CHAPTER-I OBJECTIVE AND SCOPE OF THE PROJECT

1.1 INTRODUCTION
In the early days, equipment maintenance was conducted only when equipment actually failed. The work was more “fix it” than maintenance. Shortly thereafter, failures. came the recognition that performing regular maintenance and refurbishment tasks on equipment could keep equipment operating longer between This became known, variously, as Periodic Maintenance, Calendar Based Maintenance or Preventive Maintenance (PM). The goal was to have most of the equipment be able to operate most of the time until the next scheduled maintenance outage. This approach is also outdated. Now Condition monitoring has made good progress in recent years maintenance is being carried out based on condition of machine which reduces the cost of unnecessarily opening of equipment. Most of the defects encountered in the rotating machinery give rise to a distinct vibration pattern (vibration signature analysis techniques)Vibration Monitoring is the ability to record and identify vibration “Signatures” which makes the technique so powerful for monitoring rotating machinery. Vibration analysis is normally applied by using transducers to measure acceleration, velocity or displacement. The choice largely depends on the frequencies being analyzed. Condition monitoring has made good progress in recent years in identifying any types of deterioration in plant machinery, so that pro-active maintenance can be performed, improving overall plant productivity. Vibrations are found almost Everywhere in power plants. Rotating machinery misalignments and imperfect vibrates due to unbalances, bearings; Vibration, in general, reduces equipment

life and, in extreme cases, can result in equipment damage or even catastrophic failures. On the other hand, existence of vibration can also be used to diagnose equipment problems and provide.

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1.2 OBJECTIVE OF THE PROJECT
The new generation of condition monitoring and diagnostics systems differs by the detailed solution of diagnostic problems that allows making a step from machine vibration state monitoring to the monitoring of the machine technical condition. Most rotating machine defects can be detected by such a system much before dangerous situations occur. The aim of vibration monitoring is the detection of changes in the vibration condition of the object under investigation during its operation. The cause of such changes is mainly the appearance of a defect. The number of such points can be reduced to one or two for each object to be monitored if there is a common casing. The main objective of this project is to identify the causes of significant vibrations developed in the main pump driving end and main pump non driving end and to rectify those vibrations by proper action and to develop an simple ANN for the fault diagnosis boiler feed pump.

1.3 ORGANIZATION OF THE WORK
The project is organized into following activities: Chapter I highlights the importance, objective of the study and methodology of the work. Chapter II deals with the information from the research papers. Chapter III gives the introduction of maintenance strategies, predictive maintenance procedure, and condition monitoring techniques and briefly about the vibration monitoring. Chapter IV describes the theory regarding basics of vibration, vibration instrumentation, and DATAPAC 1500 the instrument used for the vibration analysis. Chapter V deals with the vibration analysis procedure and fault diagnosis of the machinery. Chapter VI gives the overview of the artificial neural networks, back propagation algorithm and application ANN to vibration analysis. Chapter VII deals with the case study of the BOILER FEED PUMP. The vibration spectrum analysis and the experimentation and the fault diagnosis of the machine. Chapter VIII presents the application of ANN for the fault recognition on BFP. Chapter IX lists out the results, conclusions and future scope of the work. 2

CHAPTER-II LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 INTRODUCTION
A literature survey was taken up to review present status of research in the field of condition monitoring. Machine condition monitoring is gaining importance in industry because of the need to increase reliability and to decrease the possibility of production loss due to the machine breakdown. The use of vibration and acoustic emission signals is quite common in the field of condition monitoring of rotating machinery. By comparing the signals of a machine running in the normal and faulty conditions. Detection of faults like unbalance, rotor rub, shaft misalignment, gear failure and bearing defects is possible. These signals can also be used to detect the incipient failures of the machine components, through the online monitoring system, reducing the possibility of catastrophic damage and the down time. Some of the recent works in this area are. R.K BISWAS, [1] Scientist and head, condition monitoring group, CMERI, DURGAPUR. Presented paper on “Vibration based condition monitoring of rotating machines” states that Condition Monitoring is defined as the collection, comparison and storage of measurements defining machine condition. Almost everyone will recognize the existence of a machine problem sooner or later. One of the objectives of Condition Monitoring is to recognize damage that has occurred so that ample time is available to schedule repairs with minimum disruption to operation and production. In this aspect vibration is probably the best operating parameter to judge dynamic condition of machines. Condition monitoring is essentially a screening process in which measurements and other data are compared to pre-established norms for the purpose of recognizing abnormal variations. A machine seldom breaks down without warning. The signs of impending breakdown are almost present long before the catastrophic failure. Vibration signals define the dynamic property of the machine including various faults of machine like bearing instability, unbalance, coupling misalignment, looseness, rubs, etc. Vibration 3

characteristics also define early indication of defects on components such as rolling element bearing and gears. M.Todd, S.D.J.McArthur, G.M.West, J.R.McDonald, S.J.Shaw. J.A.Hart [2] paper on “the design of a decision support system for the vibration monitoring of turbine generators” they discussed about the Condition Monitoring (CM) systems monitor the health of expensive plant items such as turbine generators. They interpret turbine parameters by signaling an alarm when pre-defined limits are breached. This is a time consuming and laborious process due to the volume of data interpreted for each alarm. In order to reduce the burden of alarm assessment, a Decision Support System (DSS) is proposed. The DSS will feature a Routine Alarm Assessment (RAA) module which provides an initial analysis of the alarms, highlighting those with no further operational consequence and enabling the expert to focus on those which indicate a genuine problem with the turbine. The implementation of an RAA prototype is discussed along with how this will act as a foundation for a full alarm interpretation and fault diagnostic system. David Clifton,[3] St. Cross College, December, 2005 made research on “Condition Monitoring of Gas-Turbine Engines” This report describes preliminary research into condition monitoring approaches for modern gas-turbine aircraft engines, and outlines plans for novel research to contribute to machine learning techniques in the condition monitoring of such systems. A framework for condition monitoring of aircraft engines is introduced, using signatures of engine vibration across a range of engine speeds to assess engine health. Inter- and intra-engine monitoring approaches are presented, in which a model of engine normality is constructed using vibration data from other engines of its class, or from the test engine itself, respectively.
T.W. Verbruggen[4] a book on “Wind Turbine Operation & Maintenance

based on Condition Monitoring”. This report is part of the project entitled WT_Ω (WT_OMEGA = Wind Turbine Operation and Maintenance based on Condition Monitoring) which has been carried out in co-operation withLagerwey the Wind Master, Siemens Nederland, and SKF.

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A Ramachandra, S B Kandagal, [5] worked on “Prediction of Defects in Antifriction Bearings using Vibration Signal Analysis” Condition monitoring of antifriction bearings in rotating machinery using vibration analysis is a very well established method. It offers the advantages of reducing down time and improving maintenance efficiency. The machine need not be stopped for diagnosis. In order to prevent any catastrophic consequences caused by a bearing failure, bearing condition monitoring techniques, such as, temperature monitoring, wear debris analysis, oil analysis, vibration analysis and acoustic emission analysis have been developed to identify existence of flaws in running bearings. Among them vibration analysis is most commonly accepted technique due to its ease of application. Sadettin Orhan, Nizami Aktu¨rk, Veli C¸ elik,[6] worked on “Vibration monitoring for defect diagnosis of rolling element bearings as a predictive maintenance tool: Comprehensive case studies” Vibration monitoring and analysis in rotating machineries offer very important information about anamolies formed internal structure of the machinery. In this study, the vibration monitoring and analysis case studies were presented and examined in machineries that were running in real operating conditions. Failures formed on the machineries in the course of time were determined in its early stage by the spectral analysis. It was shown that the vibration analysis gets much advantage in factories as a predictive maintenance technique. Peter W. Hills, Mechanalysis (India) Limited, India, “A more intelligent approach to rotating equipment monitoring”,[7]. Proactive condition management of rotating machinery is not new to the power sector and is applied widely but with varying degrees of success. The financial benefits have long been recognized and widely reported, but the cost of implementation, required expertise and continuity of the systems remain as constraints to its broader use. To date, the focus of condition monitoring of rotating equipment has been on detecting the mechanical aspects of a machine, such as imbalance, alignment, etc, with little attention being paid to the on-line detection of its electrical system. Cornelius [8], Scheffer, describes the paper on “Pump Condition Monitoring through Vibration Analysis” It is well-known that vibration analysis is a powerful tool 5

for the condition monitoring of machinery. This especially applies to rotating equipment such as pumps. Through the years a variety of vibration-based techniques have been developed and refined to cost-effectively monitor pump operation and the onset of failures. This paper is an overview of a variety of vibration-based condition monitoring techniques for pumps. In some instances these techniques are also applicable to improve the operation and efficiency of pumps. Specific aspects to consider when taking vibration measurements on pumps are for instance where to take readings, which type of probe to use, what frequency range should be used, what the settings on the analyzer should be, etc. Sheng Zhang, Joseph Mathew, Lin Ma, Yong Sun and Avin Mathew,[9] presented a paper on “Statistical condition monitoring based on vibration signals”. Designing control limits for condition monitoring is an important aspect of setting maintenance schedules and has been virtually ignored by researchers to date. This paper proposes a novel statistical process control tool, the Weighted Loss function CUSUM (WLC) chart, for the detection of condition variation. The control limit was designed using baseline condition data, where the process was fitted by an autoregressive model and the residuals were used as the chart statistic. The condition variation is reflected by the changes of mean and variance of the statistic’s distribution against baseline condition, which can be detected by a single WLC chart. The approach was evaluated using a case study which showed that the chart can detect faulty conditions as well as their severity. The proposed approach has the advantage of requiring healthy baseline data only for the design of condition classifiers. It is applicable in numerous practical situations where data from faulty conditions are unavailable. P. Caselitz, J. Giebhardt,[10], presented a paper on “Condition Monitoring and Fault Prediction for Marine Current Turbines”. This paper introduces the concept of condition monitoring and fault prediction for marine current turbines. It will describe the required hardware to perform condition monitoring measurements and some appropriate fault prediction algorithms specific for marine current turbines. Furthermore, concepts for communication and data base handling will be introduced. For the above mentioned items, some relevant standards and technical guidelines will be addressed.

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Steven M. Schultheis,[11], Charles A. Lickteig, presented a paper on “RECIPROCATING COMPRESSOR CONDITION MONITORING”. This paper will discuss risk-based decision making in regard to measurements and protective functions, online versus periodic monitoring, proven and effective measurement techniques, along with a review of both mechanical- and performance-based measurements for assessing machine condition. Case histories will also be presented to demonstrate some of the concepts. Peter W. Hills,[12] Mechanalysis (India) Limited, India presented a paper on A more intelligent approach to rotating equipment monitoring in the journal The article is based on the paper ‘Intelligent Condition Management On-line’ The majority of condition monitoring regimes for power plants’ rotating equipment is focused the detection of mechanical faults, with little attention paid to electrical faults in equipment. This could be about to change with the introduction of an on-line monitoring system that ‘learns’ to detect both types of fault. L. B. Jack, A. K. Nandi,[13] presented a paper on “Feature Selection for ANNs using Genetic Algorithms in Condition Monitoring”. The work presented in this paper the work presented in this paper is based around experimental results per- formed on vibration data taken from a small test rig which was tested with a number of interchangeable faulty roller bearings. This is used to simulate the type of problems that can commonly occur in rotating machinery. Rolling elements, or ball bearings, are one of the most common components in modern rotating machinery; being able to detect accurately the existence of a fault in a machine can be of prime importance in certain areas of industry. Ms S Wadhwani, Dr S P Gupta, Dr V Kumar, [14] “Wavelet Based Vibration Monitoring for Detection of Faults in Ball Bearings of Rotating Machines” this paper describes the application of wavelet transform (WT) for detection of bearing damage from the vibration signal of the bearing. The wavelet transform approach enables instant to instant observation of the contribution of different frequency components over the full spectrum from. Actually, wavelet transform acts as a mathematical microscope in which one can observe different parts of the signal by 7

adjusting the focus. A new technique combining the WT with neural network for detection and classification of ball bearing fault in a three phase, 3.75 kW inductions motor is presented in this paper. The method is tested successfully for three faulty bearing conditions: crack in inner race, crack in outer race and defect in balls. Zhigang TIAN, [15] “An Artificial Neural Network Approach for Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Equipments Subject to Condition Monitoring”. Accurate equipment remaining useful life prediction is critical to effective condition based maintenance for improving reliability and reducing overall maintenance cost. An artificial neural network (ANN) based method is developed for achieving more accurate remaining useful life prediction of equipment subject to condition monitoring. The ANN model takes the age and multiple condition monitoring measurement values at the present and previous inspection points as the inputs, and the life percentage as the output. Techniques are introduced to reduce the effects of the noise factors that are irrelevant to equipment degradation. The proposed method is validated using real-world vibration monitoring data. N.M. ROEHL C.E. PEDREIRA" H.R. TELES DE AZEVEDO [16] presented a paper on “Fuzzy art neural network approach for incipient Fault detection and isolation in rotating machines”. A neural network approach for on-lie detection and isolation of faults in rotating machines is proposed. The methodology is based on clustering of shaft vibration monitoring data by using fuzzy art neural networks. Fault isolation is obtained by retrieving stored associations among known physical faults and clusters. The proposed scheme is implemented to detect and isolate different operation modes in a hydro generator. P.A.L. Ham, B.Sc.C.Eng..F.I.E.E. [17] “Trends and future scope in the monitoring of large steam turbine generators” Current practices in the monitoring of large steam turbine generators are briefly discussed, consideration being given to the traditional range of turbine supervisory equipment, and the more extended facilities which are sometimes now associated with rotating machinery, such as vibration monitoring, together with the more generalized data logging systems now specified by some Utilities. Consideration is given to the possible range of parameters and equipment 8

areas which may now be incorporated into a monitoring scheme, and attention is drawn to the advances in display technology and operator interfaces which are now possible at moderate cost. In a concluding section, a range of monitoring functions which could be of wide general application in the field of steam turbine generators is discussed.

2.2 SUMMURY
This literature review presents an overview of the vibration based condition monitoring of the rotating equipments in the thermal power plants. This literature review also contains the review methodologies of the predictive maintenance technology.

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CHAPTER-III MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES
3.1 INTRODUCTION
General industrial profitability is effected both by on stream functions and maintenance costs. Any system must account for the optimum maintenance that can be performed by an organizational setup. Maintenance besides trying to better its own efficiency and mechanical performance must solve the problem of failure.

3.2 CLASSIFICATION OF MAINTENANCE STRATEGIES
Maintenance strategies are classified by three developmental stages: 1. Break down maintenance 2. Preventive maintenance 3. Predictive maintenance 3.2.1 Break Down Maintenance This provides the replacement of defective part or machine after the machine becomes incapable of further operation. Break down maintenance is the easiest method to follow and it avoids the initial costs on training personnel and other related upfront costs. Draw backs of the break down maintenance are 1. Failures are untimely. 2. Since machine is allowed to run till to failure repair is more expensive, sometimes total replacement is required. 3. Failures may be catastrophic. Hence loss will be more. 4. Production loss will be more, as it requires more time to restore normalcy. 5. It reduces the life span of the equipment.

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3.2.2 Preventive Maintenance In preventive maintenance, maintenance is scheduled on calendar or hours to run and is performed irrespective of machine conditions. Advantages: 1. Damage to machine is less. 2. Down time of machine is reduced by 50-80%. 3. Lower expenses of overpay may same as much as 30%. 4. Increases the equipment life expectancy. 5. Reduces maintenance cost by reducing the I. Capital spending by 10-20%. II. Labor cost by 10%. III. Material cost by 30% 6. Improve the employee’s safety. 7. Preventive maintenance results in a catastrophic failure and down time is required to complete all schedule maintenance costs. Disadvantages: 1. periodically dismantling of each and every critical machine is expensive and time consuming. 2. It may lead to unnecessary inspections even on healthy machine also which may further lead to more complications. 3. It is difficult to predict time interval between inspections, which ultimately may lead to break down maintenance.

Fig: 3.1 Failure rate or bath tub curve 11

Preventive maintenance alone cannot eliminate break down. The causes of equipment failure change with the passage of time fig: shows the failure rate curve which is also called as life span characteristic curve or bath tub curve. Failure rate is taken on ordinate and time is taken on abscissa. When the equipment is new there is a high failure rate due to design and manufacturing errors. Failure rate is increases once again since the equipment approaches the end of its failure. 3.2.3 Predictive Maintenance Predictive maintenance (PdM) techniques help determines the condition of inservice equipment in order to predict when maintenance should be performed. This approach offers cost savings over routine or time-based preventive maintenance, because tasks are performed only when warranted. Predictive maintenance or condition-based maintenance, attempts to evaluate the condition of equipment by performing periodic or continuous (online) equipment condition monitoring. The ultimate goal of PdM is to perform maintenance at a scheduled point in time when the maintenance activity is most cost-effective and before the equipment loses optimum performance. This is in contrast to time- and/or operation count-based maintenance, where a piece of equipment gets maintained whether it needs it or not. Most PdM inspections are performed while equipment is in service, thereby minimizing disruption of normal system operations. Adoption of PdM can result in substantial cost savings and higher system reliability. Trending and analyzing machinery parameters we can detect the developing problems in early stages. Hence repair works can be carried out before failure of a machine Advantages: • • • • Shut down can be done at convenient times. Work schedule can be prepared for mobilizing men, tools and replacement parts before shut down reducing machinery down time. Identifying problem, costly trial and error procedures to solve a problem can be avoided. Machine in good running condition can run continuously as long as problem develops. 12

Disadvantages: • • Requires skilled labor. It is costly affair. For all machine common characteristic is vibrations and hence vibrations become a powerful tool in implementing predictive maintenance program. The vibration predictive maintenance program has four steps: 1. detection 2. analysis 3. correction 4. confirmation Detection First select all available critical machines in the plant. prepare a schedule for all these machines for data collection identify bearing locations of the machine train motor non drive end, MNDE, FNDE, FDE, PNDE, PDE, etc. identify the directions where vibration data is collected like h, v, a etc. define which vibration parameters are to be collected via displacement, velocity, acceleration etc. after doing all these, start collecting vibrating data and related data and record them. Collect the data for every fortnight or monthly or so .by trending and interpreting the data identify source of vibrations. Analysis After identifying the source of vibrations analyze to pin point the root cause for vibrations. This can be achieved by eliminating process. Follow confirmative procedures in support of analysis Correction Open and inspect the machine at a convenient time and make necessary corrections. Confirmation After corrections put the machine in service and again collect vibration data and look for elimination of the source.

