62 views

Uploaded by api-266183342

- CR notes
- 2012 June Ugc Net Previous Years Solved Paper i
- Deductive vs Inductive Logics
- Sam Johnson Poem Analysis
- 24.01 Short Exercise f2011
- Basic Principles of Deductive Logic 1
- 155UY57
- Critical Thinking
- 3.2 Deductive vs Non-Deductive Arguments - Logical and Critical Thinking - The University of Auckland
- Musgraves Disagreement With Wittgensteinians on Their Solution to Hume's Problem of Induction
- PHI210 Student Guide
- Arguments
- Syllogisms - 7 Rules and You Will Never Go Wrong Bank Exams Today
- Deductive reasoning is reasoning that conforms to the standards of validity and soundness
- Purdue Owl
- MATH102-MT2-key0001
- Critical Thinking Worksheet1 Eng
- Logika
- Logic Reviewer
- how to read scholarly books and articles

You are on page 1of 34

Reasoning

Problem Solving

Logic The science of correct

reasoning.

Reasoning The drawing of

inferences or conclusions from known

or assumed facts.

When solving a problem, one must

understand the question, gather all

pertinent facts, analyze the problem

i.e. compare with previous problems

(note similarities and differences),

perhaps use pictures or formulas to

solve the problem.

Deductive vs. Inductive

Reasoning

The difference:

inductive reasoning uses patterns to

arrive at a conclusion (conjecture)

deductive reasoning uses facts, rules,

definitions or properties to arrive at a

conclusion.

Examples of Inductive Reasoning

1) Every quiz has been easy.

Therefore, the test will be easy.

2) The teacher used PowerPoint in the

last few classes. Therefore, the

teacher will use PowerPoint

tomorrow.

3) Every fall there have been hurricanes

in the tropics. Therefore, there will be

hurricanes in the tropics this coming

fall.

Example of Deductive Reasoning

The catalog states that all entering

freshmen must take a mathematics

placement test.

Conclusion: You will have to take a

mathematics placement test.

You are an entering freshman.

An Example:

Inductive or Deductive Reasoning?

Geometry example

60

x

Triangle sum property - the

sum of the angles of any

triangle is always 180

degrees.

Therefore, angle x = 30

Inductive or Deductive Reasoning?

Geometry example

Deductive Reasoning

This method of reasoning produces

results that are certain within the

logical system being developed.

It involves reaching a conclusion by

using a formal structure based on a

set of undefined terms and a set of

accepted unproved axioms or

premises.

The conclusions are said to be

proved and are called theorems.

Deductive Reasoning

Deductive Reasoning A type of

logic in which one goes from a general

statement to a specific instance.

The classic example

All men are mortal. (major premise)

Socrates is a man. (minor premise)

Therefore, Socrates is mortal. (conclusion)

The above is an example of a

syllogism.

Deductive Reasoning

Syllogism: An argument composed of two

statements or premises (the major and

minor premises), followed by a conclusion.

For any given set of premises, if the

conclusion is guaranteed, the arguments is

said to be valid.

If the conclusion is not guaranteed (at least

one instance in which the conclusion does

not follow), the argument is said to be

invalid.

BE CARFEUL, DO NOT CONFUSE

TRUTH WITH VALIDITY!

Deductive Reasoning

Examples:

1. All students eat pizza.

Claire is a student at CSULB.

Therefore, Claire eats pizza.

2. All athletes work out in the gym.

Barry Bonds is an athlete.

Therefore, Barry Bonds works out in the

gym.

Deductive Reasoning

Examples:

1. All students eat pizza.

Claire is a student at wmhs.

Therefore, Claire eats pizza.

2. All athletes work out in the gym.

Lebron James is an athlete.

Therefore, Lebron James works out in the

gym.

Deductive Reasoning

3. All math teachers are over 7 feet tall.

Mr. P is a math teacher.

Therefore, Mr. P is over 7 feet tall.

The argument is valid, but is certainly not

true.

The above examples are of the form

If p, then q. (major premise)

x is p. (minor premise)

Therefore, x is q. (conclusion)

Venn Diagrams

Venn Diagram: A diagram consisting of various

overlapping figures contained in a rectangle called

the universe.

U

This is an example of all A are B. (If A, then B.)

B

A

Venn Diagrams

This is an example of some A are B.

(At least one A is B.)

The yellow oval is A, the blue oval is B.

Example

Construct a Venn Diagram to

determine the validity of the given

argument.

#14 All smiling cats talk.

The Cheshire Cat smiles.

