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~ ~~

~~ 1.Ji'.,1 Discovery of India lfT ~f~ta S{{f ~f~~ an~ cnl, (,iRt~

, Sl'lif~ , \ 't~ U~ ~{Cfia~r ~~r a%Pcii{)~{T~T ~{ tt~l{if ~G ~

~ WfJtl CY{, flNrm;:ff 3' ttr~ ~{fc{~l~ o&f~ ~~ ~ 8lTI=~~rf~ ~T(tCf ;r~! ~~T;;!lr~;rrm Cf~ ffi' cg;qijT f.!rf~ ~T~ ~ ~1 'iT~ ~~ ~ijt ita ;n{t II "

"Many of the theoretical and other differences that had often separated some of us from Gandhiji disappeared, but still that major difficulty ~remained-any action on -our part must interfere with the war effort. Gandhiji,

to our surprise, still clung to the belief that a settlement with the British Govenment was possible and he said he would try his utmost to achieve it. And so, though he

talked a great deal about action, he did not define it or indicate what he intended to do."

(The Discovery of India Page 576-78.)

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~, An opinion is now very commonly entertained that the erection of Satara inro a separate principality was a mistaken proceeding. It is at least clear that this principality includes the finest part of the Deccan and by its position most awk wardly breaks the continuity of the British territory. There are those, Therefore, who will hail the present crisis as affording an excellent opportunity of repairing the error alluded to, by pulling, down the inconvenient pagent we have erected."

Robert Grant

ij'ffiRT ~T~~r ~{l1~T~ ~~ ~~R~ ~{ ~WiTq~ Cfir~ ~r~ ~ (l~ q~ ~iT~r q(1~ 3~tlTd>lillril:q ~~Ti?) ij;:r q'ft~;:r ~ij ~~. efir.J;ft:01.Tt ~i aYTCfi 6T~l~ij~ a{~~ ~rif&:T3)\1 ~ ~{~;:r~(f5T efT. ~ ¥ ~~if{ , c:: '1 \3 ~::1fl ~~~(?~r ~ta ~~Gra:-

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n~~ rJT. ~ 0 3lrll'l 9 c:: )( c:: U:jfl s~~R:fWr ~T (,9~cH ft;5~~T an~ ~~tCl 01 ftf2~ ;:~rrrm-" 9 c:: 9' ~r(?l troqr~~r ~;;nijT:q ~)r:r ~T~ff~ ~q::r1 ~~ar ;J~rn,?J:qr tfr[tijT filooTqr .~I1l;:r ~~T~;if ~TaT{~ {T~ 31;;rTN" {T~~ 3l~~(I' ~~{ Cf :U~TrrrCf'rn~ at~(f5 J ;=JQ~ ~ff~, anfUr {~T~~ ~~r~~ atfCl~rtt Q~~ij' qr~ aH~d'; qUI q:UiTl (l'Toijm itai~ aUnT ffiij' crl ~)2:0f sHflll Q~Tfi ~rrr~)qr ;:r ;r,{aT :utaqUf ;:rf!:ff a:rr~; ~r~ ij'TaT~~ {l~~ ~ 3lTCfT 3iijT~a U~1]'lf'~ ~)ur~T.T ~T~ a{~ "T~. ~~~ u~~ 3lTOT +{~\1 ~T~ 8l~, m~, ~oo~ ~ f;r~q~cft if;{~ 81T~. aQ~t f~qT~l:O~T ;:f;u~r~ ~ ~r~rrrEf4if ~Tl% ~CfU~m ~i~:q i11'aar c:rr~T ! "

~T~r{.q1 rn~r 3f~T ~rslfr~~~ ~Gl~Tg~ ~i~{ ~ru ~:u ~~OS~T I tir{1JT ~{ril ~'~T~~{~ €f atT~1o mij. ~e~;pt;rT ~~T~ an~H ~m ctt,. ~(?r~aa Q{T r~r:!f ~~. ~Tij~ Efirll~{ Cf ~f{;:::~{ w:r~qT~ ~)rJyffi:q ~n~T a-{t=5T ;{~at. qrrr ~{~iI ~T~T at~+{qr~{ a{WlfT~~, (?~T 8{6 T;rPtlrf ~nt ~TlT~ tT ~(05Tw:r:?r ~T~ 8111{ ~~f~Tq:ij ~, ~ ~:n( ~~jf ijra: an~! ~~t;;~r fCfr~~ a ij~lS){ ~~ atTfUT q{;f {T~f;r~ ~I!!f ~a ~~r~ ~~ croff qr~(f. ~cft ~rffR~ {T~~ ~~~ar tfiT<.f CliT{OT ~~ ~ 6fi~(? ~ li~ ;JT(?1)+[ ~reT ~~~ '51~~ii ~{t ~ijq

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. ~UJll=&Ufo "~t?;l1T:q Cfl{ij" ~CfT ~ ~l~ Efi)~~ ~ !!~rilf~ ~TH1 31~, ~it~. crH:e 8~r~T:q ~{ ~1~:q19{ ijUtJlfT:eif qT~aT +lli1rcrlfl:qr ~R, fq~t~Cl fe~Efe)ftlfT {ToTt8r au ~l~:qfi:f{ il~:prlff:qf ;nT:q ~N:fir{ a{(~ ~ " qijf <.1~3~ ~~Tll1qtJTT=qr aq~liJ eJiT~ ~ 3~ ~Jn cr~~Fi(f{ ~o~T ~mGI~ at~~~~ {I~:q ~~f4a aQ~r lfl {T~'-l~~~~r ~~rOT'i'lTTT.{l .nr(? ~q~ it~ ~ ;or, 6Tll)e:~"OlH .,~rGTmT ~~~lfr ij~T C1~Ta- ,. '-IT {f~lJt:qT qr{~r tnm aiI~~ 9:ST13aa')~~ ~r~~, ~~ =tIT~rijttlqr~~ ~lrrrr{ 'lI{t, " a{~ is\W5~I\4T ~n;y ag~ tfm~ 1-' It will be seen that the succession was limited to children bo rn of la wful wedlock and was not extended to collateral heirs' (Oudh papers 1858. p. 252.) eiB"~llT a*C:T(?T B"r~T ~~ q !F1~ql;:ft ~:nijJfr; a~ atT\;fT{ ~t~a efir~ ~ irrr<.1 ~~ _H t.!lif llf ~~tCf t~.rTf~

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CfTH,r:crT B'~ enrlJ~T ~lJirl~ 9~q q 3ir.rtfT~ ;qTij~~ :nt~T iTcrfT ~;lJrfl rn~la ~H~1 I ~lJir;f~ B'l-T:1TT, S~ ~~T~T Q~T ~~r~ {T~~T ~{, 81trr~r~TlJ Cf.p-1~mr,{.rt ~Mt~ ~-!fP.y ~~T m~l:qT ~~T~ B'~'jf Cf,~ ~~ill. ~~ (!5T~t:r.{r CfH~T clfT ~T~r~ 31T~~{ ~~ tlij 3Fl{ eJfu9'lf! 8lit0 (l1m~TQf .q ~'-H Ef,'1T~' 3hl~t(l 3lr'rrrCf~T:crT, ~llt'1r cnr@ ~tf:if ~r;qa: ~Tqlq'-rI~ ~r&lrf, liT ~Hoo llT'if" ~i=f~ ~ \H13iUlJT~T{~ ~P1 3n~~' ~:n~ qr{~ ~T~:J.:fTq{ ~t~l a%lfIJT cn~ 2~'1:;;r ~l~~~ 3fT~~wt ~r~., t:f1Jf (;qT~~ ~~f~Ti1tG qT(~T:qT ttr@ ~Tl1~T~ fu~ii ;:rT~ i3l~ o{a rrTQl ! ;:err ~~Ffi 3fijr~lJ en~rr ~'lt'T {r~~ ~Gfcfu~T(_?r Cf.llJ enROl 1 ~3f:sr~~Cf ~r 6fiitT itf1TT~lJT ~t(T~l mil ~r~. (lJTenft~r ~p-Tr~ an fur ~{~Tij '1'l" ~T~ C:?Fl~ (f{ ~~ ~;:rlrr;~J(CfirTcn::cr ll~T 31lar f=~f1TTCflJl~l ! anf11l t{Cfi ~P-TT" r~~~ ;:~rJ{~ ~a- ~l;~rM'lit~ rrJaCfT~~:q ;:ro~rr R'{ ~lJt~9{ 8{q~~ 81ijlTfr~T ~;nGT ~'~n« a1TP--lai:crr rrT~ ~lJTr{ 1 ental ~~~ ~t a'{ ~qljj 31T{B' ~llT "T~ Hllll'l 1 I afP:rOTT~ij{ ~ ~~ en~n ~SUTT{, amq~;:r frl3f?r~ aH:r~~lJr ijt~r~Cf,t~lJr ;:r~n~1 ~9 ~T (fooijoo &:ra' 81~(5 ~T~1 ~r.r;:rr~ f3lfl'd~r ~ 8l~~lJ 3H~ ! ,J

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~llT~ st~ ~Tij~~ fira~ qT~~at lr~(?'; furrli qt(lfq€5. ~~my ~G<nfFft ~r ~Rf;n (iT ;:&iiT_t ;:r{r~F.rT or ~ ~t~ +rr~t an:7\" ~)! 81T~ ~' ~~r~ +r~ t~r~f allll rtT{ ~~'l ID~. {OT~affii{lwla{ ~~~;rr~f.fiT ~~'ifqT rirntt ~~~:q-rifr~ (_?T~~r ilT~'T, ;qTn- ~C6T ifT{r. ~~~ c:G[~ ~~T ~TG ~q~ ;YlT~ ftwn m~~~~T ~d(f ~~ ita. ~~~T U~llT~ ~Tfw..rT a-~q~ 3fsT:q Efi"'R: ~q~ 8T~ r.rT~rt~ q~~~ a"f(q' E6tfT~ ftffi~ ,,~ ~~R 3(~ (?~ q ~ ;U(ffi{ ffiqj:qr ~rft ifir{@T'1'f t~~ 3ftWfT qr€nlT1r ~~T. qllT {lJTf~re~r~~ t~r~ {f~G[ ~q~t.n ~ qq{T qq~ ~s ~f ~~ ifr{r. {1lT~aRt&T;rrit ~~Rrr g(_?lTT amTif srn~~~ f:rc:rm'T ~;;=q?t ~r~ q ~l1ffi:q ~~trft an~T ~ffi tn~ it~T! ~~ r:fiT~ aRFf{ ~T~ ;r.r{11f ::illT~ ;U~ ijfq ~ftlt ~Tiil t ~r ~Tq{ (ffT ~ ~~ 3fr~~~ tTT~~ am \jfTO@ ~OJf~af?f~Jtft 'ic:;ft f*~« ~~ ~ ~!PrfcR ~Tg~ !

...

~g ~tfi~~f E6T{Cfi~ fm~q:_{, ~)~T~, ~CJT~ C{ ~~rer ~q :qr{ ~w:ttft{ ~Ut ~a:iif ~@f:qT ~n ms ~T~T q m~ {T~ q~"

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~a;;:r ~qFIi {fu~T~T gCfi;Jcffcr 1r~. ~~f.n ctw;ta- ~@ ~

~;rT;:r ~tcr ~~ifroRt~ ~~rr ifi~ ~q''jfFft anq~ an~ R~{ ~. {l1Jf~arn~.T=qT 5:~rn ~m~ at~Tif &:Tar Ef ~ffiT~~ ;:~;:r ~ ~~ ilf~ ;r~~ m~. t=~m f:-,r~~ ~1~ ~ 8l~~ (ffr ~ ~fJT ~~i~:o<:JT ~Tal ~cft. ~fu~G~T g~~rfuqT~ \T~Gffa~ qTwt~ &~~ ;:r~€f a{ij ~~~a ~~ :ql~ 1 ~ft@'t~ ~ ~~{ ~~, f1frora ~~ anfOl ~~ ~iH ~~T{ ~;YTm ifir~ {t~~tn- qT~Ol:qr{ f.tCf ~i;fr. 3f~n q'{ij5f' fttlaTff a{r'l~T aTmrr g~iTT ~~T~ ~T~~ Cf 6iT~~T fe{tT{ta' ~a5 1Sf~;r :a-iUT Cfi~~Q ij~ ~tr ~T(3 ann 3fT~ct{, an~ ftr4Cf U~JT ~r:q ~traS !JG'lT~ ffi;rT q{+J~ir I at~ ;rr~ \crrftfi1rn~T~r '1~;:ff f*f.{~i:f{ ~ t:J;ifi;n ft(9tr !!%' G~~O ~ijT. qlJT ~(f97l rn~f CfT~:q q~lcft ~Fl~ "T~. ~1\1lT ;g~~~

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~ q~fif~ tlfitC1Rf ~8 ~! ~~ijf:qr "-'iTttlR mGfm Tffii 8{~t {~tCf m ate ~ m~ ~ c:tlT~ ~~~ ~1;rT~f~;r ~T~ ~~ll ~ I amTilCfR?::fi i=~ux_;r ~~ ~T cr ~(~r{t ~arrcr~T{ <:IT ;{re<:I~ ~Ecft' {ftJ~:;fi at~Qt f~~r ttT~ 3{vTiI ~t~T mrncfi (?5rrr~, ~T q;T~=q 3{rtfT~ lir~r I ~~ ~ {r~lfr~~ ~r* ~l~ ~ oq~nt(: f~~~ q ~{O}(qij~ ~T &T~~~T ~r itT~~rc:ftt?T C:<:Irg.:r a{~1li ~~~ ~fJt ~(f ~T(f; q'1lT ~;rr;:~ ~)"-fit~~ affi:;n{'JTr~r mo1tT €t~~ ~ ~:~ q'Tairf reR q~ ~~ ~ta :n;nT ilr&l. ~ BUlf~11T ij'~ijfq{ ~Z?Tqr~ [( en~ij ~q:5{tift ~~~Cf~ fu~T <?sT~qr~Yf (("-6 &~r~ ~~ ~ Gf~Trn ~~ ~~Cf a-f~ q ~T \1T~T c{tG ~r~ ~r.r~ aq~ ~cH, m ij~qT cn~ ~f{ ~:m{ ~qit itit?T. atlfaI f~~'if«~J~T iEfiTllij:eH fet~r~a-Cf;:r~ t:lfr:oqr 9{~rrr~~~ ~llT~T f~cfi ~f{F.lT ~~T f~T I! ~r&ij at'Nli f;{~;sr;:rT ~J!lT~:ft 9l~~ ~

~~~:ft~~T cnTm~T(i fe~~ 6lijT{~ ffi~ ~mT(?;T ~li~. ( 8lJft{ arr~~ u~sr+nijf ~Cf~ q f~{ aRfa. <=m-=tT ~ij'~r~r RKl:;;~:qT attT~T\ ~T q;~~n q ~qa:~ fCfTa:Slffl ~erl rrilTc{~ ;:r~€l. ~~lfr q)qif it~ijr;ft Cfro~;fir~t? t:~tijT ~~+il ~~ll qTG~ 6Tit. llTHfCf CfitrJre~rf~ ~ffi q~ E1It?OCft~T fficn enI{OlPlflf 6{Ni;f) ~w; a~ {T~~T ijflff;fT q{Efr;:r~T ~ rr«a. q3ir~nl~~ :;;rTl1~·H:OlJT ~m~I~ ~Cf,~T ~ ar~ ~T;r crtoo ~(fT ~T[:rr Rr~ q~I:qT qT~1Jl1 Cfi~ tr~T • ~~ ~q)<_fS ~ ~~ am ~&IJfT~r~ t€t "iIf aHij=ijf q~ ~l;i~~~T ~~« q~ar; Sitar ~ SIre elft~l{T af$ma lt~l:q eta ~~T ! " ~ ~~~ iiT@l{ ~~T crsney:q ~~ ~ 1 anfCn ~q:ilTijl Efit~~ iEfiRUT ii6aT, ar~d:;~T ~:o~fq~ f6~~~~ 5lt1ll SfmijOT ~~ I ;{C{{ ~~<1~ cr~ Sfi~, ~Cf{ ij- Q~ ~T~lfl~ fi1il1~ ~ ~~lfT ~llr 6lTfdJ 8l~{ Rter ~Rl~r ~t?T 1 " l@-lq~ ~lf31iift ~ ~ Bifai:fiijO'f ~~, flfr~ stitarfllr~ atRr{\I'*.llr SfiTlf~'lIf ~iI~ ~q~ =6{at lrlJfT{ ijT~ l' 6lij ~ftiga; 8l~~ ~ ;:~?;~ a1ft. ~ ar-mT~f~.,fOlfr fCfT{fa' ~~t:qr ll~{ cm+rcr HT~T er ~~ lt~r tNu ~~R ~TijitT.ft ~ijcg ~ ~~ ffflli ~ Il~ ?ft m~o ~i.'04r~r f:if%a q{o 6:rr~T 1 (=llT w~:q, q:qq,. fij'1:I«f1:@f itR'R'N' ~~

ffI~tt ~~:mcfr ~TG{"5T 1 CfIJf ~ ;)~ts' .. ~q~ Cfi{oft' ~ , lt~ ifo~., ar~ ~rrl{ tt~fq;r~ llrrr ij'{ :qr~« it~ lfT~T taft~r ffflto CfiTiI ~ dlT(Cf :- " Coming after Afganisthan, it put one in mind of a bully who had been kicked in the streets and went home to beat his wife in revenge." (Empire in Asia.

P. 301 ) ..

~~a:~r:ocrr ~f!~~ :fiT{1Jf a{ ~cr~ QT{=~rfq~ an~ I ~ttir ~tt~ ~Tqy~l;;~T ~ICl~ ~~r ~~ ~~T~TT.JT ~ ~r6r) ~~ ~~r:;~T it~ ~r~r q)~ ~ \ ens ~~ ~r. qay ~rGo~t;ft ~qj{fql ~l~m C6~ ~s ~rq~T:qr ~~ ~ efit~T ~q~ ~~~R~ ~t={ij rr~ I ~tf,R~ ~t;fi ~n-:q ~~R1y;r~{'llt ~~ ~ \ \ ~sT:qT {~;{ q ~~~~TT~r a{fetfit~crT~ ;rt'fiT +JT'lItfi 31m g~ij Cfi+riPct~T. ~~~ at;ft ;rr;~ ~)cft~ amI tlJ f~t(l:q ~tnft* ~~r~~qr~:ql {ER;r ttCf)~q ~~ 6T~ qt~ ~at ,

.

