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Automation and Drives

Power Contactors
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution

Introduction

Basics

Constructions

Operation

Parameters

Selection

Maintenance

Surges

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

What is a Contactor ??
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution

Introduction
•• ItIt is
is an
an electro-mechanical
electro-mechanical switching
switching device
device
•• ItIt is
is aa remotely
remotely operated
operated device
device
Basics
•• ItIt should
should be be capable
capable of of making,carrying
making,carrying and and
Constructions breaking
breaking currents
currents under
under normal
normal conditions
conditions and
and
during
during operating
operating overload
overload conditions
conditions
Operation
•• ItIt is
is placed
placed nearest
nearest toto the
the load
load center
center
Parameters
e.g.
e.g. forfor Switching
Switching motors,
motors, lights,
lights,
Selection capacitors,heaters,furnaces
capacitors,heaters,furnaces etc etc
•• High
High service
service reliability
reliability in
in terms
terms of of high
high
Maintenance
mechanical
mechanical and and electrical
electrical life
life is
is demanded
demanded
Surges

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Construction
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution

Introduction

Basics AA contactor
contactor consists
consists of
of 33 subsystems
subsystems
Constructions
Construction
•• Electromagnet
Electromagnet system
system
Operation
•• Contact
Contact and
and Arc
Arc quenching
quenching system
system
Parameters
•• Housing
Housing
Selection

Maintenance

Surges

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Automation and Drives

Construction
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Internal construction 3TF 50 AC Contactor
Introduction
Box terminals Arc chute with arc quenching plates
Basics
Current path with
Constructions
Construction Z-shaped contact pieces

Operation Magnet coil

Magnet system
Parameters

Selection Auxiliary contact block

Maintenance

Surges Mechanical interlock prevents closing


of contacts when arc chute is removed

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Operating Principle
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Contact spring
Moving contact
Introduction
1 2
Basics Y

Constructions
Fixed contact
Moving
Operation magnet
Operation
Return spring
X
Parameters
Fixed A1
Coil
Selection magnet
A2
X = total stroke
Maintenance
Y = Opening
Surges X-Y = wipe

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

DC-Operation
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Closing and holding currents
Introduction
80 a) DC-Magnet system b) DC-Economy circuit
Basics
i[mA] i[mA] imax =
1500 1630 mA
Constructions 60

Operation
Construction imax = 45 mA

40 1000
Parameters
500
Selection 20

Maintenance

Surges 50 100 150 t [ms] 5 10 t [ms]

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Magnet Systems
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Comparison of holding power
90
Introduction Holding DC-Magnet system
power
P [W] AC-Magnet system
Basics
70 DC-Economy circuit

Constructions 60

50
Operation
Operation
40

Parameters 30

20
Selection
10

Maintenance P AC-3 400V/50Hz


4 5,5 7,5 11 15 18,5 22 30 37 45 55 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 335 450
00 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 10 12 14 Size
Surges

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Critical Parameters
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution

Introduction

Basics
•• Stroke
Stroke
Constructions •• Wipe
Wipe
Operation •• Contact
Contact pressure
pressure
Parameters •• Pick-up
Pick-up VA
VA
Selection •• Hold-on
Hold-on VA
VA
Maintenance •• Coil
Coil current
current
Surges

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Parameters
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution

Introduction Mechanical
Mechanical Life
Life
Switching
Switching ON/OFF
ON/OFF at
at no
no load
load
Basics
3TH30
3TH30 –– 30
30 million
million
Constructions 3TF30/31/32/33 –– 15
3TF30/31/32/33 15 million
million
Operation
3TF44
3TF44 upto
upto 3TF57
3TF57 –– 10
10 million
million

Parameters
Electrical
Electrical life
life
Selection Contact
Contact life
life at
at the
the specified
specified breaking
breaking current
current
Maintenance The
The life
life depends
depends on on the
the type
type of
of Duty
Duty
Electrical
Electrical life
life curves
curves are
are available
available for
for each
each rating
rating
Surges

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Parameters
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Mechanical Life is over when
Introduction In
In the
the EE shaped
shaped Magnets
Magnets
-- Air
Air gap
gap reduces
reduces to
to Zero
Zero
Basics
-- The
The contactor
contactor fails
fails to
to drop
drop out
out
Constructions -- Shading
Shading rings
rings breaks
breaks
Damage
Damage to to mechanical
mechanical parts
parts
Operation
Damage
Damage to to Springs
Springs
Parameters
Parameters

Selection Electrical Life is over when


Maintenance
The
The contact
contact Silver
Silver material
material wears
wears away
away
Surges

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Parameters
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Contactors - High Electrical Endurance
Contactor Type
107
6
Introduction 4 6
3TF30
3TF31
4 3TF32
2
3TF33
Basics Make/ 106 Make/
2
3TF44
break break 106
6 3TF45
Constructions operations 4 operations 6
at 690V at 400V 4
2
2
Operation 105
105
6
4 6
Parameters 4
2
2
104
Selection 104
6
4 6
Maintenance 2
4

2
103
Surges 103
1 Ia (A) 2 4 6 10 20 40 60 100 200 400
9 12 16 22 32 38 Ie (A)
4 5,5 7,5 11 15 18,5 PN (kW)

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Parameters
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Electrical Endurance
Introduction Contacts with 30% remaining life