Therefore, the Cheshire Cat talks.

VALID OR INVALID???

Example

Valid argument; x is Cheshire Cat

Things

that talk

Smiling cats

x

Examples

#6 No one who can afford health

insurance is unemployed.

All politicians can afford health

insurance.

Therefore, no politician is unemployed.

VALID OR INVALID?????

Examples

X=politician. The argument is valid.

People who can afford

Health Care.

Politicians

X

Unemployed

Example

#16 Some professors wear glasses.

Mr. Einstein wears glasses.

Therefore, Mr. Einstein is a professor.

Let the yellow oval be professors, and the

blue oval be glass wearers. Then x (Mr.

Einstein) is in the blue oval, but not in the

overlapping region. The argument is

invalid.

x

Inductive Reasoning

Inductive Reasoning, involves going

from a series of specific cases to a

general statement. The conclusion in

an inductive argument is never

guaranteed.

Example: What is the next number in

the sequence 6, 13, 20, 27,

There is more than one correct answer.

Inductive Reasoning

Heres the sequence again 6, 13, 20, 27,

Look at the difference of each term.

13 6 = 7, 20 13 = 7, 27 20 = 7

Thus the next term is 34, because 34 27 =

7.

However what if the sequence represents

the dates. Then the next number could be 3

(31 days in a month).

The next number could be 4 (30 day month)

Or it could be 5 (29 day month Feb. Leap

year)

Or even 6 (28 day month Feb.)

All bats are mammals.

All mammals are warm-blooded.

So, all bats are warm-blooded.

All arguments are deductive or inductive.

Deductive arguments are arguments in which the conclusion is claimed

or intended to follow necessarily from the premises.

Inductive arguments are arguments in which the conclusion is

claimed or intended to follow probably from the premises.

Is the argument above deductive or inductive?

All bats are mammals.

All mammals are warm-blooded.

So, all bats are warm-blooded.

If the premises are true, the conclusion, logically, must also be true.

Deductive.

Kristin is a law student.

Most law students own laptops.

So, probably Kristin owns a laptop.

In the example above, the word probably shows that

the argument is inductive.

No Texans are architects.

No architects are Democrats.

So, no Texans are Democrats.

Either Kurt voted in the last election, or he didn't.

Only citizens can vote.

Kurt is not, and has never been, a citizen.

So, Kurt didn't vote in the last election.

Arguments by elimination are arguments that seek to logically rule

out various possibilities until only a single possibility remains.

Arguments of this type are always deductive.

Tess: Are there any good Italian restaurants in town?

Don: Yeah, Luigi's is pretty good. I've had their

Neapolitan rigatoni, their lasagne col pesto, and their

mushroom ravioli. I don't think you can go wrong with

any of their pasta dishes.

Based on what you've learned, is this argument deductive

or inductive? How can you tell?

Don: Yeah, Luigi's is pretty good. I've had their Neapolitan

rigatoni, their lasagne col pesto, and their mushroom ravioli.

I don't think you can go wrong with any of their pasta

dishes.

Inductive.

I wonder if I have enough cash to buy my psychology

textbook as well as my biology and history textbooks. Let's

see, I have $200. My biology textbook costs $65 and my

history textbook costs $52. My psychology textbook costs

$60. With taxes, that should come to about $190. Yep, I have

enough.

Is this argument deductive or inductive? How can you tell?

Mother: Don't give Billy that brownie. It contains walnuts, and I think

Billy is allergic to walnuts. Last week he ate some oatmeal cookies with

walnuts and he broke out in a severe rash.

Father: Billy isn't allergic to walnuts. Don't you remember he ate some

walnut fudge ice cream at Melissa's birthday party last spring? He didn't

have any allergic reaction then.

Is the father's argument deductive or inductive? How can you tell?