~~~~r~ {l:jiTif ~~ {~ij Efi\6 co~ ~:ni1Tq:qT{Ft ~~~I;r {ill+{ qO'~n·

~* ~~~crTij' l{0&~{ ~q~wT q~ qta~. qay q5f nru;u~l:ql qT~ ;:r qr~t tt~~+{ ~~t~ g~ct:rff ~ t, ~~r:qT ~ g;~&m ~9r ~TiT~ l' atm ~~Fft ~~a:~r:;tJr u~r~ '1TittT ~~ r:f 8Mf Stf?l'a:~ ~re~n ~T. ~~a ~~ atij iir~:q ~HtT t Cfffli ~~at;:r ij cor+r ml1~. Stf~~~ {f~ {§1T~tU Q.~ ~~ Cf anr.r~ fr:fla:>lf taefi(ij ~ox.;:r, ~T~r ~m1t il:lf{layr li[1ll;r ~~ 8lNCfiT=<:Jl;:r 8lTay~r ~)(lT. quy' fqrcl~~' ~ ~g q~lT;Y ~~Cl ~at lICl '1T~T, aT a-{qT{t~:q f~TcfT eTl{~ ( ~lJfir: 'f~m ~O&€f !

~~ (r~uij' !82r~ ~T ~{tQ lf~ ijrl1'{{~r {T~~~ ~~ ~f111~~~ an~. qTfI'{{~ {T~~ ~r~~r ~~Tq-{ erCTmcs ltfQ;:lfMT, ~ ,~ arqr;rcn rfiq-;ff ~r~;r ilml{(=QlJT {T:if~~ifl: G'TCfiT qmC?;T q .~~;i:s~tat~ fij{~t~T ~cil~T ijit {=Rfi iI~{~~ij ~. ~re(?1.IMY

~~fTq3[lf Cf)~q a{T~q{ ~ atqR: ~fu filCii~ ?;~~ ~~ mTfi ~~ (t~u« ~~~. ~~ a{~ ~~qtq ~(~ ~ ~lfr ij~~ ~ ~"r~ ~ ~T~ ti1~icn: 6fflTcfr 1 (miRR ~e~~T ij'rFlil qif~~~

Q~~ ~TftUa ~ +{l~lI~~r ~r~a:Ifi~T ~~,;:n ;;T~{ ~~T:01.1r ijfill;rr5PWf 5H~ ~tcr ~m 8l~T. m;:fi ij'(C6T~ (?5T~nrT, a{~, ~{q, ~~ffi ~~ 111~ff ;-fcf~ m~. qcrr ~~:o~r qT~~G~T "flfTij Cfit~e'~ ijTif ~fn. ~r~ e6t~ 5Jt!Rl ~t;:fT qr~~r~ ~r.r~~~T ~r ~~ ~e~n« ~1lT@lfrCT i)';nr ifi~ ~Q~t ~(im ~q{fu ~)3iij tfiq;ft ij{ - i:fiT~ tr {~Jt '+lI~T ~' ~r ~tan~ ~~T ~3i~ ~rq~$~lJf {rl{~~lIi'-t)lJr :qftfNT~ ~r~~ \5fT~~ 8{ij ~~~ ita. qar qi":q ij'~T q~f~ ~q;J (l~T iliSr-m{ ~~I!{ ~T;:r1i+t m~, ~~r mr ~cr.T~ ~f~ ~ sllfUr {{~~ ~T ij~ rg ~ ~C{~ {T~Uq lT~q ~T enfOT +lT~~riigT~ ~t~ ~~ f!T~~! ~;~;:~ ~ R?f(aT- "The solemn mockery of a ' deposit' has disappeared, and the personal property of the dispossessed royal family is quietly absorbed as a I set off ' to the expense of their stipendiary expenses, '

attf;~ lr4ft ~q~t~1 (T~{l«qat ~alT~T~ ~ \.CtTij'lfi ~rm.,gqr;r, ~~r{t{ +ltit~l re~tcnij ~Yl GT~ 1 (;JT fir:qr:1ir~ (T:7~ lt~ t:ij_Ol~ ~r~ @rm~rft: ar a~!cn ~Tl.f ~ r.fi~rRFi: ~);:~:qT~ tt~ ffierT ~iS~rtWa ~ft1 ~CT~~ntta.lt U~i ~ eft ~EfiTdQ ~~1 %qt1t ~~ 6i~ G{~Rwr 6T:nTflT ~:fiCflq~r~ 6l~~ t ~{C6T{ q{~ q ~ijfij: ~~ aU a{~{ {{{tl)rm:q fcT~fG ~r~~<tTiit{t~ ~~t~ fir+lTq ~rrrurl{ ~ qor ~(;{ffi~ ~T ~~lJTr{Tt ~r~T a{~ ~f=srr ;r"o&w 1 fiF.{cfRr {Ttl q~~ ~t:O~T a-c;ft'O(;{T a~T~{f1Trq~~ ~ ~!!;:r an~. , G ~ \3 Gr~ at~ij{ltf tt~~ <tMr ~ ~r{~~ ~&T a;it olfr~T:Ollr ~r{r;r ~ ~~ ~q~ O<trit ~q~. ~~ ~r Cfif, ~Tm lt~ ellt;ft arter~~~r ~ew;r:qr q ~~cit~T ~ ~rwrqT. !Ii ~r qq.rrrl Sf~QUq ~~r ~(lffq{ ~{tf;T~ ~6ii~+r ~r~r~r ~ ~(T G~i{~ :qr{ 2~ "~r. ~~r ~~~ f~{~Cf ~~r~~{f.f ijttiY ~: 6iT1JT~ cft;:r a~ ~q~ (1~2f)r~T ~ ~tm ~2ft~ ~Tf;l~ ~ttlr~r ~~ ~~qq_ ~r~~lRfT~ ~2f~~r ~~ q aror {T(ft;:r anq~ ~~?Jt1JT attfUr

~Gf ~T ~~:eft COT{ :q tl1~T ttcl1~ tf;g Ef;~. qar 3~ ~P:C~l~~T

. . .~.

~(~ij{ tlfT:qr '~$ ~~flT qT~Cf{fCf 61efElT :;.rT{ ql5lT:qr at~Til 8l~ar,

(l{CfiT{;r \-lTfik ~ef~tC1~ ~Il~ at~fijl=.J) ~~ i6~, aufGT qt:q ~T@ ~q~ ,r~Uij' flJ~~a- ~~. ~f~lif~ ~;srT~~ ~n f~ ;nTllTr:fi~ r~lcp'{l~? at:f(T tleft~ *~05 q~T~f-.F.fl:at fEf~"RH~ 3'~ ;j::~~ ~€i~r qij'f 1:rr~liT~ 8{~TWf~cr ~~t.tr iirtytH ~~T ! 1

G:~~ijl:o:!JT ~r&i~ru~r ~m~ ~G;fr i{r~m ap.ft~~~r {T~:qr~ q~~. :it~{ ~'~fr~~n f;r~~:ft+r {f~f;;y~ CfWj :q-r;'l ~~ ftrtO~ ~r{f

e,

~TtJ~ ~cil'if i1~ 1JT'fi dEt:S~. ~Trrr\'.1r ~tf3t (?T~fWfT~ ~fm(3 ~:qfllT~

~l:;r~ij ~ctt lrrlJTij'l{~ ii~~. fttTiiii ~r ij'~T ~ 3{~)~~~ ~fu~G ~~T. f'-.Jr;r ft?ft~ 3H~- ,. Lord Dalhousie and I have different views, I fear. If he wishes anything that I do not think right and honest, I resign, and leave it to be done by others. I desire a strict adherence to solemn engagements whether made with white faces or black. We have no right to annex or confiscate Oudh. We have a right under the treaty of 1837 to take the management of it) but not to appropriate its revenues. We can do this with honour to our Government and benefit to the people. To confiscate would be dishonest and dis. honourable. To annex would be to give the people a Government as bad as their own, if we put our screw upon them. ,.

, ~l{ f~f'1it~T 3flT{ ~~~ +n1Jf~~ ~lt-~T (~~ ((TIJf ~r,' -am m ~ft ~TZY~ ~T;r 3~lTT~ ~i!~ a{1~ _ ( Among her ministers have been able individuals as are usually to be found in the East. ") ~~iI'llT{ 'lTIJffiR{ <ftCfi~ 3{~ct ft1~ ~6. (~~T

{l~ ~tr ~if3i ~l'iT~Rt t1tGf ifTtr ftm:q, f~raft, ~ ~~rf{ at~~ J(l1Jf~ Cli'fafflT fiT{I' ~ €~i{i(~ ~ ant- ( "There is no want of an educated class for civil offices. On the contrary they abound almost as much as the class of

.soldiers, ") qvr '-H ~ ~:qr ~rilt(T'f ~~P1 ;r~r. ~~ ~

ettq~ ~ 6"{~ffi ~~sHn.jf, ap:ft~~ ~~lJ ~11lfF.tr ~61~ f;(~~ *~T ~ffi 1

~qRft:qr tfiT{~R emr fra~ ~~r~' ~~~q_sr~Tar ~~f'lr ~i;(T~C'fi ~R?T ~ijr! ~r~<rr cnr{~ff m~, q~rif, ~)~r, ~m ~f ~tY \~it !i~. Cfij:q ~fejUlffi~ ;:lq_{, cn;riGii, ct~T«, ~HlTn, ifTlll{\ ~ ~ ~~~ ~~r~ ~I~. q-ij:r$ SlA ~~r. ilt~, ~ij{{', ~~05'{{, a-~t{ ~~~~ ~ ij~~T~, ~1 ~05 {'r~f;r~;r ~~r~T{?r &:Tij ift~;r ~'lf~ ~r:;~T a~T~ i(~qft~{' ~ cr qi;ul~ ~llcr ~~, ~~ WlTiT~ 8H~. 8f~~ a y~;n~T{, 9'~~1{, ~'1T;r~l\ q~91lT:q, ~Ef{ ~IWl ifT~~q ~T~. ~r~~ ~tG +=&:11{'1 ~Cf~(?~r ftr~FiI, f.F;q'T f~lJr, 8l~rij 6l11{ 3l1f~ ~Rl' ftr'ooiiCf (1{efiT{efi~ cn{Tu;r am~ au J ~~T~ ~1~ ~n)l~fa u~~ ;rr~! CfiTuft ~ ~~r:qT ~r~~T~r 8HT~r 6llf{' ~{fo~t:qT q.~crT 3{ij'z;5T, afr t~ u~ ~cfFr~~T 9' ;r[CHH:TcF.f ~tr~t:;~r ~+{aJ~ ~~g~ B3'lTn 8{T~r. ~(Jf~lJr 8fr6~T ~ ~~T ~{co)oo ~fq~TcoRClr~ cf;q;:fl ~{;nR ~~oo qifFi ~~. ~{efirrnr 9'12: '8fTIJf@t fij:;~ ~~t=r ~ (?Tii ~rr!JfT{ Cf ~:((., ~rlJfR ~ , qar ~<.Jt:q1 {,l~if f!ST~ an aHg~ ~~r~rlf ~ l1{rJTT{ ~ij (~ 6{rfOT ~~:qT fij~:u a~T qiij( O&TCff ~ ~~l;:r q{it:-~~T:t:~T q(f ctU 8lij FtfGr1t r~~r~ i:f)ij &)~ ~ ~~ u~hff ~ ~lt ~~ ~ all ~n~: ~~r ~lJT n~t~ft ~~ 'i~~ a{B~ au, ~lJt~ f9~q- ~Cfoo 'o~f~llCf' "Q~~; a€f 8ffiff (l{ ~ ~~qi{ 'ct~f~<.JTCf' o~ ~~~1 ~ B~oo ~T~. qar (IT u~rro1 ~r~ CE{'f{ ~ cnr;rriT ~r{fir t 3lTfaf;(~~' t~~q ( corporate character). ~ij atij~ ~~~ (T~;r ;rl.,cr t ~ij.

~~ anfur ~f{Js'l ~~rq1:ft~ a&:-=frP.rt:qr Sl~ {r~rUW:OlJr ~~ijl;:~ ~~~HSI;rtOT ~r !fi{'~f:qT diijffl, aij:q cr&t~~ ~f~1ffi Cf6: (Personal) CJ mfij~;s' a~ ( Corporate) ann qil1J~'.fT~ (1~~ Cfi~ ~ ifier 'QT~, <IT if(~ ~ol~ ~~ ;n~ ~r{ ~ ~:qt Sl~~r Sfa'~t~ ~~ anI· ~tat~ ~-=f ~~ liT !R~T~~ a:61:-

( 1. ) " The notion that the treaties of 1799 are binding upon us only for the life of the prince with whom they

were contacted, because they do not contain the word , heirs and successors t is one that can derive no support from the recognised standards of International Law, and which will never-it may be confidently predicted-be

supported by any opinion from the law-advisers of the Crown tt ( P. 312, )

( 2 ) " A reigning prince which is named in the treaty is the representive of the state, which is permanent, and of sovereignty, which is al ways hereditary. Grotius lays down the rule-" If a treaty is made with the king by

"

name, without any mention of heirs and successors, it is

not therefore presently to be reputed personal, for as it is well observed by Pedius and Ulpian, the person is often inserted in the contract, not to show that the contract is personal, but to show with whom the contract was made. " ( P. 313. )

( 3 ) " The chief authorities of the International law tell us that the provisions of a treaty must always be interpreted in the sense most favourable to the weaker party ... ., ( Evans Bell P. 316. )

q'1lT :!iT ~~ :U~JUl'r:rOTTT.JT t~~(:ft~~ CfiTsrt:frc;r ~)rr ;r~Ci T. ~~~ ainv «n~~TT.J ;:r~I. ctT~~qfg~ CfiTv.;{ tfi~ Sf~~~\lr ?f,~. qrrr ;rr-~to;:r ii~r aT~ tiiTGOf cr ~~ffi at~~ar ar~ '1r(tij'T ~cit, &T ~r ~)g-

....

q{l~;r ~~Tf(~lt ~cfT ~~TWr cti~~~ ~qq, ~t i{urt{ iir~ll

(~~ t~{' ~ ~cfr C:~'f(?T~ ~+fct. "Dalhousie was very fond of calling treaty a grant "-o(r~r ~:UR? cit '~O'fl1T' ~r :U-~ ~Tefr. C6T{Of ~Ift i=i{UI~ , Jil~o '; iJ')~ff ~q~ f.~~ ~~ itqitq ! 6~R'5q,;ft ~{'5ijJ;fMt c.:5&{ ~ ~ r:nr~ ~cft t

anfOr . ~~ ~1J03t ,fEr ~ftqT t ij{ ~tt\ltt~ \T~~ ij'~ ~~fifiA: ~q (~ ijt~:qT. SI~R Sfi,ocn~ft~T. ~~T ~rn"\ ~~;ft ~

8e

~rqTEf affl {~T~r ClrZ; ~~ ~j{t ~1.:T~ ~ q'{it~T~ ~1Jft ~T~~ ~~ ~ ~fqCf ~a-. ~efi~~~r ~)mr q;t~ ~q:~ a=o:q ij~~fa, f~T, ~r~ Jli1T+ltef;tT aH{ar~ ~t ~Ttm C:~RT:q~ ~~~ ~~t#iilr1T a{T~

~o-.

~1(T .• , Mr. Kaye has well expressed it that 'he had no

imagination' and thus he never came to understand the genius of the people with whom his lot was cast. H

( Bell. P. 250) 5{fit~ ~Cf a16 err~crt ~r ~q~r:qT aTG' ~+lrer=q 8{~. afTtR~n gqf{iit:;~ ~~~n 3{+J~Rr if an~~H G'{ :st'll ~t~ ~iT ~~ am c~twtT tfl~~ ! tt~~+rT;Y ~~ ~ ~Tl4l; '1t~(f i{T~f~ 3R1(fHi (<1fSl;n# ~!t:;jf ~~(J fJr'$!Ti1 il{~fCt~ 3R1rTf?f ~o;oT:q q;~~ ~ ~{ ~+i~ 'FlU ~Fr ~~ 6f~- ,. Englishmen are as great fanatics in politics

as Mahomedans are in religion. They suppose that no country can be saved without English institutions. I.

