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ROHIT KUMAR KHANDELWAL (BBA) (2007 – 2008)
IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF Bachelor of Business Administration UNIVERSITY OF PUNE
MITSOM College PUNE: 411038
CERTIFICATE This is to certify that Mr. ROHIT KUMAR KHANDELWAL of MAEER’s MITSOM College has successfully completed the project work in partial fulfillment of requirement for the award of Bachelor of Business Administration prescribed by the University of Pune
This project is the record of authentic work carried out during the academic year 2007 – 2008.
Mr. S.D. Gaikwad Class-in-charge
Brig. (Dr.) R.K.Bhatia Principal
I, Mr. ROHIT KUMAR KHANDELWAL hereby declare that this project is the record of authentic work carried out by me during the academic year 2007 – 2008 and has not been submitted to any other University or Institute towards the award of any degree.
ROHIT KUMAR KHANDELWAL
(iii) Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 Name of the Company/Organization Katraj Dairy Vishay Components Seminar on Stock Market Seminar on Entrepreneurship Date of the visit -02-2008 -03-2008 -2008 -2008
Profile of the organization
Katraj was incorporated in 1960 with an intension of providing an organized facility of milk collection for the village level farmers situated in Pune district. Katraj Dairy started with milk collection of about 0.30 lakh (30.000) litres in the first year of operation and today, has steadily grown to over 3.25 lakh (0.32 million) litres per day and has a financial turnover of over Rs.150 crores (Rs.1500 million / US$ 33 million). Katraj with its six plants spread almost all over the district has an installed milk handling capacity of over 5 lakh (0.50 million) liters per day. The main plant of Katraj is equipped with Pasteurizer, homogenizer, Cream separator, Ghee processing, automatic packing of products and other quality testing devices and well equipped labs. Katraj has an installed processing capacity of 2 lakh (0.2 million) liters per day. Katraj manufactures / Distributes products like Pasteurized/ Homogenized-Cow/ Standardized Milk, Toned Milk, Cream, Ghee, Shrikhand, Amrakhand, Malai Paneer, Matka Dahi, Flavored Milk, Lassi, Jeera Tak, Table Butter, Milk Powder, Softy Ice cream and in the near future plans to introduce sterilized products like bottled flavored milk. All these products are available at Katraj owned parlors at various locations in Pune City and through appointed distribution and retailing circuits. Very soon, Katraj plans to introduce an online ordering system for its distributors/ retailers and consumers. Katraj products have been in use in thousands of homes in Pune since 1961. Katraj Milk, Katraj Ghee, Katraj Shrikhand, Katraj Softy Ice cream and Katraj Milk Powder have made Katraj a leading food brand in Western Maharashtra. Today Katraj is a symbol of high-quality milk products sold at reasonable prices, the genesis of a vast co-operative network triumph of indigenous technology, the marketing savvy of a farmers' organization. Pune Zilha Sahakari Dudh Utpadak Sangh Maryadit, popularly known as 'Katraj Dairy' in the local and branded as "Katraj", a district level co-operative organization registered in 1960, involved in processing milk and milk products. The representatives of milk producing farmers based in rurals, encompassing almost the entire Pune District, manage this organization on behalf of the milk producers for their (rural India) socio-economic growth. The objective of Katraj is to build a value chain of farmers to source milk at an organized level, manufacture products with high standards and sale these products in the competitive open market place.
When milk fat is concentrated into a fraction of the original milk, that portion is known as cream. Cream is a rich portion of milk fat. Cream is the product of cow or buffalo milk or a combination thereof which contains not less than 25 % milk fat. The various types of cream are: Ta } co ble nta Cr ini ea ng m 20 25 % mi lk fat Li gh t Cr ea
m Coffee Cream Whipping } Cream Heavy Cream Pl ast ic Cr ea m co nta ini ng 65 85 % mi lk fat containing 30 - 40 % milk fat
Packing Sizes 1000 gms poly bag
Flavoured milk is prepared by adding appropriate flavours. Various flavours are added and different flavoured Milk are produced. For example ‘Pista milk’ which is prepared by adding flavour of Pista.
Ghee is the pure clarified fat derived solely from milk or from desi (cooking) butter or from cream to which no colouring matter is added. Ghee is the clarified butter fat prepared chiefly from cow or buffalo milk. Ghee is used as a cooking or frying medium, in confectionary, for direct consumption with rice chappatis etc. Cow ghee is mainly used in indegeneous pharmaceutical preparations (Ayurveda).
Packing Sizes 50 0 gm s pol y pac k 15 Kg tin
Tak is also called chhas or mattha refers to desi buttermilk.
Packing Sizes 20 0 ml pol y bag
Lassi is a fermented Milk beverage popular in all parts of India. The technology of lassi making is however confined to only households. Lassi has a great potential in the Indian Market.
Packing Sizes 200 ml poly pack
Paneer refers to the milk solids obtained by the acid coagulation of boiled whole milk & subsequent drainage of whey. The acids commonly used are citric in both natural & chemical forms. Traditionally paneer has been a variety of pressed channa, used mainly in preparing cooked vegetable dishes like palak paneer, paneer butter masala etc.
Packing Sizes 200 gms poly bag 500 gms poly bag 1000 gms poly bag
Matka Dahi is a fermented milk beverage. Dahi originally was set using mud pots since ancestral days for the purpose of getting that unique flavour & taste gained due to the porous property of mud pots allowing filtered air flow.
Packing Sizes 10 0 gm s 200 gms
Milk is an almost ideal food. It has high nutritive value. It supplies body building proteins, bone forming minerals and health giving vitamins and furnishes energy giving lactose and milk fat. Besides supplying some essential fatty acids, it contains the above nutrients in an easily digestible and assailable form. All these properties make milk an important food for pregnant women, growing children, adolescents, adults, invalids, convalescents and patients alike. Milk may be defined as a whole, fresh, clean, lacteal secretion obtained by the complete milking of one or more healthy Milch animals excluding that obtained within 15 days before or 5 days after calving or such periods as may be necessary to render the milk practically colostrums free and containing the minimum prescribed percentage of milk fat and milk-solidsnot-fats. Katraj also deals in Bulk milk supply to customers purchasing minimum 3000 liters of milk and in multiples of 100 litres thereof.