- CR notesUploaded byaditya24292
- 2012 June Ugc Net Previous Years Solved Paper iUploaded bydugdugdugdugi
- Deductive vs Inductive LogicsUploaded byMicheal Worth
- Sam Johnson Poem AnalysisUploaded byAkosua N
- 24.01 Short Exercise f2011Uploaded bywhlr
- Basic Principles of Deductive Logic 1Uploaded byShamell Hurd
- 155UY57Uploaded byJayjeet Bhattacharjee
- Critical ThinkingUploaded byNorzaifee Nizamudin
- 3.2 Deductive vs Non-Deductive Arguments - Logical and Critical Thinking - The University of AucklandUploaded byJohn Bhuiyan
- Musgraves Disagreement With Wittgensteinians on Their Solution to Hume's Problem of InductionUploaded byBrandon Jones
- PHI210 Student GuideUploaded byAna Ojeda
- ArgumentsUploaded byubi bhatt
- Syllogisms - 7 Rules and You Will Never Go Wrong Bank Exams TodayUploaded bypkssteja
- Deductive reasoning is reasoning that conforms to the standards of validity and soundnessUploaded byBrenda Cox
- Purdue OwlUploaded byJoanne Ferrer
- MATH102-MT2-key0001Uploaded byAbdullah Metiner
- Critical Thinking Worksheet1 EngUploaded bycharles bona lambok
- LogikaUploaded byVirginillaYP
- Logic ReviewerUploaded byMarlo
- how to read scholarly books and articlesUploaded byAnonymous 9HmbZnT
- PHIL Exam 1 Study GuideUploaded byjim4000
- Analysis of an Argument_GMATUploaded byduongvnguyen
- mathematics - tiered lessonUploaded byapi-240062986
- David J. Chalmers, Why Isn’t There More Progress in PhilosophyUploaded byValeriu Gherghel
- writing assessmentUploaded byapi-271400838
- Carl Cohen's 'Kind' Arguments for Animal Rights and Against Human Rights. - Nathan NobisUploaded byYizuz Statrostklovich
- How to Conduct CriticsUploaded byErvin Salim
- HankinsonGalenCambridgeCompanionBrynMawrClassicalReviewTzviLangermann2009Uploaded byAnonymous mscibVm1sX
- self-relfection paperUploaded byapi-299922274
- Rules of Argumentation;logic;debateUploaded byLordOmniconscious

- 1 7 analyzing puzzles and gamesUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 5 proofs that are not validUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 4 deductive reasoningUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 6 reasoning to solve problemsUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 4 deductive reasoningUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 6 reasoning to solve problemsUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 7 analyzing puzzles and gamesUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 3 optical illusionsUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 5 invalid proofsUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 3 counterexamples to conjecturesUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 2 validating conjecturesUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 2 exploring the validity of conjecturesUploaded byapi-266183342
- deductive vs induction dalesandroUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 1b inductive reasoningUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 1 inductive reasoningUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 1 making conjectures inductive reasoningUploaded byapi-266183342
- deductive reasoningUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 3 counterexamples to a conjectureUploaded byapi-266183342
- 1 2 worksheet demoUploaded byapi-266183342

- Romania School PresentationUploaded byteacher_tr
- MATH Tangrams ArticleUploaded byDave Nichols
- Exercise on Action ResearchUploaded bynabaraj4
- Understanding SemanticsUploaded byDari Ral Maid
- Track_Telecommunications_EE_2008_EN.pdfUploaded bysalomon360
- List of Fees 2017Uploaded byARITOSOUL341
- Topicality Standards and VotersUploaded byCallie Chappell
- 2009 - Cultural Animation and Economic Vitality Identifying the Links and Regeneration Potential - PugalisUploaded bygknl2
- mpscUploaded byzosuan
- Math30-1 Diploma Practice Exam PermutationsAndCombinationsUploaded byAnonymous oaAvL4
- Finite DifferenceUploaded byPavan Kishore
- CSC PDS.docUploaded byPingotMaganga
- Info Sheet - cover letter checklistUploaded bydanrulz18
- sbiexpaperUploaded byNikhil Khadse
- Trends That Affect Filipino YouthUploaded byJoviner Yabres Lactam
- A Statistical Study on Awareness and Attitude of Students of Assam, India Towards HIVAIDSUploaded byAlexander Decker
- Memo BarcodeUploaded bylioneric
- Human Factors RevisionUploaded byhatanni
- 9709_w16_ms_43Uploaded byyuke kristina
- Interpersonal EffectivenessUploaded byGuy
- EASC 160 Syllabus Fall 2014Uploaded byCyrus Jia
- parent interviewUploaded byapi-276988407
- The First AustraliansUploaded byDixanet
- Day 5-Guidelines in Preparing QuestionsUploaded byKimberly Ko
- First Grade 12.10 NewsUploaded byGina Giorgini Sklow
- Holocaust Research Paper GuidelinesUploaded bymonicawattmcc
- LearningUploaded byRajesh Kumar
- GO Songs of SilenceUploaded byAndrea Antonio
- 42222171Uploaded byAshish Anand
- Brent Silby-Philosophy in Schools (a Socratic Dialogue)Uploaded byBrent Silby