~(Rfr~T :f,f{+TRT~ { Slit 3f~ q fcIf~ ~er~q qT&~ JI'1fa ~Tq, ~IT, mH?-fiT~ ~c:~r~ ~=li +lTC{;rr 3"C:q;;{ ~ at~ =tr~ff ~~ ir~ 8Htcfi<?5 ~ ~~, cH{r. ~T'{(r • <?5~U flJ3fi~1 arT~r ~~~~i1tcf ~~ ~. Q11T ~~l~l~T ftr~rt{ ijliT~ 2fr~~~Tq~t~ am: ~1. '11Jf ~~ ttT'f ~T§.lreft ~aT. '~T~~~ ~r:p_f , ~r iffttT€frz;fr ij"~ ~tfGirlT({t(T(t ~R~t{ :q~T ~(n. aTlfUf ~l( ~ :tl (lij ~r ~~ae ffT'f ~la ~~! '{~i ~:Sij ~~ Ci~ ~,~r~~ ~(?1.{r~ ~ qr~it~f({ ~q;:ft~r~ 'tTi1T~ q)~ ~+r ~'1 ~~ ~ ~~1~ efeit.ffif ~ ~.

U It had been said of the Company that there was something in their operations which combined the meanness of a pedlar with the profligacy of a pirate. Alike in the military and in the political line could be observed auctioneering arndassadors and trading generals and thus we saw a revolution brought about by affidavits, an army employed in executing an arrest, a town besieged on a note of hand, a prince dethroned

'for the balance of account! Thus it was they who

united the mock majesty of a bloody sceptre and the little traffic of a merchant's counting house, wielding a trunchen with one hand and picking a pocket with the other! ! "

lfT qolijffi~i c qr~t~' q 'fq~ qt~C!' ~T fq~q-a:r ~{t ~cft ~ ijltT

<,

~Rff Cfit~ a1U~{sif:q ~T ~~t~ qr~~tijr aH'3~ ~cft~. anfOr ~~

~~ 6fl qr:n::~r:O~T ~~;:r 3Hr-il ~~~~FT~T g~r ~~ i=~;:r ~~RiI ~T{orr( !

l~~Rflij ~ii ('jaJ iir{~ -iF:?r;qr c:t::fI 51~~ ~r~~T ~~, 3{~T:q CfirG qeft ~~r filfG~ u~~r(f ~r~ft~ i~, (~i~ 3i~:o:qr i{"ta f¥.f~~{l ~ofw;qr. ( {=q=ftl{ " c ~ air~ ~ft~T' ~ afr(1j)~~;q;{ q~ ~~~~T fiJfl~ {lJl;{T· ~~T:o:!iT CfWq¥l ~rn~ .,r~ ~fll~1. sqr{f+JTt,~ iJ·!i.ft~ '~g 3lTq; ~~r' ~ at ':s~iml~ ~::roojfqoo ff~r.r~ ~. rTr. ~ ¥ ~ , ~ '" ~ ~ am-ff

~r.r~~f;fT 6fqrf.!r~rc:rr 3~~~ 3"~s f~f~~ :t'r, u ~t~ 5t~~ ! !J+{~lfr '11ij~r~ q{IlTEf~r ~~a5 3n~ a;ij qij~r. 3ir~ &lfTct atil~r ~.,r ''-n:q a:{t ~r:q itooT' ~raT ~i ij~~Cf~{ ~~ fi(~ af;r(; g~ ~~T fa:~~ 1 " (The knell of the Princes of India is sounded and that men now living may see the Empire one and indivisible. ". )

tror :qT~T atlRU ~~ ~{§r ~flTT~l Ri~;:n ~r~ ~T ~arRT ~ af?j+lq1 ijflJT~ ~;ft~T at~~lfr qrilQ~ ~ffi. ~ ~ ii~ ~I{ am ~~t;:ft ~~qq.jf ~T~Q *~ ~)€f, ~ox.;y ~ft ~ (ftw{ «Il~ ~T. ~ ~~q i1~~J ~t~ i=~~ ~ffi tt, au;:{r ~~ ~ ~atf~ :q~ ~ a{r, ~fqTfiI'=tIi~~ ~ll(t~r ~(]; a{T~~tCf{ Gf~q ~"r~ afr;:~t~T I{~ 0Ii(l~ (T ~" alIt· t'We delude ourselves if we believe that gratitude for the protection they have received. or attachment to our mild government, would induce any considerable body of the people to side with us, in a struggle with the native army, "

~~r ijij~ ~ {~~ ~l;r , t! ~ ~ ij'r~ f~~ ~ ctt, ~ ftm~ f;rq~<li{ ~{sritm:q ~ tRClr~r i{gr~ ~~r ~ o{ en~l.JT ij'~r ~tfiT ltmIr:qr if{T~ ~w.r an~. ~r ~r ctqT S1~ ~T~r ~ffl ~lfm~ ij~ @m:rr~T ~~q 81fq:fi:q CfTcre SfT~. 3lTij~ U~lf CfTG~ I=~ ij'~~~ ~~ ~fif:fi~T' q~~ft ~nG~n~r ~fIT~r. ~~q ~~ an~T ~~CT ~~~ +t{ ~~ 6tT+r~ qOO t:nG~ a{~T ill~ ~.;f; ~ ifU~{ if~; a-~G ~~ anij~ +r~~tif a{r~ atij ~Hnr~ ql~~ t 't A well conducted rebellion of our native subjects or all extensive disaffection of our native troops is the event by which our power is likely to be shaken; and the sphere of this danger is 'necessarily enlarged by every enlarge .. ment of our territory. The increase of our subjects, and still more of our native troops, is an increase not of our strength but of our weakness. "

~ellT ~fa::r f\TqT~t~~T cfir~tq{ M9elTU ?;erOl ~ ~{fa_mr.rOTT~ 'IT{t at« ~{ :qT~!! it~rr:o ~nij ;:&:~a ~, ~if{~ ~f~ :ql;r , t 't ~ ij'T~ ~r{T ~~rCf{ 6lij ~q'2 qil',q~ &ra tt, ;rf29 f~qT~ ~I~ (Itt &'ffl m~~T ~TUfta~ +lmt i fCl6~ t:{CJ)T ! ~~t:qr 6lti~r~ ij;:~Rf qij'(iJTT~. anfUr ~f;r~ta~r ~~ ~{elil{CR:qr fcr~Ta "'2 ~~ ~~t~tQ t:t~ it~~ a'~ ~I~ ctt, fiffG~t~ {T~~;m ~r~ ~::q 3~h: w:n(t I " I, You have a native army of 250,000 men to support your power. But you may rely on it, if you infringe the institutions of the people of India. that army will sympathise with them, for they are a part of the population. In every infringement you make upon the rights of men, who are either themselves in the army or upon their sons, their fathers, or their relatives. Let the fidelity of the army be shaken and your power is gone."

;y~ Cf ~f~ @t~T wmrT~, ;(IlJa- i{6T~ atiit~ :qT~ cA, ~ flfettlijif ~ enrrrJit ~~ :I~f{:qifT ~ ~)~. (I ~~ fml{

~ ~tmrr a~ qr~Ta am q~Efi\aft ~~~ ~~. qur SlRr ~lI~r aRr:~{urm ~q!t 81PT tta~ an{, ~ g;::~R?T C6~q;rr off a1T~! (T CfO'ferT q~T i;{ ~fG~ w(JT~ {T~{f11r~ ~~~"

" There are many signs and warnings in India at this moment, and if the present system is allowed to go on, it will soon expose our Empire to a greater peril than it has never yet encountered. The natives seem what they know we expect them to appear. We do not see their real feelings. We know not how hot the stove may be under the polished surface. For the fire is not out; we are obliged to keep it up by our native army which may blaze into a conflagration and burn the Empire, "

~ t '"\ ~ ~T~f ~~r+l" ~l~ rift ~l't GF1~cgif ~trtT ~~nu ;:~;:r ~~~ etT, (' Us~ ~I~~r ~\tnrT~ 3fTq!JTt~T ~m t:hl~~T ~05Iq{:q aIT4r.r. 8lCl~;:r {~l~ aTlJIJIT{. f.{11f ~1 rn~ ~{ ~fuo~ i~t~~r aa:rtrr S{~ ij{ ~Far ~T anqrITt9rr.t ~9 3'~~O'(J,:qr ~~q 8fT~, ~ 11~ fcf~~ij ~lT)ift qT~I. @If flff;fT fCfier~;:r ~~;f'Tm n~~Gf ~~tff ;rf2;cr 6~~RtT a-q~lJ cn~ $n{:q WlT~ ~ er;Pi ijtrn~ ~ ~ ~~~~ ;:~Ol~ eHfam an~lJT ~WUff~~~ an~. t~t~T ~m'iTq{ a{fqlJ'f ~ut(.? fcr$Ql~ ~qTqT. a- ~r~Q • ~{ ~~)~T~T alGT ~stf;rCf{ ~at~ 8{Tqe~( nU 8Wll1f ql~y{ ~T~T:cfi ~ fti ;rr~r. "

"The Native States I consider to be breakwaters •. and when they are all swept away, we shall be left to the mercy of our native army, which may not always be sufficiently under our control. " ......

" The system of annexing and abosrbing Native States might some day render us so visibly dependent upon our native army, that they might see it, and accidents might

-occur to unite them, or too great a portion of them in some desperate act. "

~)f;qTTft aim cn{qr{ {i~'1r ~T~ lfT ~~~ ~)1itifI ~~~r;{ta ~~~ {T~ q~ ~m 8lfl{ (7.fr:qr atf~ijl;r Cf~rfT Slij ;n{t. (~f;tr cHtaP.i ~. ~r qe_1 J:~, " ~?l, rn~~).fT'itff ~f.:rr~;; g;:~r f:{ts~~ ~ff, tr~ arT~. qor 8TfcrT afr ~T(? tt 'IT{t ~ 6fmr ijtgfa~r~:q ~?~T{ ~~ ~f;JT ~mat, '1r{~r(?r:q JlT{at i iSf~{ ~~ sn~: ~~ ~~~~Ff ttCfiri' fiffl~ ~~ W~T~T ~~q~iniT ~rrrl1~a :fiP-i q;T~~T ~ ~., a~ ~~ iR;; 51t~ ~~Qt ~q~r~T u~ja ~n+fta iirer. q!Jf ~~ 8l~'l 'l~ ~~ ~T~ ~ ~rretl {l~~ r!ifcr~l ;:~rJt~ ~r;~ ar:fi anqur ~~ ~f?; 3{ij~ ;Jot ~~ ! ~ijir ~f~rf;{~T~r lIT~« a-~~ i=~1Jf1f (~T;o~r ~~ Q~Cf{, BrtiT· CI'{, q~n~u: ~ strtre\":q tJrfT aRla, q{Pl{ c(T~~qll7r ~llT~T ~~'l m tfiP.Ja: ijr~ atlq~T ~ifr~ijt ltr;T(f ! f~~~~r~ {T~qIJH~T R~q 3H~ an~. ';n ~: 'lf~cfiqrn:' ~T r~Blr~ {T~rr Cf.tntt ar~T ;;u {Tllf~~ sn~~ qT~~ ~~f1T ~Cf~ Sltra. ~T a{T~{ Cfiitl ~(9~r ~~~F~ T fli05'llTt rnff! ~f~lf;r:f, ~ ~~ ~;:tI~ ~~rft a{l~n. ~;;~ u~tifr a~kr ~1:" (~:o:lfT ?:T;:r ~~ srner{ ~ ~r~ {T ~ ct)(rfT li~. ~~~Tii ott Elip.J e~q ~ an, ~ ~ T% ijT~ ~:q 3H~ ~~J. Sltre1i ~if{'~ f.Rt ~1~'-iT{~ofT ft~~ ~~ {t~~t~T{ Ef){crt ~{f1:rr~il m~. tilt ~~ ~T ~ ~,pff ~;; iji{l1({lcr ~~TIJ'ff.P1TT :t)l~T ~ "

'(~ aIsTf1lf aHt?f, (~T~ij ~J;{'-6 ijij~(fi antI." (fijfu: at~. ~r~, lila, ~ij, Utr1.ff, '-ft(f aH~~r ~Tif:q qT~Fn fl;~ 'lTwtJ 5t;nT~ ~, ~~ a{~wt 8~~:qq(f ~~, blTq:fif.JtJTT f~~ft. l ~{ rit fl'{, ii~~r-rr--ol{r Jtiii:cft ~~r~llTr atf~1i 3{~l~ ~~~ ~t fU;{rfit ~

