You are on page 1of 22

FRENCH REVOLUTION

1.8: Analyze how the development of


nationalism is shaped by historical,
geographic, political, economic and
social factors.
A great change
Establishing a new government
Overthrowing a government
Examples:
French Revolution
Revolution
Early 1700s France is prospering
Population increase 25%
1770s & 1780s
Poor harvests
Huge debt due to
Wars
Court of Versailles
Support of the American Revolution
Intro to the revolutIon


Comes to the throne in 1774
Not a determined or able ruler
Lacked will to support his ministers in reform
Lack of understanding to the peoples problems
Extravagant lifestyle added to a growing French
debt

Before the revolution, many French
people were loyal to the monarch, the
king Louis XVI. He represented
their nation. He alone had the right
to decided what happened to the
people
Absolute monarchy

Monarchy as a Nation
Social factors that affected the growth
of nationalism
The structure of society:
There were three estates:
1
st
Estate: Nobility
2
nd
Estate: Clergy
3
rd
Estate: Common People
THE THREE ESTATES
First Estate:
Clergy
1% of population
Characteristics:
Religion
Voting
Education
Taxes
Hospitals
Orphanages
Second Estate:
Aristocracy
2% of population
Characteristics:
Landowners
Taxes
Nobility
Voting





Third Estate:
Commoners
97% of population
Characteristics:
Poor
Laborers
No equality rights

During the revolution a middle class
is born

Bourgeoisie
Doctors, teachers, lawyers,
journeymen
Educated
Leaders of the revolution


Social continued:
Growing middle class called
bourgeoisie
Philosophers , writers and
artists developed new ideas
about governments. These
ideas were discussed at
salons
Historical factors that affected the
growth of nationalism:
Storming of the Bastille
July 14, 1789
This capture of a jail
became a symbol of French
nationalism.
People developed a
collective consciousness.
This event has become a defining moment in
history; a collective consciousness- awareness
that many people share
This is an example of a national myth.
Why?
FYI: When the Parisian citizens entered the
Bastille the found only 7 prisoners, 4
counterfeiters, 2 men declared insane, and a
young aristocrat that had been locked up because
he angered his father.

Nationalist Symbol :Storming of
the Bastille
1786- Bank will not lend any more money to
the French treasury
1787/1788- poor harvests cause bread
shortages all over France
Louis XVI goes to Parlement of Paris to
register a new tax law it was rejected.
Louis XVI takes a drastic approach He call
the Estates General in the fall of 1788.
economIc crIsIs mounts
Economic factors that affected the
growth of nationalism
France was in economic crisis:
France was nearly bankrupt
due to the support of the
American War of
Independence
Unfair taxation, especially
for the third estate.
Louis XVI called the Estates
General to raise taxes. The
third estate would be
outvoted.

Geographic factors that affected the
growth of nationalism
Year of 1788-1789 had
challenges

More snow than usual, led
to blocked roads and spring
flooding
Drought that summer led to
crop failures and high bread
prices = famine
Rumors of lavish royal court
life increased anger

Women march to Versailles from Paris to demand bread
Social factors continued.
Political factors that affected the
growth of nationalism
Moderate to radical political
changes:

The people upset by the
Estates General swore a
Tennis Court Oath, that they
would not give up until they
had a French constitution.
The revolutionaries came
together in a National
Assembly and created their
Declaration of Rights of
Man.
It abandoned traditional
privileges establishing that all
men were equal before the
law and religious tolerance.
August 26, 1789
Adopted by the
National Assembly
People become the
nation

Declaration of the rights of man
Political factors continued:
The revolution becomes extreme
Executed King Louis XVI and
Marie Antoinette making
France a Republic.
Fearing opposition within
the country revolutionary
leaders began the Reign of
Terror to crush opposition
to the revolution.
Guillotine was used to
execute people.
Political factors continued:
Revolutionaries split into
factions
Napoleon Bonaparte
emerged as leader who
united the French and
brought order again.
He conquered most of
Europe and declared
himself Emperor before he
was defeated at the Battle
of Waterloo by the British.
Ideas of Liberte, Egalite and Fraternite spread
throughout Europe.
Political factors continued
Why did France
change from a
monarchy to a
republic, through a
revolution?
WHAT HAPPENED?
HOW DID THE IDEA OF NATION IN FRANCE CHANGE
THROUGH THE FRENCH REVOLUTION?