Predictive Maintenance Program:

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3.3 CONDITION MONITORING
3.3.1 Introduction Condition monitoring pre-supposes knowledge of machines condition and its rate of change, which can be ascertained by selecting a suitable parameter for measuring deterioration and recording its value at intervals either on a routine or continuous basis. This is done while the machine is running. The data obtained may then be analyzed to give a warning on failure. This activity is called as condition monitoring. Condition monitoring essentially involves regular inspection of equipment using human sensory facilities and a mixture of simple aids and sophisticated instruments The central emphasis is however on the fact that most inspections should be preferably done while the machine is running. Condition monitoring is concerned with the analysis and interpretation of signals from sensors and transducers installed on operational machinery, employing sensors positioned outside the machine, often remove from the machine components being monitored, normally does the monitoring of a machine condition and health, using established techniques, the analysis of information provided by the sensor output and interpretation of the evaluated output is the needed to establish what actions to be taken. Condition monitoring can also be a test and quality assurance, system for continuous processes as well as discrete component manufacture. It maximizes the performance of the company’s assets by monitoring their condition and ensuring that they are installed and maintained correctly, it aims of detecting condition leading to catastrophic breakdowns and loss of service, reducing maintenance overhauls, fine turning of operating equipment increasing production and operating efficiency and minimizing the replacement parts inventory. This is because a readily monitor able parameter of deterioration can be found in every plant, Machinery and probabilistic element in future prediction is highly reduced or almost eliminated thus maximizing the items life by minimizing the effect of failure

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3.3.2 Condition Monitoring Techniques There are only seven main techniques of condition monitoring. They are: a) Visual monitoring b) Contaminant or debris monitoring c) Performance and behavior monitoring d) Corrosion monitoring thermograph e) Sound monitoring. f) Shock pulse monitoring. g) Vibration monitoring. a. Visual Monitoring Visual monitoring involves the inspections and recording of surfaces to detect Such as surface cracks and their orientation. Oxide films, weld defects and the presence of potential sources such as sharp notches or misalignment. b. Contaminant Monitoring Debris analysis is well proving in all types of industrial and works on the principle of taking or known quantity. Sample example: a gear box, then for analyzing the amount and type of foreign particles present in the sample. This will be show such problems, as gear wear, to the sample detects particles of gear material .oil analysis differs from debris analysis so for as this technique allows an assessment of the actual condition of the oil in use. That is whether the oil quality is good enough for the application after period of use or it is burnt or exceeded its useful use. c. Performance and Behavior Monitoring Performance and behavior monitoring involves checking the performance of machine or component to see whether it is behaving correctly. Monitoring the performance of the bearing by measuring its temperature to see whether it is carrying out its function.

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d. Corrosion Monitoring Corrosion monitoring has actually applied to the fixed plane containing aggressive material to monitor the rates of internal corrosion of walls of the equipment. It is the system systematic measurement of corrosion or degradation of an a item of equipment, with the aim of assisting and understanding the correct corrosion process of obtaining information for the use of controlling corrosion e. Thermography Thermograph is a rapidly developing; it provides color cameras and videos, clean indicator of heat loss, hot spot, cold spot, such as switchgear or any piece of plant or production where temperature or its effects is important, it can be used both as maintenance tools or a quality assurance tool. Shock pulse method is unique technique for monitoring the true operation of the bearing by measuring the pressure wave generated by the instantaneous mechanical impact.

f. Sound Monitoring: Human operators are normally highly sensitive to the detection of defects as a result of sudden change of sound due to the looseness of component results of wear or slackening of fastening are particularly susceptible to such forms monitoring The most widely available micro phones for sound or piezoelectric moving coils and condensers.

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g. Vibration Monitoring: Vibration monitoring measures the frequency and amplitude of vibrations. It is Known that readings will change as machinery wear sets in. such readings can be interpreted as indicators of the equipments condition, and timely maintenance actions can be scheduled accordingly. Electrical machines and mechanical reciprocating or rotating machines generate their own vibration signatures (patterns) during operation. However such raw signals contain a lot of background noise, which makes it difficult or even impossible to extract useful, precise information by simply measuring the overall signal. It is thus necessary to develop an appropriate filter to remove the operationally and environmentally contaminated components of signals (the background noise) so as to reveal the clear signals generated by the events under study. To capture useful condition monitoring data, vibration should be measured at carefully chosen points and directions. Vibration monitoring is a well established method for determining the physical Movements of the machine or structure due to imbalance mounting an alignment this method can be obtained as simple. Easy to use and understand or sophisticated real time analysis, vibration monitoring usually involves the attachment of a transducer to a machine to record its vibration level special equipments is also available for using the output from sensor to indicate nature vibration problem and even its precise cause. Transducers for the measurement of vibrations employ electromagnetic electrodynamics, capacitive, piezoelectric, or strain gauge principles out of these piezoelectric accelerometers is most widely used since the recent past, Among the monitoring techniques vibration monitoring as gained considerable importance because of following fundamental factors 1) All rotation and reciprocating machines vibrate either to a smaller or greater extent machines vibrate because of defects or incurrence in system 2) When inaccuracies or more it results in increased vibration each kind of defect provides a vibration characterized in the unique way. Therefore vibration characteristics reveal the health condition of machine.

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CHAPTER-IV BASICS OF VIBRATION

Definition Vibration can be defined as simply the cyclic or oscillating motion of a machine or machine component from its position of rest. Vibration refers to mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium point. The oscillations may be periodic such as the motion of a pendulum or random such as the movement of a tire on a gravel road.

Fig 4.1 basic vibration representation Vibration is occasionally "desirable". For example the motion of a tuning fork, the reed in a woodwind instrument or harmonica, or the cone of a loudspeaker is desirable vibration, necessary for the correct functioning of the various devices. More often, vibration is undesirable, wasting energy and creating unwanted sound – noise. For example, the vibration motions of engines, electric motors, or any 18

mechanical device in operation are typically unwanted. Such vibrations can be caused by imbalances in the rotating parts, uneven friction, the meshing of gear teeth, etc. Careful designs usually minimize unwanted vibrations.

4.1 What Causes Vibration?
Forces generated within the machine cause vibration. These forces may be one that  Change in direction with time, such as the force generated by a rotating unbalance.  Change in amplitude or intensity with time, such as the unbalanced magnetic forces generated in an induction motor due to un equal air gap between the motor armature and stator (field).  Result in friction between rotating and stationary machine components in much the same way that friction from a rosined bow causes a violin string to vibrate.  Cause impacts, such as gear tooth contacts or the impacts generated by the rolling elements of a bearing over flaws in the bearing raceways.  Cause randomly generated forces such as flow turbulence in fluid handling devices such as fans, blowers and pumps, or combustion turbulence in gas turbines or boilers.

4.2 What is Machine Vibration?
Most of us are familiar with vibration; a vibrating object moves to and fro, back and forth. A vibrating object oscillates. We experience many examples of vibration in our daily lives. A pendulum set in motion vibrates. A plucked guitar string vibrates. Vehicles driven on rough terrain vibrate, and geological activity can cause massive vibrations in the form of earthquakes.

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Fig 4.2 Examples of vibration There are various ways we can tell that something is vibrating. We can touch a vibrating object and feel the vibration. We may also see the back-and-forth movement of a vibrating object. Sometimes vibration creates sounds that we can hear or heat that we can sense. What is machine vibration? Machine vibration is simply the back and-forth movement of machines or machine components. Any component that moves back and forth or oscillates is vibrating. Machine vibration can take various forms. A machine component may vibrate over large or small distances, quickly or slowly, and with or without perceptible sound or heat. Machine vibration can often be intentionally designed and so have a functional purpose. At other times machine vibration can be unintended and lead to machine damage. Most times machine vibration is unintended and undesirable. This book is about the monitoring of undesirable machine vibration. Shown below are some examples of undesirable machine vibration.

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Fig 4.3 vibrating parts

4.3 Vibration and Machine Life
Your first question may be: "Why worry about a machine's vibration?" obviously, once a machine is started and brought into service, ft will not run indefinitely. In time, the machine will fail due to the wear and ultimate failure of one or more of its critical components. And, the most common component failure leading to total machine failure is that of the machine bearings, since it is through the bearings that all machine forces are transmitted. Of course, the next question is: "How long will be bearings last?" Although an exact answer to this question is impossible, the manufacturers of rolling element bearings attempt to estimate bearing life using the following calculation: L 10 LIFE (HOURS) = 16.666/ RPM X (RATE / LOAD)3 Where: RPM Load = Machine rotating speed in Revolutions per Minute = the actual load to which the bearing is subjected.

RATE = the rated load capacity of the bearing (lbs.) This includes not only the static load due to the weight of the rotor, but the dynamic load due to forces of unbalance, misalignment, etc., FORCES THAT CAUSE VIBRATION. According to this calculation to estimate bearing life, doubling the rotating speed from, say 1800 RPM to 3600 RPM, would cut bearing life in half. However, by cutting the load on the bearing by one-half would increase its service life by eight times (2-cubed 21

or 2 x 2 x 2 = 8). Of course, this estimate of bearing life does not take into consideration other factors such as inadequate lubrication, lubricant contamination or damage from improper storage or installation techniques. From the above calculation, it can be seen that bearing load, including dynamic load from vibratory sources such as unbalance and misalignment, has a significant effect on bearing life and, ultimately, machine life. Further, the amount of vibration exhibited by a machine is directly proportional-to the amount of force generated. In other words, if the unbalance force is doubled, the resultant vibration amplitude will be doubled also. Or, if the unbalance force is cut in half the unbalance -generated vibration will be cut in half also. Therefore, the answer to the question: "Why worry about a machine's vibration?" is simple: 1. Increased dynamic forces (loads) reduce machine life. 2. Amplitudes of machinery vibration are directly proportional to the amount of dynamic forces (loads) generated. If you double the force, you double the Vibration. 3. Logically then, the lower the amount of generated dynamic forces, the lower the levels of machinery vibration and the longer the machine will perform before failure It's that simple. Low levels of vibration indicate low vibratory forces which, in turn, results in improved machine life. With few exceptions, when the condition of a machine deteriorates, one of two possibly both things will generally happen:  The dynamic forces generated by the machine will increase in intensity, causing an increase in machine vibration. Wear, corrosion or a build-up of deposits on the rotor may increase unbalance forces. Settling of the foundation may increase misalignment forces or cause distortion, piping strains, etc.  The physical integrity (stiffness) of the machine will be reduced, causing an increase in machine vibration.  Loosening or stretching of mounting bolts, a broken weld, a crack in the foundation, deterioration of the grouting, increased bearing clearance through wear or a rotor loose on its shaft will result in reduced stiffness to control even normal dynamic forces, Thus, it should be obvious that an increase in machinery 22

vibration is a positive indicator of developing problems.

In addition, each

mechanical or operational problem generates vibration in its own unique way. As a result, it is also possible to identify the specific nature of the problem by simply measuring and noting its vibration characteristics. The techniques of identifying specific defects and problems are presented in the section on VIBRATION ANALYSIS.

4.4 Characteristics of Vibration
Whenever vibration occurs, there are actually four forces involved that determine the characteristics of the vibration. These forces are: • • • • The exciting force, such as unbalance or misalignment. The mass of the vibrating system, denoted by M. The stiffness of the vibrating system, denoted by the symbol K. The damping characteristics of the vibrating system, denoted by the symbol C.

The exiting force is trying to cause vibration, where as the stiffness, mass and damping forces are trying to oppose the exiting force and control or minimize the vibration. The characteristics needed to define the vibration include: • • • • • • Frequency Displacement Velocity Acceleration Spike energy Phase

4.4.1 Vibration Frequency The amount of time required to complete one full cycle of the vibration is called the period of the vibration. If, for example, the machine completes one full cycle of vibration in 1/60th of a second, the period of vibration is said to be 1/60th of a second. Although the period of the vibration is a simple and meaningful characteristic, a characteristic of equal simplicity but more meaningful is the vibration frequency. 23

Vibration frequency is simply a measure of the number of complete cycles that occur in a specified period of time such as "cycles-per-second" (CPS) or "cycles-per-minute" (CPM). Frequency is related to the period of vibration by this simple formula: Frequency = 1/Period In other words, the frequency of a vibration is simply the "inverse" of the period of the vibration. Thus, at the period or time required to complete once cycle is 1 / 60th of a second, then the frequency of the vibration would be 60 cycles-per-second or 60 CPS. Given a frequency expressed in Hz, you can convert it to CPM: CPM = Hertz x 60 Seconds/Minute Given a frequency expressed in CPM, you can convert it to Hz: Hertz = CPM/60 Seconds/Minute Significance of Vibration Frequency There are literally hundreds of specific mechanical and operational problems that can cause a machine to exhibit excessive vibration. Obviously, when a vibration problem exists, a detailed analysis of the vibration should be performed to identify or pinpoint the specific cause. This is where knowing the frequency of vibration is most important. Vibration frequency is an analysis or diagnostic tool. The forces that cause vibration are usually generated through the rotating motion of the machine’s parts. Because these forces change in direction or amplitude according to the rotational speed (RPM) of the machine components, it follows that most vibration problems will have frequencies that are directly related to the rotational speeds. To illustrate the importance of vibration frequency, assume that a machine, consisting of a fan operating at 2400 RPM and belt driven by a motor operating at 3600 RPM, is vibrating excessively at a measured frequency of 2400 CPM (1 x fan RPM), this clearly indicates that the fan is the source of the vibration and not the motor or belts. Knowing this simple fact has eliminated literally hundreds of other possible causes of vibration. Predominant Frequency: Predominant frequency is the frequency of vibration having the highest amplitude or magnitude. Synchronous Frequency: Synchronous frequency is the vibration frequency that occurs at 1 x RPM. 24

Sub synchronous Frequency: Sub synchronous frequency is vibration occurring at a frequency below 1 x RPM. A vibration that occurs at 1/2 x RPM would be called a Sub synchronous frequency. Fundamental Frequency: Fundamental frequency is the lowest or first frequency normally associated with a particular problem or cause. For example, the product of the number of teeth on a gear times the RPM of the gear would be the fundamental gearmesh frequency. On the other hand, coupling misalignment can generate vibration at frequencies of 1 x, 2x and sometimes 3 x RPM. In this case, 1 x RPM would be called the fundamental frequency. Harmonic Frequency: A harmonic is a frequency that is an exact, whole number multiple of a fundamental frequency. For example, a vibration that occurs at a frequency of two times the fundamental gear mesh frequency would be called the second harmonic of gear mesh frequency. A vibration at 2 x RPM due to, say, misalignment, would be referred to as the second harmonic of the running speed frequency (1 x RPM). Order Frequency: An order frequency is the same as a harmonic frequency. Sub harmonic Frequency: A sub harmonic frequency is an exact submultiples (1/ 2, 1/3, 1/4, etc.) of a fundamental frequency. For example, a vibration with a frequency of exactly 1/2 the fundamental gear-mesh frequency would be called a sub harmonic of the gear mesh frequency. Vibration at frequencies of exactly 1/2, 1/3 or 1/4 of the rotating speed (1 x RPM} frequency would also be called . Sub harmonic frequencies; and these can also be called Sub synchronous frequencies. However, not all Sub synchronous frequencies are sub harmonics. For example, a vibration with a frequency of 43% of the running speed (1 x RPM) frequency is a Sub synchronous frequency but it is not a sub harmonic. 4.4.2 Vibration Amplitude As mentioned earlier, vibration frequency is a diagnostic tool, needed to help identify or pinpoint specific mechanical or operational problems. Whether or not a vibration frequency analysis is necessary, depends on how "rough" the machine is shaking. If the machine is operating smoothly, knowing the frequency or frequencies of vibration present is not important. The magnitude of vibration or how rough or smooth the machine vibration is, is expressed by its vibration amplitude. Vibration amplitude can 25

be measured and expressed as: Displacement Velocity Acceleration SPIKE ENERGY Vibration Displacement The vibration displacement is simply the total distance traveled by the vibrating part from one extreme limit of travel to the other extreme limit of travel. This distance is also called the "peak-to-peak displacement". Peak-to-peak vibration displacement is normally measured in units called mils, where one mil equals one-thousandth of an inch (1 mil = 0.001 inch). Measured vibration amplitude of 10 mils simply-means that the machine is vibrating a total distance of 0.010 inches peak-to-peak. In Metric units, the peak-to-peak vibration displacement is expressed in micrometers (sometimes called microns), where one micrometer equals one-thousandth of a millimeter (1 micrometer = 0.001 millimeter). Vibration Velocity The vast majority of machine failures caused by vibration problems are fatigue failures, & the time required to fatigue failure is determined by both how far an object is deflected.(displacement) and the rate at which the object is deflected (frequency), of course, displacement is simply a measure of distance traveled and frequency is a measure of the number of times that “trip” is taken in a given period of time such as a minute or second, if it is known how far one must travel in a given period of time, it is a simple matter to calculate the speed or velocity required. Thus, a measure of vibration velocity is direct measure of fatigue in short Fatigue=displacement * frequency Velocity=displacement *frequency Thus: velocity=fatigue Vibration velocity is measurement of the speed at which a machine or machine component is moving as it undergoes oscillating motion. Vibration velocity is expressed in inches-per-second peak (in/sec-pk) for English units in metric units, vibration velocity is expressed in millimeters-per-second peak. 26

Vibration Acceleration VIBRATION ACCELERATION is another important characteristic of vibration that can be used to express the amplitude or magnitude of vibration. Technically, acceleration is simply the rate of change of velocity. The acceleration of the weight is maximum or at its peak value at the upper limit of travel where the velocity is zero (0). As the velocity of the weight increases, the rate of change of velocity or acceleration decreases. At the neutral position, the weight has reached its maximum or peak velocity and at this point, the acceleration is zero (0). After the weight passes through the neutral position, it must begin to slow down or "decelerate" as it approaches the lower limit of travel. At the lower limit of travel the rate of change of velocity (acceleration) is, again, at its peak value. Expressed in This can also be written as; in/sec/sec = in/sec2 Or mm/sec/sec = mm/sec2 4.4.3 Spike Energy When flaws or defects appear in a bearing, the resulting vibration will appear as a series of short duration spikes or pulses such .The duration or "period" of each pulse generated by an impact depends on the physical size of the flaw; the smaller the flaw, the shorter the pulse period will be. As the size of the defect increases, the period of the pulse becomes longer. A short-term (40 millisecond sec) time waveform that was taken on a ball bearing with a small nick purposefully ground on the bearing inner race way. It can be seen that the pulse period lasts only a few microseconds (1 microsecond = 1 millionth of a second). Of course, if the period of a vibration signals is-known, the frequency of the vibration can be found by simply taking the inverse of the period. For example, if it takes 1/3600 minute to complete one cycle of a vibration, then the vibration frequency is 3600 cycles per minute (CPM) or the inverse of the period. In the case of the pulses generated by the bearing defects, since the pulse periods are so short, the period inverses (frequencies) are typically very high. To illustrate, a 27 in/sec/sec-peak or mm/sec/sec-peak.