'~~ Cfi{TCAr:qr arn~ o{, clT(G «~~l" ~ fif~ {1-7lft=tfl ~

tmCr~~ ~ :q~ (t~(i{ q fiff~ U~lf amt ~ ~ "it ~ emf ~~\'ST ~~ ~T~ Qtfim~. ~~ q~ 0\, {t ~ifT ~ fllftu m:~T~rft ~~:q ~~ ~~ ~~ cn~ ;iT~ ~ ~Q-tf ~~~ !~ ~ ~~ ~~ oR1t ~t~ij' 3T@ ~S't;ft ~~~ 1 qf1T a{1~ q~T

~~~i1 ~~3lTO m qfs tfj~ ~T~ (~Rt qTG if,T~ ~ anfQr st~ ~ 8T€ffittn:qr ~11 ~~. 8l:UT ftq9Rf ~~ acM t:q ~~TlJfqoTT~ ijoQ~ Sf;T~ ~ "

U We want the native princes much more than they want us. We want them for the discipline and the education of two hunderd millions of Asiatics. We can instruct and manage the two hunderd princes, their families and followers; we cannot sway the millions without the good will of their natural leaders." ( Bell

P. 327. )

cr{tt;s ~fffiqrC( a~ Jit~~T i~ iJS(ii~T ~ ~~~~ q fcri.'ST~€fo aT~ ~~~~ @~T. qtJ{ .rn~ ~G~T:q f~a- ~f~i~ ~T ~.~ ~,~tt~ Ef.GT~r ~~~T ~~, \7lT it +L~) ;:r +t~ijfu at~T ~R qF' a{ti.'ST (~T~ ~T iio~ "srtl~ ~~lJfijf:q ~ij ;:trT~ iT~ ~ 8flT{t ~!uT ~~- 9Toft!:liJTOf f~~ ~~ f~~. (GIl «qT~TTft ~ttl1~ ~~ lruTR:q an~.

9 ,,~, ~~ ~~qr{1a ~~~~ 8{f~~r{r~R:r Cfi~C{ fq~p.{~« ~ \~. (lfr~l ~r~ 3"~rrr( ~rs~ rtf "~r ~ili~(?~r ~lT~;:ft~ ~r ~ ~~ ~T+I ~q~. 8{HIT +r~~ 8{f~rq( qg~T ~~ at ~{ ! " ~J~lfT atlJ(f 3'~~ ~r~ fl~~tc=r itmrrij' f;rElTar ~o~.t t:teflT it~i!iT~:e'-TT st@ff ~~~ I=ij_f!~ ~1 "~~f~;:r~ an~r:u ~:n~rrCffi: ~{~ ~~. q1Jf ~j Slij~ q~ efif, 005ij_RfR1:9GT fElt ~t m ;:Q:OffiT ~ anCfiT~ ollNaf. a:rrfUr qq Sl~~T ~fjcrRf ~a 1 " ~GfT 5lOOl.JT~1:q ~fcfifffi' emiT 3~ ~j'lTCf· 1.fFIT ant, qar eft Sf~ ~tG~~6, t1cm~ fflI ;r ~t) ~ ~$I~~lJT ifatifKftqj 3GiiOS6T ~~ -1 ~a;;t an;:~ ij'rrrrrrT{ 8H~. CfiROT ~ ii~~{ a{~ ~fiTrr~(l: ~~f~r ;rT~ Sf~. tr &f.6rm a:aFrt ~{T~r~ftqr am:~ Ef{:qE6iifT SRl{~ sr~{OTfO:llr q~~'lR{T (C{T~T ~{ an~.

Gaii~~ 6{T~ tfiR~ u~ Cfft~niT I:Wlrif ~~'f~R1T ?i~( arrlt~~ ~6~~C6RUT~ ~T{"$ril !ffi~ffi anza ;r~cfr. ~li~ , fcr~«·

~T~ , ant 8{ij:q @ifij Cf'~~ ~ij. tl ~~ tf3=if ~~~r~r{flTl;r a{~ ~~ CJ enf~at~ 8l~ 1t~. alG'f'l_cr1 w qlSfl'11flwt ;r~ij CJi1t~ 8{rN~ ~qftl ~tt ~rlJl~a 6l~ ~, "(!S~rCJN ~f.fi a{~q ~ ~f :q)u~n~ ~gi{l~ Gfij~ aH~q. ~1.i~1 etla- Cf CfitOT~ Cfir+rm srfu;a oQ:rif ~ " a{ij (?f.h~err~ ijj~ ~''t~ Bral ~~1.iEqttf Cf~t=r ~ ~~. q ~ ~~rn ~ifOOT~~ ~cft. ~:~ ijE~r~~Frj:q ~erl q ~l[i{ C{m~T ~~Cfl 61ij ~r~. ~{tiiR~ ~noor Ena(?lIr @'~~r, trOT c:<rto ft{;UifRTifT ~ ~'r!~mrmT ~. aT{ ~~. ~~f~ncf;;lfT:;m 31r~~ '3'~r{' eo~'1it!a ~~{ quir~cl~r <?T~~ Itii:ff~m~ anqvrj{t wq;;l ~;::r ;:rT~; qtJT ~~t6rciY ~~ ~ ;rr(:!fnT~~T ~~q;r~ 31lTlq{ ~?;r 3"~r u~rCf am. ~-U Cf{ SfP:rsre:qr sr~~ am~~~ ~~~T ro~llJfVd:ffi fcr~~ ij"fI{ ~:jfr{ ~;nt;;1 ij"~ ~~;:r ~{;,nT{t6~ 8l~ ~C_;ST @'cH .

. , They resolved to exclude from caste any and all who sent their children to Mission schools. They were so excited by the Baptism of youth connected with the schools that they got up a petition to the British Government with Seventy thousand signatures praying for public school without a Bible tt

Mission schools in India ... P. 363 by Reverand R. G. Wilder. .. 1857

~ ~ 1"\ ~ ~~ {l~~T(it ~4~qr~?(fT~T ~r~~T ~~;r qmcr q a{fij:~

~(~llr ;f~~~T~' ~~ 8{fcr~lcr ~~~tff crT\{tr ~05rnn~T ~)~ ~~ ~c:;ft ~at, 6t ij'rijrrn~ ~fl~T gG;nosr.:rr 'sntfffiiRii' qy~. flm'l-lIi~1 U5ffi~~ ilO5 ;friT ~a. ~ :qqT~r~ a-~ ~ ~Tor q q*,{ llt~ it S1l{i( Wr~ ~{lff. ~T ~~ Cf;r{UT~ \lr+nr~ ~)~t'lT are en~ etl , ~~,~ anShqrJT ~a tr~~~ ij'~S{~ ;:rr~; q{ 8lN~T ~~ a:~ c Si,qvrr~ ut a:cr ~T~ff !

(=llT~ creijliiq~ ~§t~Cf6fil ij~~~ U~~ qcrsrql{ 8{Rft~r zyr ~~ ~ E6(?r.r.;r ~a-. I:flJT ~qT~ra5t~ '!m ~:qr{' ~ at~. eft ~«r

i ~T'f ~~ ~T{f. q'UJ ~ m~ ;rT~~~it:q fag:e:f %cr~ i3{T~. ~~ffi ~~r~f ftifZlit ~ {l~lfijifrn ;n{v~T~T ~rn 8TmT· anfuy ~ {T~(J~~ ~U~ iR~ !!o~ an~a m ~2 q{fI:r(t~ ~trll~~ at~.

" More than thirty years since, Sir John Malcolm descnbed a state of things in his day identical with that which, with larger influence and more decided energy. operated in 1857. Sir John then wrote.v- "My attention has been during the last twentyfive years paricularly directed to this dangerous species of secret war against our authority, which is always being carried on by numerous though unseen hands. The spirit is kept up by letters, by exaggerated reports, and by pretended prophecies. When the time appears favourable, from the occurrence of misfortune to our arms, from rebellion in our provinces, or from mutiny in our troops, circular letters and proclamations are dispersed over the country with a celerity almost incredible. Such documents are read with avidity. The contents are in most cases the same. The English are depicted as usurpers of low caste, and as tyrants who have sought India with no other view but that of degrading the inhabitants and of robbing them of their wealth, while they seek to subvert their usages and their religion. The. native soldiery are always appealed to, and the advise to them is, in all instances I have met with, the same. -' Your Europen tyrants are few in number. Kill them."

Nolan-" History of the British-Empire P. 714

~IDel;r {r~~ ~T~~T en~;; ::iff 3f!fil2: it~rfr frrq"ftJr ~ cfi ~qCf;r ~~~ ~T etil g~ ilG if ~~ cRT.( an~~ ;:wrrrqlfr~ 1 ~r ~Rf§~r «{Cf;r~r ~~~twfr:q {rnct't~ st~aTq qf1T;~T~r~r qij'{(f ~aT. ~~T~r ~T~ !l:crr{ t1i~r8'r ~T ~ qtii{q.~r ijTIJl~ ~~~ Ef~~ ff{r ftlqf~ q~tffi"5 (.i5Tcn fcmr, ~ft{l;:r ~,~~ ij:jf{a' aJ~~~ +rTur~ ~~r~ &:!fT{ qt:q~ 81!I~T~1 ~nn efi~

E{fliHtT1'{ 8lTq~T 3'~~J~CfT~ ~~1c=r. ~T~~~tm~ \Efl~~T "T~'.fiR1T{~<ft f~ ~Tf(f, ~~(?;~sffil~ {~~ij, ftt~l~tr~ ~crT~, U~~~s ~ 8l~~~r ~~(i5 ~ q !j'3i{ ~lfa, ~T 'tl~ ~{Cf~~T{ ~~GJT. 8llJrdta :jfift"~TftSR: ll~r ai~ aT;r~ ijT~:n;;::T{ ~{CfiT{~ .,rrrfil~ @~. q'1T 8l~lT Cf,T~1=.ft ~~+I;;T;:llj;ft crrm;ft~r (fTijT f~ooi:l ;;~ff) 1 ~lCfiiT mqT~ Cf i[flJ~~ {~ rJT~im ~~~ ~T ijftft~~tift &COT{~ ~~ii l{!~me ~~ICf{ ij6ftf~ ma . .. , 8f*cifo o{ t;~r rnQp:n:ql ~~{"t EnTW_;; itcrt J:~I1T~ (lTr~r ~~{Cf){ ~o?;(ffiT~;g ~a" 81~ ~~r ~{~r{f !tfClVifa-:e{ ~ ~~ e{r~.

" In these circumstances to discharge a so ldier is often to make him a bandir+-" Lord Stanley's dispatch

tfiROT 3FI)cir:;;tJT {r~lJffi ~ ~ S(yrT{tJ"~r~ ~tf~ ~$ mff ~T ~~ :qT~Pclaf lr(l iTf~l 8i~n ij~ ij~~ ~~~H. ~ij aUTUT ro'lT~fflU ~T a~ ~~tf~q{T q~T:q ~r. 8i~'c';~~ {T~lf €tr~trr ~T~T!I55 ~~ &::nr{ ~r~ ~T{ ~a:;., 5[ta~{ q~{~~. tTT cns~r F1~ fur:rP:rt~T ~T~~~~T qi~tt~T iJraroi>l;rrQf SfiP-1~r~ p.fiqT tl{;r;r{~ +lIm ;;n(?;l12fT~ ~T{OT ctirq ~ tf ~Tr]fij ~~ ~:rn(?; ij{~t{T 8{M~T=!fTq~~ ~Ta (?;T~i1 et~n !

~ ~a: ~T(?;~T ~T~a ~r{;5. (l{t~ aT~~MY q{~it, 81TH ~~~, ~~~) :5f+ft~ ~r?; 6{;q~~T 5{tqfa~ ~a-. 8{*~it~ {T~~ ~~ 6l~~ ij~ 3Trq~q!JT1~~ ~~~l ~lfT~r 6lf~ijl;r VoT. ~ tt~ ~CRl tHen ~6~ qrg:;:r ~C6t~T ~{ ~ ~n~ 1 <;Jr~~ ~~l{T ~CfTlJf;;f ti~T{ ;:rs~ T ~~ ~~ ~)en{ti:T~ it~m a~T{ 3lm:fT, ~~nu iiTam arm ~al ;€f ~~t;ft ~ ~~ mcoR~. enrOl ~~6 ~T{qOTr;j ~ ~f ~T~.

UIn all India. on the 10th of May, when the sepoys rose in arms at Meerut, there were soldiers, 238,002 in the service of the Company, of whom 18,001 were Europeans, and 200.001 natives; i. e. 19 Europeans to 100 natives. Such were the military elements amidst which the great

struggle began." Nolan-P. 742.

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~~~~:q f.ierT~'ir qm~rr ~tij ~f~ {~r;r qf~hrr 9' ~ijm~ ~!1~ q

@{l:filJTffST~T;:r ir~. r:r~~T~ f~{Td ~.,~ ~ ~ij~ ~fi=l=ti ~ij. qur q~r:olTr +r~~ (~(JT ~~~~T ~~ ~~~ ~T zer6 +frre ~!1'ift~~r q~tff ~, ~~~ STt(fr~ {a3'flT ~ij ~Tfa ~:q ~tT rtt~ r.il~rCf iI)~ ~TUjtT ~. ~~~~r;{:o~r q~~ij aT'tl1JfrJI~aT;'f q tfcit;r;~ tf~r, 3"ffi:tr ijii~ {T~~, ~4l QTi5 ~f~p:r~r ~r;{f~~r~T ~r~~T , ;:&ar_'l ~J~1.fT ~T ~( i-I)of ~T 1 2§~'lt~ ~lf' q~reft ~~;f( fcT~r$ ~r ~({T ~~I:qT q{r~ ~~ cr qfw.f~r {T~~~) t_?)e$ij it3:;~ ~~T.1r ~q<.Jm ~(_?T. fi!f~;ff(f i(g!HT~ a{ crmlfl(.'5T if {~~T~r fi!ffl~:o~r ~TmQt ~ ,~;q ~~ I anfor ~~ m~T\~ ~Cf ij~l o{ c:~r:o~r ~~~ ijm;r Gl~~, ;rrCfi ~If' fI~ a-~~T.fT SPr~ ~ ,r iJT~ fQ{t ~ts~ men~~ stT6T. Slm

~~6eft ~~{ qtf~;f) t:t~r~~ ~T{; 8{~~ fu~r CfiT~~ ~ ~ij(JT t:f{ ~l( ~~ ~~~ tJTTfr ~ {rn~T{f1ft ~flT ~ ~q.,r ~I. (It=tt ~ ~~~~ ~'f,rr~r ~r~., ~ffffi ~;r,~ if~ ~{, ~G~~ &Ta;;r 't.'-\" ~t ~t~ql{ffi G~sf:J ~~ q:;Tsgf{t~ ~{!JT a~~~ q f~T~ ij"J~T ~;U~( ~~ q Wf~~I~tTft~;:r fij~~;:r 1r~1. '-n:q iltiFH CfiT~~r it3iCf ~ \-fle \:lr~m ~t~f;ff ~rJ-~~T;r~T ~~1:cft 3'"41Tfo1T ~~.

3l~r {t~if 3f~~arqr:;~T ~I~~ ~)~T{ ~FT~r f~itq~ff ~{~ aV:{r:;T.,r, ~'-tffi it~;r (l~1 ArIflfr q~I]:J.:fT:qT 3T9~T:U ~r~r ~T'i~Bt~T 5I~crrr .. !I~ ~~CfTii eft fofJj'~r 1l{~Tt~J.:fr~ ~T1-,;; q5~t r:.f ~!' S::{T(?SUn© qfd'~~r;r ~~~" q2: ita (7;T !

~(?~~r3{qOO s~s&l lt~ ij{~r{~ ;:refl ;ofsgij ~{lJlflqT ~T{{_9r~H ~ri!~r Q)~r. ~!H'{cf1 ijrlfT?f :s.rT~~~ ~~:n ~m (~T~i;f:stT WiQl[T ~qqft~~ ~rlf'i~ ij'~T{~ 8HIllM'(?7.lT ~rflfT. f<1i:cfr r.r.r~g~ ijfCitcfT ffi~T ~rat;ft ~~<?~Troqf<i ~~~t~T ~q;qlrr "-fiftfiT ~(f 'l~. tt'":fi ~q« ~~td~T ~ q,_fiiGfT ~r~llT f~~(tq~'1 qrcrft +r~ ~~ atijaT '.f;T{@{~lJteft~ Q}t; t?r~{ fun~ a~ ~q e~l:qT iter itrj <?STf(~T. ~~t ~lJT ~r~1lT roqT~T~ ~~T~T m~T~ ~G~, a g~T ~TGr ~~T Cf{ ijrm :lHCf ~6frr;{ ;:rr~l foT ~ ) ~~T~ elT ~Tt~ i=Q:1lT reT) (' g&:{t ~T~ fJT CfiJ~ ~rm~,1T ft~ an~ta. jf'~ ~Rf anft

f!~~T ~r{ ~Tir ;nt ~f.r. T-ftq:;T~~ 3lJOr ;:gft ~T~g{.t ~{U~rT:fT ~T{~Tc:tr tfir~T 8l1~. ~l[T3T rlT~=q1 Sl'Tfur §~f:;;_fT :q{~1 ~'{~;:r afil~ 3l1~. ~f Cf,r~ij r::TrrFif marrft r?SF1Al~ ~~f:q r:qt~r :aq~)ll ~ft([t ~~~! ~f[ !!+fJ.T ~llJ 9{rfur ~T9 8l~:q ~T~;:r {T~rrrR 8lT~ €fiT ~ "

~ ~~G:' ~co~t:q ~~T ~r~crrT~~T a{fcr t(\l;nr GT~l f~T~ ~1 iSlr~m errcrCf ~1\1i~ ~(i{ reQT;Qr'lT ~tfila~. 66~t ~~t=O!itff ~tt:q T.foo;roo :a(~ tr~. lfTlf ~ ~~{ lfRfl' Qfq~r feti9'f ~F~frrit~l ffl~ ~(;?+1T~tt:iT. qor q{tl ij{ .. tf.T{~T rit 9r~~T~ ~T{01 ff5&:~. ~HgiZ ~il~l:q . ilT{:elr ~{T~l, P-f;9'T fi{~ (;qT ~~T9{t~ :q{ift aq~fllt(f enr1l~ &1 tfiTsgij ~T{ 2fi\u~t~ ito.

"Recent researches of 1-1r. Forrest in t~ records of the Government of India prove that the lubrfcating mixture used in preparing the cartridges was actually composed of the objectionable ingridients, cow's fat and lard, and that incredible disregard of the soldiers religious prejudices was displayed in the manufacture of these cartridges. t

Roberts -Fortyone years in India Page -431.

~T ~na ~ ~T~~ ~~~ anfur &T &T ;:~1Jffi t f\7t;o~ foeJi~ qij"~~. a~ q:;fu11 ~r~ lil~t~ ifsrcrr ~Ff anfUr ~ijt;ft :qOO~ eorifi~ ~)~TEt ~l~ tfiT<T ~~ ij'T{ij:q. lfT!I~ ~1I~~ 8f~q)q- ijT~ ;j'tor lJCJ1lCff ~T~T 8lTm ~m ~cn~tt:tr 'liT~ cn~G cfT~~. ft.r:(l(;fRT Cf~T{ 8l~ ~U Cf {T~ ~, qlJT ~~ilhi ~{q~~ ~ cm:~t flqfiqr ~lJftU;rT ~l~T tfi~ ~{~T{~ eft =efW-ra5 ij'~o1~ ~6'fJ GT;n~. ~T~ f~qT~~r at~fqto ~l q:g~. ftrr~ ~ ~~t~ffi ifiH{ij', at\?T&:T~r~, 6!{~ff merJ q~TijJ CfFrolf srto ~~~H~ fo~rlJ]r ~fcl~ fttq'J~Fft mr tnr{. ~~~ ~T+rta ~ ~ d~ rnQ~:q ~oq!Jfm ~~ \:l4~g I ~l(~ja ~~ 6{)q~, ftl~~ Gllftr~~ ~T~ ~;:rT tfiT{ cfr~. ~qt~T~r if~~ ott' ano ~ anfUr ~ S{~i;ij , amr stC6T{ I amt;r( :q{ift~ C6~~Fift ~~r Qft ~ ~~ O(Tcfi ~ anSfCR ~~f;rr .wnmr entrer ~~q4 ~r ~ ~t~t en~T; qoy q~(t ~~fii' am enql1f ~t ~6 itwl ij{ emr ~ntffim

~ayo an~T erda' ~ ilcrrrt ~ ij~, (JT ar-:~TFct~;q (1~T{ f.liarr .~~ ~f.I'r o{, ~~ ~rlTGt u~:q q~ gtq anfur ~~T ~&r ~ ~.

q~(t-~ ftTijr ~ ~T~~T. r;nfoTa'r a~T~ ~~ ~1 iTt2: 'R~llt<n'~

-g~ ~rijf ~ rit'l a{T~T ~rcif ~fo1{T ~~~1~ ~r~ an~, qtJT e~f iW<:TT cnra;l ij1 ~F.{OTrfq({ 'l~ ~Til'~~ {~"t~ ~"t qif{ ~~r Jtr;fl~.

liT SfiTggij'i'O~r w.t;{crrirr ~Ff 9' qij lJt~r ~t9r!1~ +"Hcr.fr t:;(ftr ~~tr=t

·ita- rnactif fu:r~F-ft ~I~~~fr{ ~r~ ~~t;:t ~ ~T~. qur iT. ift~'1, ~ ~T ~enT{T;:ft ~ q'r~ ~f;q-W{ ~~r~ 3l~ ~tT{ ~~ ij'f{~tft'.J @(fT a{G errcre t:{(f ~~ a:rl~.-~fmijr ;ft~ilCf{ ~TJ~T'{rr "~~T ~TctT(?r ~crT ~~r ar:rlllctiT{eJi ~ C6't&.l~ ;nT+r ~{~R: g+=~T~r utrrcrrT{ 'lr~l, aror

.~q~ (~ Wf)=6~~T ~rdrr ~m;t'f vn~l ~ ~llt~T q{m-dfii qTo~~ (=f{ ~T~T ~T ~~ ltt{?, a{m 9{G~ ~~T ~{TdA" ~cft tT qT~l ~ 'lrt ~ <U;:~ errif~(f I ~crp:rt~l af:{f{ ~tG(!sf ttf ~~f~ ql~r ~ ~r.rTlft~1 alTq~~ ~t@6 ltrC{~~ ;r~~ Cfit{ qt~a' @~. qijf tT(~T{~r ~ ~=q cn~ ~~€f (f{, arot fuqr~tilt ij~t\~ 5Plij ~T~{l~\=q f;.!£1i:f~T~ ~~ef. ~qT ~ av!T ~(fo~r tfiT~~T ~um atli<:f 3l~ ~{ ~~T{~ ;fa ~~ ct{, q:_~r~ fttcrT~i:;r {T~rnit iTa;;{ t=(~r ~cr, !J": ~G?Ji{~{ctT tfro{(?T ctivtT alT~ at~ar. 'lIlT ij m~;:r ij'{~r{~ roqp".ltq'{;r ~~+T :qr<!5fcR;r @ar. 'l1Jf ~rtt ~ ~3iij l1)tltij'rn~ ~r~~ (~ ;::Tctiift ~)~Pi~Ttf ~l~ QT ~~~9'{ tmlita at(=llT:qT{:et ;{~r ~T'-f ~ ~tt llT;r ~~Ga a{1~-

., If ever there was a case of a justifiable rebellion in the world, it was the rebellion of the Hindu and Mahomedan soldiers of India against the abomination of .greased cartridges with the fat of the cow and pig. The blunder was made by the British administrators. but lndia paid the cost I"

1J"tt a{~ltT f~qp·rt~, ifU~~:g {l:sfY ~~d wt~~ ~Iql:qi;ft ~CR=~ :q:qT q ~e :ql~. (,=stY ~q ij)( ~ lTt~neft ifS~tfr _ ~~qCT q fir~ 'lc(t lrio5Y ifU~ il'(f .• r~ lff ~ ~~ ~tcr ;ffi

3T~~~r ~~tTT §ffT~lIm~ g+rit c 0 iS~l{ ~f.fi ~R ~l~ ~a; ~lJto~ F;e~ii roqrt ~{~llT ~t.qT ~1' ~3i;:r li:UTt:5 lff.fi J:TT4Rl er fiJr.nt ~)~~ ~r ~~t'ir ~~T~~cft~ ff all!lfi~ ~~r~ an~r qlr~ a:o c:{ e~:OlJT~ g@~:@l;olJr '1)~ ~~(i. ~'.Itff ~lJ &Tif 3l~ :nT, ~ ~{C61{~r ~i{fif ~~ ;;r,~ ff {f~~ ;:rrm. 31Ti=m~ 3TH1~T (rJ~ ffr'f'i tq;:fi{1{CflT((?5T ~~1, qor {lfr~ ~~ ~r<r ~l~ ~ ij{ atT+r:qr +reT ~~ :«r~T anfaT ~lf'r~~ a~r{ ti){UTTIT-1r g~nr:;:;~r ~alT fllwT~<rT. 'Rit~r~r~)~r~ q~ er fcnftt+J f:ffi tf=q q:;~ an;tT 5[q'Trrf 41T~~. (lH~ CfiOO ~rlf ~{ ~{ttr{ arr~n aHI=~T~T ~l;r ~TGeTI1JT( anfiJT ~nto'i enTlf+r~ ao~1J'f T{! 81m fcfi~T ~~ it~

c;,

Jfif;nrrg-a:rr ~m~~r ;:rtql~ ~~ ~e})r~;r it~~ ~r~ err~~ ~

~r fCRJrdTfr tTt~l ;n{IJTlU ffi~~ifr ~~t.,r tf'i:'{fli ~{ ~a;q ~lJTT.lr iJ~~T~l)'n~ acr~)q ~;:r ~wr{f fi:i~~ ~g;{ 'lrorij f<rr~~l ~r~, Gfr~r{it~?f J ij'{rr.n tfj~, Tlrqitq-{, ~q05tCi , ~f~{TCf , Q4;n{05Ta- ~~ i:ner{~ ~rft. rtf ~Ft ~ijT{rij' qftI~T f4~~ ~~K'5T g{CfTa (fT~! ~ lim :qw. q~r ~tt6fo'.JT 8l~rr~ CflT{ q~~Tq{ qG~. (liFfi fu':n~t~r ~~lJltf~rwT ~~:~ +{{ f't~. fu'lTlft~ ~iS ~~ ~iI~ e~f;n !l{ ~~. ijiJ a~(;qr~~af ~s etfta) ~~t~ft(( T ~ijr:r ffiq'r en~r~Qt~ ~aa !

'-H:q gttru~ ~l3~r ~r itqi{:qr Sln{~ \l~rlJT{ ~jffifr~r ill~;fr ~1.IT~ij siji{ ~n;:r w~yqr~ ~~~lr.rqij 5{~lt~ ~{T~T ilG ~~ at~, at&it~~(r~r{~ Cfis~ ~<.?;fr 3{c::!rCf ~(1i~fiT~ ~~ il~~~ ~il~T~~ 'f~~T~' ~q)T{~lfl:r.rr aq~~ ettTa' Sf\lij. 8fq:;lJr~r~:f:n 8f~{ ~ «for:qf ;U~ ift~~(~r 'l~ tJi{tnrtEOftrft ~~f~t;:r« ~t{t Ef){'JTR an~ ;:~;:r ,~~ift~ c:~'~T \l&l~~ ~~ .t'{Tft~, 6ftrT ~:st~atll)~{ ~&T q~ q~~~

~O' ~~T{ ~r~~~T ~ffT. qRT~i~~ ~HJ~ fi~ !j«~qr;:r ~~ ~a-. snfOr ~rgg~teft~ i1)itt«T~t :q{ijf~~ ~ ~ C{ !j«W+rfif ~itft f'f{~~T~~, cg~~fij, ~R an~r ~err. ~r ena:r~ ijre~ ~{'JTT 6{~CR1' ~<.'Sqr.tt~ ~W{ c.;5~41 q ~~ CfT~~~ ~,n ~qtRIFtT ~~t~r t~ ~~H • . ~ i)~r ~~TmT a-r.rlITtt ~ it~ ~t~lJt;ft ~) ~

~~J ~f?jT :q~fet(?T GfT;;r~ ~ llTfl ~q'l f~tTa-. ~{a'{T~~S' al~(?, *, if~f~n:ns ~~~ qiJ{ ~~;nT{ttff 31ijT.T ild ~i'i ~." ~l irgTij~{ 3~(Ij ~Cf~~fi ~{ttanf~ f!~~+n'ltCf~Tl ij'{~r{~r {Tll 8l~~ ~clT 1

" The reasonable inference from the course of events seems to be that the leading spirits of the rebellion lay in the Moghul faction, and that the Sepoy army was used as a eat's paw through the operation of the cartridgeincident. Moreover this inference is corroborated by the seditious correspondence that was being watched and detected. -At first it was mainly Mahomedan, very cautious and in cipher. Afterwards when it spread among the sepoys, it was more diffuse and readily detected, being in ordinary language and crudely veiled allusions. ,t

Lucknow and Oudh in rnutiny-ePage 13 By Macleod Innes! V. C.

( ijij:q, ij{ 3lR~~ ~T~ ~t~ Asiatic stories q~q;r., 'l. "J, ~ \ ~tat<.? Islam in India ~~ qT~T. )

f=I;~lt~ ~~ q ijij~i{y;r a:~lfaq-Fft atij +{~~~ cffifct0 ~a ~ ~tfGitit {T~(f Cfi'\1i :U+[{ ql;f fuefiIJfT{. ~ -"I",~" :O~T gT~:O<1r (?;GT~'nWi 9' .... ~ \J ~T~ ~{ {f ~~{ q~ ~1 ~\iTa a{ ~<1T!l~ u:~ a_11JT+[{ a{T ~ ~~ fG~~ ~ ~ ~~~m \lTijT;:~ riT;nt:erT r.nf{ ~st1Tij' ~T. ~(q:q FrrQ €f ~T~ onto Cfituft a:&lJfa ~~Gi~T qTqt~t ~+R er~ anfOr ~~t.o~ {T~~T~T ~~ ql1 ~~~ij:q ~~{ 1 ~ ~~ ~~fol{T ~Tijmft ~ ~. itS6t~ JlifJC1'{ ~T ~~~r:erT qftarTiJ f=ticft ~R"5T ~tn lJN~(?; i:fm ~~{ llT;r ;i{~~ 8lT~ stY tc lfffi ~T:s1~~ atf~'-ft~ q~T~ sr:;r{OJ ijT(T. * (t ~)2 ~o: it~t;ft ql~~ atT( 1"

8i~n {tffi~ ~sr:; ~ ~~ ~~ ~ ;Jtcn~qT~T ~ \"5TmsT trat f:uqr~~T i1{rtfo ~ ~~~ f;r~~ iRt flJr.ff t('fif aructl~ crToRl'f

~ijtT~~ cft:q~;{ qi:qq~T~ q~a:ofr i{~~T ~~ ~lJT. ~T COGT:efi ~

~r~pn;;sft eft SfflT<.:5T ijT~ ~ ~ratCf +H~ft it31'l qer. ~lJT~T' :qqrcft ' i=~IJfCf. a{~T lIT u~fu;o :qqT~lfT Q:RfllTQ Cf rrt~TiTi'cr ~o~lJT ~~ {r(f\it q ~~~~T :5i~~ ~ etT ~lfT tfiT~ cr ~~T ~([ ~T:qT!J~ ~ft: ij'~{~T ~T=lT ~Irr~T i{r~t! =fir~ a:ra:~ q~TCf{, 8ufOJ i!fi)~ n1t:o:qr g{§(T:jfCfOO~ ~Efi~r Tl~ijll\ ! a-ij=q =iir~ ntm a{qr~T, G\ it~ ~f~tifm<.:5 qT\qr~ ~~r~{. trO"f ~q~~T ~fcftrir GTict t{r1t q~~ ;g;:rT<?ClTill ~T ij~RT qT{ a-sfct~r ~;qT~ ~U(g{:q aH~ CfrG~. 31T~;:;~T ~~ ~oolJf~oocrrrTff ~T'clif (lfTEfir~ g~~ Yfo~ffi !

~:S{~~T ~T~f-)1~ aorCf'J1l~.fT cn{T~ ~ 9 it o{~ ~efT. ~!1~t'ir

fttqTlJt~r +lTf11J~t:qT ~t~ ij'&T~~~ FI~r\ ~~r ettrClT Cl{ ~T ~H C6Grcr~Cl q:5ia lt~ 'i\1ar. ~T(11f ~lfT~ ij'&T ~~~ 8pft~{, ;:~rr~ GlT~CfTtTqT~ itrcnlft-ff 6i"1~~T rrT~~T1Jlft~ ~r~ arC{;=J ~1J~'~ ij'~ SI~~i1 ij''1~{qurT~ q 3ir~T{ {laR Tn~fq~ ~. ~~ ~r C:~R qTil1J~t~~('5 ij'{~R~T f:mt ~crrT~T~ mGJle tfiRClT ~~ ;{It. qcrr 9lf~Cfi{~1:Itcff ~lf'~ ~~ ~,ij-6~r +IT:& q~lfRr ~C:~Tq&T~ qfl~ a~T&{OT f.T:S~. q)~:fi~r~qoo q{T~ ~~ ir~~ ~T~ \:l~~~~lfr ;{tq~ qf&~ ilTool aGfcl~ Cf aT entl~rif Cfitm naT 1 irlTaqi~ ~T ij'~Cf~a Cf :qTft~~qTij'__ ~ ~r el€i ~~:q qT~~ q~{l'1' ~~ ft.5~a an~ 1 af{{Cfilt{ ~Ot ~\ril~{ lr4 flf(qr~frtl {fC:lfr!:{~ ~~ ~rsgij q(J;!Jl~ qT~r{~. "iJ~T"'i{ it~ ijf{l~r~~:qT q~~ij ~ri( u~:rQ 6i~t ~f!1~ q~~~tQ ~~lqTfi;{ if{ $frer itii ~)gr ~s ~;:r ~~ enift ~Tf(C?lJr. 'lOT etf~~T::ll1;ff ~~TSfi~ ~~a_:I ~~. QT. ~ it (?5T ~@~+I~ q~;?;ofl~ ~TGgij itU'~t~ qrenT~. q11( ~ ~u ~i{r~ cng~qGf ~la3'r Cfi~ ~ foar~ QT~~\m ~rc.~t. S ~

qf:q~ a-~T&{Ol m{a~T ~s~ cr ~qT~r;ff ~~GJe:f f~~I:q i1 IQ1.Ita itactT. ~T9~~ ~T t6l;at~ !I~!( &:T~~r~ ~~~ilTijf~r ~~:q-r anfrlt ~(§!{ ~r.rw:rT ~~~ iSfriWT~ ~~Tq~ ~{U"~r:q1 ~oT ~ f~~;r ~~~. (iT.' 0 it U~ ~{~ ~~ ~ ¥ alfT r.r~~IJfFf ~T~ij f.{tJ~T~ W:{T~r{~ ~~~ 3{f~~r-lff;ff ,~ ~;n~T ~~T tJ~ tr~ail~UT.Jr ~Ta_1T ~~ g~rrta qfij~. ~~r~ ~~R ~Cf{ ~~n1 ~n~ ~cr~~ rr~ EfiT {T=sft ~:qAT ij-q~3fi g~f( !fjT~, Snq<_;(fT ~T~t~t:qT ~=m~r ~~ 31rM g~lTtcit~ ~1 %{t ~TRWl ~~. iSfr~r{ffiT~ c:5"Mi~ f;nqT~B ~T+rT~ ~n~. +TT{a lt~ ~T~;i'f ijlHfrw:r q (iT1l~Fn men. ql)'f ~ at~ 3lT~~'iG ~T<_;~T~~ ~~t;:rl ~~crr<_;~~1.IT allTT9'{ ~FJ r!T;n~r ~IQT.

ift{a&~ ~ffi" 8l~ Q;Ef, ~iij'T:o~r 9'T?:i{ an~, ~r~~ {YaRra- T.Jr~~