Milk is converted into powder form and is sold. The advantage of milk powder is that it is very convenient and can be used instantly.
Shrikhand is a semi-soft sweetish - sour whole milk product prepared from lactic fermented curd. the curd (dahi) is partially strained through a cloth to remove the whey and thus produce a solid mass called chakka (the basic ingredient for shrikhand). This chakka is mixed with the required amount of sugar, cardamom, jaiphal etc. to yield shrikhand.
Packing Sizes 100 gms poly Cup 250 gms poly Cup 500 gms poly Cup
SOFTY ICE –CREAM
This product is marketed in a soft condition and is ready for consumption shortly after it is drawn from the freezer. Katraj dairy has soft churner in their milk factory in the Pune city. Among milk products ice cream is also rich source of calcium, phosphorus and other minerals of vital importance in building good bones and teeth. It is excellent source of Vitamin A, good source of Vitamin B & G, Niacin, Vitamin E. The digestibility & palatability of ice cream is also very high.
Packing Sizes 60 ml cone
For years together, table butter is being cherished as a tasty food, popularly eaten with bread. It also forms a good topping on indegeous food like Pav-bhaji, Thalipith (Pan Cake). Katraj Table Butter is Marketed by Katraj Dairy Manufactured By Dynamix Dairy Industries Ltd., Baramati, Maharashtra, India
10 0 gm s, 50 0 gm s
Name of the person contacted during ‘Katraj Dairy’ visit :
Theoretical background (Production)
Da iry Pr oce ssi ng at Ka tra j
1. Pasteurizer 2. Balance tank 3. Feed pump 4. Flow controller 5. Regenerative preheating sections 6. Centrifugal clarifier 7. Heating section 8. Holding tube 9. Booster pump 10. Hot water heating system 11. Regenerative cooling sections 12. Cooling sections 13 Flow diversion valve 14. Control panel
Pasteurization is one of the most important processes in the treatment of milk. If carried out correctly, these processes will supply milk with longer shelf life. Temperature and pasteurization time are very important factors which must be specified precisely in relation to the quality of the milk and its shelf-life requirements, etc. The pasteurization temperature for homogenized, HTST pasteurized, regular-grade milk is usually 162 -167°F (72 - 75°C) for 15 - 20 sec. The pasteurization process may vary from one country to another according to national regulations.
A common requirement in all countries is that the heat treatment must guarantee the destruction of unwanted microorganisms and of all pathogenic bacteria without the product being damaged.
Homogenization is a generic term which refers to processing a solution so that it becomes uniform. The first step, pasteurization, sterilizes the milk so that it is safer to drink. Homogenization stabilizes it for a smoother flavor.In order to accomplish homogenization, the milk is forced through a very fine screen at high pressure. The particles of fat break down and combine with the watery portion of the milk, resulting in a uniform liquid which will not separate out, since the fat particles are blended with the water. The resulting fluid is known as an emulsion, since it represents the combining of two normally unmixable substances. In the case of homogenized milk, the emulsion is highly stable and it will not separate. When milk undergoes homogenization, the taste does change slightly. The fat is more evenly distributed throughout the milk, resulting in a creamier flavor and texture. Pasteurization has a far larger impact on the flavor of dairy products, but is generally viewed as necessary since it prevents food borne illness. Most commercial milk is pasteurized and homogenized, although it is possible to find milk which has not been put through the homogenization process.
Processing Of Products
Process sta nd ar d buf fal o mil k ( 4.0 to
4.5 % fat )
pa st eu ri za ti on ( 72 ° C fo r 15 se c )
coo l to 37 ° C
ad di ti on of la ct ic cu lt ur e
( 1 % )
in cu ba ti on at 37 ° C fo r 8 10 ho ur s
w he n ac id it y 0. 7 0. 8 % : pl ac ed in a m us li n cl ot
h ba g & hu ng fo r th e re m ov al of w he y fo r 8 10 ho ur s
so li d m as s pr od uc ti on ca ll ed ch ak ka
mi xi ng
ch ak ka wi th su ga r, m an go pu lp (a m ra kh an d)
pa ck in g an d st or ag e be lo w 4 ° C
Composition Mo Ma ist x: ure 42 % Fat 8.5 %
<= dry bas is P r o9 % tei <= n dry bas is L a c7 2 . tos 5% e >= wit % h by s u gw e i ar( ght wit , h dry sucbas ros is e) As 0.9 h % >= dry bas is Lactic acid Solids(% 58% by <= weight) 1.4 % <= (% by weight)
Katraj Dairy has been manufacturing plastic cream with 65 - 75 % milk fat.
Composition Wa 22 ter 32 % Fat Protein 1 1.2 % L a c1 . 2 tos 65 - 75 %
1.5 % 0.3 - 0.4 % 68 - 78 %
Ash Total Solids SNF 2.5 3.2 %
Process mil k
ce nt ri fu ga l se pe ra ti on
ripened or unripened
heating upto 110° C
packing & storage (room temperature)
Composition M i ln o t k les Fat s tha n 99. 7% Mo not ist mo ure re tha n 0.3 % Frema e x Fat 1.4 ty % Aci d (ol eic )
Process sta nd ar d buf fal o mil k ( 4.0 to 4.5 % fat )
pas teu riz ati on ( 7 1 ° C for 10 mi ns )
co ol to 37
addition of lactic culture ( 1% )
incubation at 37 ° C for 8 - 10 hours
when acidity 0.7 - 0.8 % :Addition of water, sugar, salt and jeera powder.
mi xin g of wa ter , sug
ar, sal t, jee ra po wd er an d da hi wit h agi tat or or mi xer .