MICRO-FLAW is generally defined as a defect that is so small that it is essentially invisible to the naked eye. The pulses generated by a micro-flaw are typically less than 10 micro-seconds (i.e. 10 millionths of a second). By taking the inverse of a 10 microsecond pulse, the fundamental frequency becomes 100,000 Hz (TOOK Hz) or 6,000,000 CPM. As bearing deterioration progresses, the flaw gets larger. The next stage is a MACRO-FLAW or one that is detectable with the naked eye. Since the macro-flaw is larger, the duration or period of the pulse generated is longer and, thus, the fundamental pulse frequency is lower. Typically, a macro-flaw will generate a pulse with a period exceeding 20 microseconds, resulting in a fundamental pulse frequency of 50K Hz (3,000,000 CPM) or less. Of course, as the bearing defects continue to increase in size, the resultant pulse periods become even longer resulting in a decrease in fundamental pulse frequency. Experimentation has revealed that by the time the fundamental pulse frequency has reduced to approximately 5k Hz (300,000 CPM), bearing deterioration has generally reached severe levels. With the above facts in mind, the following outlines the basic features of the SPIKE ENERGY (abbreviated gSE) approach developed by 1RD Mechanalysis 1. Since the frequencies of bearing vibration are very high, utilize a vibration acceleration signal from an accelerometer transducer. Vibration acceleration tends to emphasize higher frequencies as shown by the comparison in Figure. 2. Incorporate a "band-pass" frequency filter that will electronically filter out frequencies above 50K Hz (3,000,000-GPM) -and below 5K Hz (300,000 CPM). By eliminating frequencies above 50K Hz/, micro-flaws, defects that are undetectable with the naked eye, will not affect the measurement. In other words, when the SPIKE ENERGY (gSE) measurements reveal a significant increase, a visual inspection of the bearing should provide confirmation with a visible flaw. For most predictive maintenance programs, detecting micro-flaws is of little concern since deterioration to the macro-flaw stage may take several months. The lower cut-off frequency of 5K Hz (300,000 CPM) filters out or ignores most other inherent sources of vibration including unbalance, misalignment, aerodynamic and hydraulic pulsations, electrical frequencies, etc., that tend to dominate or "hide" the vibration from bearing defects. 28

3. Since the spike-pulse signals generated by bearing defects have very low RMS values, incorporate a true peak-to-peak detecting circuit instead of an RMS detecting circuit. 4.4.4 Phase Phase, with regards to machinery vibration, is often defined as "the position of a vibrating part at a given instant with reference to a fixed point or another vibrating part. Another definition of phase is: "that part of a vibration cycle through which one part or object has moved relative to another part". The concept of "phase" is often the most confusing to newcomers to the field of vibration detection and analysis; however, from a practical standpoint, phase is simply a convenient mean of determining the "relative motion" of two or parts of a machine or vibrating system. The units of phase are degrees, where one complete cycle of vibration equals 360 degrees.

4.5.

INSTRUMENTS

FOR

VIBRATION

DETECTION

AND

ANALYSIS
4.5.1 Introduction Instruments for measuring and analyzing machinery vibration are available in a wide array of features and capabilities, but are generally categorized as: 1. Vibration meters. 2. Vibration frequency analyzers 4.5.2 The Vibration Transducer Regardless of the vibration instrument being used, the "heart" of every instrument is the vibration transducer. This is the device that is held or attached to the machine to convert the machine's mechanical vibration into an electrical signal that can be processed by the associated instrument into measurable characteristics of vibration amplitude, frequency and phase. Many different varieties of vibration transducers have been used over the years. However, with few exceptions, the transducer provided as standard with nearly all present-day vibration meters, analyzers and data collectors is the vibration accelerometer. An accelerometer is a self-generating device that produces a voltage output proportional to vibration acceleration (G's). The amount of voltage generated per unit of 29

vibration acceleration (G) is called the sensitivity of the accelerometer and is normally expressed in milli volts-per-G (mv/G), where 1 milli volt equals one-thousandth of a volt (1 mv = 0.001 volt). Accelerometers are available with sensitivities ranging from less than 1 mv/G to 10,000 mv/G; however, most accelerometers for general purpose vibration detection and analysis applications will have sensitivities ranging from 10 to 100 mv/G.

Fig: 4.3 Basic construction of an accelerometer Theory of Operation Figure 4.1 shows a simplified diagram of typical accelerometer construction. The component of the accelerometer that generates the electrical signal is called a "piezoelectric" element. A piezoelectric material is a non-conducting crystal that generates an electrical charge when mechanically stressed or "squeezed". The greater the applied stress or force, the greater the generated electrical charge. Many natural and man-made crystals have piezoelectric properties. There are also a number of ceramic (polycrystalline) materials which can be given piezoelectric properties by the addition of certain impurities and by suitable processing. These are called "Ferro-electric" materials. Most commercially available accelerometers used today incorporate Ferro-electric materials because they can be fabricated in a variety of shapes and their piezoelectric properties can be controlled more easily than crystals to suit many applications. Referring to the diagram in Figure 4-1 the accelerometer consists of a mass (usually a stainless steel disk) compressed against a "stack" of piezoelectric disks. The size and number of piezoelectric disks used in an accelerometer determines not only its 30

sensitivity (mv/G), but its usable frequency range as well. When the accelerometer is held or attached lo a vibrating object, the piezoelectric elements will be subjected to resultant "inertia" forces of the mass. Thus, a forces proportional to the vibration acceleration is applied to the piezoelectric elements, resulting in an electrical charge signal proportional to vibration acceleration. The operation of an accelerometer used for measuring and analyzing machinery vibration is exactly the same as that of a ceramic cartridge used on phonographs and record players, where the vibration of a phonograph needle riding in the grooves of a record is converted to an equivalent electrical signal. The amount of electrical signal generated by the piezoelectric element is relatively small and many times must be transmitted by an interconnecting cable to the vibration instrument or analyzer which may be some distance away. For this reason, a common practice is to incorporate an electronic amplifier directly inside the accelerometer to amplify the signal so it can be transmitted through long cables without worrying about signal loss or interference Horn radio frequencies (RF interference) or high voltage electro-static interference or high voltage transformers, electrical fields around motors, etc. loss or interference. Where to Take the Readings Accelerometers built-in amplifiers can normally be used with interconnecting cables up to 1000 feet (330 meters) in length without appreciable signal

Fig: 4.4 Direction for placing the sensor Since vibratory forces generated by the rotating components of a machine are passed through the bearings, vibration readings for both detection and analysis should be 31

taken directly on the bearings whenever possible. FFT means: The term "FFT" stands for "Fast Fourier Transform". Nearly 200 years ago, French mathematician, Baron Jean Baptist Joseph Fourier established that any periodic function (which includes machinery vibration signals) can be represented mathematically as a series of sines and cosines. In other words, it is possible to take a vibration time waveform, whether simple or complex, and mathematically calculate the vibration frequencies present along with their amplitudes. The process is called a "Fourier Transform". Although a Fourier Transform can be done manually, the process is extremely time consuming. However, with the introduction of digital technology, the process can be carried out very fast. Hence the term: Fast Fourier Transform or FFT. Digital vibration analyzers and data collectors actually include a computer chip programmed to perform the FFT function.

Analog Signal The FFT process begins with an analog signal from a vibration transducer. Normally, the transducer will be a vibration accelerometer; however, signals from other types of transducers can be processed as well such as microphones, pressure transducers, current transformers, etc.

Input Since a vibration accelerometer is normally used for vibration detection and Analysis, it may be necessary to convert the acceleration signal to velocity by "single integration" or to displacement by "double integration". These functions are carried out at the input section. Calibration of the analog signal, based on transducer sensitivity, is also performed at the input.

32

4.5.3 DATA PAC 1500
Instrument Details: ENTEK IRD (company) Data Pac 1500 Portable data collector \ analyzer. Data Pac 1500 is part of Entek IRD is complete range of monitoring products and services to all industry segments world wide .the data pac 1500 is a fully featured portable data collector \ analyzer designed in a small lightweight package that monitors the conduction of the equipment found in many process industries such as power generators petrochemical pulp and paper and primary metals. This easy-to use instrument features high frequency range and true zoom capabilities normally only found in high priced, bulky real-time analyzers .The data Pac 1500 collects field data, including vibration information and process variables with a frequency range of 10cpm -4518000cpm (.18hz)-75.3khz .it also includes true zoom capability ,screen capture and print utilities.

Fig: 4.5 DATA PAC 1500 The data Pac 1500 utilizes the latest advances in analog and digital electronics including digital signal processing (DSP) and industry highest resolution A\D converter to provide both speed and accuracy in the data collection process. The instrument incorporates a large VGA resolution screen for easy reading and comprehensive data presentation online context sensitive help is building to all applications so they are easy 33

to use and require minimum training .

The data Pac 1500 accepts industry standard

type 1 or type 2 PC memory cards to provide both unlimited and reliable data storage and is powered by long life, rechargeable, easily removable Ni-cad battery cells. Features: Inputs/outputs: Single data channel, constant current interface standard +/- 10volts engineering units (EU), providing for vibration inputs and process inputs (temperature prop is optional). Reference input channel, supports a variety of externally powered TTL compatible inputs. Including photocells, electromagnetic transducers or ENTEK IRD lace tach. Frequency: Frequency response: 10CPM to 4518000CPM (0.18Hz to 75.3 kHz) non integrated 21CPM to 4518000CPM (0.36Hz to 75.3 kHz) integrated Frequency ranges: 42 ranges between 600CPM and4518000CPM (10Hz and 75300Hz) Frequency resolution: upto12800 lines GSE corner frequencies: 100, 200, 500, 1000, 2000, 5000Hz Amplitude range /resolution: 18 bit A\D converter is incorporated for a solid 96db dynamic range Auto ranging capability sets full scale in 1,2and5 increments Last hardware range is stored for each measurement to improve measurement speed Supported measurement: Acceleration Velocity Displacement Spike energy Temperature Thrust or axial position DC voltage AC voltage 34

Adb, Vdb Phase (1x-99x) Speed Time synchronous FFT’s Time synchronous wave form Amplitude vs. RPM (optional) Start up (coast down FFT waterfall plots (optional)), NY quist plots (Optional), speed Profiling plots (optional). Signal processing: A wide range of options are available and controllable by the host software including RMS, peak, peak to peak, and DC meter types Linear, exponential, RMS and peak hold averaging FFT processing (hamming, hanning, Kaiser-bessel flat top and rectangular window) 12.5 KHz real time data collection and processing rate Time domain data collection Automatic amplitude ranging

35

CHAPTER-V VIBRATION ANALYSIS

5.1 INTRODUCTION
There are literally hundreds of specific mechanical and operational problems that can result in excessive machinery vibration. However, since each type of problem generates vibration in a unique way, a thorough study of the resultant vibration characteristics can go a long way in reducing the number of possibilities—hopefully to a single cause. A simple, logical and systematic approach that has been proven successful in pinpointing the vast majority of the most common day-to-day machinery problems.

5.2 DEFINE THE PROBLEM
The following lists some of the reasons for performing a vibration analysis: 1. Establish "baseline data" for future analysis needs. At the beginning of a

predictive maintenance program, even machines in good operating condition should be thoroughly analyzed to establish their normal vibration characteristics. Later, when problems do develop, this baseline information can be - extremely useful in performing a follow-up analysis to show precisely the vibration characteristics that have changed. 2. Identify the cause of excessive vibration. Referring to the vibration severity guidelines machines in service that have vibration levels in the "rough" regions or greater should be thoroughly. Analyzed to identify existing problems for immediate correction. Once corrections have been made, a follow-up analysis should be performed to insure that problems have been solved and the machine returned to satisfactory condition. If all significant problems have been solved, the follow-up analysis data will serve as the baseline data for future analysis as outlined in (1) above. 3. Identify the cause of a significant vibration increase. Once a developing problem has been detected by routine, periodic checks, the obvious next step is to perform a detailed vibration analysis to identify the problem for correction. Here also, a follow-up analysis will verify that the problems have been corrected and provide a baseline for 36

future comparison 4. Identify the cause of frequent component failures such as bearings, couplings, seals, shafts, etc. 5. Identify the cause of structural failures such as the structure or foundation, piping etc. 6. Identify the source of a noise problem.

5.3 DETERMINE MACHINE DETAILS
Some of the important detailed features of the machine that need to be known for Accurate analyses include: 1. The rotating speed (RPM) of each machine component: Of course, direct-coupled machines have only one rotating speed (RPM) that needs to be known. However, machines that include gear drives will have more than one.' For single gear increasers or reducers, both the input and output speeds are needed. For multiple gear increasers or decreases, the rotating speeds of the various intermediate gears must be known along with the input and output speeds. 2. Types of bearings: Of course worn or defective sleeve or plain bearings will have different vibration characteristics than defective rolling-element bearings. Therefore, it is most important to know whether the machine has plain or rolling element bearings. If the machine has rolling-element bearings, it is also beneficial to know the number of rolling elements and other details of bearing geometry; with this information, the vibration analyst can actually calculate the frequencies of vibration caused by specific bearing defects such as flaws on the outer and inner raceways, rolling elements, etc. Details on determining specific bearing defect frequencies are presented in the ANALYSIS OF ROLLING ELEMENT BEARINGS section of this chapter. 3. Number of fan blades: Knowing the machine RPM and number of blades on a fan will enable the analyst to easily calculate the "blade-passing" frequency. This is simply the product of the number of fan blades times fan RPM. This frequency of vibration is also called the "aerodynamic pulsation frequency. 4. Number of impeller vanes: Similar to fans and blowers, knowing the number of vanes on a pump impeller allows the analyst to calculate the vane-passing frequency, also 37

called the "hydraulic-pulsation" frequency. 5. Number of gear teeth: The rotating speed and number of teeth on each gear must be known in order to determine the possible "gear-mesh" frequencies. 6. Type of coupling: Gear and other lubricated types of couplings can generate some unique vibration characteristics whenever their lubrication breaks down or if lubrication is inadequate. 7. Machine critical speeds: Some machines such as high speed, multi-stage centrifugal pumps, compressors and turbines are designed to operate at speeds above the natural or "resonant" frequency of the shaft. The resonant frequency of the shaft or rotor is called its "critical" speed, and operating a near this speed can result in extremely high vibration amplitudes. Therefore, knowing the rotor critical speed relative to machine RPM and other potential exciting force frequencies are very important. 8. Background vibration sources: Many times the vibration being measured on a machine is actually coming from another machine in the immediate area. This is particularly true for machines mounted on the same foundation or that are interconnected by piping or other structural means. Therefore, it is important to be aware of potential "background" contributions. This is especially true with machine tools, due to the low levels of vibration required! If possible, the machine under analysis should be shut down and readings taken to directly determine the amount and significance of background vibration.

5.4 VISUAL INSPECTION
Before collecting data, the vibration analyst should first make a visual check of the machine to determine if there are any obvious faults or defects that could contribute to the machines condition. Some obvious things to look for include; 1. Loose or missing mounting bolts 2. Cracks in the base, foundation or structural welds 3. Leaking seals 4. Worn or broken parts 5. Wear, corrosion or build-up of deposits on rotating elements such as fans.

38

Slow Motion Studies Another test that is helpful in a visual inspection of the machine is slow motion observation of the various rotating elements of the machine with a high-intensity stroboscopic light. The strobe light must be one that has an adjustable flash rate. Simply adjust the strobe to flash at a rate which is slightly faster or slightly slower than the rotating speed (1 x RPM) of the machine. This will make the rotating components appear to rotate slowly. Slowing down the rotating motion of the machine makes it possible to visually detect problems that may be difficult to detect any other way. Visual run out of a shaft may pinpoint or verity a bent shaft condition. Eccentricity of "V" belt sheaves and pulleys can be easily detected in slow motion. Slow motion studies are especially useful in evaluating problems with belt drives. Worn grooves in pulleys or belts with variations in thickness can easily be seen by observing the action of the belt riding up and down in the pulley grooves. On multiple-belt drives, belt slippage can be determined by observing the belts in slow motion.

5.5 PROBING STUDIES
The tendency in vibration analysis is to concentrate on analyzing vibration data taken at the bearings of the machine. While this data is definitely an important part of any vibration analysis, in many cases the vibration that is occurring at the machine's bearings is actually the result of problems elsewhere in the "system. For example, in one case a vertical pump had a vibration of 0.7 in/sec measured at the top bearing of the pump motor. However, overall vibration readings taken on the pump base, foundation and piping revealed that the discharge piping was vibrating at a level of 3.0 in/sec or over four times higher than the pump motor itself. The problem turned out to be resonance of the discharge piping and not a problem with the pump itself. The pump and drive motor in this case were simply responding to the piping problem. The only way other problems in the system can be detected, such as the piping resonance described above, is to go looking for them. Depending on the anticipated vibration frequencies, select overall displacement, velocity or acceleration for measurement. Some of the areas that should be checked include: 39

1. Suction and discharge piping on pumps: Take overall measurements in three directions. On long piping runs, take readings at several locations along the piping. 2. Externally mounted components such as exciters, lube-oil pumps, surge bottles, etc. Here also, take overall measurements in three directions 3. Take overall measurements on nearby machines that may contribute background vibration. If a nearby machine has higher vibration amplitudes than the one being analyzed, it is very likely some of the vibration is coming from the background source. 4. Compare overall vibration readings across all mounting interfaces to detect obvious signs of looseness or weakness. 5. In addition to taking comparative overall readings across the mounting interfaces To detect Obvious looseness problems, the vibration, amplitudes taken vertically at The mounting points of a machine, such as the four feet of a motor, can be compared to reveal the possibility distortion or "soft-foot or distortion conditions caused by uneven mounting or foot will usually be indicated if one or more of the feet reveals a significantly higher amplitude than the other feet. If this is defected, the condition should be verified and Corrected before further analysis is carried out. Soft-foot conditions can be checked by placing a dial indicator directly on the foot and carefully loosening the mounting bolt while observing the indicator reading. Any movement or "spring" in excess of 0.002 - 0.003 inch is generally considered excessive and should be corrected.