~~~:qT ~c; 3lT~t~ fur.n~ ~ ~~dd fu{~. enfOl o;.fjT ~q~ ~~t;ft ~~T CfTG;~tG ~Cf~. ~~~tT.JT ~~la ~Gsn{T i{~~~Cf r:nt{ij'r .,~r~. ii~T~ cr ~~;:rT ~~{tCf mFfr aq ij'i{ tJ:;n r.r~~crr Qra. tJ:;n {f~Tarf(f ~\a:TrrrT;nftat ~ra) 'anfur fa~{ ~~{fqT~ ~rr"ii~ ~t~ ~~tr9{ ~);:~~ il~ ~r~f. ~~itm c@s=r ~~T ~~{T~ {a_101 ~ij CIl{IJfT{! ij~CfT~ lTtCfta lrat:cr ~Cf{ a+TTtrl1T{ ~~t;rr flrasr~. ~lT ~lftCll ~{~T« ~f'~T q ~ ~~ctT, :q~ s=rrooa, ~r':r~r;:~T~T 3lfll ~TCf~ enfur ~~~~t ;n~~ ~r~;( ~lffo~T C6ff<tt~T 5fT~~ ~~r. ~~3ft:o~r alil q<?5~Cf ~ ;:rf~ f~r.rt~t~T ~e~r; ~lfr ijsCfT~~t;:rR fCf;q:_~ ~r~~r. U~RlT ~~r Q"<?5~~ ~Tq_~ i{lTw;r~ tRa:fur ~TUf 8{lT~ 6l~~~ it€f. ~T ilrtmq~lf eftil~ am, cfitr iI3fl{ <?5&.r~ ~)tt Q:~~r{, rUil ~a_l C6TG~~ Cf CfT<J~ 1l"'W; ~a~ 8{~~ ~(fd~ ~~t:r1mT ~Tijl;r Cf Ilr~;:r~l~r 3~05 iiTa T. ~ ~ qT~ ijrtmif ~~~~r &.mt ij{TUJT{ 6{ij qr&~ ciil:C?;;r f~sft ~Tit qr~T ~~ ~qq: 9{Tq~T &TffTif ~~r itoRT~ ~~ ~~. ~6&t q~!J1T~q ~TCfr ~~T5[iJlar ~n( ~mT ~&.\ ~~~;:{ rr~.

" The Magazine was situated between Selimghur fort and the Cashmere gate, so that the explosion shook the earth under the feet of Major Abbot's party. The Magazine contained three hundred guns and morters, 20,000

stand of small arms, 200,000 shot and shell and large stores of material of war corresponding with such munitions " (Dr. Nolan's British Empire, P. 722 )

;fffir'lT1I;:J ~ ~IU \"f-fif f~{lI~T crTtq{ 6n~. HilJ!.., ~2:C(T(?~frfr

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26th May 1857, Ihelum ,

" Up till the present time, the following corps have mutinied more or less ;- 5th, 9th, Llrh, 16th, 19th, 20th t 24th, 26th, 27th, 34th, 36th. 38th, 45th, 51st, 54t h, 55th, 57th, 60th, 61st" 64th. and Cavalry 3rd, 5th, 8th. Disbanding most of these when the work is over will be a good

thing, and forming European regiment in their places. I am glad no Artillery have behaved badly as yet. although almost all the Sappers have. ,t

Ll th June 1857, -Camp Amritsar,

I, You would scarcely believe how paralysing every thing is. A letter frorn Calcutta is considered an extraordinary affair, and every day we hear fresh regiments mutinying. I think 35 are gone altogether, besides. some 30 more who have been disarmed and are ready to go. Perfectly ridiculous, an Army going to pieces in

h· ,.t

t IS way ..•.