po uc h pa ck in g
storage below 4 ° C
Wa 95 ter 96 % T o t4 al 5 Sol% ids Fat Mi n: 1% SN 2.0 F 2.5 % P r o1 tei 1.5 n % L a c1 . 2 tos e 1.5 % Ash Lactic Max: Acid 0.35 % 0.4 %
Process st an da rd iz at io n of w ho
le mi lk
he ati ng ( 8 5° C fo r 10 mi ns )
cool at 35 - 37 ° C
ino cul ati on sta rte r cul tur e & mi xin g
inc ub ati on at 37 ° C
wh en cur d is set : ad dit ion of sug ar in the for m of syr up wh ich has alr ea dy bee n pas tue riz ed an d coo led sep era tel y
sm oot h co nsi ste nc y of las si is obt ain ed by pas sin g the mi xtu re thr ou gh a ho mo ge niz er
po uc h pa cki ng
sto rag e at ref rig era tor te mp era tur e
Composition Wa 75 ter 80 % T o t2 0 al Sol25 ids % Fat 3 4 % SN 6 F 7 % P r o3 tei 4 n %
L a c1 2 tos e 15 wit % h sug ar Ash 0.4 - 0.6 % Lactic Maximum: acid 0. 75 %
Process standardization of whole milk ( 4.5 to 6.0 % fat ) pasteurization ( 85° C for 10 mins )
co ol at 70 75 ° C
ati on wit h 1 % cit ric aci d sol uti on
wh ey dr ain ing wit h mu sli n clo th
mo uld ing & pre ssi ng
cut tin g, pa cki ng an d sto rag e bel ow 4 ° C
Composition Mo 50ist 55 ure % (N ot mo re tha n 70 %) T o t4 5 al 50 Sol% ids (N ot les s tha n 30 %) Fat 26
28 % (N ot les s tha n 50 % of dry mat ter ) pH 6.0
Process Std or Wh ole Mil k
Heating (85oC for 10 mins) Co oli ng (at
35 to 37 oC )
Ino cul ati on sta rte r cul tur e an d mi xtu re
Fil lin g in mu d pot s (m atk a) wit h mi xtu re for set tin g
Inc ub ati on at 37 oC
Ca pin g an d ref reg ira tin g
sto re at ref eri gra tio n te mp era tur e
Composition of Whole Milk Dahi Description Water 85 88 Percentage
Fat 5 8 P r o3 . 2 tei n 3.4 L a c4 . 6 tos e 5.2 As 0.7 h 0 0.7
2 L a c0 . 5 tic A c i1 . 1 d
MILK Pasteurization: The term pasteurization refers to the process of heating
each & every particle of milk to at-least 63° C for 30 minutes, or 72° C for 15 seconds in approved and properly operated equipment. After pasteurization the milk is gradually cooled to 5° C or below.
Homogenization: Homogenization refers to the process of forcing the
milk through a homogenizer with the object of sub dividing the fat globules.
Standards of different Milks
Cl Mi ass ni of mu Mil m k
% % M. SNF Fat
Co 3.5 8.5 w Mil k Standardized Milk Toned 3.0 8.5 Milk Do 1.5 9.0 ubl e To ned Mil 4.5 8.5
k S k i L e s8 . 7 m ms ed tha M i ln k 0.1 Ful6 l cre me d Mil k 9.0
Process sta nd ar d buf fal o mil
k ( 4.0 to 4.5 % fat )
pasteurization ( 72° C for 15 sec )
cool to 37 ° C
ad dit ion of lac tic cul tur e ( 1 % )
inc ub ati on at 37 ° C for
8 10 ho urs
wh en aci dit y 0.7 0.8 % : pla ced in a mu sli n clo th ba g & hu ng for the re mo val of wh ey for 8 10 ho urs
sol id ma ss pr od uct ion cal led ch ak ka
mi xin g ch ak ka wit h sug ar, car da mo m, jai ph al etc .
pa cki ng an d
sto rag e bel ow 4 ° C
Composition Mo Ma ist x: ure 42 % Fat 8.5 % <= dry bas is Protein 9% <= dry basis Lactose 72.5% with >= % sugar(with by sucrose) weight, dry basis As 0.9 h % >= dry bas is L a c1 . 4 tic % aci <= d (% by wei ght )
Solids(% by weight)
Composition Fat >= 10 % SNF Sugar 15 16 % Sta 0.4 b i l izer 0.5 & % Em uli zer P r o> = tie 3.5 ns % 10- 11 %
Composition: M i lN o k t Fat Les s Th an 80 % Salt Milk Solids Moisture Maximum 3% less than 1.5% 16% >=(m/m)
Fat Testing Fat in milk is tested after collection to check if the fat is in the standard prescribed Electronic Milk Analyzer
In this quality of milk is tested. If the milk is of good quality then it is passed to next stage
TURN DAIRY PLANT
Milk is tested after collection and then brought to Turn Dairy Plant for purifying In this process milk is heated near about 150 Degrees and then cooled down upto 4 degrees so that milk is free of bacteria and then sent to storage
Milk Processing Milk is processed after collecting and testing in the above milk processing machine
Cream separator dairy machine used to separate fresh whole milk into cream and skim milk. Whole milk is conducted into a bowl, commonly through a central tubular shaft. A spindle rotates the bowl at a rate of from 6,000 to 9,000 rpm, and a series of identical conical disks separates the milk into vertical layers. The heavier skim milk collects on the outer circumference of the rapidly whirling bowl, and the lighter cream tends to remain in the center. The pressure of the whole-milk supply above the bowl then forces the cream and skim milk out of the machine and into separate collecting vessels. The cream separator makes it possible to control the amount of fat (called butterfat) remaining in the milk
Cream Collection In cream separator, the cream which is separated from milk, is collected in this process
In this Cream is converted into Ghee
Milk Packaging Milk is packaged in the above milk packaging machine
Global Industry Leader Vishay is one of the world’s largest manufacturers of discrete semiconductors and passive electronic components. These components are used in virtually all types of electronic devices and equipment, in the industrial, computing, automotive, consumer, telecommunications, military, aerospace, and medical markets. Vishay’s global footprint includes sales offices worldwide, as well as manufacturing plants in China and five other Asian countries, Europe, and the Americas. Its product innovations, successful acquisition strategy, focus on cost reductions, and ability to provide “one-stop shop” service have made Vishay a global industry leader.