5.6

OBTAIN HORIZONTAL, VERTICAL AND AXIAL SPECTRUMS (FFTS) AT EACH BEARING

OF THE MACHINE TRAIN

In many cases, the analysis steps carried out thus far may be sufficient to pinpoint the specific problem causing excessive vibration. If not, the next step is to obtain a complete set of amplitude-versus-frequency spectrums or FFTs at each bearing of the machine train. For a proper analysis, the machine should be operating under normal conditions of load, speed, temperature, etc. In order to insure that the analysis data taken includes all the problem-related vibration characteristics and, yet, is easy to evaluate and interpret, the following recommendations are offered;

40

Interpreting the Data Once horizontal, vertical and axial FFTs have been obtained for each bearing of the machine train, the obvious next question is: "What is this data telling me?" Essentially, amplitude-versus-frequency spectrums or FFTs serve two very important purposes in vibration analysis: 1. Identify the machine component (motor, pump, gear box, etc.) of the machine train that has the problem And 2. Reduce the number of possible problems from several hundred to only a limited few.

Identifying the Problem Component Based On Frequency Figure 5-1 shows a fan operating at 2200 RPM, belt driven by an 1800 RPM motor. The rotating speed of the belts is 500 RPM. Assume that a vibration analysis was performed on this machine and the only significant vibration detected had a frequency of 2200 CPM or 1 x RPM of the fan. Since the vibration frequency is exactly related to fan speed, this clearly indicates that the fan is the component with the problem. This simple fact eliminates the drive motor, belts and possible background sources as possible causes. Most problems generate vibration with frequencies that are exactly related to the rotating speed of trip in trouble. These frequencies may be exactly 1 x RPM or multiples (harmonics) of 1 x RPM such as 2x, 3x, 4x, etc. In addition, some problem's may cause vibration frequencies that are exact sub harmonics of 1 x RPM such as 1/2x, l/3x or 1/4 x RPM. In any event, the FFT analysis data can identify the machine component with the problem based on the direct relationship between the measured vibration frequency and the rotating speed of the various machine elements. Identifying the Problem Component Based On Amplitude Identifying the fan as the source of vibration based on vibration frequency was quite easy in the above example because of the notable differences in the rotating speeds of the various machine components. The obvious question, of course is: What about direct-coupled machines that is operating at exactly the same speed?" In this case, the component with the problem is normally identified as the one with the highest amplitude. For example, consider a motor direct coupled to a pump. Examining the analysis data, it is noted that the highest vibration amplitude on the motor is 1.0 in/sec compared to 0.12 41

in/sec on the pump. In this case, the motor is clearly the problem component since its vibration amplitude is nearly 8 times higher than that measured on the pump. In general, the machine component that has the problem is usually the one with the highest amplitude of vibration. The forces that cause vibration tend to dissipate in strength at increased distances from the source. However, there are exceptions to this rule such as the example given earlier where a vertical pump was vibrating excessively due to a resonance problem with the discharge piping. In this case, the exciting force was actually generated by the motor/pump but was being amplified by the resonant condition of the piping. Another exception to this rule involves misalignment of direct coupled machines. Sir Isaac Newton’s third law of physics slates that "whenever one body exerts a force on another, the second always exerts on the first a force which is equal in magnitude but oppositely directed." In other words, "for every action, there is an equal but opposite reaction." In the case of coupling misalignment, the vibratory force (action) is generated at the coupling between the driver a driven components. As a result, the "reaction" forces on the driver and driven unit; will be essentially equal, resulting in reasonably comparable vibration amplitudes. The only reason one component may have a slightly higher or lower amplitude than the other is because of differences in the mass and stiffness characteristics of the two components. But, in most cases with the coupling misalignment, the vibration is fairly uniformly "shared" by the driver and driven units.

Fig 5.1 Different components generate different vibration frequencies Reducing the List of Possible Problems Based On Frequency In addition to identifying the problem machine component based on frequency 42

and/or amplitude characteristics, the second purpose of FFT analysis data is to limit or reduce the list of possible problems based on the measured vibration frequencies. As stated earlier, each mechanical and operational problem generates its own unique vibration frequency characteristics. Therefore, by knowing the vibration frequency, a list of the problems that cause or generate that particular frequency can be made, which greatly reduces the long list of possibilities. The chart lists the most common vibration frequencies is they relate to machine rotating speed (RPM), along with the common causes for each frequency. To illustrate how to use the chart, assume that the belt-driven fan pictured in Figure 4-1 has excessive vibration at 2200 CPM which is 1 x RPM of the fan. Of course, this clearly indicates that the fan is the component with the problem and not the drive motor or belts. In addition, since the vibration frequency is 1 x RPM of the fan, the possible causes listed on the chart are: 1. Unbalance 2. Eccentric pulley 3. Misalignment—this could be misalignment of the fan bearings or misalignment of the fan and motor pulleys. 4. Bent shaft 5. Looseness 6. Distortion—from soft foot or piping strain conditions 7. Bad belts—if belt RPM 8. Resonance 9. Reciprocating forces 10. Electrical problems Using this simple chart, along with the fact that the vibration frequency is 1 x RPM of the fan has reduced the number of possible causes from literally hundreds to only ten (10) likely causes, A little common sense can reduce this list even further. First, since the vibration frequency is not related to the rotating speed (RPM) of the drive belts, possible belt problems can be eliminated as a possible cause. Secondly, since this is a reciprocating machine such as a reciprocating compressor or engine, the possibility of reciprocating forces can be eliminated from the remaining list. Finally, since the 43

frequency is not related to the drive motor or AC line frequency. In any way, the possibility of electrical problems can be eliminated. Now, the number of possible causes of excessive vibration has been reduced to only seven (7) by simply knowing that the vibration frequency in this case is 1 x RF of the fan. Table 5.1: VIBRATION FREQUENCIES AND THE LIKELY CAUSES Frequency in Most Likely causes Other possible causes & Remarks Terms Of RPM 1x RPM Unbalance Eccentric journals, gears or pulleys Misalignment or bent shaft if high axial vibration 3) bad belts if RPM of belt 4} Resonance 5) Reciprocating forces 6) Electrical problems Mechanical looseness 1) Misalignment if high axial vibration 2) Reciprocating forces 3) Resonance 4) bad belt if 2 x RPM of belt Misalignment Usually a combination of misalignment and excessive axial clearance (looseness). Oil Whirl {Less than 1) Bad drive belts 1/2 x RPM 2) Background vibration 3) Sub-harmonic resonance 4) "Seat" Vibration Electrical Problems Common electrical problems include broken rotor bars, eccentric rotor, and unbalanced phases in poly-phase systems, unequal air gap. Torque Pulses Rare as a problem unless resonance is excited Gear teeth times RPM of bad gear Number of fan blade times RPM Number of impeller vane times RPM May occur at 2, 3, 4 and sometimes higher harmonics if severe looseness 1) Bearing vibration may be unsteady amplitude and frequency 2) Capitation, recirculation and flow turbulence causes random high frequency vibration 3)Improper lubrication of journal bearings 4)rubbing 44 1) 2)

2 x RPM

3 x RPM Less than 1x RPM Synchronous (A.C line frequency) 2xSynch. Frequency Many Times RPM (Harmonically Related Freq.)

Bad Gears Aerodynamic Forces Hydraulic forces Mechanical Looseness Reciprocating Forces High Frequency Bad Anti-Friction (Not Harmoni- bearing cally Related)

Comparing Tri-Axial (Horizontal, Vertical and Axial) Data Not only can specific vibration problems be recognized by their specific frequency characteristics, but in many cases by the direction in which the vibration occurs. This is why it is necessary to take analysis data in the horizontal, vertical and axial directions - to further the process of elimination. Table 5.1 shows a typical "set" of tri-axial data taken on one bearing of a belt driven fan operating at 2200 RPM. Of course similar data would be taken on the, other fan bearing as well as the motor bearings. "Stacking" the horizontal, vertical and axial data for a particular bearing on the same sheet as shown, greatly simplifies the comparison. Note That the same full-scale amplitude range (0 to 0.3 in/sec) was used for all the data to further simplify the comparison. There are basically two comparisons that need to be made from the data in Figure 5-2. First, how do the horizontal and vertical readings part; and secondly, how do the radial readings (horizontal and vertical) compare1 to the axial readings.

Fig 5.2: Typical tri-axial data taken on a belt-driven fan

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Comparing Horizontal and Vertical Readings When comparing the horizontal and vertical data, it is important to take note of how and where the machine is mounted and also, how the bearings are mounted to the machine. Basically, the vibration analyst needs to develop a "feel" for the relative stiffness between the horizontal and vertical directions in order to see whether the comparative horizontal and vertical readings indicate a normal or abnormal situation. Machines mounted on a solid or rigid base may be evaluated differently than machines mounted on elevated structures or resilient vibration isolators such as rubber pads or springs. To explain the significance of machine stiffness, assume that the fan in Figure 5-1 is mounted on a rigid, solid concrete base which, in turn, is mounted on a solid foundation located at ground level. This would be regarded as a "rigid" installation and under normal conditions the vertical stiffness would be greater than the horizontal stiffness. If such is the case/one would expect that normal problems, such as unbalance, would cause higher amplitude of vibration in th2 horizontal direction than the vertical direction, if a rigidly mounted machine has higher vibration in the vertical direction than the horizontal direction, this would generally be considered as 'abnormal', and may indicate a looseness or weakness condition. On the other hand, if this same machine was mounted on springs or rubber pads, a higher amplitude in. the vertical direction may not be considered unusual or an indication of structural problems. Another factor that needs to be considered is the "ratio" between the horizontal and vertical Amplitudes. As explained, it is not unusual for rigidly mounted machines to have higher amplitudes of vibration in the horizontal direction, compared to the vertical direction. However, the ratio between the horizontal and vertical amplitudes should be checked to see if it is normal or indicative of some unusual problem. As a normal unbalance response, it is not unusual for machines to exhibit ratios between the horizontal and vertical amplitudes of 1:1, 2:1, 3:1 or 4:1, depending on the particular installation. In other words, it would not be unusual for a rigidly mounted fan, motor or pump to have a vibration amplitude at 1 x RPM as much as 4 times higher in the horizontal direction than the vertical direction due to unbalance. Ratios beyond 4:1 somewhat unusual and typically indicate an abnormal condition such as looseness or resonance. 46

Comparing Radial (Horizontal & Vertical) Data to Axial Data The second important comparison that needs to be made to tri-axial analysis data is how the radial (horizontal and vertical) readings compare to the axial readings. Relatively high amplitudes of axial vibration are normally the result of: 1. Misalignment of couplings 2. Misalignment of bearings 3. Misalignment of pulleys or sheaves on belt drives 4. Bent shafts 5. Unbalance of "overhung" rotors such as the fan in Figure 5.1 A general rule, any time the amplitude of axial vibration exceeds 50% of the highest radial (horizontal or vertical) amplitude, the possibility of a misalignment or bent shaft condition should be considered.) CM course, extremely high amplitudes of axial vibration may also be due to resonance or unbalance of an overhung rotor. Verifying the cause of a high axial vibration using "phase analysis" techniques will be covered in the sections to follow. Examining the axial vibration in the examples given in Figures, it can be seen that in neither instance is the amplitude of axial vibration greater than 50% of the highest radial amplitude. As a result, misalignment or bent shaft Conditions are not indicated examples. 'Where Do Multiple Harmonic Vibration Frequencies Come From? Something that often worries or confuses the beginning vibration analyst is the appearance of numerous "harmonic" frequencies that sometimes appear in their FFT analysis data. A good example is the frequency analysis data presented in Figure -5-3. Although the predominant vibration is clearly 2200 CPM (1 x RPM of the fan), vibration frequencies can also be seen at 4400 CPM (2 x RPM), 6600 CPM (3 x RPM) and 8800 CPM (4"x RPM). Although their amplitudes are considerably lower than that at 1 x RPM, these "harmonic" frequencies are very important and should not be ignored, as will be explained in the following Paragraphs. The presence of multiple or "harmonically" related vibration frequencies is not uncommon, and their presence in the FFT data can be easily explained by examining the frequency characteristics of various vibration waveforms. Figure 5.3 illustrates four (4) 47

different types of vibration waveforms — a sinusoidal is a sine wave, a square wave, s triangular or "saw-tooth" wave and a spike pulse. These waveforms can be readily generated by various machinery problems, depending on the nature of the problem and the extent of the exciting forces. The '1 Linda -mental" frequency of each of the waveforms in Figure 5-3 is the same; however, the frequencies presented in the FFTs will be considerably different.

Fig 5.3: Different wave forms result in different frequency characteristics A sinusoidal or "sine" wave could be the result, of a simple unbalance or misalignment problem. If a frequency analysis (FFT) is performed on a true sinusoidal waveform, the result will be a single frequency of vibration with certain amplitude and NO multiple frequencies. By comparison, a frequency analysts (FFT) of & square waveform will not only display the fundamental frequency (1x), but the odd multiple or harmonic frequencies as well (i.e. 3x, 5x, 7x, etc.). The number of odd multiple frequencies present in the FFT data will depend on how close the waveform is to a true square wave, the intensity or amplitude of the vibration and the response characteristics (peak or RMS) of the instrument as well as its dynamic range. Figure 4-8 shows a 6000 CPM (1 00 Hz) square waveform signal obtained from an electronic signal generator along with the FFT 48

frequency analysis. Note that the frequency analysis not only includes the fundamental frequency of 6000 CPM, but the odd multiples as well (i.e. 18,000 CPM, 30,000 CPM, 42,000 CPM, etc.). One possible explanation (or a square wave vibration would be an unbalance condition combined with system looseness. If the unbalance force was great enough, the machine could literally be lifted off the foundation and held to the limit of looseness until the unbalance force has rotated to a position where the upward force is reduced, allowing the machine to drop. Another possibility is a mild rubbing condition that might "flatten" the unbalance sine wave whenever the rub occurs. The fundamental (1x) frequency accompanied by the odd multiple or harmonic frequencies, similar to a square wave. However, the amplitudes of the odd harmonics of a triangular waveform decrease more quickly at higher frequency than do those of a square waveform as shown in Figure 5-3. Triangular or saw tooth waveforms can also be generated by conditions such as looseness or excessive bearing clearance that result in "distortion" of an unbalance sine we Here also, the number of odd multiple frequencies that accompany the fundamental frequency will depend not only on the amplitude of the fundamental frequency, but the dynamic range and circuit response characteristics (peak RMS) of the analysis instrument. Some problems such as a cracked or broken tooth on a gear, or a flaw on a bearing raceway or rolling element, will generate vibration in the form of impact or spike-pulses. A frequency analysis or FFT of a spike-pulse signal will reveal the fundamental impact frequency, followed by the entire multiple or harmonic frequencies (i.e. 2x, 3x, 4x, 5x, 6x, etc.) as shown in Figure 4-3. As before, the number of harmonic frequencies evident in the FFT will depend on the amplitude of the fundamental component and the dynamic range and circuit response characteristics (peak or RMS) of the analysis instrument. The presence of multiple, harmonic frequencies in an FFT are definitely important and should not be ignored, even though their amplitudes may be considerably less than that of the fundamental frequency. Their mere existence indicates that the vibration is not a true sine wave, and may provide clues to other significant problems such as looseness conditions, gear tooth problems, bearing problems, etc. In the case of the belt driven fan in Figure 5-1, the harmonic frequencies only appeared at the drive-end bearing (bearing 49

C). Ultimately, the problem was found to be a loose pulley on the fan shaft, which was allowing the pulley to "rattle" on the shaft during rotation. This caused a spike-pulse distortion of the unbalance sine wave, resulting in the harmonic vibration frequencies. Once the set-screws were tightened securing the pulley to the shaft, the multiple harmonic frequencies totally disappeared, leaving only the 1 x RPM unbalance vibration frequency. Distortion of a sinusoidal vibration waveform, resulting in multiple vibration frequencies, may not only be the result of mechanical problems such as looseness, bearing defects, rubbing or gear defects as described above. (Waveform distortion can also result from the setup and operation of the vibration analysis equipment. For example, if a magnetic holder is being used to mount the vibration accelerometer to the machine, any looseness or rocking of the magnet on the surface of the machine can result in the appearance of multiple frequencies in the analysis data. In addition, if the amplitude of machine vibration exceeds the full-scale amplitude range selected on the analyzer instrument, the true vibration signal may be "chopped", resulting in multiple frequency components in the FFT data that do not physically exist. For example, if the actual level of machine vibration was 1.0 in/sec but the analyzer was set for a 0.3 in/sec full-scale range, the vibration signal would be chopped off, creating an approximate square waveform. The result, of course, would be odd multiple frequencies in the analysis data that do not actually exist. Side-Band Frequencies "Side-band" frequencies are an additional vibration frequency that often appears FFT data that can be confusing to the beginning vibration analyst. Side band vibration frequencies are the result of a variation in the amplitude of given vibration frequency signal as a function of time. This variation in amplitude with time is also called "amplitude modulation". For example, consider a Rolling element bearing with a significant flaw or defect on the rotating inner raceway.)

50

Fig: 5.4 spike pulses due to flaw on the inner race of the bearing As the inner raceway rotates, spike pulses will be generated each time a rolling element impacts the flaw. However, the amplitude or intensity of the pulses generated will vary as the defect rotates into and out of the load zone of the bearing. This is shown in Figure. Impacts that occur when the defect is within the load zone will obviously be mw intense than those that occur out of the load zone. The result is a modulation the fundamental bearing defect frequency. The fundamental bearing defect frequency in this case is the frequency at which rolling elements impact the inner raceway flaw and is called the "ball passing frequency of the inner raceway" or simply BPFI. When discussing side-band frequencies, the fundamental bearing frequency in this case would be called the "carrier" frequency. The frequency at which the amplitude of the carrier frequency varies is called the "modulating" frequency. The modulating frequency in the case of a defect on the inner raceway will be 1 x RPM, since the defect is rotating into and out of the bearing load zone at the rotating speed of the shaft.