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II Colonel Ramsey, Resident of Nepal, in a letter to SIr John Login, expresses a belief that J ung Bahadur would have taken part against the Indian Government. if it had not been for what the Resident calls 'the providential visit of his to England and his experiences here. '

"Strong pressure was brought to bear upon lung Bahadur to side with the rebels, 'One of his brothers

told me ' says Colonel Ramsay 'that every attempt was being made by influential men to induce him to join them in driving us out of the country t but that no persuasion would induce him to commit such an act of suicidal folly.' These attempts were renewed when the Nepalese General was in British India fighting Briton's battles. Against all such solicitation he stood firm. "

( P. 41. ' Friendship forgotten · -By William Digby)

q:jfT~ $ltilT~~~ fR'rrtr +llfh qr~1 ~Ffr fi1iJ:6t 3 ~ ~{"T O(iT '1r~l; 3HTI1f ~T~r\l S1~i;H:r{, i:t~TCf\ lt~-1~ ~tr ~Cf~{ 31Ft{?;. ql1f f?Fi{r~'i{ cr ~r~~( ~T q:jfT~~T ~fa,11f u{~~rcr{t~ tfi ~T +iT,. f~~r~T iis g~l~rr ~r~(!:J.:fr ~T~~r. fq:j~)\ lt~ ~~J1tit Cfif{ ~tt ij~~l\l q ~f.i{r~r:erT ~R;r @~H. ijs-qr~ll~r a)~ ~r(il q~ar ~~IJf~ q~ T,=r;;_fr ~:rl ij~a 3{rit'l~:q ~m! qJ1T~&'1 f~lCfi~ ~IJfF'1r crT~g;tt~ ilTflTCf{r~ 5l~n~r ~ ;;l~ ijT~ ~~~f:e~T ~Tm ~~ ~ a~'1 ~~ICfi~ f{~I(?;T ~~ ~1'J:l.1TBr{@T ~ri1T q ~~{lCfi~ q~Tij~) ~05I1fCfoolJ)' ~~., ijrGf 3fTOTaT ~rr ~r~. +rrr.rrrJ) , qfa ~HQ3r, m~, CfiT~~{ Gf~r i{~Cf 51~~qT~ ~q-:JftrrT ~cfr. '1f1T f'mr3i~&3~lfr rcrT~{ cr ~t.0fi ~r~r ~~al ~~ cr rCfI~{ ~ ~pqTRii ;:rt~T0r ~q~tii~ ~Ti:r, 'lI1f ~llt~r iT~ ~sqT<?Gft~ ~r::ii~ &.)cfr. ~'i-~ ~~ ij:g ~r~, (=f~~ crT. 9 ¥ ~rr ft~l rc{T~{ ~ii~ ~ta;., ~~1~ ~~ ~q-~ 3n~T~T q~., rt~. rtfl~{ ;:p;lf cft~ ~~T{ €f,fu~2: tfir~ a-tt+r enerT~a ~:fi~~ ~(tl. c« 3fn:&T('5T 31rr~,cr{ ~~tm ~GI'J;qr~at i.t3;t=( ~~r" 3l~ (tftfft ~GfFm{rq m~ G1t~ ~Tij ~+l.jf aTcr~ ~ta-. '1or ~GfT;:;fr~:rCf Cf ~lfi~ ~9rlJf ~'ier.{U9 Gfr.,l 'iTifT ~::t~GJi;:rl Cf :qrsltfR ~~'1r crrrri_rr, ~~~T~, 'fR:rf C(~~ ~;;r) gl=~T~T 81r~:q ~~jCl{ ;:ru<:[ta 61$~uft an~a 61~r efit~lij{t ~ g:qcft~ C:<:[T ij'~) mil;;, efi~n~ (=lJf;lT rcrr~{f~ {T~a ~~. tll cr ~r:o<:[r ~~\CftCl~· ij~T~ cfit~ .qT~T ~T~~tCi.rr ~l~ ~Tll~ ~o~fu ~:qrrff ~T il~~r ~~T~tCi ~n+ft~ ~~ ~~ ;;r@, " fmT~t:o~r fq.,crafr~T ~{m~T C:GfT~o5T ijT;:~ctT ~T Cf{ ~tf\ifT ~r ~g'IJ~TT.{T mor~ qrflT 3'~?f ~r~r maT" 81?i ;n~ it~tlt{ ~Tit '~fu~ t=~~ , ~r ~~(f~ta ~~~~ an~.

~~:qy ilmr ~{ nf. ~ 9 it ~(gt ~n~T, at ~~ 6{~~~T q uit~ .. ~~ tm~T. ~~ij~{ :qT~ ftt~ ~fil~<.?T ~G g~ ~T~. anrur ~T ~~ f6~TrJf~ ~~~r ~T ~:rT EfT~;:r ~ri?lfttff ~~T~ ter~T , 'iQ~:q 'iO~ (f{, efi~~T 8l~T~T~T~ ~~;:r Cf{ ~efi~ ~ft ~trit ci'l~ ~T3i ~T{ m~ fa:erl~ ifrq U~ ~{wr. ~q1iT:;~r crT~r 81i{Wf ~ffi :rf{ flff;ft ~T~ ;nr+rfrttT ~~19~ ;Hlcf\' f1{, ~m~r R;6f;rr:r ~~ ~r{ +1~~ \?T~ itiCfoo ~nqT~rr ~ !

~Tij~~~r ~~ if ij~qT 6iter~~$.rr tr(';T anfcrT ~ij~ ~ g~

iit~. ~T'l~$:qT ef;~~~ ~(,;tij;:r__ ~T:qr Cf ;:rtqy~n~if ~t:qr :qPrer ~~~ ~r, ~~ E6~~~~ ~~~H Cf ~;; lft~ .. ~~~ t6{1nftcm:Clf roqr~ ~ qf'lrij'~~ tfTG ~j)(';T~~. q'TJT ~T:q ~l {{~ ~;:rtr (i5T~;:« ~ ~;:«

~r ~EJttft ~~~Ti.q ~lij~\t~ ~ ij~ oifta{ tfRl q~' qTofct~ ~~ ~, t' il'r;;T~~iij' fij~~~ ~~a ref; e~Rq{ ~~T~ a-'i .,CfiT. " q'l1f ~ q~ oita{t?f f~U~Tf{~ c:rT;:rT~r{~ m:d~ ~~ @f~~rcr{ t~Fff ~qa:~ ~~~ ~~TE6ftat ;r;J~~ ~rn !

~tf~TCR am ~~ef{\' ant'l 3lT~UJT{ ~rT.fr ;:rtqT~l(iS[tij ~cT C6~q;rr ~cft 6iij ~€f. cnT{1Jf ~,~, ~T~ at~T~~~ ~~ll telT(.i5ij'T ~T~ a;I{T ;:rt;:Wij'l~iS[~~to "\ 0 a~ ~~~T ij\ctiT{T ~lfiffi{t ;iT~r ~R~T; , ,~, ij ~ ~ ~~Tit ~~r.ff 't IJ ~~ ~q~t~t qTet ~~ ~~ 8{Tq~

q~ ~~{t~~ 1fffcf~. Cf S[(<.7e_:i ij~~~T ~a5l tn'ffi (~t~ ~1(l1 cft;:y ~a_t ~qlr:q ~{;nT{T Utc~fel ~a~~ mao ~:gT~T ~~T f.rn"r ~:&:T~!Jr EfiTa5T Ch10Tl f.t(ir~ {r~f~g 8Hl~r '1(r, ~~n=r:~~l q~~~z;5 ~T::f~MU~=tJ Cfrrtar 1

" Nana saheb at the date of the annexation of Oudh, had £ 500000 in the Company's funds. He had from that time been selling out gradually until but £ 30,000 stood in his name when he attacked the entrenchment at Ca wnpore ,I

Topics for Indian Statesmen, P. 34-Norton,

ar, ¥ ~ utl ~T~oo q~~of\~ ~'ll~ ijs Cf,~1J~T~ 31~I{ ~T~ q (liT#( ijG ~EtR~. qUI q~T q ~r(i111ooT l{tfuqP1' ~iScfT~ a{t CfiTGT Cfi{I1fT{ ~ cr ~l{F:.r{ a{ Efi~~~ 1{!~ qlqTB'I~~t:qT:q m~r ~~ ~GI. qTqT~T~~ ~ (l{f~q:_~f ~Jf~R ' ~~ , aR1~ Cf{l, al ~ SiTar ~U~{ f~l nffl.~1 &ffit ~ ~~~Tij1fi ~GerT~~T ~C!T~t~ ~~ ~oo~ ~l~. GTT~ ~G ~~T{~~r· ;iG\ fa~miJ c,llt ~GTtT GTfift ~~r~il~ffi ~a;~ qTqTGr~~t:eft ~T€{n itff~. (~Ml qr~tqT ~tfrJa~ c(.f" SiTCfr 8TI;:~T(?T ~qsq01 ftrooU"lfTi;fT~q ~~~TwT ij~q{ 'iT~. ~f~'iT q ~T~l1)oot ~nf~crT~ 8HI=ID ~T~ Efi{UfT{ ~ an;:~T~r mooCf 8RlTw CR q~~ q ~~TUqrJT g~~ 8lT~. qcrr ~f~r~l~ q qlt~;;~ {~crr t6~ij gl=&:T ~~~t~ crefiif Slrt:l~r~ff w~r{ 8HHw, at Sl'rat:q ~ Q~9T{ g~~~T I=rr;rcr{ ~Cf~1 Slr~ 8{ij ~41~r 1 " ~ririj{ q-{l:q en2;r~T(?; ~ij !Jij: ~t6~t!Iff tTcfr;r it1r~r EfT~;fcr{ ~r~~~ Cfieqr~lJteft q ;:rrijr~T~iffq1 ~t=5r~ ~r~. Sl~{ ijT;:rI~T~iSfMt (~tijT ~'m 8lf'lq-:q;:r f~~ ~T " '"' ror.rT(Ji~ ~f!IJf1nfTiSft~{ ~T~. ~{~n~ ~);o ~'1le6ftai~;r ~rr1J~T~ Cf~R 8lr~ct, Q{ I=ft~ 81Tq~~T &fTl{~T!lt=5tCf{ qrl1JT ~tGat 1 ~rG iJiJr t:lrg;~ ~Te_:i an~. 1 t

At length, Teeka Singh had the honour of an interview with the Nana himself, during w hich, accord. ing to the story current among his comrades, the

Subhedar spoke to this effect "You have come to take charge of the Magazine and the treasury of the English ; We all Hindus and Mahomedans, have united for our religions, and the whole Bengal army has become one in purpose. What do you say to this ?" The Nana replied, C'I also am at the disposal of the army. "

Ca wnpore-By T re velyan-P, 83

When the Mutineers had arrived in the Nabubgunje they were given to undetstand that the Nana was in the neighbourhood. Accordingly he was waited on by a deputation of the native officers and the troopers who addressed him in these . words: 'Maharaja, a kingdom, awaits you if you join our enterpri se, but death if you side with our enemies." The ready reply was, "What have I to do with the British? I am altogether yours. '.

Cawnpore -- P. 97.By Sir George Trevelyan

9{~~iid~ ~~ ~T ~~q ~itflC{m~ f.lT~r9{ tJ~(9I. ~T{Ol &~{ 8{~~lf +iG~q nl1~t(~n~T ~l?; ~t~~ '1tCT ~~T~ iTa~ 3H~. (q~~Cfi{TT.ft ~~{ ~. ~,~ r:m~T) q!Jf aq~T:qT ~r ~{e6too Cfi{~ ~iT~wT a~ aT~ ij~Q W1'T&l. 6f~) .

(;n;:fa{ ~"3dff ~Cf~~{ ~~r~2; Cf ~TOO'lroo Cfi~ efT· ~ (lit rn'll{ {r~ f~G :5flmrrCfifta t ~qT~. ij-~t ~w{ ~~~l~r atft:~ (!;oo~ a{ij c:rT~~ 1 Cf.l{!Jf ~~ ~~:if ~ll{~tI~f.:tt ~31rt (~T~ ~~Trtil~ +(~~ 3Floft:qr 8lT~;q- ~~r ~r. ~~ i{Sqr(?~t~r ~eT« ~T1J~r:qr ita ~TUT~{~T qfti?l{r:q 5'~T+TTc{{ ij~~(9r, CfiR!Jf 'lr~r~l~t~ ~~~ ~rmn~ ;;T;or{~! ij-o~r ~lfr ij'~ e~r;:r q{a ~'3i~ ij';orool ~~{~r grq-afF;r ~Gr erra(9T.

ij)T~{l~ q{a fCfj(1JlJT~ ~T arif~~r~ &Tal at CfiT{ ~&rlJfq!Jf'~ ~a1. ~~f;fT:q ~le ~T~ij ~lqlfr~ Cfirlf ~ anfflT ij-~ ijTW1'HH~t~ f~l{IJfT{

q.;)11f ~ ~~ ~ool ~~ ~a' cHHTt SfiT;:r!Jd~~ aH(:q. ~~a: SfiT;:r3{ ~ SI~l« ;;rii atl~; €I 6{G~~ a{ iji~~~T ~T~TijT~~(i( ~ ~T« ~T!JfRr ~trit ~~~T ql~ij 6lGSfiTCf Cfiftijr 1J~~, anM 3~lftqcrr anqcrri·fj~ {T~t=f ~~r ~~~ijfwltcrm ~Tq {Tm~· ;:rlt=fT\1r~ijt;:rT ~ ~r +1r;:rcr~, enfOl er, \3 ~T ~ml ~erfijf Q~~{ ~T~ijT~T q::r qT6~ ellQay ~lr:fofter{ iI~T rt{IJfT{ am~~r~ Choofij-~. ~H~T a-E{6' Slit at~T tT, ~RrT ~~1 fficrT fcr~~T~ ~q-~T ~~ eft a-Eis ;{gr~ ~ 1

