Automation and Drives

Power Contactors
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

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A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

What is a Contactor ??
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

•• •• ••

••

••

It is an electro-mechanical switching device It is an electro-mechanical switching device It is a remotely operated device It is a remotely operated device It should be capable of making,carrying and It should be capable of making,carrying and breaking currents under normal conditions and breaking currents under normal conditions and during operating overload conditions during operating overload conditions It is placed nearest to the load center It is placed nearest to the load center e.g. for Switching motors, lights, e.g. for Switching motors, lights, capacitors,heaters,furnaces etc capacitors,heaters,furnaces etc High service reliability in terms of high High service reliability in terms of high mechanical and electrical life is demanded mechanical and electrical life is demanded

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A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Construction
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Introduction Basics Constructions Construction Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

A contactor consists of 3 subsystems A contactor consists of 3 subsystems •• •• •• Electromagnet system Electromagnet system Contact and Arc quenching system Contact and Arc quenching system Housing Housing

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A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Construction
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Internal construction 3TF 50 AC Contactor
Box terminals Arc chute with arc quenching plates

Introduction Basics Constructions Construction Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

Current path with Z-shaped contact pieces Magnet coil Magnet system Auxiliary contact block

Mechanical interlock prevents closing of contacts when arc chute is removed

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A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Operating Principle
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Contact spring Moving contact

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

1
Y

2

Moving magnet X Fixed magnet

Fixed contact Return spring A1 A2

Coil

X = total stroke Y = Opening X-Y = wipe

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A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

DC-Operation
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Closing and holding currents
80

Introduction Basics
i[mA]

a) DC-Magnet system
i[mA] 1500

b) DC-Economy circuit
imx = a 1630 mA

Constructions Operation Construction

60 imax = 45 mA 40 1000

Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges
50 100 150 t [ms] 20

500

5

10

t [ms]

s

A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Magnet Systems
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Comparison of holding power
90

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

Holding power P [W]
70 60 50 40 30 20 10

DC-Magnet system AC-Magnet system DC-Economy circuit

P AC-3 400V/50Hz 00 4 0 5,5 7,5 1 11 15 18,5 22 2 3 30 37 4 45 55 6 75 90 110 132 160 200 250 335 450 8 10 12 14 Size

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A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Critical Parameters
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

• • • • • • • • • • • •

Stroke Stroke Wipe Wipe Contact pressure Contact pressure Pick-up VA Pick-up VA Hold-on VA Hold-on VA Coil current Coil current

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A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Parameters
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

Mechanical Life Mechanical Life
Switching ON/OFF at no load Switching ON/OFF at no load 3TH30 – 30 million 3TH30 – 30 million 3TF30/31/32/33 – 15 million 3TF30/31/32/33 – 15 million 3TF44 upto 3TF57 – 10 million 3TF44 upto 3TF57 – 10 million

Electrical life Electrical life
Contact life at the specified breaking current Contact life at the specified breaking current The life depends on the type of Duty The life depends on the type of Duty Electrical life curves are available for each rating Electrical life curves are available for each rating

s

A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Parameters
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Mechanical Life is over when
In the E shaped Magnets In the E shaped Magnets -- Air gap reduces to Zero Air gap reduces to Zero -- The contactor fails to drop out The contactor fails to drop out -- Shading rings breaks Shading rings breaks Damage to mechanical parts Damage to mechanical parts Damage to Springs Damage to Springs

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

Electrical Life is over when
The contact Silver material wears away The contact Silver material wears away

s

A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Parameters
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Contactors - High Electrical Endurance
6 4 2 106 Make/ break 6 operations 4 at 690V 2 105 6 4 2 104 6 4 2 103 103 1 Ia (A) 2 4 6 10 20 40 60 100 200 400
9 12 16 22 32 38 4 5,5 7,5 11 15 18,5 Ie (A) PN (kW)

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

107 6 4

Contactor Type
3TF30 3TF31 3TF32 3TF33 3TF44 3TF45

Make/ 106 break operations 6 4 at 400V
2 105 6 4 2 104 6 4 2

2

s

A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Parameters
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Electrical Endurance
Contacts with 30% remaining life

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

s

A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Selection
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Permissible Length of Control Cable
Formula Formula L = 5 x (U22)x  u L = 5 x (U )x u R x P x Cos R x P x Cos