5.7 DETERMINE IF THE VIBRATION IS DIRECTIONAL OR NONDIRECTIONAL
In addition to a comparison of tri-axial (horizontal, vertical and axial data) other analysis techniques such as simple probing studies has been discussed to show how the list of possible problems can be reduced. A vibration frequency of 1 x RPM is probably the most common "predominant" vibration encountered during analysis because so many different yet common day-to-day problems can cause it. These problems include. 1. Unbalance 2. Bent shafts 51

3. Misalignment— of couplings, bearings and pulleys. 4. Looseness 5. Resonance 6. Distortion—from soft foot or piping strain conditions 7. Eccentricity---of pulleys and gears 8. Reciprocating forces Of all the problems listed above, the only ones that generate uniform radial forces and resultant vibration are unbalance and bent shafts. All of the remaining problems typically generate forces and resultant vibration which is very highly directional in nature. Therefore, determining whether or not the radial vibration directional or nondirectional can be an extremely valuable analysis tool in reducing the list of possible problems. To explain the difference between directional and uniform or non-directional vibration, consider the response of a machine to a simple unbalance problem. An unbalance condition generates a certain amount of radial force which is governed by the amount of unbalance weight (ounces, grams, etc.), the radius of the weight or its distance from the shaft centerline and the rotating speed (RPM) of the machine. In any case, an unbalance generates a fixed amount of force that is simply changing in direction with shaft rotation. If the stiffness of the machine was the same in the horizontal and vertical directions, the machine would literally move in a circular path, and the radial vibration amplitudes would be the same in all radial directions. Of course, the horizontal and vertical stiff nesses will probably not be exactly the same, so the radial motion will probably be somewhat elliptical, resulting in slightly different amplitudes measured in various radial directions. In any case, a simple unbalance, uncomplicated by other problems, generates a fairly uniform, non-directional radial vibration. In terms of radial vibration, a bent shaft reacts in much the same way as simple unbalance. However, remember ' from our earlier discussion that a bent shaft will also be characterized by relatively high axial vibration amplitudes as well. Compared to unbalance and bent shafts, the other listed causes of 1 X RPM Vibration DOES NOT generate uniform radial vibration. Instead, they create radial vibration which is very highly directional. For example, consider the radial vibration 52

generated by coupling misalignment. When a coupling is misaligned, obviously it is misaligned in a certain direction. As a result, the radial forces and, hence, the radial vibration will be most pronounced in the direction of misalignment. Similar to coupling misalignment, a distortion problem from a soft foot or piping strain problem creates misalignment. Of the machine's bearings in a certain direction with the result being highly directional radial vibration. An eccentric pulley used in a "V" belt drive produces variations in belt tension with each revolution, causing a highly directional vibration measured in the direction of belt tension. An eccentric gear creates directional forces due to the "cam-like" action with the mating gear, similar to an eccentric pulley. Unbalanced reciprocating forces due to misfiring, valve leakage and other operational problems with engines and reciprocating compressors generate vibration in the direction of reciprocation which are, of course, highly directional. Structural looseness or weakness problems such as loose mounting bolts or deterioration in grouting, simply allow the machine more freedom to move in the direction of the looseness. Although some other exciting force must be present, such as unbalance, structural looseness usually results in highly directional vibration. Detecting Directional versus Non-Directional Vibration There are basically three ways to determine whether the vibration of a machine reasonably uniform or highly directional in nature. These include: 1. A comparison or horizontal, vertical and axial FFT data 2. Comparing the horizontal and vertical phase measurements 3. Multiple radial amplitude measurements Comparing Horizontal and Vertical Phase Readings Figure 5-5 illustrates two types of radial vibration—uniform and highly directional. Of course, uniform or reasonably circular radial vibration is typically the result of a simple unbalance problem. Phase measurements, which were discussed, are obtained by either triggering a stroboscopic (strobe) light with the vibration signal or by comparing the vibration signal with a refer pulse such as that obtained with a photo-electric pickup (photocell) or laser In any case, phase was described as the "relative" motion of two or more parts of a machine. 53

Fig: 5.5 Comparative horizontal and vertical phase readings are used to distinguish between uniform and highly directional radial vibration However, phase can also describe how a single element of a machine is vibrating, such as a bearing. In other words, comparative phase measurements taken in the horizontal and vertical directions of a particular bearing can reveal whether the bearing is vibrating in a highly directional or a reason uniform manner. In the case of a normal unbalance, it is the "heavy spot" of unbalance that; dually causes the vibration. And, since it is the vibration signal that triggers the strobe light or is compared to the reference pulse, it can be said that, indirectly, the heavy spot is responsible for the ultimate phase angle measurement. With this in mind then, it should be apparent that if the machine bearing is vibrating in a reasonably uniform or circular pattern, from the time that the heavy spot rotated to a position to cause the machine to move horizontally, the heavy spot had to rotate an additional 1 /4 revolution or 90 degrees to cause it to move vertically. Therefore, if the machine is, intact, vibrating radially in a reasonably uniform or circular manner, a comparison of phase readings taken in the horizontal & vertical directions should show a difference of approximately 90 degrees. Of course, even with simple unbalance, the stiffness in the horizontal and vertical directions will probably not be exactly the same and, as a result, the radial motion will probably not be a perfect circle. Therefore, when comparing phase readings taken in the horizontal and vertical directions, the phase difference may not be exactly 90 degrees. Because the radial motion may not be a perfect circle, a tolerance or plus or minus 30 degrees is normally allowed. In other words, comparative horizontal and vertical phase readings between 60 degrees and 120 degrees indicate a fairly uniform radial vibration or one that is NOT highly directional. 54

In the case of highly directional radial vibration, comparative horizontal and vertical phase readings will either be nearly the same (0 degrees difference) or 180 degrees out-of-phase, depending on which side of the machine bearing the readings are taken. Referring to Figure 4-5, if the vibration was occurring virtually along the straight line designated "A", the machine would reach its maximum motion toward the horizontal measurement location at exactly the same instant it reached its maximum motion toward the vertical measurement location. In this case, comparative horizontal and vertical phase measurements would be the same (i.e. differ by 0 degrees). However, if the directional vibrate was occurring along the straight line designated as "B", then at the exact instant the machine reached its maximum motion towards the horizontal measurement location, it would have reached its maximum location away from the vertical measurement location. In this case, comparative horizontal and vertical phase readings would differ by 180 degrees. In summary, a simple comparison of horizontal and vertical phase readings can quickly tell whether the radial vibration is fairly uniform or highly directional. In addition, it should be pointed out that it does not make any difference how the machine is vibrating radially relative to the directions of vibration measurement. Any time the ratio between the maximum and minimum radial vibration amplitude exceeds much beyond 5:1, comparative horizontal and vertical phases readings will indicate a highly directional vibration by virtue of a 0 degree or 180 degrees phase comparison.

5.8 IDENTIFYING THE MOST COMMON MACHINERY PROBLEMS
5.8.1 Vibration due to Unbalance Unbalance of rotating machine components is, perhaps, the easiest problem lo pinpoint with confidence. Simple unbalance, uncomplicated by other problems, can be readily identified by the following characteristics: 1. The vibration occurs at a frequency of 1 x RPM of the unbalanced component. The presence of multiple, harmonic frequencies (i.e. 2x, 3x, 4x, times RPM) usually indicates additional problems such as looseness, rubbing, etc

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2. The radial vibration is reasonably uniform and not highly directional. A comparison of horizontal and vertical phase readings will normally show a difference between 60 degrees and 120 degrees. If comparative horizontal and vertical phase readings cannot be taken, multiple radial amplitude readings should not show a discrepancy in excess of 5:1. 3. If a specific machine component such as a motor or fan is the source of unbalance, that component will! Have significantly higher amplitudes of vibration at the 1 x RPM frequency. Unbalance of couplings will likely reveal comparable amplitudes on both the driver and driven machine components. Unbalance conditions can often be affected by other operating conditions such as load or temperature. For example, machines operating at elevated temperatures can physically distort or change shape due to thermal changes, resulting!! a change rotor balance. Large, fabricated boiler draft fans must often be balanced at operating They may run smoothly when cold but vibrate temperature due to thermal distortion. excessively when hot. In addition, due to minor variations in the track and pitch-angle of the fan blades. Large fabricated fans may show significant changes in the unbalance vibration characteristics with changes in flow conditions. In other words, a change in the damper setting may result in a significant change in the unbalance amplitude & phase characteristics. Such affects are referred to as "aerodynamic unbalance', and [joint out the importance of balancing a rotor under its normal operating conditions of temperature and flow conditions. 5.8.2 Bent Shaft Problems Bent shafts are a common problem encountered on machinery, and are often the result of manufacturing errors or mishandling and damage during transportation or machine installation. In addition, a rotor may "bow" as the result of thermal distortion at elevated temperatures or due to excessive unbalance forces.

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Fig: 5.6 uneven rotor and bent shaft problems Regardless of the cause, bent shafts will usually generate a predominant vibration at 1 x RPM, very similar to simple unbalance. And, like unbalance, the radial vibration caused by a, bent shaft will be fairly uniform and not highly directional. However, unlike unbalance, bent shaft conditions will normally cause a relatively significant vibration in the axial direction as well. As staled earlier, any time the amplitude of vibration measured in the axial direction exceeds 1/2 (50%) o! the highest measured radial vibration, a bent shaft is a very possible cause. Because bent shafts cause significant vibration in the axial direction, a bent shaft problem can normally be verified using a phase analysis of the axial vibration. However, there are actually two different types of bent shaft conditions: 1. Rotors that have a simple "bow and: 2. Shafts that have a bend or "kink", but only near a particular bearing. Each type of bend will result in significant axial vibration, but each type will cause the various bearings of the machine to vibrate in the axial direction in a notice-ably different manner. Therefore, an axial phase analysis cans not only verity a bent shaft condition, but can also help in identifying the nature and location of the bend as well.

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5.8.3 Shaft with a Kink or Bend Close To the Bearing The axial vibration caused by a bent shaft can actually occur in two different ways. Normally, if the bend is fairly close to a particular bearing, such as a "kink" in the stub shaft of a motor or pump caused by bumping the shaft during transportation or installation, the bearing will tend to vibrate axially in a "twisting", motion This twisting motion can be easily recognized by taking comparative axial phase measurements at multiple axial positions as shown in Figure 4.7. Four axial phase readings at each bearing of the machine are recommended; however, physical constraints may make it impossible to take all the readings desired. In any case, more than one axial phase reading is needed, so try to take &s many as possible. If the bearing is, in fact, "twisting" due to a kink in the shaft that is very close or actually through the bearing itself, the result will be a drastic difference in the phase readings obtained at the four axial positions, as shown in Figure 5-7. In Figure 5-8, it can be seen that the upper and lower measurement points {1 and 3) are actually 180 degrees out-of-phase, as are the measurement points on opposite sides of the shaft (2 and 4). This clearly indicates that the bearing is vibrating axially in a twisting fashion. Further verification of a bend or "kink" in the shaft can be carried out using a dial indicator.

Fig 5.7: four axial phase readings at each bearing are needed to see how each bearing is vibrating axially

Fig 5.8: These axial phase

readings show a twisting 58

axial motion. Bearings that are "cocked" in the machine housing may also cause significant vibration amplitudes in the axial direction, and may reveal the same "twisting" action as that caused by a kinked shaft. However, a cocked or misaligned bearing can usually be distinguished from a kinked shaft by comparing the amplitudes of vibration measured at the four axial positions. Normally, if a bearing is cocked in the housing, it will be cocked in a specific direction and show a significant difference in the amplitudes measured at the four axial positions. On the other hand, a shaft that has a simple bend or "kink" will reveal fairly uniform amplitudes in the four axial positions. 5.8.4 Identifying a Simple Shaft Bow A shaft that has a simple bow may not cause the supporting bearings to vibrate axially in a "twisting" type of motion. Instead, a simple bow may cause the supporting bearings to vibrate axially in a "planer" fashion In order to identify a simple bow as the cause of high axial vibration, it will be necessary to compare the "relative" axial motion of the support bearings. If the shaft is simply bowed, the supporting bearings of the rotor will reveal a substantial "out-ofphase" condition. Although a pronounced bow may reveal as much as a 180 degrees difference in the axial phase of the rotor supporting bearings, an out-of-phase condition of only 90 degrees or more is significant enough to indicate a possible bow in the shaft. Run out checks with a dial indicator should be performed to verify the bent shaft condition—especially if the amplitudes of axial vibration far exceed 50% of the highest radial amplitudes. When comparing the axial phase readings at the supporting bearings of a rotor, it is most important to keep in mind the direction of the transducer. To illustrate, when taking axial phase- readings on the left side bearing of the rotor, the vibration transducer may have been pointing to the right. However, when axial phase readings were taken on the right side bearing, it may have been necessary to point the vibration transducer to the left. If this was the case, it will be necessary to correct the phase readings for one of the bearings by 180 degrees to compensate for the necessary 180 degree change in transducer direction. Of course, if the direction of the pickup axis can be kept the same at all bearing 59

locations, then no correction factor is necessary. 5.8.5 Vibration Due to Misalignment Surveys have shown that at the beginning stages of most predictive maintenance programs, misalignment of direct coupled machines is by far the most common cause of machinery vibration. In spite of self-aligning bearings and flexible couplings, it is difficult to align two shafts and their bearings so that no forces exist which will cause vibration. Although machines may be well aligned initially, several factors can affect alignment, including:

Fig: 5.9 parallel misalignment and angular misalignment 1. Operating temperature: Machines aligned when cold may "grow" out of alignment due to variations in thermal conditions, 2. Settling of the base or foundation 3. Deterioration or shrinkage of grouting The following are general characteristics to look for: 1. The radial vibration caused by coupling misalignment is typically highly directional on both the driver and driven units. Misalignment occurs in a certain direction and, as a result, the radial forces are not uniformly applied in all radial directions like that from unbalance. 2. The vibration frequencies due to misalignment are usually 1 x, 2x and 3x RPM, and may appear in any combination depending on the type and extent of misalignment. Angular misalignment normally causes vibration at 1 x RPM, whereas offset or parallel misalignment causes vibration predominantly at 2 x RPM. In fact, offset misalignment is 60

probably the most likely cause of a predominate 2 x RPM vibration. Combinations of angular and offset misalignment may show combinations of 1x and 2 x RPM and in some cases even 1x, 2x and 3 x RPM.
3. Whenever misalignment is suspected, an axial phase analysis comparing the relative

axial motion of the driver and driven units can be most helpful. As stated earlier, "for every action there is an equal but opposite reaction". As a. result, misalignment problems will normally reveal a significant phase difference \ up to 180 degrees. However, phase differences as little as 60 degrees Tin relative axial motion is sufficient to suggest misalignment. 5.8.6 Vibration Due To Looseness Excessive vibration may exist due to looseness conditions; however, looseness is not the actual cause of the vibration. Some other exciting force such as unbalance or misalignment must be present to actually cause the vibration.

Fig: 5.10 vibrations due to looseness (excessive clearance in bearings and loose bolts) Looseness is simply a loss or reduction in the normal stiffness of the machine or system, perhaps due to loose mounting bolts, cracks in the base or foundation, deterioration in grouting, cracked welds, loose lags or anchors or rotors loose on the shaft. Looseness conditions simply allow whatever exciting forces that exist in the machine to exhibit or generate higher amplitudes of vibration than they would if no looseness problems existed. If the predominate exciting force is an unbalance at 1 x RPM, then the predominate vibration due to looseness would be 1 x RPM in this case. However, if the predominate exciting force is occurring at 2 x RPM due to an offset misalignment, then the looseness would occur at a frequency of 2 x RPM. Looseness does not have to occur at a frequency of 2 x RPM as many published vibration diagnostic 61

charts would lead one to believe. Two general types of looseness are: 1. Looseness associated with the rotating system, including rotors loose on the shaft, bearings loose on the shaft or in the machine housing and excessive sleeve bearing clearance. 2. Looseness of the support system of a machine such as loose mounting bolls, grouting deterioration or cracks in the structure. Mechanical Looseness and "Sub harmonic" Frequencies On occasion, certain looseness conditions can also result in "sub harmonic" Frequencies of vibration (i.e. 1/2, 1/3, or 1/4 x RPM) with frequencies at 1/2 x RPM being the most common. For example, there have been many reported cases of excessive wear and clearance in sleeve bearings of large motors that have resulted in vibration frequencies of 1/2x, 1x, 1-1/2x, 2x, 2-1/2x, 3x, 3-1/2x and Higher orders of 1/2 x RPM. Why and how vibration frequencies at multiples of ' half-order (1/2 x RPM) are generated has never been fully explained. However, when detected, possible looseness conditions including bearing clearance Problems should be suspected. 5.8.7 Vibration Due To Eccentricity Of course, no rotor or shaft can be made perfectly round. Some eccentricity or "out-of-roundness" will be present on nearly every rotating assembly. Eccentricity is a common cause of unbalance, and for common machines such as fans, blowers, pumps, etc., normal balancing procedures can be carried out to minimize the effects of eccentricity. However, in certain situations, eccentricity can result in "reaction" forces that cannot be totally compensated by simply balancing the rotor. Probably the most common examples are eccentric belt pulleys and chain sprockets, eccentric gears and eccentric motor armatures. In the case of an eccentric belt pulley or chain sprocket, each revolution of the eccentric pulley or sprocket will cause a variation in belt or chain tension. The result will be a vibration frequency at 1 x RPM of the eccentric element, with a directional force on a line between the centers of the driver and driven pulleys or sprockets. Although this could be easily mistaken as an unbalance problem, a simple test for- the directionality of 62

the radial vibration by taking comparative horizontal and vertical phase readings or by taking multiple radial amplitude readings will quickly reveal the highly directional nature of the vibration. Slow motion studies with a stroboscopic light or run out checks with a dial indicator will confirm the eccentricity problem.