~ ~ ~~~ iImTa qs~ ij-o~t ~m{ ~Rfll)oor ~3i;:r 'is-Fn ~ij~ f~Tr.?r an~~ c{TG~. ij-;grCf qT~tcr{ ~sa-TG' G~ij ~~Mf ~~ ~f${T q Cf f.(~iitoor {~Tr.'6ft~t ~~T~ iICfTffl ~T ~~n. ffl:cr ;:rRr 3Jrar ~~~r ijf~ fii05t~r 1 ~crGT ~r fci~~trrij 1 ~~ax.t:{ ~T atrH:T~~~ ~tr~Mt ;rr;:rt;:rr ~i ~ffl ~ijr ~~ ;:rr~T • ~tr~t~ ~t6~a5 3f~:iT, '11lT Cfi)lJfT~ ifittm'R feI~~ GT~r cr ~iT ~~r;r q~Sfi(r.?r er, ;fij{~) ~T$crt ~ m~r~ Rrcrr 9;sTQqOT ~t;:rr au Cfiij ~~ ~ 6ftrT ~r(f~i6 fcr:qr{ ~un~T g~~. q1Jf ~~Tq{ am ~iIOlaT ~ etf, ~ ~r~ ~ aiG" ~~ ~~r;:rT;:rT~r~~T !r~T ST~1i qoqCfT. q~ ~U'~T:qT ~!JfRlfu i{~:er 8{l~. ~tr~t~ (itt -ifrqJ1{{ B{~r Cfi~ ~qCfiI{ ~~T ~T ~ ;:rrw:rtB"T~iji:ij ij~ ~Jf~MT ~~ ~at at tm~, q ~~r~ ~~t~ cnT{ fir{T~TT ~r~ ~ ~; qur ~{r{f?r ~Tr.?r~ ~f.f~T{l ;itiT~ ~ ~Cl1~ Q~~r{ ~n~ ~ijt ~ijm q ~ Sfi{1nir~ i(y;rRlr~Rt iFfi~ qij'~ a{, ~~fijT ~T. \3 «it t iffift~ , ~f~ Sfir~ tfiRUf iU~ ~ 8HfUT Cf~ ~~ miT« ~tt51t;:rr f~~Tq{, ;:rr;:rttiY ' fe{~R1EJf~ 1 ~~r are ~~U?JT(?;T ~!:f~r a~r Sfip:f (~ ~ijT ~

~~~ ~Cfi a;rr~ ~Qf~ 8l~ ;rrf~cfr aHI=~ mlTar ~~Tq~ ;JT;:rT~T~$ilfT \:fTq~9'{ ~~ s:rCfit~ q~r~R~T an~. ;:r'i{1~1~ ~~@lTij i6~T ~a~:q ~~ aft~CJI~; r.rrJf eisl~ ~rff 6l9'f:llT ~ i{ftw:~to sl=~ ~~T~ CfiT~ ~ttrn Cfil~ 00 ~ 'ITS{ ~tf'li ijfiRr qr~ 1 2:Trtr C6~ att ~l:q ~TaT;r CfI~ ~~ ~ Q;OO S;:~T~T it ~fitTr~ q @lij ~RT ~T .,TilT

~:q fitc{~RI ~ fskr ~SflRtqrm BreT i ~ ~tl ~ ~ ~m ctt~~ c;5~ ~ ~~ ·ti~~ ~). cr t\' mftcfi atlli't ilil ~

, ~ '-\ '" ~ ttflta J{~~Q if~{I::rI=at I ~on ~ijOTTatftlTT ifl;:(C6 1:tefiT ~~T~ i11'1 lijl{q-1ER, ~~ ~~afttR ~il6~'Ol11 at~l q~:qT ({TifT fliOSOllT~ ~ren attcm:5T ~T. ~T aun;:r " qql~ amfta ~aT cr ~~ qm::s at:qicr. ~~{ it~. ;:~if ~{~T{;:y:q t:~: i{T ~feTT if Ffl«l{Gt ten: ~rcra, ~ar! ~ ~crMT ~~ a{~atTi qe_;~T{ ~tnIT~ ~~ (?;T1SRf ifia'. ~n~ ~ ~ E{T~:qt enG~~fu :qr~ffi. ~ij m2fiT~~ ~rq ~a: q~Ef)T\ ;:~ a ~ {lt~F1T a'6Ta-Ef C6{1l~~ ~T@\ ml 2fiT\OT i1"~. ~t;r q-a_fliT~ ~ str<?~m~ ~~rit C1i~ if~ il~~ am€f. quJ tm5~qR Wffqr· ~Tay 6{Cf)T~ a{q&T{ ~f% ~ ~i{il(;r ~ro~r~ i ~ ~lrr ~~~ meF.T~ .n~T ~ ~ qStT it~r, tiiT~« 6l~TCf q~lo;qiJf @T~ f~T q~Y«i1 {~it~~ arn:er qcfij ~ (f{ ~R:err ~ :U&T~ at~ am ;rr;rrm~r CE~ qTGTEr ~ lfr~tqy~ q'1~lif ~tfiT~ ~6f~:q ~ Ef f~~ ~~Cff ~ij'Ta{\' m~ ~:qr ~~ij :qT~T ~T. ~~fn:q ~T q~T ~ ij'~~ Blrrr~T. ~T:qT ~~, ;:ry;:nm~Fft 'fA «TIii f~T~ ~~ ~ ~~ Ol~T ~~tif C6T EEt 'lit ~ m~T~ &T ~T ~:fiRIJ1' c~({T' ~(f5T ~~r~ i{fi{T-

. ~:n~~T q;{Ta tt~ft ~T~a ~r~ 8Hrrefi; 3HfOl ~~ ~~IS[ ~ ~lJ1fr~ Cfil\OT ~~J i~r tt~~ q{ro~jmt? m'-iFfT ~tr~T ~alQ ~ q'f~ qffi~ i{0&~, C:~T m:~T~ ij'+rr~ CfiT~rr ~o~fCT ~{ {T~Ol[~ q:;tll~ ire ! !

~T ~CfJtTft ~r~r ~ +lTfa~ arr~T ~ffi~mtCf ~{=RfT a~'l.q ~T 8ll~. anfGr ~~ ~T ~Tqr srtm;: if cn~T ~t{if acraT amr Cf~ it~ au(. ~ t\T~r~eNT ~~ mgr iJT~cft ifrifT~T'iFt~ qr(iji4)i{~ ftr~~. qur ~~rft ~kr lI'T ~r&ql=4 ~~ ~{ arorftt ~~ ~\:t iftdlt? (t{ lfT f~~fER ~oo ~m q~.

" The Nana bad been involved in several unsuccess .. fullaw-suits; For the younger adopted Son of the Peshwa, Nana's nephew being a minor. the English lawcourts had stepped in as trustees fo r his interests. A

~

full and authentic statement of the case of the Pesh wa family ought ere now to have been published by the Govt. "

Martin's History of India P. 249

;jstat~ ~ o~~if sra€l ~lliQli S{~r w:rT;:rHn~~fO~1 ~~~~:q a{~~a cn~ sm~rff~, ~T~ eJit(Y ~C!g~l 11T2t 8n;:~1 ~ffi1cr<?~T. ~~rq~'i c:n:qEJ;'f;fi fijCf:~ ~~ ~ lIef ~r~. aufur ~~~ 8{q efif ~~C!~fcfT~ ~ c teletR-~iifija ' 3'~q6rCflfT~ (f{T ;;n# ~ a:r~).

~Til'ffiT~Gf GjiST~ fi:IooT~m-~ ~{stir{Y ~~;:~ffil~ 6ftr:q ~a:r ~q~ Cf ~~ 'U~~T ij~Cfr(?~t;:rr ftJ~r~r. o~'t~{ ~T~~r~ .rto~r ~~,~ 9" ~'r~r;r srreftij' titGf~ ~~ ~~r, qar ~~T Cf 8{~~ ~ arcrEiiS ~GlI~r{t ST~~ qraqr ;:r1~~T~I~ f~T;J (f~l~ f;r~rOJ 3"~T{5, Cf ilTilfij'T{iJttfr ~~ (?~1 ~r:rit ~ ~. ~ ~fifr~T~;ft ~lIf;Jr SI(frlTr~ ~T~ Glflt{ ~TmrT:ijf q{CfTilifr ~. qur Cf)r~ are~ ~ are)) l~~'cn ~G Cf ;fi{'5 ~t;:ff q;~~{ Cf a{~T~rifr~ ~~ ~~r ~f;qQ SRm:qT{T~ ftrqr~ 9ire;UlJ Rr6~ ~a 8{ij ~ij~t ~~l~ itr-;T~~T ~;~ ~;:r ilTCfTrrr annt ~TCf~'-H Cf ~~~ ctff~ ~,~.

~{ ~T~ ~ ~R 3fij~~ ~tTW :jeHU ililil ft{U(JT~n{~T aH(. ~~ ~ ~ti ~~~T crR~ ~T{t ~gooRft~ ~ifTq~1{ 9if~~m ~:-

" It is difficult to say anything in extenuation of the Cawnpur massacre and the terrible scene at the well, and yet we must remember two things., First. that it was done not in cold blood. but in a moment of rage and dispair when Havelock had beaten the rebels and was coming in; and secondly that we had done much to provoke these things by the severities of which our people were guilty as they advanced. At the later time a careful investigation was made into the - circumstances of the massacre and we failed to discover that there was any premeditation or direction in the matter. It was doubt.

ful whether, if the Nana had been captured, the guilt of directing the massacre could have been brought home to

him. tt ( Sir George Cambell's Memoirs) Page 281.

~~~R ~~05 ijl~~ ;:rT~AT ~ffitt ~T~ qq~ ~ atij ift"cn lfT;r ~rr ~t~T ~~~~~T r.r~tCl 3{T~. ~ qq~ rr~CfT~ 3{~ aj~Rf;tr cn~r~fJ; qT~ ;:ro'T~. f:lfC!T9{ q;fT~ ~ ~T3t ~ q)~l:q ifrrrrijr~ilAt g1i+r r.rrc;~ eft ~tST~~ mfor {fft~~~T ~firr q~Cl an'{~ ~;.fN'ua cif('i ~. ~~ ~rt=fti{ ~Tfnlr:crr srWr ~3i't fijT:fT~T trl~ ~~Mr f.~(? fiT~ • . qll'f m Flt}ll(f 3~ BP}

~@~T~ ~~~;n q~~wT ~Gr ~T;r'{{qe:f' 'liT{ mOT maT. Elit{OT 6~ (ftrr

~~T{ ~~r ffi« ~jff{ cffitfiM't. ~Gr ~(3T ~, ~Cl~ :qT{ It~~ ~~ aFl~ ;:rT*ir~ EIi~ ~T~ ~)ijT. ~~;:rf& ~~j;{T ~~ ~relT atf~tr i1~T. ;r~~;r q l~tfi ~Cf ~tt~Rn ~;:r ~~ ~iS iSf~T ~{ (qt\' ~~~ ~~ ~)ir~T;r ~~~T at~T~ qf~ ~~~T'mfI:q ~~Tc.?T :jfR ~T. ~T ~~Cf tw5@tWft itq;r ~T~ij ~rlft;rT ~ffiT(iJ ~ ~)cfi. Elir;:rt{{~d{ ~;r:q ~erffi;ft irmT ~it ¢js ~ri% ~T ~(RTTJft ~~qriFTt~ qit{ ~~lijlqOI1~ qijq i6~; alCR an~ ~q~ ;flit{ ~r~in;r ~~ U~~t~ ~m: fCIMt;t ~~ q ~~~ ftl·~~~ • EIi{1l'~Rft fcr;lffi~. ~ (T GTatTiR\rtr ~ itaar;r ;rr{f. 6T .. ;'flll~, qr iJTlJifi);{~, qy sq~ ~WI CE{CJrr{ ~ ~~T ~~1~ ~{~r iH~ q~m. q;_eil ;:fi {~lf qf1m at~t ~ ~ ;rnft, amrt ~!{f ~ €f U(UTR ;r~ ;:~;r lief ~~d E6~ ¥" aniR fij~ ~ iiriir ~~ ~ imr. l~ ~ ai~ ~ ri

tR'3Tt:tft ~~ me\" •• i'~~;ft ~ItQ' ~r lfi~ fti:olJl~('l ~ ~ ~it it:;;;, ~.« sr~rvr ~. ~ aH~ff f{Kfi a{l~ m:~ it~ ftffl a ~fw ~(r q~ r.t~~~ .. :en~~. aJimfroT fa~T ~f:t 'l~ClT. ~ !I«~~ st!l~ ~ cft:~{? ~{?~unrt~ *~. rn~ ~A~t~ @lCl ~C?l' ';n(t J oij~ ~lif(~TT~rS(ijTGt ~Jf~~ {aJar ~{Q'lft~ ~ IG'llRt ~i(r~l~ q~~r «lm!1 tl~~ iiTilfTCf itaRl 'iii~ ii~~t, ~ q~~~f.fiTJ at~ ~p(Jfiilr(~I' a{~ ~nfi re~ ftfit~~Y. 'far ID~fflfr~ ~ ~ iil~ rn~ ~~1. if~T ~ HRT~ ~~ ~lTa +nfiq ~~~ ~~{~~ C1)flrfl'lt arr~ ~f;n ~M'~r 3H~ '{~ 9~qriT5i+irijf1:{ merTg-'fftl{ ~rr~r ifs~'S[ijr~ ~fi!f~ ~~~ ~rff tet~. {T~ fu~:q ~~, ir~~r~~Ml ~ cnt(t rn<!5T q~~ ~~ q~~. q'Gf ijiR; ~11lT(?;JT~ tf~T ~?;J l1TC?l{ at\' ~~T {t~ltT~T 8itfT?;J ~ 'lit, t:tcr~ i{t~ fa~ :qTg~~ ~~cH itn~ mffl.

«l~a::olJT ~tlt~ (Jf sf6T:qr ~~r::{T q)f{ ~qr~~~~;; ~(lT. ~(·a{TJfr

{f(~Tq{ 'f[ ~q r:nT{:q" ~ ~~fr mcrl1JT ~at, ffi ~~~ ~ ~~CJTtfr ~1;:r ~<_;l{T Cf)Ttl1J(~ {tg- ~~ ?t~q~ C:llT:olfT ~T~r q{H~{r~T ~Q'(t ~~llr, 3fij cr~t~{ il15(.t ~r~ ~~r Sl6iff ij'+raj Q'Tfi:~ ~cr ~f(~ aff~ • .. ~ mam ,"l~, f;r+r~, 'lftl{Tifr~, ~ si~ ~T~, l~TGlr~T.I!lT {T~ltta ~~cft--ollT st~T{T ~ r:nrt 3fm~aT:g-~ ift~ ~cft. ~ ~ ~u :erR 3:~Tt ~i{T'l ~1'f {{Wi ~ ~~Tr~q\ =qt~'f~. qtJT ~tflfMt if ij1~:$t ~iriT €I Sf.Ii{1Jf arr«~ q 'fi{r~r« aim qt ~~ i(r(t; <.:5{f. tltT{T iT~cn ~~ a{~~T straia 'HR~T q f~erfll( {(6);fi , ~s- , R;\6{T~J an:r~ 1N q. Hra. il"t~« ~rif. ~~T!{ ~iT ~ ~,~ S(!J~ ~)a, ~ atrnitllia qrZIJTT J anu, a{iJ(t~{{ ~it i{s- ~3iw{ ~~{~ q 6{ij{fij'( ~r ~m ~ift'f~Rf;ff ~t~ ~~ecr ~~~. ~q{fij~~ q(J (=~T~a5l \3'-\ ~ffi q{ attfl ~llT:olfT ~ll~~ SlT~ft ~~ q~ lTTatrf. ~r~ ~Rr .. ~r'~{, q ~~T;ft !J~T§ ~ q~~ ~ :aff{ 1l!&~ t i{~ qij~ ,(tij cr U~~r{ltr( ftiqr g~tt ~ ~roft atl{~ ~r:fi' q~~n fir~r ~aT • . <t{(1(€6( rn~a llTif ~fl:~ SlIt, " ~mt ~({ ~eolT(f ~T~lJrr.rr~ ~I{r{

31'iU."it3~fi:~r"m .q~ ff«f~~ ~(fr .. a{ij ~~r!~

au :;;n~~. t6r~tft€fT~;:rr ~r.r~ ~~T.{T gw:~ Qrf~T it!ft ~:it CfTilfTff

Sf~, O'~r~~{ q q~ ;f'i~ RcrrafT ~~tt Cf?t~ ~~ tlirif ~{~a :q~~ ~at." ( il@{ 9:. ~ ~ )

· ci~RfT &T Sffil'{ qT~;r ~q;jft;rr \;fTer q3;~ r.razrAT ~~~r;r ~r~r . ~r SI@if mr &:eftcr{, Clirait ~ijTIJf~{, Cf?rt1ft {T'{R;, :nT!J1f q;rrer, ~)JyT ;rQqj:qr ~fl ~3i'i, a{ cti)ofi ft!f~t.qr ~~m Cf ~{~~ qrq~~ arTr.r~ ~q cti~ GTT.{rq~ ~T~r ;:rcr~::n~r 3r;~~ 6n~~. trOT ~l{T«~ ~lt'{ ~~. ~ ~cl ar.6EIfRt ~r~ ~t:f, ln~' st~lt~ ~q~T~ aRiSfr q farf~~ eflr!a ~T •. <iT~ f:r~e._1IJfT~ftat ~~"T E6t~;;r ~)j{'iT ~~~ ;r~rfi. arrfor ~Hn;:~ 1J~f;rT a{ «T:~n a~{ ~~f~r"tff ifsr~ {fllT.f (flf ~r ~t~fr.rr~ flfl

it~Tr.r~~ tR;~ 'lTlif an~~~ f?rEiflf CfT;ra' ~or. ifrHJCf{ 5T~s Cfati;fT'

~rlR?r ;:~IJf~ ~tCf qr~~ 6{)~ ij'~ ~~rr'12 ~Ci ar~€f. +r~r;!l:q ~T~ r.rO'f q~qffi~ ~'iT~ a- tl~f~ lfi'1GJ fCf~ r.rr[;r ~:PlT.{f.~~ ~T~~ aR=RlA. GiG'T:it ~ fq~~q r.rT&'l ~T a:~'llT~ attrffl~, "~T r.r~r ~~~RT ~~i1 qrq ~ an(~. lff 6lcnra: ~lT05r;rr aq~+r ~T~llTii{ ~lfr ~tt:ift {r~(;fr~' fTlff.~+{{ ~l{OS U~ ~rr~rq{ f~{=fOTr{ ;;r~11 ' ent{f ~~ I{Tar~fl ~~~~l ~"MfT.{. eft ;:&'JfT~I3iij'cft(05, " ~Tq{:qT C(1JTcrT Chr{ a{ lfef(=[ ~rr05a). ~~r¥ tJiitY aT iflRT.{ ~~'i '1' ft~T ~)a ;:rT~ ~T~ 1 " ~r il~r~~ i.i~f fef~~ ~TfQ ti~ ~lTi'! lft6 it~oo ~~q~m:cft ~Hq antcrt i1{lii{t~r;rr~ lfT~ ~n~Cl 'IiT~ ar+PTT( ~ q If ~t~ ~r~ (f{f, ~!t~t~ {r~lf ~sa .,r~ ~ ~f:qCf 1" ~~Cft;j t~ ;Ui~ ~2Jif ~ ~{fqlfRt ~)a- 1

c{ts ~qr <l61fl~j;ff litel <fr;<rii'f ?i'l;;!f affli'fi ~{'iiT{it "'i~I{'"

*~ ;;l{f ~ crT[;{ GTi:t=~, ~s alrr.n ~f~lfT q ~T~ 8l~f ~fg~i{ ~TilIi ~l~ ~f;ilT9{ ~~;; tiijT$'{ ~.,. ~Cfi ~;r'f~ G[TC:ST ftt=S~T ~~ ~Tf1~. ~?lt~r ~nG~ ~r ~{~fltffi ~)q~r 8{t~, r.tl f~~T{t(!Sr rc~r an~ ~ ~ rfiFfT 8n~ (f{r Cfi~ ~ r.pJ'f at fiTil ~tt~ ~~. rfiT{1lT ~~~ q it ~T ~);:r +1~r~Rr c=rr en{+r~~T~rn{ ~ijT~~tq ~efil(T~T rcc.;5T ~aT 1 a) tJ:tfi ij'T+TT~~ +r~Qf ~.;r. t:t~fu (!5iff~ ~~T~ q'Tft~ ;{~ctl. sutor iteru; q~~[~ errfif (!5TtTi{ qiq;ft~ ~;:r ~T~ e;:~T~T ~lfT~T ~ijts{ ~tt~ ~€f !

c."