Growth Through Innovations and Acquisitions Vishay was founded in 1962 to manufacture and market foil resistors, an invention of Dr. Felix Zandman, Chairman of the Board and founder. The Company began operations with foil resistors and strain gages as its initial product offerings. In 1985, having grown from a start-up into the world's leading manufacturer of these products, Vishay began an ongoing series of strategic acquisitions to become a broad-line manufacturer of electronic components. Vishay's acquisitions include such top names as Siliconix, Telefunken, the infrared components business of Infineon, General Semiconductor, Dale, Draloric, Sprague, Vitramon, and BCcomponents (former passive components businesses of Philips Electronics and Beyschlag). Leading Worldwide Manufacturer Vishay has market shares ranging from substantial to number-one for each of its products. Specific product rankings include the following:
Discrete Semiconductors Number 1 worldwide in low-voltage power MOSFETs Number 1 worldwide in rectifiers Number 1 worldwide in glass diodes Number 1 worldwide in infrared components ...and others Passive Components Number 1 worldwide in wirewound and other power resistors Number 1 worldwide in foil, MELF, thin film, and current sense resistors Number 1 worldwide in wet tantalum capacitors Number 1 worldwide in strain gage sensors and load cells and others Successful Strategy, Financial Strength Vishay’s growth through innovations and acquisitions has enabled it to remain financially strong during periodic downturns in the highly cyclical electronics industry. Vishay’s historically strong cash generation has provided money to acquire other companies and businesses. The result is a 20% compound annual growth rate of revenues from 1986 to 2006. In the process, Vishay has become a truly international company that sells into all geographic markets and all relevant market segments. Meeting Customer Needs Vishay’s customer mix includes original equipment manufacturers (OEMs), electronic manufacturing services (EMS) companies that manufacture for OEMs on an outsourcing basis, and distributors that, depending on their size, sell to end customers at an international, regional, or local level. From a customer perspective, Vishay’s “one-stop shop” service for complete discrete component solutions provides key benefits: Customers are able to streamline their design and purchasing processes by ordering multiple types of components from Vishay. Customers can send their bills of materials to Vishay and ask that Vishay cross-reference Vishay products in all categories. In addition, Vishay’s product sample service for design engineers provides free product samples worldwide.
Projecting Vishay into the Future Smaller sizes, faster data processing, improved graphics, and more versatile wireless connectivity are some of the challenges faced by designers of new end products of all kinds — from industrial machinery to medical devices
to MP3 players. Vishay rolls out a steady stream of new and improved components to help designers meet these challenges. Innovation and consolidation, guided by a strong management team and supported by Vishay’s worldwide “one face to the customer” initiative, provide the basis for Vishay’s continued growth.
Vishay states its primary goal is "to exceed the expectations of our customers." The entire organization, beginning with top management, has worked consistently to meet that objective. Vishay's reputation for quality is based on a commitment to the newest and most effective design, manufacturing, testing, and management procedures including both Statistical Process Control and continuous improvement methodologies. To complement quality systems for each product line, Vishay maintains extensive testing laboratories at its facilities. As a result, the Company is well equipped to maintain qualifications to a wide range of specifications vital to the automotive, commercial, defense, and aerospace markets, including: MIL (Military Specifications) ER (Established Reliability) CECC (CENELEC Electronic Components Committee) DIN (German Industrial Standards) SNQ (Service National de la Qualité - French Standards) BS (British Standards) NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration Standards) IS0 9000 (International Organization for Standardization) QS 9000 (Automotive Quality System) TS 16949 (Automotive Quality System) Such assurances enable many customers to deploy ship-to-line programs with Vishay, eliminating the time and cost of receiving and inspections. Uninterrupted Product Availability For many customers, dependability of supply is a major quality factor in selecting a vendor. Vishay seeks to ensure uninterrupted delivery of products through dual-location sourcing. This means customers' production schedules are protected, even if supply from a particular location is interrupted. Value-Added Customer Benefits Vishay's customers realize these value-added benefits: state-of-the-art product design and manufacturing techniques, new and improved products,
faster and more dependable delivery of quality product supply at competitive prices, and responsive technical support any where in the world. Vishay's Customer Service Policy includes: A commitment to provide world-class customer service which starts with the Chairman and CEO and extends through top management and the entire workforce. Maintaining dual or triple production sites for most of its products ensure an uninterrupted supply. Continuous upgrading of product quality and customer service consistent with customer expectations. Promoting supplier and customer partnerships to address changing requirements and problem solving solutions. Anticipating future product and service expectations of Vishay customers to ensure continued customer satisfaction. A streamlined sales and marketing organization offering customers national and multinational support.
Provide Our Customers With: A single manufacturing source (one-stop-shopping) for discrete semiconductors and passive components Quality state-of-the-art products at competitive prices A continuous stream of new products Superior customer service worldwide
Provide Our Suppliers With: Reliable long-term relationships Provide Our Shareholders With: A good return on their investment Provide Our Employees With: Responsible and ethical leadership A creative working environment Responsible community membership at all Vishay locations
Early Technology Breakthroughs In the 1950s, patents were issued for the PhotoStress® products developed by Dr. Felix Zandman. These products reveal and measure stress distribution in airplanes, cars, and other structures under live load conditions. His research in this area led him to develop Bulk Metal® foil resistors, the most precise and stable resistors available — both then and now, over four decades later. Dr. Zandman, with the financial support of Alfred P. Slaner, founded Vishay in 1962 to develop and manufacture Bulk Metal foil resistors. The Company was named after the village in Lithuania where relatives of Dr.