Fig: 5.11 Vibrations Due To Eccentricity Eccentric gears will cause highly directional vibration at 1 x RPM of the eccentric gear in a manner similar to that of eccentric belt pulleys and chain sprockets, and can be identified by taking comparative horizontal and vertical phase readings or by taking multiple radial amplitude readings as described earlier. 5.8.8 Vibration Due To Resonance Resonance is a very common cause of excessive vibration on machines because 1. Machines consist of many individual elements or components such as suction and discharge piping, bearing pedestals, bases, and accessory items such as exciters and lube oil pumps, etc... Of course, each component has its own mass and stiffness characteristics and, hence, its own unique natural frequency. 2. The stiffness of each machine component is different in different directions. As a result, each machine component will likely have several different natural frequencies. For example, consider a fan bearing. Most likely, the stiffness of the bearing will be different in the horizontal, vertical and axial directions. As a result, the natural frequencies of this particular machine component will also be different in the horizontal, vertical and axial directions. 63

When one considers all of the various machine components, along with the multiple natural frequencies possible for each component, the reason that resonance is such a common problem is quite understandable. All that is required is that the natural frequency of one machine component, in one of its directions of vibration, be the same as one exciting force frequency inherent to the machine, when this happens, resonance and high levels of vibration will result. Although machines that are installed and brought into service may not exhibit resonance problems initially, resonance may become a problem in the future if changes in machine stiffness occur as the result of bearing wear, grouting deterioration, loosening of mounting bolts or other problems. 5.8.9 Vibration due to defective rolling element bearings When a rolling element bearing develops flaws on the raceways and/or rolling elements, there are actually a number of vibration frequency characteristics that can result depending on the extent of deterioration.

5.12 vibrations due to worn rollers, worn gear teeth and worn belts Thus, identifying these characteristic frequencies cannot only help to verify that a bearing is definitely failing, but can also give some indication of the extent of deterioration. The following is a discussion of the four stages that a bearing will typically go through from the earliest stage of deterioration to that approaching catastrophic failure. Catastrophic failure id defined here as simply the total in ability of the bearing to perform its intended functions of minimizing the friction generated through rotating motion and keeping rotating and non-rotating parts from coming into contact with one another. In other words, failure will occur when either the bearing literally comes apart or seizes due to excessive heat buildup. 64

5.9 VIBRATION ANALYSIS 5.9.1 Introduction Interpreting vibration characteristics carries out diagnostics studies based on vibration analysis. The following vibration characteristics are utilized to interpret the machinery health condition. 1. Vibration displacement 2. Vibration velocity 3. Vibration acceleration will include the health condition. 4. Vibration frequency will indicate the defect 5. Vibration base will help to indicate the defective location

5.9.2 Dominant Frequency It is sometimes useful to know the dominant frequency of vibration of a machine that has several rotating parts. Consider for example a belt driven blower. The motor and fan run at different speeds. The dominant frequency will reveal which part of the machine is causing the most vibration. The measurements taken on the motor bearings would include vibration of the motor plus vibrations from the fan transmitted through the drive belt and mounting structure. Conversely, measurement taken on the fan bearings would include vibrations of the fan plus vibrations transmitted from the motors as shown in the figure. In many cases the point with the most vibration would pin point which part has the trouble, but not always. Measurements taken on the fan contains vibrations of the fan plus transmitted vibrations from the motor. The following sequence is used to find the dominant frequency: 1. Measure and record the displacement (D) at a given point. 2. In same manner and at the same point, measure and record the velocity (V). 3. The dominant frequency can be found by dividing the velocity measurement (V) by the displacement measurement (D) and multiplying by the constant 19100. The answer will 65

be the dominant frequency of vibration in cycles per minute. Dominant frequency (CPM) = velocity (V) millimeters/second x 19100 (metric units) Displacement (D) micrometers

For example, if the motor runs at 1750 RPM and the fan at 2600 RPM. Measurements taken on the motor are displacement (D) = 47 micrometers and velocity (V) = 6.5 millimeters / seconds. The dominant frequency then becomes: (6.5/47) XI 9, 120 =2,644 cpm 2644 CPM is nearest the fan speed. The fan is the dominant part and is causing vibration. Generally the dominant frequency will be equal to the rotating speed of the part cause the vibration, assuming that the trouble is unbalance. In any event the dominant vibration frequency will normally be some multiple of RPM of the part. from the following table. After determining the dominant frequency, the type of the trouble present may be assumed

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CHAPTER-VI ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORKS

6.1 INTRODUCTION
An artificial neural network (ANN), usually called "neural network" (NN), is a mathematical model or computational model that tries to simulate the structure and/or functional aspects of biological neural networks. It consists of an interconnected group of artificial neurons and processes information using a connectionist approach to computation. In most cases an ANN is an adaptive system that changes its structure based on external or internal information that flows through the network during the learning phase. Neural networks are non-linear statistical data modeling tools. They can be used to model complex relationships between inputs and outputs or to find patterns in data. A neural network is an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in the human brain.

Fig: 6.1 a simple neural network 6.1.1 Background Component based representation of a neural network. This kind of more general 67

representation is used by some neural network software. There is no precise agreed-upon definition among researchers as to what a neural network is, but most would agree that it involves a network of simple processing elements (neurons), which can exhibit complex global behavior, determined by the connections between the processing elements and element parameters. The original inspiration for the technique came from examination of the central nervous system and the neurons (and their axons, dendrites and synapses) which constitute one of its most significant information processing elements (see Neuroscience). In a neural network model, simple nodes (called variously "neurons", "neurodes", "PEs" ("processing elements") or "units") are connected together to form a network of nodes — hence the term "neural network." While a neural network does not have to be adaptive per se, its practical use comes with algorithms designed to alter the strength (weights) of the connections in the network to produce a desired signal flow. These networks are also similar to the biological neural networks in the sense that functions are performed collectively and in parallel by the units, rather than there being a clear delineation of subtasks to which various units are assigned (see also connectionism). Currently, the term Artificial Neural Network (ANN) tends to refer mostly to neural network models employed in statistics, cognitive psychology and artificial intelligence. Neural network models designed with emulation of the central nervous system (CNS) in mind are a subject of theoretical neuroscience (computational neuroscience). In modern software implementations of artificial neural networks the approach inspired by biology has for the most part been abandoned for a more practical approach based on statistics and signal processing. In some of these systems, neural networks or parts of neural networks (such as artificial neurons) are used as components in larger systems that combine both adaptive and non-adaptive elements. While the more general approach of such adaptive systems is more suitable for real-world problem solving, it has far less to do with the traditional artificial intelligence connectionist models. What they do have in common, however, is the principle of non-linear, distributed, parallel and local 68

processing and adaptation.

6.1.2 Models
Neural network models in artificial intelligence are usually referred to as artificial neural networks (ANNs); these are essentially simple mathematical models defining a function. Each type of ANN model corresponds to a class of such functions. 6.1.3 The Network in Artificial Neural Network The word network in the term 'artificial neural network' arises because the function is defined as a composition of other functions

f(x)

gi(x), which can further be defined as a

composition of other functions. This can be conveniently represented as a network structure, with arrows depicting the dependencies between variables. A widely used type of composition is the nonlinear weighted sum, where, where K (commonly referred to as the activation function) is some predefined function, such as the hyperbolic tangent. It will be convenient for the following to refer to a collection of functions vector.

gi as simply a

Fig:6.2 ANN dependency graph This figure depicts such a decomposition of f, with dependencies between variables indicated by arrows. These can be interpreted in two ways.

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The first view is the functional view: the input vector

x

is transformed into a 3-dimensional

h,

which is then transformed into a 2-dimensional vector

g,

which is finally

transformed into f. This view is most commonly encountered in the context of optimization. The second view is the probabilistic view: the random variable F the random variable the random variable graphical models. The two views are largely equivalent. In either case, for this particular network architecture, the components of individual layers are independent of each other (e.g., the components of

= f(G) depends upon

G = g(H), which depends upon H = h(X), which depends upon X.
This view is most commonly encountered in the context of

g

are independent of each other given their input

h).

This naturally

enables a degree of parallelism in the implementation.

6.1.4 Learning
What has attracted the most interest in neural networks is the possibility of learning. Given a specific task to solve, and a class of functions F, learning means using a set of observations to find which solves the task in some optimal sense. This entails defining a cost function such that, for the optimal solution f *, (i.e., no solution has a cost less than the cost of the optimal solution). The cost function C is an important concept in learning, as it is a measure of how far away a particular solution is from an optimal solution to the problem to be solved. Learning algorithms search through the solution space to find a function that has the smallest possible cost. For applications where the solution is dependent on some data, the cost must necessarily be a function of the observations; otherwise we would not be modeling anything related to the data. It is frequently defined as a statistic to which only 70

approximations can be made. As a simple example consider the problem of finding the model f which minimizes, for data pairs (x,y) drawn from some distribution . In practical situations we would only have the entire data set. When some form of online learning must be used, where the cost is partially minimized as each new example is seen. While online learning is often used when is fixed, it is most useful in the case where the distribution changes slowly over time. In neural network methods, some form of online learning is frequently used for finite datasets.

N

samples from and thus, for the above example, we

would only minimize. Thus, the cost is minimized over a sample of the data rather than

6.1.5 Employing artificial neural networks
Perhaps the greatest advantage of ANNs is their ability to be used as an arbitrary function approximation mechanism which 'learns' from observed data. However, using them is not so straightforward and a relatively good understanding of the underlying theory is essential. Choice of model: This will depend on the data representation and the application. Overly complex models tend to lead to problems with learning. Learning algorithm: There are numerous tradeoffs between learning algorithms. Almost any algorithm will work well with the correct hyper parameters for training on a particular fixed dataset. However selecting and tuning an algorithm for training on unseen data requires a significant amount of experimentation. Robustness: If the model, cost function and learning algorithm are selected appropriately the resulting ANN can be extremely robust. With the correct implementation ANNs can be used naturally in online learning and large dataset applications. Their simple implementation and the existence of mostly local dependencies exhibited in the structure allows for fast, parallel implementations in hardware. 71

6.1.6 Applications
The utility of artificial neural network models lies in the fact that they can be used to infer a function from observations. This is particularly useful in applications where the complexity of the data or task makes the design of such a function by hand impractical.

6.1.7 Real life applications
 The tasks to which artificial neural networks are applied tend to fall within the following broad categories:  Function approximation, or regression analysis, including time series prediction, fitness approximation and modeling.
 Classification, including pattern and sequence recognition, novelty detection and

sequential decision making.
 Data processing, including filtering, clustering, blind source separation and

compression.
 Robotics, including directing manipulators, Computer numerical control.

Application areas include system identification and control (vehicle control, process control), quantum chemistry, game-playing and decision making (backgammon, chess, racing), pattern recognition (radar systems, face identification, object recognition and more), sequence recognition (gesture, speech, handwritten text recognition), medical diagnosis, financial applications (automated trading systems), data mining (or knowledge discovery in databases, "KDD"), visualization and e-mail spam filtering.

6.2 PATTERN CLASSIFICATION NETWORK:
A two layer feed-forward network with non linear output functions for the units in the output layer can be used for the task o f pattern classification. The number of units in the input layer corresponds to the dimensionality of input pattern vectors. The units in the input layer are all linear, as the input layer merely contributes to fan out the input to each of the output units. The number of output units depends on the number of distinct classes in the pattern classification task. We assume for this discussion that the output units are binary. Each output unit is concerned to all the input units, and a weight is associated 72

with each connection. Since the output function of a unit is a hard limiting threshold function, for a given set of input-output patterns, the weighted sum of the input values compared with the threshold for the unit to determine whether the sum is greater or less than the threshold. Thus, in this case a set of in equalities are generated with the given data. Thus there is no unique solution for the weights in this case. Typically, if the weighted sum of the input values to the input values to the output values exceeds the threshold, the output signal is labeled as 1, otherwise as 0. Multiple binary output units are needed of the number of pattern classes exceeds 2.

6.3 BACK PROPOGATION ALGORITHM (generalized delta rule)
Given a set of input-output patterns (al,bl),l=1,2,…….L, Where the lth input vector and the al = (al1,al2…..all)T and the lth output vector bl=(al1,al2……alk)T. Assume only one hidden layer and initial setting of weights to be arbitrary. Assume input layer with only linear units. Then the output signal is equal to the input activation value for each of these units. Let η be the learning rate parameter. Let a =a (m) =a and b=b (m) =bl. Activation of unit I in the input layer, xi= ai(m)

Activation unit j in the hidden layer,

Output signal from the jth unit in the hidden layer,

Activation of unit k in the output layer, Output signal from unit k in the output layer,

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Error term for the kth output layer,

Calculate the error for the lth pattern, Total error for all patterns, Apply the given patterns one by one, may be several limits, in some random order and update the weights until the total error reduces to an acceptable value.

6.4 APPLICATION OF ANN TO VIBRATION ANALYSIS 6.4.1 Reasons for Applying Ann  Process upsets and abnormal situations often entail a certain degree of unpredictability  Unknowns and unpredictable behavior of processes operating in combination with one another call for artificial intelligence  Artificial neural networks are widely preferred due to their pattern recognition capabilities 6.4.2 Developing an ANN system In order to overcome the ever present restriction in the development of expert systems based on neural networks a four phased data production analysis procedure for training has been developed. The four interleaved approaches for data collection are simple fault simulation, finite element method(FEM) simulation, test rig simulation and real data gathering using this technique the amount of data can be extended to fulfill the strictest requirements of a neural network capable of handling almost all rotating machinery at the user sites. The adopted approach makes it possible to vary such parameters as type and structure of the machinery in question, together with the operational parameters such as running speed, load and environmental factors. The data flow scheme during the development process is shown in figure. In this approach data from the simple fault simulator FEM model test rig and real world can be combined and 74

analyzed in one module and then treated in the same way when training the neural network. Basically this approach overcomes the problem of gathering sufficient amount of data from faulty machinery in the field which for the defined fault and machinery scenarios would take hundreds of years to be adequate for training.

Simulated fault simulation

Simulated data

FEM simulation

Simulated data

Vibration parameters statistical FFT spectrum ceptrum auto correlation

Test measureme nt

Test data

Data conversio n

Test data

Simulated test, vibration paramete rs

Plant measureme nt

Test data

Data conversio n

Test data

Data optimization

Optimized data

ANN

Fig 6.3 the data flow chart 75

6.4.3 Test rig simulation A test rig has been built to enable the generation of fault data for training the neural networks and neuro fuzzy system in addition; the test data is used to refine the simulation model. The test rig consists of a motor, brake and a shaft with two bearings. The test rig has been used for data collection for different fault types such as unbalance, misalignment and different types of bearing faults. All these fault types have been studied at different stages of fault severity. The data from the test rig gives the basic information for the development of the hybrid expert system. As work on the project developed, the test rig was modified to represent a more complicated item of plant. 6.4.4 Simple fault simulator A simple PC based fault simulator (SFS) has been developed. The SFS can be used to predict the characteristic features of vibration acceleration signals for different fault types such as unbalance, misalignment and different types of bearing faults. The SFS can also introduce noise to the signals due to various sources, i.e the effects of other machinery and amplifier/transducer performance. Linked to the SFS there is a module for the calculation of different measuring parameters, which have been programmed the background for this is simply that there are a great no of different measurement parameters used in practice. 6.4.5 FEM simulation A finite element model simulation FEM was developed to provide a more sophisticated degree of control over the synthesized data. The complexity of the FEM model is much greater than the SFS and allows a variety of changes to be made to the model for generating different fault situations. The great advantage of the fem simulation is the possibility of making structural changes to the machine with minimum effort, especially if the model has been built for this purpose. In this case the model has been parameterized using super element techniques in order to keep the no of degrees freedom of the model at a reasonable level for calculation purposes. The model basically represents the test rig but offers the capability of making dimensional changes such as shaft diameter variation and bearing distance variation thus introducing to the response the effect of transfer functions due to the variation of natural frequencies 76

6.4.6 Problems developing diagnostic expert systems Rules are a common form of knowledge representation and are present in most AI applications such as expert systems and decision support systems. Such rules are normally obtained from human experts as a result of a lengthy knowledge engineering process other systems may obtain their knowledge from machine learning programs. Rule based systems are widely used because they allow the incorporation of multiple clauses, enable the use of confidence measures, can be subjected to mathematical rigor i.e formal logic enable modular systems to be built and most important of all a lot of human reasoning can be expressed as rules. Rule based systems have some serious disadvantages
1. The process of acquiring knowledge from human experts is very time consuming,

prone to errors and is quite an expensive process to carry out. 2. Rules are brittle when presented with nosy, incomplete or non linear data. 3. Rules do not scale up very well, inconsistencies and errors start to creep in as the knowledge based grows. The main cause of brittleness with in rule based systems is a requirement that every possible combination of antecedents and their values must be explicitly provided for. Thus in order to cope with the complexities of real world data a practical rule based system must have a large number of rules to account for the most common cases that should occur. Except for smaller, restricted applications it is most unlikely that any given rule based system will be robust or complete enough (i.e have sufficient rules) to provide reasonably correct answers when presented with deviant input. Most expert systems experience a sharp drop of in-operational capability when confronted with novel situations for which no specific rules exist. However, vibration data has a great deal of variability in the amplitude, frequency and phase of the measured data points. This variability of data input is the main cause of diagnostic failure within rule based system. Vibration data often stresses the pattern matching ability of rule based to breaking point.

77

6.4.7 Advantages of applying ANN’s for fault detection One of the tools used for fault detection is the application of artificial neural networks for the analysis of vibrations generated by a piece of equipment. Although there are numerous efficient methods for modeling of mechanical systems, they all suffer the disadvantage that they are only valid for a particular machine. Changes within the design or the operational mode of the machine normally require a manual adaptation. Using neural networks to model technical systems eliminates this major disadvantage. The basis for a successful model is an adequate so called knowledge base on which the network is “trained”. Without prior knowledge of the machines systematic behavior or its history, training of a neural network is possible. A second advantage of neural network is that the trained network is not only valid for a small section of the complete operational range of the machine. A neural network that has been trained and there by possessing a tolerable residual is valid for all conditions included in the knowledge base.

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CHAPTER VII CASE STUDY

BOILER FEED PUMP 4B
7.1 Description of the Equipment Boiler Feed Pump (BFP) is used to pump the feed water (chemically treated water) in to the boiler. The FK6D30 type BFP consists of FAiB56 Booster Pump (BP) directly driven from one end of the shaft of an electric motor. BFP is driven from the opposite end of Motor shaft through a spacer type flexible coupling.