Cf,~ il~ eft;; ~~~);n :s:[+rr Cfi~ f~Cf{ qTofe{InJT~ ~~<?'ST ~ anG~

atfl~ 1 (1.JT~~{ 66~(!Sr ~3i;r a) +J{UT ItTere,;sT. q){(f~T \l{;:rre ~fifa: ~~T ar 8f~r:q i~ q~~ ~(H. t{_~ er~t~ (~T~ fu:rrtfrRt ~~ ~cft ttOT ~~orfQ 6t t(if'ii ifT~~ ~ fQ\~:f ~r~ ~. ~«f~r wrqt1lr ~cft if Q)~fc{r ~a-r (~:o;rr ~1'7.lr~ «~d~r qn~ Cf;{Gf at~~

~. ~ij ~~r {~~~m C:CifqY @T~ qT~,q efiftoT amlT atQ'aT. qvr ~~ m il'f3O'mr ~l3i;r, ~(1 erdwir an;fi ~Tq-~ it~~ f6i~ ~{~~ ~ an~, anfGt {T~ ur~~ {~11f ~ qrft~ ~ft ~iCf iiftfT :ret. «arr~ @6TQ5q"~ f~~r tffT{~ft ~. l,~ ~r~{ ~'iT ~tRlfa(:5rT.J ~f sr~t{ !

ijiffl\{{.q'T ~q{~ ~\?{ &r(T at~R. ~~r~T fqqro~~ fcltrUa ~f« ani5E1et ij~Tft ~frrr 3"(=ii! Cf~iI~f ~~, if mq;~~ ~~Cf ameli, ~~ eft 6tt" ;w{mt~crR aTiillTa fu:~. enfOl ~~{ ~8rnij ~ ~ ~qW ifT~t!l~ ~Fn ~a;;r ~gqT 1,~'ital6 ilH~~T ~,~affCf ~3iij aT (T~r! ifel{ ~srTft qsifS" ~~ ~R'it, ~O&t cni~ q~i(~1 mqafttifarcft arMfctlJRl ~lfAT ~~qfo ~~. ~T fila :qr{ ~ ~6 ~ ~~m. ~r qfC'n:n~ ~ CfT&" 1r~ araelT. ~~ {ta{ ~~ ~~r ~tnrRft ~r cn~J. ~ ~er« ~Er ~T~q16r (~~ ~:qT{~ '(t ~Cf etij'~ arrcreT ~, (~T~ 3m: ~ ~r"40fi'O~T &e..1IJfT~GT. 3fellJlT &T anl=l:q( ft;~r sn~. " ~!J~r ;ftoq)6~{if ~~a ~:qi:{r{tl1JTt;:r ~~I1fT6T, Ji6r q{ (f f~ ( ~{f~:qT fgr' ~~T! ~cr{ ~~ ;:~'JTT~T, " aij ~T~ i=Q:Ill" ~ an;:~ ~TaT ' fc(~<i~~ , ~&rir. "

0..

~(tiqft:am~lT.J 3{lf(t ~G ~;:lIT 5{f}citT.Jt +t3~ ~of. fcr61lfa-(fl CfiTJlT=iJfr :qT~ itu~TiifulT a) ~~~ f;rerT6T ~cit CfiMT ~T~IJfRr, ~ CiT{tt~ ~~ SfT{6 at~ CiQa:rr (~rit i;{((fct~ ~ffi, a-qTfCf ~i~~ ifret=~ +(fCfijOlf¥f ~~rol1T ol~1 atrn~~ {i~~ ert~~ ~~. '~~{=tflqfm~ crrffr£f~ am ~~EliJft~ aH( tf J fCf68 fira;6{ an~mta tt@T~ ~o5l at~ ~rJj{Tij' ~ijC6( ~(y;{ (Ill ~a- S{ij'~). qor CfTiof cm'erf at ~~ S1'JCIir~ OllTtfaT aufVl ;fo{ cn~ sutor PcilrT ~llT cnft~l~T ~{Ciro ~~ ! ' ~~ ~ !~Cf~ SfaRtl: @~ tRltt. q'11f aT r.:qRf ~~Toft ~~ iirilffiaT ~g t{~lf. ai~, 0~T ~t a1s ~U'lI1:erT ~(3T mrer if;(~r.

amter~ qftfttrfcr at'W;~ ~~~ ~ err"rif' ~:err tlt:q ~~~T ,,5(or. t:~ \If('O~T ~T~ ~ :qf(f5~ ~. C6Tsgijt~T ~'{ ~T;rertfKr 5r~r,

~T iN anlfi a~ ~ ~~ ~T an~ ifT(f. iftTifi~T ~ 'iflcr:q14et{ ~~~~ it;r(~ lfT;r ~lfTaT ~lT~ ~ft~ e6f, ~CfT~~~ ~T" Cf{ aUtfT1r lifwl aim am ~~r. ffiq irer ~~ ~ ei~ ~1~ ~~t & ~q{r. iol1{rij lfrif qft~fa ffff.iSCf :qr~cr~r~ elJf~r ~as1..C1 ~~ , C5r~ $(fq~r~ a ftTif&"fflcr ef,{T. 5l~~:fi ~ar ~reTr:qr 31T(. '~Si@{ Jfi{o ~ tie ~ f~ffi lttoft, ~~r:qr{ g~ ~l~ a{)~ mh ~r~r cn~Ci it~ atl ~itqon~ if a~ qr~ qf~~. qftf~Rr ef)f(t aHit!f<iJirr~ 'fT(Y. ~ lt~m~{ t(JT~ tt~ aJfOcl'QI'frr ~ q"f R~r~m=r ~~ ~(;Jffi , ~rc:~qGf ifi{a;:fi ~1Tct ~~ ~, qar c« ar~sffi~ ~)~ qrocfT" 6:f ;nt(f u-~ (lJRr ~aT 1 iFT ~rlJ rWr~{ ~q'n)~ ~a~ ~~~Ri {e_~fJT ~IJlT{ it~T ~

~" it ~ ~lJr~ ~~ ~~~~r~t~ d \a~ \1friTFHllr ~TGaT ~lli'ff, aR::n' ClifR:1 ~l{~~ift ;HIJIB, ~~~T{(!5r ~~fqT ~ ~~Tql[T:qr 3n~ 3fij ijTi!_ij at~~t:qr S{l[~q ~lt~ an~Q. CfOT ~~~ ~T~:;'-H ep:{Td' 8lr~{ &:TCf ~rij~r ~ri{1 cr" !l~~ erT~m:rr~ c:~T.ft lf~fil(t a:~I~ {~~T t1T~I' 8f~ t~it cR;mq er.~;; ~tfrrcr~. qcrr f~fir ~1C1,{ 3l~~ ~r~"tfr t'fTaq, ~mr m 'ir~ll[{3 3lr~ am od~a I I ~ an~ ~~ ~<t~' atm (o!lr:qr ~~ <."S)~ ~~Iwft tn~ 8rll~. anfUr ~llif6:T~{ Cf{ ~lJ'(r~tb aer~ a{ij ~on(_?T~, ctt 8l~:cr SffCl~lU 'llO~;{ g~~r ~¥~T~~ {~1lT ij;{01T{ an~td' ~na€f ~

t'flll lJT fcr:qr{ f.:rr cnr{ij'T ~as 'i;~rH. ~r{rsr srfu~T{r~fi T,fiji a{l(fT g~ ~r~. ~6{ ~~~~r~~ iJffi;ft C6asar:q ~if{~T il~~{ ~~fin;t~~ ~r~ ~~;r ~~~~l~~ ~rlJfTtl iT~ (fT~;j s{~llT CfT~':f~ ~tif1:', ~{TIJT:O~T ~CfT~q~~ q{a a{l~~ ihr CfTqs~~ ~{ ~~~qtij \qr~T~. S{rfllf i(ir:;lIr ~ijlasT ~~(f ~ c:{~ ;~rJI.~ +r~:q, lit" ~ \:l~~T. ~rifT~ ~8:~ q~GIll crT.' ~;r u~ !JO'~r[;:r ii[ ~ll{ IiTtl ~r~T +{~ W~fq'f'1~ CfTG :qT~ ~Trrer. cr ~~ ;rm:r:qr ~GIJf ;ft~ ~~qfO~r ;rtFqy~r81 srqij aJi~~T~ ~(3;.l, ;{(f{ sr~TlT C6T'11.{'!fi~ eroo~. rr6&~~~ ~qtif ~r~st~ ~lJri{ ij~ +rJq~~. ~Cf~;n q aft~iii q~(JI:;~r ~r& ~~. ~ijg!f a ~({ ~dCf ~Pi~ ~at:q, ~~T:q qT~~ ~fcht:tG" ~ ~~T m'l):it ijiti ~~~ (CTfifT ~.

.ijf~{<.=5 ;ftt>5 ~efiC:~l~ ql~{?r ~o~t ~rtJftij~<.'5' f.ferI1JT<T anrrlJT~'

f~~a" ~r ~~. mm i;~T~r {1tftta~ 'qffli qt~ f;rf;{~ ~if~rU an~. SIffiTTI ~rtfCf ;JtTff ann(_? a { ~TCfT ~~~; t=rT~lCl{ lfTsf f;r~;f ~nt~. ' ;ft~ ~~ u:~ S{~{ q iiTaar ~'-H ~~ ~T~Tij' ~ ~~ anfOr ~ ~lTTij" f&~fCf GTij~ij II s{Tfr :qar' 6{ij'T ~~ifq~r~ f~T~ ~~+{ ~~T. :q'rq~c:{~. *~ ~T~T q'illRIr~' @r~r ~~r ~aT if ~f;f lt~~. ~~{:;(fT ~~at~ ~G~ ~$ q 1¥~ ~ ~)~ q ~M~ ~T~ int~ ~ ~~T~~ ~~Tij' '{'* ~T ~~ ~at. tfiT{OT ~T+{T;:~ ijiT'-I~~{ ~'Cli~T fcr~iJ (!5riT. q'1Jl ~r~T at~ atij'T q~ Cfil, f;r{q'{Trit ~:.f; ~~r~ Ci:n=lfi'SI'fr.]f :q'{T.({ ~r{w:t ~ lJ1r~. rt~~e~T&~ CflTC{,{{m ~ti1T ;:ft(_?, t.-lf~ q ~s ~T '5[~t;rl a{q{T~1 Wq{T~:ft r.Jim~ q qr{at, ~ ~a f1.Jl ~f;?;~r« If)051 qr~lRtr~T ijiij a-ft~r. arrflJT ~ij'~~ f*e~rt ifrqr.;r ernT ~T~~T. ~<{ta ;::~al{i ~TaT{Y ifTl1Jij, ~~r q (';~T" ~~ ~~~ qrft~l ;:{T~o. ~rsr~r q:;rij' Cl{ ~rlfq:qf~ (_:5r~. a-cr{?r ~i:ir. (~T;r{ f?t~~~ ijflJltrt'1T q:;rm a:3i~, ~t~ ~~r~r aH~ftl' fi6iT arr:fisl ~ at~ e~T ~ffi~ r~C{r Cfit\"a-. ~or ~ 8{ti}u Clfij";{r 1 aT~~r oM ~ ~T ff{ ~fl1~'J &T(fr. a:~r r.rt:q ijrrJT{.l cMi~T arrq_'I asTq(_i51 qrrn S{trT wn ~q{1 rtt~ ~ra "it ~~"jf fff:f~ ~6r:OijT ~T9~~ ~a~ F.tm~ ~ FfiT, ~(=fa ~Har ~r fu~T ~~t;:rr q:;T{:itit cH~. m~~!Jr ~ltr ~~;:n{1 ~a1;:r

~Oltij ~1.Jr~T ~~r!I2ffi ~{rif ~ $~~ ~~r an~, ~T ~t~ @{T ~~ iti~ ati=f ~lft;rr 2nt. ij~T1rct i{r~ctl~~T silff ~t:f qqT~ qT{ ",1{~~ e{ija <i«T ;ft~;rT S1i'T{ ~T. ~I~ f~fffi" ~~ift~t:O~T {~r:qT ~s ~~T~ od~~ ~~. ~M~rf+tq1iT:?t ( Sf.f;T{ ~a* ;r~!1U~ ~r~~ ita ~, &~~, ~~\;r ~(f: ~~r;:rt~ ~~TT.(r ~~T(i)T aH~T ~~ ij- ~t~~, ~~T~~ ~~ 1 ~ at~(Jf:qJ{t:o'.fT &~4fclT qr~O'(fr(!5T~ +{WfT(2'5T ~17( ~:rr~~), i=~Ill" ~~ ~en ~;r a~n~ ~ ~~T Q~ ~~f1(fl'1T a:{I;::~ ~~q ~fJTr{ atl~ • ~g~ e't;:~ Gfra~~I{ {~~ ~Tit ~~~ an~ tf)1 ~ri{~~r ';:{ft{ t q~~T (ffIt~;:r ~r 'an~' qg~(Jr ate'-iT~ld~ ~ ~ij~ S6R6t ~~' a:r~).

" Soldiers and civilians alike were holding Bloody assizes or slaying natives without any assize at all, regardless of sex or age. Afterwards, the thirst for blood grew stronger still. It is on the records of our British Parlia .. ment, in papers sent home by the Governer general of India in council, that 'the aged women and children are sacnficed, as well as those guilty of rebellion. They were not deliberately hanged but burnt to death in theirvillages, perhaps now and then accidentally shot. ~ Englishmen did not hesitate to b~ast or to record their boasting in wrrting, that they had 'spared no one " and that 'peppering at niggers' was a very pleasant past-rime, , enjoyed amazingly. "

" It has been stated in a book patronised by high official athonties that · for three months eight dead carts daily went their rounds from sunrise to sunset, to take down the corpses which hung at the cross roads and,

,.

market places, and that, six thousand beings were

sum marily disposed off and launched into eternity"

Kaye's History of the Sepoy war- Vol. 5-2.

~T. ¥ ~~~ uit ~~lH,{~ ~s t:tT~~ \iT. ~ '1 u~l WfT~~ 8{~'~'i[r~:qr ~r \i~cFTCf ~(:5r. 9~, ~0 U~ ~~1i ~:!JTfI q:;~'i_{ lt~ ~05T(?;T C{ (:!JTWfT ~ ~~{ qai?~Tc{{ 81rt{T ::rr~;r ij~{T@~. It {J~Cfj~:qf ;fI{T ij'T~f ~~ct~t ~i1) ~{ ~ffUq~;r &Ta:i ~;n(1T ~ ~r ~l ~iqr~~r~T ~t={tff an~ " 8{ij ~ ~~~ ~r;r f~~i=5 sn~. 'fifi'{{ ~a{ '1 '"' ~~ U$Y qf~ ;r{t:c~{ ~GI{Cf ifr05R1T~if q~;~t~T q{T~et ~r~f. a;~t f;rcrMr:qr ~~ ifa:;., ~~!:e;t{T tI€r~.lNU~ S{f;%~ ;:rTtfoo~r q ~~ tfip.t ~{fq:!:fT~ lTr:cfi' q~;~t~ q~errdff :q:qf ~{§ !Hr~T. ~r;:rTtn~~cil ~m ~tml ij-;:~ iia:;;:r ~~~rii ~~r alg ~~r~ ~f.JYP.tr~ o~J~~. ~r~ "T;r'~T~~" ~~~t ~tf~ ~t~ a~Tq{ ~rl!l W;~~T an~~ ~,,~cfr ~~ C!5TIR'5\'. ~ (~a;~ f~~ tt~ ~t;ff fillg{ ~~ ~~~1Cf, liT\"5T ~ q'6~

J)ij. ~~ _0 g3h{ 1'f~Cf{ ~tf~ ~~ SfiT~ Efi~T~T~ ~f1ft :q~ ~~qOf ~ Rr8r. ~if~lq ~lJ~ ~~ q~ ~ ~~l 'fi=ffiT~' Sfi~ ~a ~~. a~ f~{f~T ~;ftt"S atij~ qt:q«(T ~q ~ ~a (lI'f;:rr m-oolfT tfT~., ijT~~tCf atT~. ~f;n~ +rr~t~ (t m~ ;{fc{T~t1:i(MT I{tr~ *~ ilr(f. 5T(=IlT r!Tit lfMr ~~r ,,~q~~ E6~if tq{N *8J Cf rituftf~ q(T~. Sfitt (t iff! ~v~Tq C1i{w ifO&:CfT. tf'JT ~1cr~ ~r ~tf::r fiI~t;rr ~~atij:e{ ~ ~~ ~(fr. c=~tff amtfi'l ~Jt ~ftT. ~T 6i~~'l ~fi:t~ if~~ +Tlt~{f SHOff' ~~.;.ft Sfffi~ ~. s~qt~r ~r<t'f et~ ;ff:q tfifit ~ ijT~rf. m4i:eft ~~lfT ~H(f.f)T;,r ~~ ~~lCf ! ill ~ i!fiTuft ~fcr~ ~tq~ 3~ 3l~:n ft:cm a~fcrff~ ~ (l'lra :qT~ Qra-. ;n~~ ~~fe~;:a ~fo~T ~ftI~~Tfu: l1T ~:qT iJsf ~Tf(~T ilT~l 3~ Clit~ ~er~ttif qt<tt~T ~~ ~{C=:'{ ii~~~ 3{~ @let S{r.mtr fii~~ ~rij' mqlif 'lit~ iT~T ~~t~ ~srT~a ~r tTf'l aterf:em a'f.lS' CJi)ij enst. ;r~f~ ~~ ~~Jift tJT;:rrr~a: ~U +rT;;am. e{Tfor e~tCfft , d'f~~r itq ~t~fr JJ~T {t ~fma ~tfrr~~ , am ifref f:r~ C:~l~ ~tfrla~ (

~~ffi a-cI"Jl{TijT(@ an ~.

"

U This information I have from General Tantia Topee who quarreled with the Nana on this same affair. What I tell you is true. The murder of the European women and children at Cawnpore was a woman's crime. For there is no fiend equal to a female fiend. But what cause she had for enernity against the unfortunate ladies, I don't know. I never inquired."

( ~~~ ~T;;~T atTo;rufr~. 9 ~ 9 )

aT. , ~ ~~ mtT ijr(,J ~3iiI .,rifTij'r~ii 6f(1(3'T lfiqIQ'J~l e~~ ~t~. t~{;5l€fi~ trr~ itQt1i ilTijT~8:q-t~ ~;:lJ CllJl~ C6Tif~( Cf ~~iR; ~T ~i{ ~~~~T -m~CR arq~T~ ~~ ~,if (?;GT{~ftijt ail a{~~~ ~. 'l~~ ~~T ~r ~ar. ~~T~r ~T\T 3T;:ij ~iJ'~r E6{VlltCf~ 1ra~r ~aT. qor q$lo~t:qr aT ijr~~ qt(~ ~q-~Nif( ~an1( :qf5fi(l:c{ ~n~T.

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