignment was main- Determine the zero you will place on your rifle to ac. Therefore. Look at Where the First Shot Hit As the target reappears out of the pits. look where the Wind first shot hit the target. As soon as the shot is fired and the target is pulled into the pits. Recording Data During Slow Fire Stages The method for calling and plotting slow fire shots in Note the data book is called “the shot behind method. If the wind direction changed. This information is recorded in the Value DURING FIRING portion of the data book page. This windage ad- Determining Windage Adjustment justment will have to be applied to the rifle prior to fir- The chart beneath the flag indicates the number of ing the second shot. This is because all the 12 o’clock. Plot this location on the target provided under commodate wind conditions to begin firing. Circle the number of clicks where Call the Shot Accurately the wind value and wind speed intersect. record the call of the second shot. If the wind is blowing. Prepare to Fire the Second Shot As soon as you have recorded the call for the first shot. If the wind is not blowing. indicate the ate flag indicating the wind's velocity (SPEED).” It al- Remember that your position is represented lows the Marine to spend less time recording data and in the center of the clock and the target is at more time firing on the target. circle FULL or during KD slow fire stages is as follows (see fig. proper and most efficient method for recording data or no value wind. Front Elev and Rear Elevation prepare to fire the second shot. tained). Fire the second shot. Elevation adjustments are not affected by wind so the same settings are carried over from TRUE ZERO. half. clicks on the rear sight windage knob to offset the ef- fects of the wind. Call the Second Shot and Plot the First Shot Once the windage setting is determined. if wind is a factor. Fire the First Shot Speed Fire the first shot. the rear sight windage knob must be adjusted to compensate for the Fire the Second Shot effects of wind.

If the shots Note form a group (i. a group that fits inside the “A” target The plotting targets in the data book for the bull's-eye or the center scoring ring of the “D” target). and inconsistent 1. Sight adjustments should be made off of a shot group. established sight settings are caused by poor application of the fundamentals. 2. 3.g. KD Course of Fire are in inches. Recording Slow Fire Data During Firing.e. Determine if a sight adjustment is necessary off of the first three shots fired. and different positions. Indicate tencies in sight picture at different ranges each slow fire shot with the appropriate number (e. inconsis- Repeat steps until all shots have been fired. 5).. tension on the sling. center your shot groups. CAUTION ing the numeral 1 on the large target diagram provided Generally. Every effort should be made to correct shooting errors prior to Make a Sight Adjustment if Required making a sight adjustment on the rifle. 4. make the necessary you to calculate the number of clicks to sight adjustment. ______________________________________________________________________________________ Rifle Marksmanship A-3 Now plot the precise location of the first shot by writ. major sight adjustments from in the block marked PLOT. not a single shot. . Figure A-2. in- Prepare to Fire the Third Shot consistencies in firing positions. requiring but are not where they were called.

they appear on the large target diagram in the block marked PLOT. Follow the line down to the numbered horizontal scale to determine the Make a Sight Adjustment if Required number of inches of windage the shot group is off of Locate the center of the shot group. Locate the closest vertical grid line to the center of the plotted shot group. If shots do not form a group and do not just contain a poor shot. center of the group. Calculate the number of clicks on your Plot the Shot Group front sight post (for 200 and 300 yards) or rear sight After firing the rapid fire string. These grid lines represent In the DURING FIRING section of the data book. and when the target is elevation knob (for 500 yards) to bring your shot marked. Recording Rapid Fire Data During Firing. plot all visible hits with a dot precisely where group center. number of inches of elevation the shot group is off of target center. the number of inches to bring a shot group center. If the shots form a target center. Windage. make a mental note across to the numbered vertical scale to determine the of any shots called out of the group. make the necessary sight adjustments off of the rear sight windage knob to bring shot group center. Follow the line While firing the rapid fire string.A-4 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3-01A Elevation. . Locate the closest horizontal grid line to Mentally Call Shots While Firing the center of the plotted shot group. do not make a sight ad- justment. Determine the sight adjustment by locating Recording Data During Rapid Fire Stages the center of the shot group and using the grid lines on the target in the data book. record the following (see fig. A-3): Looking at the shot group: Figure A-3. Calculate the number of clicks on your group.

