1.0 OBJECTIVES
2.0 THEORY BACKGROUND
3.0 EQUIPMENTS
4.0 PROCEDURES
5.0 RESULTS
.0 SAMPLE CALCULATIONS
!.0 DISCUSSION
".0 CONCLUSION
1.0 OBJECTIVE
1. To determine permeability of soils of intermediate and low permeability
(less than 10
4
m/s), i.e. silts and clays.
2. TO describe the eneral accepted practice to determine the coefficient of
permeability of silts and clays.
!. To identify the relationship between permeability and pore si"e of the fine
rained soils.
4. To meas#re the coefficient of permeability of silts and clays.
2.0 THEORY BACKGROUND
$n the fallin head test a relati%ely short sample is connected to a standpipe
which pro%ides both the head of water and the means of meas#rin the &#antity
of water flowin thro#h the sample. 'e%eral standpipes of different diameters
are normally a%ailable from which can be selected the diameter most s#itable for
the type of material bein tested.
$n permeability tests on clays, m#ch hiher hydra#lic radients than are normally
#sed with sands can be applied, and are often necessary to ind#ce any
meas#rable flow. The cohesion of clays pro%ides resistance to fail#re by pipin at
radients of #p to se%eral h#ndred, e%en #nder &#ite low confinin or s#rchare
press#res. (ispersi%e clays howe%er are %ery s#sceptible to erosion at m#ch
lower radient.
The fallin head principle can be applied to an #ndist#rbed sample in a samplin
t#be and to a sample in an oedometer consolidation cell. The e&#ation #sed in
determine the permeability of fine rained soils is i%en in )&n (1).
=
2
1
1 2
log
) (
,
h
h
t t A
aL
k ty Permeabili
e
###..E$% &1'
The time difference (t
2
t
1
) can be e*pressed as the elapsed time, t (min#tes). The
heihts h
1
and h
2
and the lenth, + are e*pressed in millimetres, and the areas ,
and a in s&#are millimetres. )&n (1) then becomes )&n (2).
) / ( log
60
,
2
1
s mm
h
h
t Ax
aL
k ty Permeabili
e
=
###..E$% &2'
To con%ert nat#ral loarithms to ordinary (base 10) loarithms, m#ltiply by 2.!0!.
$f  is ep*ressed in m/s, the abo%e e&#ation becomes )&n (!).
) / ( log
60 1000
303 . 2
,
2
1
10
s m
h
h
t xAx
aL
k ty Permeabili
=
###..E$% &3'
.here/ a 0 area of crosssection of standpipe
t#be,
, 0 area of cross section of sample
h
1
0 heihts of water abo%e dat#m in
standpipe at time t
1
h
2
0 heihts of water abo%e dat#m in
standpipe at time t
2
+ 0 heihts of sample
t 0 elapsed time in min#tes
3.0 EQUIPMENTS
1. 1ermeameter cell, comprisin/
2ell body, with c#ttin ede (core c#tter), 100 mm diameter and 1!0 mm
lon.
1erforated base plate with strainin rods and win n#ts.
Top clampin plate.
2onnectin t#be and fittins.
3i#re 1/ 2ompaction permeameter
(2o#rtesy of )+) $nternational, 2004)
4.0 PROCEDURES
1. ,ssemble apparat#s,
a. The apparat#s is set #p as shown in 3i#re 2. The %ol#me of water
passin thro#h a sample of low permeability is &#ite small and a
contin#o#s s#pply of deaired water is not necessary, b#t the
reser%oir s#pplyin the deairin tan sho#ld be filled with distilled
or deionised water
2. 2alibrate manometer t#bes,
a. The areas of crosssection of the three manometer t#bes sho#ld
be determined as follows for each t#be/
i. The t#be is filled with water #p to a nown mar near the
top of the scale, obser%ed to the nearest mm.
ii. .ater is r#noff from the t#be into a weihted beaer, #ntil
the le%el in the t#be has fallen by abo#t 500mm or more.
iii. The new water le%el is read on the scale, to the nearest
mm.
i%. The beaer containin water from the t#be (weihins
sho#ld be to the nearest 0.01) is weihted.
%. The diameter of the manometer can be calc#lated as
follows/
2 1
1000
,
h h
m
a diameter
w
=
mm
2
$f m
w
0 mass of water (),
h
1
0 initial le%el in t#be (mm),
h
2
0 final le%el in t#be (mm),
, 0 area of crosssection of t#be (mm
2
)
%i. The meas#rements is repeated two or three times for each
t#be, and a%erae the res#lts.
%ii.
!. 1repare cell,
a. The cell is dismantled.
b. The cell body is checed clean and dry, and weihted to the
nearest 0.1.
c. The mean internal diameter (() and lenth (+) is meas#red to the
nearest 0.5mm.
4. 1repare sample,
a. 6ndist#rbed sample can be taen by means of core c#tter.
b. The sample is mae s#re that ha%e a tiht fit in the body and there
are no ca%ities aro#nd the perimeter thro#h which water co#ld
pass.
5. ,ssemble cell
7. 2onnect cell
4. 'at#rate and deair sample
8. 3ill manometer system
9. :#n test
a. 'crew clip at inlet is opened to allow water to flow down thro#h
the sample, and the water le%el is obser%ed in the standpipe.
b. ,s soon as it reaches the le%el h
1
, the timer cloc is started.
c. The time is obser%ed and recored when the le%el reaches h
!