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

where... where... U = Rated coil voltage U = Rated coil voltage u = Voltage drop (( 5%) u = Voltage drop 5%) P = Coil VA // W at pick-up P = Coil VA W at pick-up Cos Power factor of coil at pick-up Cos Power factor of coil at pick-up R = Ohmic resistance of cable R = Ohmic resistance of cable
Cross section of cable (sq mm) Cross section of cable (sq mm) 1.0 1.0 1.5 1.5 2.5 2.5 4.0 4.0
A&D CD-BD

Resistance in m k Resistance in km 21.70 21.70 14.47 14.47 8.71 8.71 5.45 5.45
May‘2003

s

Automation and Drives

Selection
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Choice of control transformer
Rating = 0.33 x Sum of Pick up VA of all Rating = 0.33 x Sum of Pick up VA of all contactors to be switched on Simultaneously contactors to be switched on Simultaneously e.g. :: 3X 3TF33 and 2 x 3TF55 contactors are to e.g. 3X 3TF33 and 2 x 3TF55 contactors are to be switched on Simultaneously be switched on Simultaneously Total Pick up VA of contactors = 3064VA Total Pick up VA of contactors = 3064VA Control transformer rating = 0.33 x 3064 – Control transformer rating = 0.33 x 3064 – 1KVA 1KVA

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

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A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Maintenance
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Possible Problems in a contactor ••Overheating of contacts Overheating of contacts ••Chattering Chattering ••Humming Humming ••Coil burning Coil burning ••Welding of contacts Welding of contacts ••Contact life Contact life ••Mechanical Life Mechanical Life

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

s

A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Maintenance
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Causes of Problems •• •• •• •• •• •• •• Arc Chamber interlock Arc Chamber interlock Mechanical interlocking of contactors Mechanical interlocking of contactors Coil,main contacts replacement Coil,main contacts replacement Auxiliary contact block replacement // Auxiliary contact block replacement addition addition AC coil to DC coil conversion. AC coil to DC coil conversion. Cleaning of magnets Cleaning of magnets Examination of main contacts for erosion Examination of main contacts for erosion
May‘2003

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

s

A&D CD-BD

Automation and Drives

Maintenance
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Please ensure
•• •• •• •• •• •• •• •• Do not operate contactor without Arc Chamber Do not operate contactor without Arc Chamber Do not use repaired contacts or coils or Arc Do not use repaired contacts or coils or Arc chambers chambers Do not file or rub the surface of contacts with Do not file or rub the surface of contacts with abrasives abrasives Clean contacts with CRC 2-26 Clean contacts with CRC 2-26 Replace contact in pairs Replace contact in pairs Proper connection of the cable/bus bar at the Proper connection of the cable/bus bar at the contactor terminal contactor terminal Please Ensure correct tightening torque Please Ensure correct tightening torque Use only Genuine spare parts Use only Genuine spare parts
May‘2003

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

s

A&D CD-BD

Automation and Drives

Maintenance
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

Connection with Lugs // Busbars Connection with Lugs Busbars Busbars Should be Busbars Should be
•• •• •• •• Wire brushed Wire brushed Wiped with clean cloth chambers Wiped with clean cloth chambers Apply Dowells compound Apply Dowells compound Tighten with requisite tightening Tighten with requisite tightening torque torque •• Use bimetal washers when using 2 Use bimetal washers when using 2 different metals different metals

The mV drop across a joint The mV drop across a joint should be less than 4mW should be less than 4mW
A&D CD-BD May‘2003

s

Automation and Drives

Surge Suppression
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Voltage surge without suppression
USp [V]

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

USp

3000

1000 0

50

100

t [ms]

s

A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Surge Suppression
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Voltage surge without suppression
USp [V]

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges

USp

200 0

0

20

t [ms]

s

A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Surge Suppression
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Surge suppression through RC element
USp [V]

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges
200 0

USp

0

5

t [ms]

s

A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

Automation and Drives

Surge Suppression
Low Voltage Controls & Distribution

Surge suppression through diode
USp [V]

Introduction Basics Constructions Operation Parameters Selection Maintenance Surges
0 = 0,6 V ^ USP = of diode 20

USp

0

200

t [ms]

s

A&D CD-BD

May‘2003

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