Under the column WIND under ZERO. record the sight set- and different positions. you to calculate the number of clicks to center your shot groups. After firing a stage. Follow the line down Wind to the numbered horizontal scale to determine the number of inches of windage the shot group is off of Calculate the prevailing wind during the string of fire. in. record the final ele- vation setting made on the front sight post. Determine the direction of the wind and draw an arrow through the clock indicating the direction the wind is Remarks blowing. determine the elevation established sight settings are caused by and windage required to center the shot group (if nec- poor application of the fundamentals. Locate the closest horizontal grid line to If firing from 500 yards. . record the final el- the center of the plotted shot group. record any data or information that can be helpful in improving shooting in the future. What the Marine fails to record may be the information he will need to improve. circle FULL or 4. essary) and record this sight setting in the ZERO block consistencies in firing positions. Record this information in the RE. Observe the flag on the range and circle the appropri- record the following (see fig. Calculate the number of clicks on your rear sight windage knob to bring your shot group cen- Direction ter. Calculate the number of clicks on your Wind front sight post to bring your shot group center. Under VALUE. tension on the sling. Recording Data After Firing HALF to indicate the wind value. Note Elevation. Note Rear Elevation The plotting targets in the data book for the Under the column REAR ELEV. Under the column FRONT ELEV. or no value wind. Locate the closest vertical grid line to the center of the plotted shot group. major sight adjustments from Upon completion of firing. half. Follow the line evation setting made on the rear sight ele- across to the numbered vertical scale to determine the vation knob. Speed In the AFTER FIRING section of the data book. Windage. Every effort should be made to correct shooting errors prior to Front Elevation making a sight adjustment on the rifle. Value Look at the clock to determine if the wind is full. MARKS column. Note Anything done or observed should be recorded. ______________________________________________________________________________________ Rifle Marksmanship A-5 CAUTION Zero Generally. These Remember that your position is represented items will be helpful when analyzing daily shooting in the center of the clock and the target is at performance. and inconsistent tings currently on the rifle. If no adjustments are tencies in sight picture at different ranges needed to center the shot group. number of inches of elevation the shot group is off of target center. inconsis. of the AFTER FIRING section. target center. 12 o’clock. record the rear sight KD Course of Fire are in inches. record final windage setting made on the rear sight windage knob. requiring elevation knob setting for the yard line firing from. A-4 on page A-6): ate flag indicating the wind's velocity (SPEED).

Wind Calculate the windage adjustment to compensate for True Zero the string of fire's wind conditions the same way it was calculated in the BEFORE FIRING information of the A true zero is the established zero without the windage data book. in the WIND column. the wind conditions will probably be different. Therefore. Once the windage setting is determined. Figure A-4. fects of the wind. the added to the rifle. A true zero is calculated because. wind. Circle the number of clicks where the wind value and wind speed intersect. The only exception is now windage adjust- adjustments to compensate for the effects of the string ments are being removed from the rifle rather than of fire's wind. Recording Data After Firing. the rear sight windage knob removed from the rifle. the same settings are carried over from ZERO. . record it on other strings of fire or other days of firing. Because the windage setting is being next time you fire.A-6 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3-01A Determine Windage Adjustment Front Elevation and Rear Elevation The chart beneath the flag indicates the number of Because elevation adjustments are not affected by clicks on the rear sight windage knob to offset the ef. remove the number of clicks adjustments made to compensate for the string of fire's of windage right or left from the ZERO windage set- wind will not be the correct setting for wind conditions ting.

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .lubricating oil. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . lubricant. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .cleaner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and preservative KD . . . . .standing operating procedures TM. . known distance LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . battlesight zero CLP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . arctic weapons NBC. . . . . . . . . . biological. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . technical manual . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . APPENDIX B GLOSSARY SECTION I. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACRONYMS BZO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . and chemical ROE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . nuclear. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .rules of engagement SOP . .

B-2 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3-01A

SECTION II. DEFINITIONS

A
aiming point – The aiming point is the precise point where the tip of the front sight
post is placed in relationship to the target.

alibi – Any condition caused by the weapon, ammunition, or range operation that caus-
es the shooter not to have an equal opportunity to complete a string of fire as all other
shooters on the range.

B

battlesight zero (BZO) – The elevation and windage settings required to engage point
targets from 0-300 yards/meters under ideal weather conditions (i.e., no wind).

bone support – The body's skeletal structure supporting the rifle's weight.

breath control – Procedure used to fire the rifle at the moment of least movement in
the body and the rifle.

C

canting – An angular deviation of the weapon to the left or right from a vertical posi-
tion during firing.

center of mass – A point that is horizontally and vertically centered on the target.

center of mass hold – The placement of the tip of the front sight on the target center of
mass prior to the shot breaking.

centerline of the bore – An imaginary straight line beginning at the chamber end of the
barrel and proceeding out of the muzzle.

chamber check – Procedure used to determine a weapon's condition.

D

double feed – Attempted simultaneous feeding of two or more rounds from the maga-
zine.

dry fire – Cocking, aiming, and squeezing the trigger of an unloaded rifle in order to
practice the fundamentals of marksmanship.

detailed search – Method for conducting a systematic search of an area for specific tar-
get indicators.