Fig: 7.1 Boiler feed pump train The BP is a single stage, horizontal, axial split casing type, having the suction and discharge branches on the casing bottom half, thus allowing the pump internals to be removed without disturbing the suction and discharge pipe work or the alignment between the pump and the driving motor. The rotating assembly consists of the shaft, Impeller, nuts, keys, seal sleeves, thrust collar, the rotating parts of the mechanical seals, 79

pump coupling. The rotating assembly is supported at each end of the shaft by a white metal lined journal bearing. The residual axial thrust is taken up by a tilting double thrust bearing mounted at the non drive end of the pump. The present work deals with the main pump which is connected to the motor by flexible hydraulic coupling. The boiler feed pump is supported by the journal bearings. The line diagram of the entire unit is shown in figure 7.1. 7.2 Specifications: No of stages……………………………...6 Design flow rate…………………………448.5 m3/sec. Speed ……………………………………5178 rpm. No of impeller vanes of main pump…….7no’s No of impeller vanes of booster pump….5no’s Booster pump speed…………………….1485 rpm Variable speed geared coupling Motor speed……………………………..Ne=1482 rpm Gear ratio………………………………..u1=Ze/Zi=143/41 Primary speed N1………………………..N1 = 5289 rpm Full load slip…………………….………..S = 2.1% Max output speed………………………..Ne =5178 rpm. Regulating range………………………...4:1 down loads.

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7.3 Experimentation The measurements are recorded using “Data PAC 1500”, dual channel seismic pick-up, with a frequency range of 10cpm to 4518000cpm(0.18hz to 75.3 Hz), with A/D converter, VGA resolution screen data collector of Entek IRD,USA make, over a period of 6 months at regular monthly intervals. The instrument is mounted on the bearing supports along horizontal (H), vertical (V), and axial (A) directions, the axial direction being in line with the axis of the shaft. The measurements are made in displacement and velocity modes. Accelerations have been computed. Regular logging of the data has provided on the basis for performance trend monitoring of the rotating structure and prediction of faults to apply reasoning to trace the root cause. 7.4 Data collected before rectification Vibration readings before rectification: DATE 11th NOVEMBER 2008 SUPPORT POINT BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE MPDE MPNDE BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE MPDE MPNDE BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE MPDE MPNDE BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE MPDE MPNDE DISPLACEMENT(um) VELOCITY(mm/sec) H V A H V A 12.0 8.2 7.2 5.3 18.4 28 17.2 14.5 9.8 0.8 4.0 9.2 13 9.5 9.8 5.8 13 26 12 8.5 6.6 5.6 17 28 2.5 3.2 4.3 2.8 11.2 38 12.3 5.3 3.6 0.4 3.3 5.0 5.2 2.2 3.6 2.6 14 25 16.5 3.4 4.5 2.2 16.5 45 4.5 5.0 5.8 1.8 14.5 25 13.5 6.8 6.4 0.4 3.2 8.3 14 5.2 6.4 2.2 12.5 18 5.8 4.6 5.8 2 13 42 1.6 1.5 0.9 0.8 4.0 9.2 2.5 1.8 0.9 0.9 7.8 12 1.8 1.2 0.9 0.8 3.6 8.1 2.3 1.5 0.8 0.8 4.8 10 1.5 0.6 0.8 0.4 3.3 5.0 1.8 0.8 1.0 0.6 3.8 12.2 1.5 0.6 0.8 0.5 4 5.5 1.4 0.7 0.7 0.5 5.1 7.2 1.3 1.5 1.0 0.4 3.2 8.3 1.4 1.6 1.2 0.6 5.2 9.2 1.4 1.4 1.2 0.5 3.2 7.0 1.0 0.9 1.3 0.6 4.0 6.6 81

25th November 2008

10th December 2008

23rd December 2008

06th January 2009

20th January 2009

O3rd January 2009

17th January 2009

17th FEBRUARY 2009

30th MARCH 2009

14th APRIL 2009

17th APRIL 2009

BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE MPDE MPNDE BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE MPDE MPNDE BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE MPDE MPNDE BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE MPDE MPNDE BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE MPDE MPNDE BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE MPDE MPNDE BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE MPDE MPNDE BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE

29 21 10.5 13.5 27.5 54 10.5 7.5 6.2 5.8 15 28 10 8 6.5 5.8 13.5 21 22 17 12 10 170 36 24.0 19.0 13.0 10.0 24.0 38.0 17.0 12.9 10.3 8.95 11.3 31.8 26.8 16.6 12.4 12.6 68.6 68.4 26.8 16.6 12.4 12.6

11 6 9 4.5 21.5 46 12 2.8 4.5 2.1 45 29 4.8 8.2 4 3 17 40 10 5.0 10 6.0 14 22 12.0 7.00 9.00 7.00 170 28.0 6.42 3.56 7.35 5.51 11.0 18.1 8.60 5.20 8.20 6.40 29.6 98.0 8.60 5.20 8.20 6.40

13.4 19.5 13.5 5.5 21 22 8.5 4.5 5.3 2.2 13.5 25 8.5 5 5.5 2.1 6 25 12 10 11 5.0 15 48 13.8 16.0 13.0 6.00 4.00 12.0 8.88 9.56 8.55 3.63 9.05 9.19 10.0 10.5 11.4 5.70 26.4 27.2 10.0 10.5 11.4 5.70

6.8 4.7 2.1 1.8 10.8 16.5 1.8 1.2 0.8 0.7 4.8 9.2 1.6 1.3 0.8 0.8 2.8 6.5 5.1 3.9 2.4 2 6.2 6.4 4.70 4.30 2.70 1.90 9.10 9.80 2.95 1.85 1.47 1.48 4.97 11.3 5.10 3.70 2.30 2.50 15.2 23.6 5.10 3.70 2.30 2.50

4.7 2.2 2.1 1.6 10.5 16.3 1.4 0.6 0.6 0.6 4.5 6.2 1.3 0.7 0.6 0.5 3.0 3.0 4.6 2.4 1.7 1.3 8.4 8.5 3.90 2.50 2.10 1.20 9.40 9.70 2.34 1.21 1.13 1.04 5.74 4.40 3.90 2.10 2.20 1.80 17.1 27.7 3.90 2.10 2.20 1.80

3.4 2.9 3.1 1.6 11.5 14.5 1.1 1.4 1.0 0.5 4.2 10 1.2 0.8 1.0 0.6 2.4 7.0 3.1 2.9 2.8 1.5 6.4 13.7 3.10 3.70 3.10 1.40 7.80 16.2 1.49 1.60 1.18 1.15 5.40 20.7 3.00 3.20 3.00 2.30 18.1 18.1 3.00 3.20 3.00 2.30 82

MPDE MPNDE 7.5 ANALYSIS OF DATA

35.8 62.89

21.1 87.9

20.2 20.7

9.50 16.6

6.60 21.5

11.7 10.0

Observing the readings from 11-11-2008 to 17-04-2009 the vibration velocity on 14-04-2009 at the main pump non driving end was tending towards abnormality. Also On 17-04-2009 the vibration velocity was intolerable. Added to these the reading at the main pump drive end on 17-04-2009 was high. Dominant frequency = V/D * 19100 = 21.5/87.9*19100=4671.786cpm Thus, X=4671.786/5178=0.98=1 approximately, Where X=the ratio of the dominant frequency to the speed Since X is more than one times the speed of the main pump, the defect was found to be unbalance or looseness. The main pump vane passing frequency = number of impeller vanes X main pump running speed. = 7 X 5178 =36,248 cpm. In the frequency vs. velocity spectrums the vane passing frequency harmonics of main pump were present and 2x is having higher value. So, due to the 1x of main pump running speed and 2x of the main pump vane passing frequency are the dominant frequencies the cause for the frequent vibration increase was the looseness of the main pump.

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7.6 Spectrum Analysis before Rectification

Fig 7.1 Velocity spectrum of MPDE bearing in horizontal direction

Fig 7.2 Velocity spectrum of MPDE bearing in vertical direction 84

Fig 7.3 Velocity spectrum of MPDE bearing in axial direction

Fig 7.4 Velocity spectrum of MPNDE bearing in horizontal direction

85

Fig 7.5 Velocity spectrum of MPNDE bearing in vertical direction

Fig 7.6 Velocity spectrum of MPNDE bearing in axial direction

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7.7 Observations from the Spectrums:

 In all the spectrums of Main Pump Drive End and Main Pump Non Drive End 1x running speed harmonic are present.  In the vertical spectrum of Main Pump Non Drive End 1x running speed

frequency peak is predominant and having higher value 19.9 mm /see  In all the spectrums of Main Pump Drive End & Main Pump Non Drive End main pump vane passing frequency and its harmonics are found and 2x of vane passing frequency peak is predominant having value 7.9 mm /see  In all the spectrums of Main Pump Non Drive End side bands to vane passing frequency peak harmonics are found.  In all the spectrums of Main Pump Drive End both the booster pump and main pump vane passing frequency peaks are found.

7.8 Conclusions:  All the vibration values of booster pump non drive end, booster pump drive end, main motor booster pump end, and main motor non drive end are in the good zone. But Main Pump Drive End & Main Pump Non Drive End is in alarm level.  Here 1x is predominant frequency peak in the Main Pump Drive End & Main Pump Non Drive End spectrums Misalignment/ Looseness of the main pump were suspected.  A harmonic with vane passing frequency peak of the main pump are found and is having predominant peak value. So the looseness/misalignment of the pump impeller was suspected.  The main pump foundation bed bolts are checked for looseness and must be tightened.

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7.9 Action taken Due to high vibration on pump side (at NDE vertical) pump stopped on 18-042009 and attend for the rectification. Pump NDE side bed bolts were tightened and thrust bearing top cover is lifted by 0.01mm. After attending the work pump taken into the service on 21-04-2009 and vibration readings were taken and observed that vibration readings were reduced to normal value i.e. in the good zone. 7.10 Data collection after rectification DATE 21st APRIL 2009 SUPPORT POINT BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE MPDE MPNDE BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE MPDE MPNDE BPNDE BPDE MMDE MMNDE MPDE MPNDE DISPLACEMENT(um) VELOCITY(mm/sec) H V A H V A 16.3 13.4 12.4 10.9 16.4 33.1 19.0 15.5 11.4 9.24 20.4 30.0 25.0 18.4 12.6 12.2 22.0 36.4 6.65 3.84 7.99 5.94 19.7 23.2 9.08 3.60 7.08 5.29 15.2 19.3 10.8 4.60 9.00 6.00 20.8 28.0 9.05 9.40 9.17 4.71 12.6 8.35 11.0 9.68 9.18 4.29 6.25 6.38 12.0 10.8 10.8 5.20 15.0 18.2 3.21 2.26 1.63 1.50 5.27 8.44 3.19 2.26 1.48 1.92 5.52 8.10 5.40 3.20 2.50 3.40 9.30 13.9 2.53 1.10 1.61 1.14 5.61 6.20 3.19 1.26 1.27 1.34 6.54 5.29 4.10 2.50 2.10 1.80 11.6 9.70 2.02 1.55 1.59 1.52 6.19 6.34 2.30 1.51 1.98 1.11 5.82 14.2 3.10 3.00 2.90 2.40 11.4 10.1

28th APRIL 2009

12th MAY 2009

ISO standards iso-10816 Good Satisfactory Alarm Not permitted : : : : 0 5.4 10.6 to to to 5.4mm / sec 10.6mm / sec 16.mm / sec

>16. mm / sec

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7.11 Spectrums after rectification

Fig 7.7 Velocity spectrum of BPNDE bearing in horizontal direction

Fig7.8 Velocity spectrum of BPNDE bearing in horizontal direction (Booster pump vane passing frequency peak) 89

Fig 7.9 Velocity spectrum of BPNDE bearing in horizontal direction (Booster pump vpf & harmonics)

90

Fig 7.10 Velocity spectrum of MPDE bearing in horizontal direction (1x main pump harmonics &vane passing frequency and its harmonics)

Fig 7.11 Velocity spectrum of MPDE bearing in vertical direction (1x harmonics)

91

Fig 7.12 Velocity spectrum of MPDE bearing in axial direction

Fig 7.13 Velocity spectrum of MPNDE bearing in horizontal direction 92

Fig 7.14 Velocity spectrum of MPNDE bearing in vertical direction

Fig 7.15 Velocity spectrum of MPNDE bearing in horizontal direction (side bands of 93

main pump vpf)

Fig 7.16 Velocity spectrum of MPDE bearing in vertical direction (main pump vpf & harmonics)

94

Fig 7.17 Velocity spectrum of MPNDE bearing in vertical direction (1x harmonics)

Fig 7.18 Velocity spectrum of MPDE bearing in axial direction (main pump vpf & harmonics)

CHAPTER VIII APPLICATION OF ANN TO FAULT RECOGNITION ON BFP
8.1 NETWORK SPECIFICATIONS:
For the purpose of recognizing the faults present in the given boiler feed pump from the vibration patterns, the ANN was developed and trained using actual data pertaining to the boiler feed pump and applying the back propagation algorithm. The final network architecture is shown below: The parameters pertaining to the ANN and the training process are Network architecture: 95

Input layer: 3 units Hidden layers: 2 Number of neurons in each hidden layer: 2 Model of neuron: perceptron model. Output function: hyperbolic tangent

8.2 Training of the network:
A ‘c’ program was used for back propagation training of the ANN based on the back propagation algorithm documented above. The data collected was used for training the network. In addition to this, past data pertaining to the same boiler feed pump was also used. Once the network was trained, 10 new sets of data were used for testing the network in addition to the 58 training sets.

8.3 Results From ANN Program:
The back propagation learning law depends upon random initialization of weights, and hence yields different results with each execution of the program. The results of one such execution are documented below: Inputs to the program are:  Learning Rate =0.1  Momentum Rate=0.1  Number of Iterations: 500 Results after training ANN are: Row TRN TRN TRN 1 2 3 Target unbalance unbalance misalignment Output unbalance unbalance misalignment Match Ok Ok Ok 96

TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44

unbalance misalignment misalignment misalignment misalignment misalignment misalignment looseness looseness looseness looseness looseness looseness misalignment misalignment misalignment unbalance looseness looseness misalignment looseness unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance

unbalance misalignment misalignment misalignment misalignment misalignment misalignment looseness looseness looseness looseness looseness looseness misalignment misalignment misalignment unbalance looseness looseness misalignment looseness unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance

Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok 97

TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TRN TST TST TST TST TST TST TST TST TST TST

45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68

unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance looseness looseness unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance misalignment misalignment misalignment misalignment misalignment unbalance looseness unbalance misalignment looseness

unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance looseness unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance unbalance misalignment misalignment misalignment misalignment misalignment unbalance looseness unbalance misalignment looseness

Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Wrong Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok Ok

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CHAPTER IX RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

9.1 VIBRATION SPECTRUM ANALYSIS

The reason for the frequent increase in vibration was found to be due to looseness problem in the main pump bed bolts and it is also the fact that, the unbalance is caused due to the flow related unbalance in the main pump. This problem was conformed using the spectrum analysis. The spectrums were collected using DATAPAC 1500. In order to rectify this problem various operations were performed. It was found that the main pump bed bolts are not properly tightened and having some looseness. To rectify this, the main pump bed bolts were tightened and the thrust bearing top cover is lifted by 0.01mm to overcome the misalignment. So that the vibration must be reduced. After the operations were performed the vibration readings and spectrums were taken using the analyzer. The readings were found to be feasible to satisfy ISO standards.

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9.2 SUMMARY OF ANN RESULTS:
The results obtained from ANN application may be summarized as below: For Testing Data Sets: Network Output Target Unbalance Misalignment Looseness Unbalance 2 0 0 Misalignment 0 6 0 Looseness 0 0 2

Table 9.1 For All Data Sets: Network Output Target Unbalance Misalignment Looseness Unbalance 38 0 0 Misalignment 0 16 0 Looseness 1 0 13

Table 9.2 Matrix represents the number of times a fault has been diagnosed correctly or incorrectly.

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For example: In Table 9.2., Looseness has been diagnosed correctly 13 times and has been incorrectly diagnosed 1 time as unbalance.

9.3 CORRELATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL AND ANN ANALYSIS;
SET1 SPEED (N) VELOCITY (V) DISPLACEMENT (D) MATHEMATICAL ANALYSIS ANN ANALYSIS LOOSENESS LOOSENESS LOOSENESS 5178 16.6 62.89 LOOSENESS 5178 21.5 87.9 LOOSENESS SET 2 5178 10 20.75 UNBALANCE SET 3

Table: 9.3

Results obtained by conventional methods and by application of the Artificial Neural Network show a high degree of correlation. Thus, it may be concluded that the pattern recognition and pattern classification properties of Artificial Neural Networks make it highly feasible to apply them on a regular basis in industries.