Zandman and Mr. Slaner had perished during the Holocaust. The Company’s initial product portfolio consisted of foil resistors and foil resistance strain gages. Passive Component Acquisitions During the 1960s and 1970s, Vishay became known as the world’s leading manufacturer of foil resistors, PhotoStress products, and strain gages. Vishay’s subsequent decision to grow through acquisitions proved very successful. Starting in 1985, Vishay acquired resistor companies Dale Electronics, Draloric Electronic, and Sfernice. These acquisitions helped produce dramatic sales growth. In the early 1990s, Vishay applied its acquisition strategy to the capacitor market by purchasing Sprague Electric, Roederstein, and Vitramon. Vishay acquired BCcomponents (former passive component businesses of Philips Electronics and Beyschlag) in 2002. This acquisition expanded Vishay’s portfolio of passive components and greatly enhanced its global market position. Solutions for Weighing and Measurement Through strategic acquisitions, Vishay’s original strain gage business has become the foundation of an extensive portfolio of products for weighing and measurement that includes resistance strain gages (in which Vishay is the worldwide leader), transducers (the metallic structures to which strain gages are cemented), electronic instruments that measure and control output of the transducers, and complete systems for process control and on-board weighing applications that include hardware and software. Vishay designs, installs, and maintains customized systems for process control in paper mills, food processing plants, and other facilities worldwide. Vishay onboard weighing systems are used in the waste handling, trucking, forestry, quarry and mining, and aerospace industries. Growth in Semiconductors In 1998, Vishay acquired the Semiconductor Business Group of TEMIC, which included Telefunken and 80.4% of Siliconix, producers of MOSFETs, RF transistors, diodes, optoelectronics, and power and analog switching integrated circuits. Vishay’s next semiconductor acquisition came in 2001, with the purchase of the infrared components business of Infineon Technologies. That was followed the same year by Vishay’s acquisition of General Semiconductor, a leading global manufacturer of rectifiers and diodes. The addition of Infineon’s infrared components group and General Semiconductor enhanced Vishay’s existing Telefunken and Siliconix businesses and propelled Vishay into the top ranks of discrete semiconductor manufacturers. In 2005, Vishay purchased the remaining 19.6% of Siliconix shares. In April 2007, Vishay completed the acquisition of selected discrete semiconductor and module product lines from International Rectifier.
Analog multiplexers Analog switches Attenuators Capacitors Connectors Crystals DC/DC converters Diodes Displays FETs, small-signal Fuses Hybrids & substrates Inductors Integrated modules Infrared emitters IR receiver modules IR touch panels IrDA® transceivers Isolators JFETs LEDs Load cells MOSFETs Motion transducers Networks Optical sensors Optocouplers Optoelectronics Oscillators Photo detectors PhotoStress® Plus Potentiometers Power ICs Rectifiers R/C networks Resistor networks Resistors, discrete Resistors, variable RF transceivers Rheostats Solid state relays Strain gages Substrates Test & measurements
Thermistors and sensors Transformers Transistors, RF Trimmers TVS & ESD Varistors Weighing systems
Many Names, One Manufacturer Vishay has grown through acquisitions to include such top names as Dale,
Sfernice, Draloric, Sprague, Vitramon, Siliconix, General Semiconductor, BCcomponents, and Beyschlag. Vishay's portfolio of brands represents an unmatched collection of discrete semiconductors, passive components, and solutions for weighing and measurement. All of these brands and products are part of one global manufacturer: Vishay. Brands Vishay Angstrohm Vishay Aztronic Vishay BCcomponents Vishay Beyschlag Vishay BLH Vishay Celtron Vishay Cera-Mite Vishay Dale Vishay Draloric Vishay Electro-Films Vishay ESTA Vishay Foil Resistors Vishay Measurements Group Vishay Micro-Measurements Vishay Nobel Vishay Roederstein Vishay Semiconductors Vishay Sensortronics Vishay Sfernice Vishay Siliconix Vishay Spectrol Vishay Sprague Vishay Techno Vishay Tedea-Huntleigh Vishay Thin Film Vishay Transducers Vishay Vitramon
A capacitor is an electrical/electronic device that can store energy in the electric field between a pair of conductors (called "plates"). The process of
storing energy in the capacitor is known as "charging", and involves electric charges of equal magnitude, but opposite polarity, building up on each plate. Capacitors are often used in electrical circuit and electronic circuits as energy-storage devices. They can also be used to differentiate between high-frequency and low-frequency signals. This property makes them useful in electronic filters. Capacitors are occasionally referred to as condensers. This is considered an antiquated term in English, but most other languages use an equivalent, like "Kondensator" in German or "Condensador" in Spanish.
Capacitors: SMD ceramic at top left; SMD tantalum at bottom left; throughhole tantalum at top right; through-hole electrolytic at bottom right. Major scale divisions are cm.
Various types of capacitors. From left: multilayer ceramic, ceramic disc, multilayer polyester film, tubular ceramic, polystyrene, metallized polyester film, aluminium electrolytic. Major scale divisions are cm.
Various capacitors. The large cylinders are high value electrolytic types
A 12 pF 20 kV fixed vacuum capacitor
Capacitor types By dielectric material Vacuum : Two metal, usually copper, electrodes are separated by a vacuum. The insulating envelope is usually glass or ceramic. Typically of low capacitance - 10 - 1000 pF and high voltage, up to tens of kilovolts, they are most often used in radio transmitters and other high voltage power devices. Both fixed and variable types are available. Vacuum variable capacitors can have a minimum to maximum capacitance ratio of up to 100,
allowing any tuned circuit to cover a full decade of frequency. Vacuum is the most perfect of dielectrics with a zero loss tangent. This allows very high powers to be transmitted without significant loss and consequent heating. Air : Air dielectric capacitors consist of metal plates separated by an air gap. The metal plates, of which there may be many interleaved, are most often made of aluminium or silver-plated brass. Nearly all air dielectric capacitors are variable and are used in radio tuning circuits. Plastic film: Made from high quality polymer film (usually polycarbonate, polystyrene, polypropylene, polyester (Mylar), and for high quality capacitors polysulfone), and metal foil or a layer of metal deposited on surface of the plastic film in a the metalized film type. They have good quality and stability, and are suitable for timer circuits. Their inductance limits use at high frequencies. Mica: Similar to glass. Often high voltage. Suitable for high frequencies. Expensive. Excellent tolerance & stability. Paper: Used for relatively high voltages. Known for long term failures. Glass: Used for high voltages. Expensive. Stable temperature coefficient in a wide range of temperatures.