, and
when it reaches h
2
, then the cloc is stopped.
d. 'crew clip at inlet is closed.
10. :epeat test
11. 2alc#late permeability
12. :eport res#lt
5.0 RESULTS
F())*%+ H,( P,./,(0*)*12 1,31
S(/4), *(/,1,.5 D6 77.21
//
S(/4), ),%+185 L6 127."4 //
S(/4), (.,(5 A6 !!30.3"
//
2
S(/4), 9:);/,5 V6 1003.! </
3
M(33 := /:;)6 70 + M(33 := 3(/4), > /:;)6 2"20.0 +
M(33 := 3(/4),6 1"0 +
S.G. /,(3;.,?(33;/,6 V:*3 .(1*:6
B;)@ ,%3*125 6 1.43
@N?/
3
D.2 ,%3*125 6 14.74
@N?/
3
M:*31;., <:%1,%16 20 A T,31 1,/4,.(1;.,6 B <
S1(%4*4, *(/,1,.6 4.05
//
S1(%4*4, (.,(5 (6 12."" //
2
R,(*%+6
h
1
h
2
R,=,.,%<,
4:*%1
H,*+81
(0:9,
(1;/5 2
&//'
H,*+81
(0:9,
:;1),15 8
&//'
T,31
H,*+81
.(1*:3
N:. T*/,5 1
&/*%'
1 733. "33. 1 0.4" 1.12
2 "33. !33. 2 1.05 1.14
3 !33. 33. 3 1.0 1.1
4 33. 533. 4 2.22 1.17
.0 SAMPLE CALCULATION
1. The coefficient of permeability for the i%en sample of soil.
) / ( log
60 1000
303 . 2
,
2
1
10
s m
h
h
t xAx
aL
k ty Permeabili
=
C
) / (
6 . 833
6 . 933
log
48 . 0 60 38 . 7730 1000
84 . 129 88 . 12 303 . 2
1
10
s m
x x x
x x
k
=
0 8.51 * 10
4
m/s
) / (
6 . 733
6 . 833
log
05 . 1 60 38 . 7730 1000
84 . 129 88 . 12 303 . 2
2
10
s m
x x x
x x
k
=
0 4.!9 * 10
4
m/s
) / (
6 . 633
6 . 733
log
60 . 1 60 38 . 7730 1000
84 . 129 88 . 12 303 . 2
3
10
s m
x x x
x x
k
=
0 !.!0 * 10
4
m/s
) / (
6 . 533
6 . 633
log
22 . 2 60 38 . 7730 1000
84 . 129 88 . 12 303 . 2
4
10
s m
x x x
x x
k
=
0 2.49 * 10
4
m/s
!.0 DISCUSSION
The test of fallin head permeability test is carried o#t to determine the
permeability of soils of intermediate and low permeability than is less than 10
4
m/s. The coefficient of permeability is defined as the flow rate #nder laminar flow
conditions thro#h a #nit cross sectional are of poro#s medi#m #nder #nit
hydra#lic radient.
The coefficient of permeability for o#r soil sample is 
1
0 8.51 * 10
4
m/s,

2
0 4.!9 * 10
4
m/s m/s , 
3
0 !.!0 * 10
4
m/s and 
4
0 2.49 * 10
4
m/s.
The a%erae for the coefficient of permeability is 4.4445 * 10
4
m/s. ;ased
on 3i#re !, the sample soil is classified as silt or silt clay.
3rom here, we new that silt clay comprised mainly of intermediate si"ed
particles, are fertile, fairly well drained and hold more moist#re than sandy soils,
b#t are easily compacted. 'ilt as a soil separate consists of mineral soil particles
that are 0.002 to 0.05 millimeter in diameter. 'ilt has a relati%ely limited s#rface
area and little chemical acti%ity. 'oils hih in silt may compact #nder hea%y traffic
and this affects the mo%ement of air and water in the soil.
".0 CONCLUSION
,s the res#lt, we can able to describe the eneral accepted practice to
determine the coefficient of permeability of silts and clay, identify the relationship
between permeability and pore si"e of the fine rained soils and meas#re the
coefficient of permeability of silts and clays.
1ermeability can be defined as the ability of a poro#s medi#m to allow the
flow of a fl#id thro#h it, typically e*pressed as the coefficient of hydra#lic
cond#cti%ity, (). , poro#s medi#m is a material, ran#lar or fibro#s, containin
%oid spaces. $n this partic#lar pro<ect, the medi#m st#died was '#perpa%e
desined asphalt mi*t#res and the fl#id #sed was distilled water at room
temperat#re
This test was initially in%estiated for two primary reasons. 3irst, the
calc#lated permeability %al#es for samples tested #sin this set#p, as well as the
permeameter assembly and process itself is easily checed for consistency.
'econdly, the %alidity of (arcy=s +aw for the test e*ec#ted in the laboratory can
be e%al#ated. $t was initially ass#med for the tests that (arcy=s law is %alid and
that the hydra#lic cond#cti%ity is essentially #naffected by hydra#lic radient.