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REFERENCES
1. R.K.Biswas “vibration based condition monitoring of rotating machines” national

conference on condition monitoring [NCCM-2006] December 2006 pg no 34-40.
2. M.Todd, S.D.J.McArthur, G.M.West, J.R.McDonald, S.J.Shaw. J.A.Hart paper

on “the design of a decision support system for the vibration monitoring of turbine generators”
3. David Clifton, research article on “Condition Monitoring of Gas-Turbine

Engines”
4. T.W. Verbruggen a book on “Wind Turbine Operation & Maintenance based on

Condition Monitoring”
5. A Ramachandra, S B Kandagal, paper on “Prediction of Defects in Antifriction

Bearings using Vibration Signal Analysis”
6. Sadettin Orhan, Nizami Aktu¨rk, Veli C¸ elik, “Vibration monitoring for defect

diagnosis of rolling element bearings as a predictive maintenance tool: Comprehensive case studies” 7. Peter W. Hills, Mechanalysis (India) Limited, India, “A more intelligent approach to rotating equipment monitoring”
8. Cornelius, Scheffer, the paper on “Pump Condition Monitoring through Vibration

Analysis”.
9. Sheng Zhang, Joseph Mathew, Lin Ma, Yong Sun and Avin Mathew, a paper on

“Statistical condition monitoring based on vibration signals”.
10. P. Caselitz, J. Giebhardt,[10], presented a paper on “Condition Monitoring and

Fault Prediction for Marine Current Turbines”.
11. Steven M. Schultheis,[11], Charles A. Lickteig, presented a paper on

“Reciprocating Compressor Condition Monitoring”.
12. Peter W. Hills, Mechanalysis (India) Limited, India presented a paper on “A more

intelligent approach to rotating equipment monitoring” 13. L. B. Jack, A. K. Nandi, presented a paper on “Feature Selection for ANNs using Genetic Algorithms in Condition Monitoring”. 102

14. Ms S Wadhwani, Dr S P Gupta, Dr V Kumar, “Wavelet Based Vibration Monitoring for Detection of Faults in Ball Bearings of Rotating Machines” 15. Zhigang TIAN, “An Artificial Neural Network Approach for Remaining Useful Life Prediction of Equipments Subject to Condition Monitoring”. 16. N.M. ROEHL C.E. PEDREIRA" H.R. TELES DE AZEVEDO presented a paper on “Fuzzy art neural network approach for incipient Fault detection and isolation in rotating machines”. 17. P.A.L. Ham, B.Sc.C.Eng..F.I.E.E. “Trends and future scope in the monitoring of large steam turbine generators” 18. Dukkipati.S.Rao vibration technology published by Narosa publishers, 2004 19. G.K.Groover “mechanical vibrations” published by Nem Chand and pros 1996
20. R.A Collacat condition monitoring published by M c Graw Hill

21. G.D Rai an introduction to power plant engineering khanna publishers 22. R.S Khurmi theory of machines
23. Dr.NTTPS Vibration Analysis Material 24. Dr.NTTPS Vibration Basics Material

25. NBC bearing journals 26. http://www.skf.com
27. http://www.nbc.com 28. A.V.Barkov, N.A.Barkova, and A.Yu. Azovtsev, "Condition Monitoring and

Diagnostics of Rotating Machines Using Vibration", VAST, Inc., St. Petersburg, Russia, 1997.
29. Eshleman R I“Some recent advances in roto dynamics” 3rd International

conference on vibrations of rotating machinery .University of York 1984.
30. A collection of condition diagnostics papers on the Internet site:

http://www.vibrotek.com/ref.htm

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APPENDIX
THE CODE USED TO DETECT THE FAULTS: #include<stdio .h> #include<math. h> #include<ctype.h> #ifndef VAX #include<string.h> #include<process.h> #include<conio.h> #include<stdlib.h> /*for declaration of calloc() on PC or compatible*/ #include<malloc.h> #endif

/*define constants used throughout functions*/ #define NMXUNIT #define NMXHLR NMXOATTR NMXINP #define SEXIT #define RESTRT #define FEXIT #define CONTNE float eta; float alpha; float maxe; 5 30 10 /*MAXIMUM NUMBER OF UNITS IN A LAYER*/ 5 /*MAXIMUM NUMBER OF HIDDEN LAYERS*/ #define /*MAXIMUM NUMBER OF OUTPUT FEATURES*/ #define /*MAXIMUM NUMBER OF INPUT SAMPLES*/ 7 3 2 1 0 /*MAXIMUM NUMBER OF INPUT FEATURES*/ /*EXIT SUCCESSFULLY*/ /*RESTART*/ /*EXIT IN FAILURE*/ /*CONTINUE CALCULATION*/

#define NMXIATTR

/*Data base: declaration of variables*/ /**learning rate**/ /**momentum rate**/ /* *maximum allowed system error* */ 104

float err_curr; /**normalized system error**/

float maxep;

/* *maximum allowed pattern error* */

float *wtptr[NMXHLR+l]; float *outptr[NMXHLR+2]; float *errptr[NMXHLR+2]; float *delw[NMXHLR+l]; float target[NMXINP][NMXOATTR]; float input[NMXINP][NMXIATTR], ep[NMXINP]; float outpt[NMXINP][NMXOATTR]; int nunit[NMXHLR+2], nhlayer, ninput, ninattr, noutattr; int result, cnt, cnt_num; int nsnew, nsold; char task_name[20]; FILE *fpl, *fp2, *fp3,*fl,*f2,*f3,*f4,*f5,*fopen(); int fplotl10; double x[15][5],y[15][5],P[15][5]; float a,al,a2; int i, j,number=10; *random number generator(computer independent*/

long randseed = 568731L; int random() { randseed = 156251 * randseed + 22221L; return((randseed>> 16) & 0x7FFF); }

/*allocate dynamic storage for the net*/ void initQ { 105

int lenl, len2, i, k; float *pl,*p2,*p3,*p4; lenl=len2 = 0; nunit[nhlayer+2] = 0; for (i=0;i<(nhlayer + 2);i++) { lenl += (nunit[i] + 1) * nunit[i+l]; len2 += nunit[i] + 1; } pl=(float *) calloc(lenl+l,sizeof(float)); p2=(float *) calloc(len2+l,sizeof(float)); p3=(float *) calloc(len2+l,sizeof(float)); p4=(float *) calloc(lenl+l,sizeof(float)); /*set up initial pointers*/ wtptr[0] = pl; outptr[0] = p2; errptr[0] = p3; delw[0] = p4; /*set up the rest of pointers*/ for(r=l;i<(nhlayer+l);i++) { wtptr[i]=wtptr[i- 1 ]+nunit[i] *(nunit[i- 1 ]+ 1 ); delw[i]=delw[i-1]+nunit[i]*(nunit[i-1]+1); } for(i=1;i<(nhlayer+2);i++) { outptr[i]=outptr[i-1]+nunit[i-1]+1; errptr[i]=errptr[i- 1 ]+nunit[i- 1 ]+ 1 ; } /*set up threshold outputs*/ for(i=0;i<nhlayer+l ;i++) { *outptr[i]+nunit[i])=1.0; 106 /*weights*/ /*outputs*/ /*error*/ /*delw*/

} // } /* Initialize weights with random numbers between -0.5and+0.5*/ void initwt() { int i , j; for(j=0;j<nhlayer+l ;j++) for(i=0;i<(nunit[j]+l)*nunit|j+l];i++) { *(wtptr[j]+i)=random()/pow(2.0,15.0)-0.5; *(delw[j]+i)=0; } // } /*specify architecture of net and values of learning parameters*/ set_up() { int i; eta=0.9; printf(“\nmomentum rate eta (default=0.9)?: "); scanf("%f”,&eta); alpha=0.7; printf("\n learning rate alpha (default=0.7)?:"); scanf("%f”,&alpha); maxe=0.01; maxep=0.001; printf("\n maximum total error (default=0.0l)?: "); scanf("%f”,&maxe); printf("\n Max individual error (default=0.001)?:"); scanf("%f”,&maxep); 107 getch(); getch();

cnt_num=1000; printf("\n Max number of iterations(default=1000`)?: "); scanf("%d",&cnt_num); printf("\nNo. of hidden layers?: "); scanf("%d",&nhlayer); for(i=0;i<nhlayer;i++){ printf("\n\t no.of units for hidden layer %d?: ",i+l); scanf("%d",&nunit[i+l]); printf("\ncreate error file? If so typel, or type 0: " ); printf("\nExecution starts"); nunit[nhlayer+1 ]=noutattr; nunit[0]=ninattr; } *read file for net architechture and learning parameters. File name has suffix_v.dat*/ dread(taskname) char *taskname; { int i , j,c; char var_file_name[20]; strcpy(var_file_name,taskname); strcat(var_file_name,"_v.dat"); if((fp 1 =fopen(var_file_name,"r"))==NULL) { perror("\nCannot open datafile"); exit(0); } fscanf(fpl, “%d%d%d%f%f%d%d”,&ninput,&noutattr,&ninattr,&eta,&alpha,&nhlayer,&cnt_num); for(i=0;i<nhlayer+2;i++) fscanf(fpl,''%d",&nunit[i]); if((c=fclose(fpl))!=0) 108

printf("\nfile cannot be closed %d", c); } /*Read file containing weights and thresholds, filename has suffix _w.dat*/ wtread(taskname) char *taskname; { int i , j,c; char wt_file_name[20]; strcpy(wt_file_name,taskname); strcat(wt_file_name,"_w.dat"); if(( fp2 = fopen(wt_file_name, "r")) == NULL) { perror("\nCannot open data file"); exit (0); } for (i=0;i<nhlayer +1 ;i++) { for(=0;j<(nunit[i]+l)*nunit[i+l];j++) { fscanf(fp2,"%f “, (wtptr[i]+j)); } } if((c=fclose(fp2)) !=0) printf("\nFile cannot be closed %d”, c); } /*Create file for net architecture and learning parameters. File name has suffix _v.dat*/ dwrite(taskname) char *taskname; { int i, j, c; char var_file_name[20]; 109

strcpy(var_file_name,taskname); strcat(var_file_name,"_v.dat"); if (( fpl=fopen(var_file_name,"w+")) == NULL) { perror("Cannot open data file"); exit(0); } fprintf(fpl,”%u%u%u%f%f%u%u\n”ninput,noutattr,ninattr,eta,alpha,nhlayer,cnt_num); for(i=0;i<nhlayer+2;i++) { fprintf(fpl, "%d",nunit[i]); } fprintf(fpl,"\n%d%f”,cnt,err__curr); fprintf(fpl,"\n"); for(i=0;i<ninput;i++) { for(j =0 ;j <noutattr ;j++) fprintf(fpl,"%f fprintf(fpl,"\n"); } if((c=fclose(fpl))!=0) printf("\nFile cannot be closed %d",c); } /*Create for file for saving weights and threshold values learned for training. File name has suffix __w.dat* / wtwritte(taskname) char *taskname; { int i, j,c,k; char wt_file_name[20]; strcpy(wt_file_name,taskname); 110 “,outpt[i][j]);

strcat(wt_file_name, "_w.dat"); if((fp2=fopen(wt_file_name,”w+”)) = NULL) { perror("Cannot open data file"); exit(0); } k=0; for(i=0;i<nhlayer+l ;i++) for(=0;j<(nunit[i]+l) * nunit[i+l]; j++) { if(k==8) { k=0; fprintf(fp2,"\n”); } fprintf(fp2,"%f” , *(wtptr[i]=j)); k++; } if((c=fclose(fp2))!=0) printf(“\nFile cannot be closed %d", c); } /*Bottom_up calculation of net for input pattern i*/ void forward(i) { int m,n,p,offset; float net; /*input level output calculation*/ for(m=0;m<ninattr;m++) *(outptr[0]+m) = input[i][m]; /*hidden and output layer output calculation*/ for(m=l ;m<nhlayer+2;m++) 111

{ for (n=0;n<nunit[m];n++) { net=0.0; for(p=0;p<nunit[m-l]+lp++) { offset = (nunit[m-l]+l)*n+p; net += *(wtptr[m-l]+offset) *(*(outptr[m-l]+p)); } *(outptr[m]+n)=l/(l+exp(-net)); } } for (n=0;n<nunh[nhlayer+l];n++) outpt[i][n] = *(outptr[nhlayer+l]+n); } /* Several conditions are checked to see whether learning should terminate*/ int introspective (nfrom,nto) int nfrom; int nto; { int i,flag; /*reached maximum iteration?*/ if (cnt>=cnt_num) return(FEXIT); /*error for each pattern small enough?*/ nsnew=0; flag-1; for (i=nfrom; (i<nto) && (flag = 1); i++) { if (ep[i] <=maxep) nsnew++; else flag =0; 112

} if (flag = 1) return (SEXIT); /*System total error small enough?*/ if(err_curr<=maxe) return (SEXIT); return(CONTNE); } /*Threshold is treated as weight of link from a virtual node whose output value is unity*/ int rumelhart(rrom_snum,to_snum) int from_snum; int to_snum; { int i,j,k,m,n,p,offset, index; float out; char *err_file = "criter.dat"; nsold =0; cnt = 0; result=CONTNE; if(fplotl10==l) if((fp3=fopen(err_file,"w")) == NULL) { I perror("Cannot open error file"); exit(0); } do{ err_curr =0.0; /*for each pattern*/ for(i=from_snum; i<to_snum;i++) { /*bottom_up calculation*/ 113

forward(i); /*top_down error propagation*/ /*output_level error process*/ for(m=0;m<nunit[nhlayer+1];m++) { out= *(outptr[nhlayer+1] +m); *(errptr[nhlayer+1]+m) = (target[i][m]-out)*(l-out)*out; /*Hidden and output layer errors*/ for(m=nhlayer+1;m>=1;m--) { for(n=0);n<nunit[m-1]+l;n++) { *(errptr[m-1]+n)=0.0; for(p=0;p<nunit[m];p++) { offset = (nunit[m-1]+l) * p+n; *(delw[m-1]+offset)=eta * (*(errptr[m]+p))*(*(outptr[m-1]+n)) +alpha *(*(delw[m1]+offset)); *(errptr[m-1]+n)+-=*(errptr[m]+p)* (*(wtptr[m-1]+offset)); } *(errptr[m-1]+n)= *(errptr[m-1]+n)*(l-*(outptr[m-1]+n)) * ( *(outptr[m-1]+n)); } } /*Weight changes*/ for(m=l;m<nhlayer+2;rn++) { for(n=0;n<nunit[m];n++) { for(p=0;p<nunit[m-l]+l;p++) { offset = (nunit[m-l]+l) * n+p; *(wtptr[m-l]+offset) += *(delw[m-l]+offset); } } } ep[i] = 0.0; for (m=0;m<nunit[nhlayer+l];m++){ ep[i] += fabs((target[i][m]-*(outptr[nhlayer+l]+m))); 114

} err_curr+=ep[i]*ep[i]; } /*Normalised system error*/ err_curr = 0.5*err_curr/ninput; /**Save errors in file to draw the system error with plot 10**/ if(fplotl10==l) fprintf(fp3,"%ld,%2.9f\n",cnt,err_curr); cnt++; /*Check condition for terminating learing*/ result = introspective(from_snum,to_snum); } while (result = CONTNE); /*Update output with changed weights*/ FILE *r; r=fopen("c:\\output\\reporttxt","w"); for (i=from_snum; i<to_snum;i++) forward(i); for(i=0;i<nhlayer+l ;i++) { index = 0; for(j=0;j<nunit[i+l];j++) { fprintf(r," \n\nweights between unit %d of layer %d", j,i+l); fprintf(r,"and units of layer %d\n", i); for(k=0;k<nunit[i] ;k++) fprintf(r,"%f\n",*(wtptr[i]+index++)); fprintf(r,"\n Threshold of unit %d of layer %d is %f “, j, i+1, *(wtptr[i] + index++)); } } fprintf(r,"\n\nTotal number of iteration is %d", cnt); fprintf(r,"\nNormalized system error is %f\n\n\n", err_curr); 115

return(result); } /*Read in the input data file specified by user during the interactive session*/ user_session() { inti,j,showdata; char fnam[20],dtype[20]; FILE *fp; printf("\n Start of learning session"); /*For task with name task_name, input data file of the task is automatically said to be task_jiame.dat by the program*/ //printf("\n\t Enter the task name: "); //scanf("%s", task_name); printf("\nHow many features in input pattern?: ") scanf("%d",&ninattr); printf("\nhow many output units?: "); scanf("%d",&noutattr); printf("\nTotal number of input samples?:"); scanf("%d",&ninput); strcpy (fnam,task_name); strcat(fnam,".dat"); printf("\nlnput file name is %s ", fnam); if(( fp=fopen(fnam, "r")) == NULL) { printf("\nFile %s does not exist", fnam); exit(0); } printf("\nDo you want to look at data just read?"); printf("\n Answer yes or no: "); scanf("%s",dtype); showdata = ((dtype[0] == ‘y’) || (dtype[0] =='y')); 116

for (i=0;i<ninput;i++) { for(j=0;j<ninattr;j++) { fscanf(fp, "%f ',&input[i][j]); if (showdata) printf("%f ',input[i][j]); } for(j=0;j<noutattr;j++) { fscanf(fp,"%f”,&target[i][j]); if(showdata)printf("%f\n",target[i][j]); } } if((i=fclose(fp)) !=0) printf("\nFile cannot be closed %d",i); exit(0); } } /*Main body of learning*/ Leaming() { int result; user_session(); set_up(); init(); do{ initwt(); result = rumelhart(0,ninput); } while (result = RESTRT); if (result = FEXIT) printf("\nMax number of iterations reached,"); printf("\n but failed to decrease system"); printf("\n error sufficiently"); } 117

dwrite(task_name); dwrite(task_name); } /*Main body of output generation*/ output_generation() { int i,m,nsample; charans[10]; chardfile[50]; FILE*fl; /* If task is already in the memory, data files for task donot need to be readin. But, if it is a new task, data files should be read into reconstruct the net*/ printf("\nGeneration of outputs for a new pattern"); printf("\n\t Present task name is %s",task_name); printf("\n\t Work on a different task? "); printf("\n\t Answer yes or no: "); scanf("%s", ans); if ((ans[0]=’y’) || (ans[0]='Y')) { printf("\n\t Type the task name: "); scanf("%s", task_name); dread(task_name); init(); wtread(task_name) ; /*Input data for output generation are created*/ printf("\nEnter file name for patterns to”); printf(" be processed;"); scanf("%s",dfile); if ((fpl=fopen(dfile,"r")) = NULL) { 118

perror("Cannot open dfile"); exit(0); } printf("\nEnter number of patterns for processing: ") scanf("%d",&nsample); for(i=0;i<nsample;i—) for(m=0;m<ninattr;m—) fscanf(fp1,”%f”&input[i][m]); /*0utput generation calculation starts* fl=fopen("c:\\output\\output.txt"."w"); for(i=0;i<nsample;i++) { forward(i); for(m=0;m<noutattr;m++) { fprintf(fl,"%f\n",outpt[i][m]*8.43472); } printf("\n"); } printf("\nOutputs have been generated"); if((i=fclose(fpl))!=0) printf("\nFile cannot be closed %d",i); } void main() { char select[20],cont[10]; //FILE *f5; clrscr(); strcpy(task_name, "train" ); do { 119

printf("\n** Select L(earning) or 0(utput generation)**\n"); do { scanf("%s",select); switch(select[0]) { case 'o': case 'O’: output_generation();break; case T: case 'L': learning(); break; default: printf("\nanswer learning or output generation"); break; } }while((select[0]!=’o’)&&(select[0]!=’O’&&(select[0]!=T)&&(select[0]!='L1)); printf("\nDo you want to continue? "); scanf("%s",cont); }while ((cont[0]=’y’) 11 (cont[0]='Y')); }

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