Ceramic: Chips of alternating layers of metal and ceramic, or disks of ceramic with metal on both sides of the disk. Characteristics vary widely depending on the type of ceramic dielectric. The dielectrics are broadly categorized as Class 1 or Class 2. Class 2 ceramic capacitors have strong variation of capacitance with temperature, high dissipation factor, high frequency coefficient of dissipation, and their capacitance depends on applied voltage and changes with aging. However they find massive use in common low-precision coupling and filtering applications. Suitable for high frequencies. Aluminum electrolytic: Polarized. One electrode made of aluminum foil, etched aluminium to acquire much larger surface area. The dielectric is oxide grown on the etched aluminum plate, and the second electrode is a liquid electrolyte. They can achieve high capacitance but suffer from poor tolerances, high instability, gradual loss of capacitance especially when subjected to heat, and high leakage current. The conductivity of the electrolyte drops at low temperatures, increasing equivalent series resistance. Bad frequency characteristics make them unsuited for highfrequency applications. Special types with low equivalent series resistance are available. Tantalum electrolytic: Similar to the aluminum electrolytic capacitor but with better frequency and temperature characteristics. High dielectric absorption. High leakage. Has much better performance at low temperatures.
OS-CON (or OC-CON) capacitors are a polymerized organic semiconductor solid-electrolyte type that offer longer life at higher cost than standard electrolytics. Supercapacitors: Made from carbon aerogel, carbon nanotubes, or highly porous electrode materials. Extremely high capacity. Can be used in some applications instead of rechargeable batteries. Varactors or varicap capacitors are specialized, reverse-biased diodes whose capacitance varies with voltage. Used in phase-locked loops, amongst other applications. AC capacitors are capacitors specifically designed to work on line (mains) voltage ac power circuits. These are commonly used electric motor circuits. They are often designed to handle large currents so they tend to be physically large. They are usually ruggedly packaged, often in metal cases that can be easily grounded/earthed. They also tend to have rather high DC breakdown voltages
Aluminum Ceramic Multilayer Singlelayer Ceramic RF Power Film Polyester Polypropylene Polycarbonate Heavy Current Power Silicon Tantalum Wet Solid Mounting & Construction Surface mount 0805 and smaller 1206 and larger Low Profile Chip Through hole
Radial Axial Insulated Leads Screw Terminal Applications Military Qualified Heavy Current Power Induction Heating Power Electronic Power Factor Controllers Low Voltage AC High Voltage AC HV Power Supplies RFI (AC Mains) DC (Film) Pulse-AC/Precision (Film) RF/Wireless Handheld Smart Card
Capacitance below 1 nF 1 nF to 100 nF 101 nF to 10 µF 10.1 µF to 1 mF above 1 mF Voltages (AC/DC) below 10 V 10 V to 25 V 26 V to 50 V
RESISTORS, FIXED DISCRETE
A resistor is a two-terminal electrical or electronic component that opposes an electric current by producing a voltage drop between its terminals in accordance with Ohm's law: The electrical resistance is equal to the voltage drop across the resistor divided by the current through the resistor while the temperature remains the same. Resistors are used as part of electrical networks and electronic circuits.
Technology Carbon composition resistors consist of a solid cylindrical resistive element with embedded wire leadouts or metal end caps to which the leadout wires are attached, which is protected with paint or plastic. The resistive element is made from a mixture of finely ground (powdered) carbon and an insulating material (usually ceramic). The mixture is held together by a resin. The resistance is determined by the ratio of the fill material (the powdered ceramic) and the carbon. Higher concentrations of carbon, a weak conductor, result in lower resistance. Carbon composition resistors were commonly used in the 1960s and earlier, but are not so popular for general use now as other types have better specifications, such as tolerance, voltage dependence, and stress (carbon composition resistors will change value when stressed with over-voltages). Carbon film A spiral is used to increase the length and decrease the width of the film, which increases the resistance. Varying shapes, coupled with the resistivity of carbon, (ranging from 9 to 40 µΩm) can make for a variety of resistances. Thick and thin film Thick film resistors became popular during the 1970s, and most SMD resistors today are of this type. The principal difference between "thin film" and "thick film resistors" isn't necessarily the "thickness" of the film, but rather, how the film is applied to the cylinder (axial resistors) or the
surface (SMD resistors). In thick film resistors the "film" is applied using traditional screen-printing technology. Thin film resistors are made by sputtering the resistive material onto the surface of the resistor. Sputtering is sometimes called vacuum deposition. The thin film is then etched in a similar manner to the old (subtractive) process for making printed circuit boards: ie the surface is coated with a photo-sensitive material, then covered by a film, irradiated with ultraviolet light, and then the exposed photo-sensitive coating, and underlying thin film, are etched away.