Basics

Constructions

Operation

Parameters

Selection

Maintenance

Surges

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Selection
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Permissible Length of Control Cable
Introduction
Formula
Formula LL == 55 xx (U )x 
(U22)x uu
Basics R
R xx PP xx Cos
Cos
where...
where...
Constructions
UU == Rated
Rated coil
coil voltage
voltage
Operation
u
u == Voltage
Voltage drop
drop (( 5%)
5%)
PP == Coil
Coil VA
VA // W
W at
at pick-up
pick-up
Parameters Cos
Cos 
 Power
Power factor
factor of
of coil
coil at
at pick-up
pick-up
RR == Ohmic
Ohmic resistance
resistance of of cable
cable
Selection

Maintenance Cross
Cross section
section of
of cable
cable (sq
(sqmm)
mm) Resistance
Resistance inin 
kkm
m
1.0
1.0 21.70
21.70
Surges 1.5
1.5 14.47
14.47
2.5
2.5 8.71
8.71
4.0
4.0 5.45
5.45
s A&D CD-BD May‘2003
Automation and Drives

Selection
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Choice of control transformer
Introduction

Basics Rating
Rating == 0.33
0.33 xx Sum
Sum of
of Pick
Pick up
up VA
VA of
of all
all
contactors
contactors to
to be
be switched
switched on
on Simultaneously
Simultaneously
Constructions

Operation e.g.
e.g. :: 3X
3X 3TF33
3TF33 and
and 22 xx 3TF55
3TF55 contactors
contactors are
are to
to
be
be switched
switched on
on Simultaneously
Simultaneously
Parameters
Total
Total Pick
Pick up
up VA
VA of
of contactors
contactors == 3064VA
3064VA
Selection Control
Control transformer
transformer rating
rating == 0.33
0.33 xx 3064
3064 ––
Maintenance 1KVA
1KVA

Surges

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Maintenance
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Possible Problems in a contactor
Introduction

Basics ••Overheating
Overheating of
of contacts
contacts
Constructions ••Chattering
Chattering
Operation ••Humming
Humming
Parameters ••Coil
Coil burning
burning
Selection ••Welding
Welding of
of contacts
contacts
Maintenance ••Contact
Contact life
life
Surges ••Mechanical
Mechanical Life
Life

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Maintenance
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Causes of Problems
Introduction
•• Arc
Arc Chamber
Chamber interlock
interlock
Basics
•• Mechanical
Mechanical interlocking
interlocking of
of contactors
contactors
Constructions
•• Coil,main
Coil,main contacts
contacts replacement
replacement
Operation
•• Auxiliary
Auxiliary contact
contact block
block replacement
replacement //
Parameters
addition
addition
Selection
•• AC
AC coil
coil to
to DC
DC coil
coil conversion.
conversion.
Maintenance
•• Cleaning
Cleaning of
of magnets
magnets
Surges
•• Examination
Examination of
of main
main contacts
contacts for
for erosion
erosion
s A&D CD-BD May‘2003
Automation and Drives

Maintenance
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Please ensure
Introduction •• Do
Do not
not operate
operate contactor
contactor without
without Arc
Arc Chamber
Chamber
Basics •• Do
Do not
not use
use repaired
repaired contacts
contacts or or coils
coils or
or Arc
Arc
chambers
chambers
Constructions
•• Do
Do not
not file
file or
or rub
rub the
the surface
surface of of contacts
contacts with
with
Operation abrasives
abrasives
•• Clean
Clean contacts
contacts withwith CRC
CRC 2-262-26
Parameters
•• Replace
Replace contact
contact inin pairs
pairs
Selection
•• Proper
Proper connection
connection of of the
the cable/bus
cable/bus barbar at
at the
the
Maintenance contactor
contactor terminal
terminal
•• Please
Please Ensure
Ensure correct
correct tightening
tightening torque
torque
Surges
•• Use
Use only
only Genuine
Genuine sparespare parts
parts

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Maintenance
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Connection
Connection with
with Lugs
Lugs // Busbars
Busbars
Introduction
Busbars
Busbars Should
Should be
be
Basics •• Wire
Wire brushed
brushed
•• Wiped
Wiped with
with clean
clean cloth
cloth chambers
chambers
Constructions
•• Apply
Apply Dowells
Dowells compound
compound
Operation •• Tighten
Tighten with
with requisite
requisite tightening
tightening
Parameters
torque
torque
•• Use
Use bimetal
bimetal washers
washers when
when using
using 22
Selection different
different metals
metals
Maintenance
The
The mV
mV drop
drop across
across aa joint
joint
Surges should
should be
be less
less than
than 4mW
4mW

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Surge Suppression
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Voltage surge without suppression
Introduction
USp [V]

Basics
USp

Constructions

3000
Operation

Parameters

1000
Selection

Maintenance 0

Surges
50 100 t [ms]

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Surge Suppression
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Voltage surge without suppression
Introduction
USp [V]

Basics USp

Constructions
200
Operation
0
Parameters

Selection

Maintenance

Surges 0 20 t [ms]

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Surge Suppression
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Surge suppression through RC element
Introduction
USp [V]
Basics
USp

Constructions

Operation 200

Parameters 0

Selection

Maintenance

Surges
0 5 t [ms]

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003


Automation and Drives

Surge Suppression
Low Voltage
Controls & Distribution
Surge suppression through diode
Introduction
USp [V]
Basics
USp
Constructions 20

Operation

Parameters 0 = 0,6 V ^= USP


of diode

Selection

Maintenance

Surges
0 200 t [ms]

s A&D CD-BD May‘2003