E

eye relief – The distance between from the rear sight aperture to the aiming eye.

______________________________________________________________________________________
Rifle Marksmanship B-3

F

function check – Procedure used to ensure the selector lever operates properly.

flag method – Procedure used to determine wind velocity and direction on a Known
Distance (KD) range.

field expedient battlesight zeroing – Process used to zero the rifle at 36 yards or 30
meters when a 300-yard/-meter range is not available.

G

gas operated – A self-loading firearm that utilizes the expanding force of the propel-
lant’s gases to operate the action of the weapon.

H

hasty search – Method for quickly searching an area for enemy activity.

hasty sight setting – A zero established for distances out to 800 yards/meters.

I

immediate threat target – A target engaged at a short range (50 meters or less) with
little or no warning.

initial sight setting – Sight setting placed on a rifle that serves as the starting point
from which all sight adjustments are made for the initial zeroing process.

L

limited technical inspection (LTI) – An inspection performed by an armorer on a
weapon to determine its operational status (safety and function, not accuracy).

line of sight – An imaginary line extending from the shooter's eye through the rifle's
sights and onto an aiming point on a target.

load – Command/Procedure used to take a weapon from Condition 4 to Condition 3 by
inserting a magazine with rounds.

M

magazine – A container that holds ammunition in a position to be chambered.

magazine fed – A mechanical, automatic means of supplying a firearm with ammuni-
tion to be chambered.

make ready – Command/Procedure used to take a weapon from Condition 3 to Condi-
tion 1 by chambering a round.

B-4 _______________________________________________________________________________________________ MCRP 3-01A

muscular relaxation – The state of tension required to properly control the rifle. The
shooter's muscles are in a relaxed state of control—tightened but not tensed.

N

natural point of aim – The location at which the rifle's sights settle if bone support and
muscular relaxation are achieved.

O

observation method – Procedure used to determine wind velocity and direction in a
tactical situation.

P

pie technique – A technique used to locate and engage targets from behind cover,
while minimizing the Marines exposure to enemy fire.

R

range – 1. A designated place where live fire weapons training is conducted. 2. The
horizontal distance to which a projectile can be propelled to a specified target. 3. The
horizontal distance between a weapon and target.

recoil management – The ability to manage or control the recoil of the rifle for a given
shooting position.

rollout – A technique used to locate and engage targets from behind cover, while mini-
mizing the Marines exposure to enemy fire.

S

semiautomatic – One full cycle of operation. The firing, extraction, and ejection of the
spent cartridge, the cocking of the weapon and chambering of the succeeding round of
ammunition after the trigger is pulled.

shooter error — Any action induced by the shooter that causes the weapon to fail to
operate properly or miss the intended target.

sight alignment – The placement of the tip of the front sight post in the center of the
rear sight aperture.

sight picture — The placement of the tip of the front sight post in the center of the tar-
get while maintaining sight alignment.

sling – When properly attached to the rifle, the sling provides maximum stability for
the weapon and helps reduce the effects of the rifle's recoil. Also used for individual
weapon transport.

stability of hold – The ability to acquire a stable position and to hold the rifle steady for
any given rifle position.

stoppage – Any condition that causes the rifle to fail to fire. triangulation process – Process used to determine the vertical and horizontal sight ad- justments that must be made to center a shot group. ______________________________________________________________________________________ Rifle Marksmanship B-5 stock weld – The firm. consistent contact of the cheek with the weapon's buttstock. T target indicators – Anything that reveals the enemy's position. V velocity – Speed at which the projectile travels. user serviceability inspection – Procedure used to ensure a weapon is in an acceptable operating condition. unload and show clear – Command/Procedure used to take a weapon from any condi- tion to Condition 4 while requiring a second individual to check the weapon to verify that no ammunition is present. Z zeroing – The process used to adjust the rifle sights that cause it to shoot to point of aim at a desired range. . trajectory – The path of a projectile through the air and to a target. windage and elevation rules – Rules that define how far the strike of the round will move on the target for each click of front and rear sight elevation or rear sight windage for each 100 yards/meters of range to the target. weapons transport – Procedure used to carry the rifle for long periods of time and when one or both hands are needed for other work. trigger control – The skillful manipulation of the trigger that causes the rifle to fire without disturbing sight alignment or sight picture. weapons condition – Describes a weapon's readiness for live fire. U unload – Command/Procedure used to take a weapon from any condition to Condi- tion 4. conducted by the shooter. W weapons carry – Procedure used to effectively handle the rifle while remaining alert to possible threat levels.