Metal film A common type of axial resistor today is referred to as a metal-film resistor. MELF (Metal Electrode Leadless Face) resistors often use the same technology, but are a cylindrically shaped resistor designed for surface mounting. [Note that other types of resistors, eg carbon composition, are also available in "MELF" packages]. Metal film resistors are usually coated with nickel chromium (NiCr), but might be coated with any of the cermet materials listed above for thin film resistors. Unlike thin film resistors, the material may be applied using different techniques than sputtering (though that is one such technique). Also, unlike thin-film resistors, the resistance value is determined by cutting a helix through the coating rather than by etching. [This is similar to the way carbon resistors are made.] The result is a reasonable tolerance (0.5, 1, or 2%) and a temperature coefficient of (usually) 25 or 50 ppm. Wirewound Wirewound resistors are commonly made by winding a metal wire around a ceramic, plastic, or fiberglass core. The ends of the wire are soldered or welded to two caps, attached to the ends of the core. The assembly is protected with a layer of paint, molded plastic, or an enamel coating baked at high temperature. The wire leads are usually between 0.6 and 0.8 mm in diameter and tinned for ease of soldering. For higher power wirewound resistors, either a ceramic outer case or an aluminium outer case on top of an insulating layer is used. The aluminium cased types are designed to be attached to a heatsink to dissipate the heat; the rated power is dependant on
being used with a suitable heatsink, e.g., a 50 W power rated resistor will overheat at around one fifth of the power dissipation if not used with a heatsink. Because wirewound resistors are coils they have more inductance than other types of resistor, although this property can be minimized by winding the wire in sections with alternately reversed direction. Foil resistor Foil resistors have had the best precision and stability ever since they were introduced in 1958 by Felix Zandman. One of the important parameters influencing stability is the temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR). Although the TCR of foil resistors is considered extremely low, this characteristic has been further refined over the years.[
Ultra-stable Military/ESA Special Current sensing Flame proof Fusible User trimmable Noise suppressors Ultra high precision TCR 0.05 ppm/°C (0°C to +60°C) Tolerances to ± 0.001% Load-life stability to 0.005% Power coefficient of resistance: 4ppm/Watt or 5 ppm at rated power TCR tracking: 0.1 ppm/°C Shelf life:2 ppm Non-Inductive: < 0.08 µH; Rise time: 1 ns Thermal EMF: 0.05 µV/°C Voltage coefficient < 0.1 ppm/V Current noise: < -40 dB
Resistance 10 Ohms or smaller 10 to 10K Ohms 10K to 10M Ohms 1M to 1G Ohms over 1G Ohms
Resistance Tolerance 0.005% and better 0.01% and better 0.05% and better 0.1% and better 0.5% and better 1% and better 5% and better Mounting and Configuration Through hole Surface mount TCR (ppm/C) 0.5 or below 1 or below 5 or below Power 0.25W or below 0.5W or below 1W or below 1W to 5W 5W or above Package Sizes Smaller than 0603 0603 and larger
Special Construction Heatsink Bare Chip Technologies Bulk Metal Foil Carbon film MELF Metal alloy Metal film Metal oxide Power Metal Strip Thick film Thin film Wirewound
Demat refers to a dematerialised account. Dematerialisation is the process by which physical share certificates of an investor are converted to an equivalent number of securities in electronic form and credited into the investor's account maintained with his/her depository participant (DP). It is like having a bank account where instead of money, you hold securities in your account. In order to dematerialise physical securities held by an investor, he has to fill in a DRF (Demat Request Form) which is available with the DP and submit the same along with physical share certificates one wishes to dematerialise. Separate DRF has to be filled for each ISIN Number. The complete process of de materialization is outlined below: It is, however desirable that you hold securities in demat form as physical securities carry the risk of being fake, forged or stolen.
Just as you have to open an account with a bank if you want to save your money, make cheque payments etc, Nowadays, you need to open a demat account if you want to buy or sell stocks. So it is just like a bank account where actual money is replaced by shares. You have to approach the DPs to open your demat account. Nowadays, practically all trades have to be settled in dematerialised form. Although the market regulator, the Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), has allowed trades of upto 500 shares to be settled in physical form, nobody wants physical shares any more. So a demat account is a must for trading and investing.Most banks are also DP participants, as are many brokers. You can choose your very own DP. To get a list, visit the NSDL and CDSL websites and see who the registered DPs are.A broker is separate from a DP. A broker is a member of the stock exchange, who buys and sells shares on his behalf and on behalf of his clients. A DP will just give you an account to hold those shares. You do not have to take the same DP that your broker takes. You can choose your own
A share or stock is a document issued by a company, which entitles its holder to be one of the owners of the company. A share is issued by a company or can be purchased from the stock market. By owning a share one can earn a portion and selling shares one get capital gain. So, one’s return is the dividend plus the capital gain. However, one also run a risk of making a capital loss if he has sold the share at a price below your buying price. A company's stock price reflects what investors think about the stock, not necessarily what the company is "worth." For example, companies that are growing quickly often trade at a higher price than the company might currently be "worth." Stock prices are also affected by all forms of company and market news. Publicly traded companies are required to report quarterly on their
financial status and earnings. Market forces and general investor opinions can also affect share price. Every transaction in the stock exchange is carried out through licensed members called brokers.
A depository is an entity which holds securities of investors in electronic form at the request of the investors through a registered Depository participant. It also provides services related to transactions in securities based on instructions given by the investors to depository participant. At present two Depositories viz. National Securities Depository Limited (NSDL) and Central Depository Services (I) Limited (CDSL) are registered with SEBI. A depository participant is a person or entity, which is registered with depositories such as NSDL and/or CDSL as also with SEBI and who offers services of holding your shares and effecting transfer (accepting credits in your account as well transferring shares from your account to that of some one else based on your instructions).
DPs issue Delivery Instruction Slips (or DIS) to all account holders. These are like cheque leaves. Whenever you want to transfer shares from your account to another account, you are required to fill the relevant details such as security identification number, number of shares you want to transfer, date of transfer, account to which shares need to be transferred etc. and submit this slip to your DP. The DP would then affect the transfer. You can give standing instructions to your DP for all credits to your account, whereby you need not give instructions to your DP each and every time for accepting credit to your account Depository / DP can be chosen by you as per convenience irrespective of the DP of your broker. Most of the brokers are also registered as a depository participant so that they offer both the services and you also get the benefit of synergy in operations. However it is not compulsory for you to open a DP account with your broker.
INITIAL PUBLIC OFFERING (IPO) It is the process of selling shares that were so far privately held to new investors for the first time IPO. It is the process for an unlisted company (called issuer) to go public and offer shares to general public investors. The main purpose of an IPO is to raise capital for the company. The IPOs are very effective at raising capital. Primary market The market in which investors have the first opportunity to buy a newly issued security like in an IPO. Underwriting It is the process by which investment bankers (appointed for the issue) raise investment capital from general investors on behalf of the issuer. The word "underwriter" is also called risk taker as new issues are brought to market by an underwriters in which they take the responsibility (and risk) of selling its specific allotment.
Book Building The process by which an the attempt is being made to determine at what price the securities to be offered based on demand from investors. An electronic book is being built by accepting orders from the investors who indicate the number of shares they desire and the price they are willing to pay. Over subscription A situation in which the demand for shares offered in an IPO exceeds the number of shares issued.
Procedure of IPO An IPO is usually underwritten by one or more underwriters called as a "syndicate" of investment banks. The company offering its shares enters a contract with a lead underwriter to sell its shares to the public by book building process. The underwriter then approaches investors with offers to sell these shares. Upon selling the shares, the underwriters keep a commission based on a percentage of the value of the shares sold
BOOK BUILDING Book Building Process Book building is a process of price discovery in case of IPOs. When Companies come through the book building route, the price of the issue is not fixed before hand. Rather the issue document only gives a floor price or the price band within which investors can bid for the shares. The IPO applicants bid for the shares being issued by the company quoting the price of their bid and the quantity that they would like to bid at. Only the retail investors have the option of bidding at ‘cut-off’. Cut off means that the investors are not active bidders but they are willing to accept whatever price is getting arrived at based on bidding done by other persons. After the bidding process is complete, the ‘cut-off’ price is arrived and shares are issued to successful applicants.
Price Band Price Band in the book building process refers to the band within which the investors can bid. The spread between the floor and the cap of the price band is not being more than 20%. In other words, it means that the cap should not be more than 120% of the floor price. It is up to the company and its merchant bankers to decide on the price or the price band of the public issue. There is no cap or regulatory approval needed for determining the price of an IPO. The only requirement is that the issuing company is required to disclose in detail about the qualitative and quantitative factors justifying the issue price.
Entrepreneurship Entrepreneurship is the practice of starting new organizations or revitalizing mature organizations, particularly new businesses generally in response to identified opportunities. Entrepreneurship is often a difficult undertaking, as a vast majority of new businesses fail. Entrepreneurial activities are substantially different depending on the type of organization that is being started. Entrepreneurship ranges in scale from solo projects (even involving the entrepreneur only part-time) to major undertakings creating many job opportunities. Many "high-profile" entrepreneurial ventures seek venture capital or angel funding in order to raise capital to build the business. Angel investors generally seek returns of 20-30% and more extensive involvement in the business. Many kinds of organizations now exist to support would-be entrepreneurs, including specialized government agencies, business incubators, science parks, and some NGOs. Characteristics of Entrepreneurship The entrepreneur has an enthusiastic vision, the driving force of an enterprise.
The entrepreneur's vision is usually supported by an interlocked collection of specific ideas not available to the marketplace. The overall blueprint to realize the vision is clear, however details may be incomplete, flexible, and evolving. The entrepreneur promotes the vision with enthusiastic passion. With persistence and determination, the entrepreneur develops strategies to change the vision into reality. The entrepreneur takes the initial responsibility to cause a vision to become a success. Entrepreneurs take prudent risks. They assess costs, market/customer needs and persuade others to join and help. An entrepreneur is usually a positive thinker and a decision maker.
Advantages of Entrepreneurship Every successful entrepreneur brings about benefits not only for himself/ herself but for the municipality, region or country as a whole. The benefits that can be derived from entrepreneurial activities are as follows: Enormous personal financial gain 1. Self-employment, offering more job satisfaction and flexibility of the work force 2. Employment for others, often in better jobs 3. Development of more industries, especially in rural areas or regions disadvantaged by economic changes, for example due to globalisation effects 4. Encouragement of the processing of local materials into finished goods for domestic consumption as well as for export 5. Income generation and increased economic growth
6. Healthy competition thus encourages higher quality products 7. More goods and services available 8. Development of new markets 9. Promotion of the use of modern technology in small-scale manufacturing to enhance higher productivity 10. Encouragement of more researches/ studies and development of modern machines and equipment for domestic consumption 11. Development of entrepreneurial qualities and attitudes among potential entrepreneurs to bring about significancant changes in the rural areas 12. Freedom from the dependency on the jobs offered by others 13. The ability to have great accomplishments 14. Reduction of the informal economy 15. Emigration of talent may be stopped by a better domestic entrepreneurship climate
Being an entrepreneur is about more than just starting a business or two, it is about having attitude and the drive to succeed in business. All successful Entrepreneurs have a similar way of thinking and posses several key personal qualities that make them so successful in business. Successful entrepreneurs like the ambitious Richard Branson have an inner drive to succeed and grow their business, rather than having a Harvard Business degree or technical knowledge in a particular field. All successful entrepreneurs have the following qualities: Inner Drive to Succeed Entrepreneurs are driven to succeed and expand their business. They see the bigger picture and are often very ambitious. Entrepreneurs set massive goals for themselves and stay committed to achieving them regardless of the obstacles that get in the way. Strong Belief in themselves Successful entrepreneurs have a healthy opinion of themselves and often have a strong and assertive personality. They are focused and determined to
achieve their goals and believe completely in their ability to achieve them. Their self optimism can often been seen by others as flamboyance or arrogance but entrepreneurs are just too focused to spend too much time thinking about un-constructive criticism. Search for New Ideas and Innovation All entrepreneurs have a passionate desire to do things better and to improve their products or service. They are constantly looking for ways to improve. They're creative, innovative and resourceful. Openness to Change If something is not working for them they simply change. Entrepreneurs know the importance of keeping on top of their industry and the only way to being number one is to evolve and change with the times. They're up to date with the latest technology or service techniques and are always ready to change if they see a new opportunity arise. Competitive by Nature Successful entrepreneurs thrive on competition. The only way to reach their goals and live up to their self imposed high standards is to compete with other successful businesses.
Highly Motivated and Energetic Entrepreneurs are always on the move, full of energy and highly motivated. They are driven to succeed and have an abundance of self motivation. The high standards and ambition of many entrepreneurs demand that they have to be motivated! Accepting of Constructive Criticism and Rejection Innovative entrepreneurs are often at the forefront of their industry so they hear the words "it can't be done" quite a bit. They readjust their path if the criticism is constructive and useful to their overall plan, otherwise they will simply disregard the comments as pessimism. Also, the best entrepreneurs know that rejection and obstacles are a part of any leading business and they deal with them appropriately. True entrepreneurs are resourceful, passionate and driven to succeed and improve They're pioneers and are comfortable fighting on the frontline The great ones are ready to be laughed at and criticized in the beginning because they can see their path ahead and are too busy working towards their dream.
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