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TM TT LUN VN

Ngy nay, khi nim robot l khi nim v cng quen thuc i vi mi ngi.
Vi s tin b ca khoa hc k thut, robot can thip ngy cng su vo cuc sng ca
con ngi t sn xut, gio dc n gii tr, chm sc y t. Nh c robot m cht
lng cuc sng con ngi ngy cng hon thin hn. Nht l khi ngy nay, mi quan
tm v sc khe con ngi l vn ngy cng tr nn quan trng hn. V vy m cc
nghin cu, thit k robot phc v chm sc con ngi, nht l trong lnh vc y t
ang ngy cng gia tng.
ti ny s tp trung nghin cu thit k robot dng vn chuyn, cung cp
v thu hi nhu yu phm cho bnh nhn thuc khu vc cch ly trong bnh vin. Kt
cu robot c thit k phi thun tin khi di chuyn trong mi trng cht hp, tng
i bng phng v robot c kh nng xc nh ng bnh nhn vi nhu yu phm
tng ng cn cung cp hoc thu hi, c bit qu trnh ny phi hon ton t ng.
Vi nhng yu cu , cc vn c nghin cu, kho st trong ti:
+ Tnh ton, thit k robot .
+ Thit k, ch to mch d ng cho robot.
+ Nghin cu, s dng phng php nhn din i tng bng RFID
(Radio Frequence Identification).
+ Nghin cu, s dng cm bin siu m pht hin vt cn trong qu
trnh hot ng ca robot.
+ Thit k, ch to m hnh th nghim kim tra gii thut bm ng,
nhn din i tng bng RFID v pht hin vt cn; ch to mch iu khin
cho m hnh th nghim.
T kt qu ca ti, nu tip tc ci tin v hin thc ha t t, mt robot phc
v y t trong mi trng cch ly s c hnh thnh v a vo s dng trong tng
lai khng xa.

ii

Mc lc

M
Li cm n ....................................................................................................................... i
Tm tt ti .................................................................................................................ii
Mc lc ......................................................................................................................... iii
Danh sch hnh v .......................................................................................................... v
Danh sch bng biu ................................................................................................. viii
hng 1:

ng qu n ................................................................................................... 1

1.1. ii thiu v robot phc v y t ........................................................................... 1


1.2. Mc tiu, nhim v v phm vi ca ti ........................................................... 3
1.2.1. Mc tiu ca ti ........................................................................................ 3
1.2.2. Nhim v v phm vi ca ti ................................................................... 5
hng 2:

h n phng n .................................................................................. 8

2.1. phn to chuyn ng ca robot ..................................................................... 8


2.2. phn cha v cp pht nhu yu phm ........................................................... 13
2.2.1. La chn phng n ly nhu yu phm t khoang cha ............................ 16
2.2.2. La chn phng n to chuyn ng khi cp pht v thu hi .................. 17
hng 3:

nh to n, thi t

robot .......................................................................... 23

3.1. ii thiu............................................................................................................ 23
3.2. phn to chuyn ng ................................................................................... 23
3.2.1. Tnh ton ng c ....................................................................................... 23
3.2.2. Tnh ton b truyn ai ............................................................................... 25
3.2.3. Tnh ton trc .............................................................................................. 27
3.2.4. Chn ln ................................................................................................... 31
3.3. phn cp pht thu hi nhu yu phm hng t ng ................................... 33
iii

Mc lc
3.3.1. Tnh ton vitme ........................................................................................... 33
3.3.1.1. Vitme nng h ..................................................................................... 33
3.3.1.2. Vitme di chuyn ngang........................................................................ 35
3.3.2. Tnh ton cho vitme ............................................................................ 35
3.3.2.1. Vitme nng h ..................................................................................... 35
3.3.2.2. Vitme di chuyn ngang........................................................................ 36
3.3.3. Tnh ton trc dn hng v trt cho c cu nng ................................ 37
3.3.4. Tnh ton thanh trt .................................................................................. 38
3.3.5. Tnh ton ng c ....................................................................................... 39
3.3.5.1. Vitme nng h ..................................................................................... 39
3.3.5.2. Vitme di chuyn ngang........................................................................ 40
3.3.5.3. Thanh trt .......................................................................................... 40
3.3.6. Tnh ton trc vt bnh vt ....................................................................... 41
3.3.7. Tnh ton trc vt......................................................................................... 45
3.3.8. Tnh ton trc bnh ai ............................................................................... 47
3.4. Thit k robot ..................................................................................................... 52
3.4.1. Thit k b phn to chuyn ng .............................................................. 52
3.4.2. Thit k b phn cha v cp pht nhu yu phm ...................................... 54
3.4.2.1. B phn khoang cha nhu yu phm .................................................. 54
3.4.2.2. B phn cp pht thu hi nhu yu phm .......................................... 55
hng 4:

th ng i n v iu hin

ro ot .................................................. 60

4.1. ii thiu............................................................................................................ 60
4.2. m ng ......................................................................................................... 61
4.3. Cng ngh R

................................................................................................ 63

iii

Mc lc
4.3.1. Gii thiu .................................................................................................... 63
4.3.2. Cu trc v phn loi h thng RFID ......................................................... 64
4.3.3. u c th v th RFID s dng trong ti ........................................... 66
4.4. Cm bin siu m ............................................................................................... 68
4.5. u gii thut ................................................................................................ 71
hng 5: h

nghi m v k t qu t c .......................................................... 75

5.1. Thc nghim ..................................................................................................... 75


5.2. Kt qu t c ................................................................................................ 78
hng 6:

ng

t v h ng ph t trin

t i ................................................ 80

6.1. nh gi kt qu t c.................................................................................. 80
6.2. Hng pht trin ca ti ................................................................................ 81
TI LIU THAM KHO........................................................................................... 82

iv

Danh sch hnh v


DANH SCH HNH V

Hnh 1.1: Robot Da vin ci................................................................................................ 2


Hnh 1.2: Robot alance Training ssist ........................................................................ 2
Hnh 1.3: ndependent Walk ssist ................................................................................. 2
Hnh 1.4: Patient Transfer Assist..................................................................................... 3
Hnh 1.5: Pyxis Helpmate Robot ..................................................................................... 3
Hnh 1.6: Robot TU ...................................................................................................... 4
Hnh 1.7: Swisslog robocourier ....................................................................................... 4
Hnh 1.8: Phng cch ly thuc bnh vin n nh ......................................................... 6
Hnh 1.9: S b tr ging bnh trong phng cch ly ................................................ 6
Hnh 2.1: Robot di chuyn bng bnh xe ........................................................................ 8
Hnh 2.2: Robot di chuyn bng chn ............................................................................. 8
Hnh 2.3: Robot di chuyn bng xch .............................................................................. 8
Hnh 2.4: nh xe thng ............................................................................................... 9
Hnh 2.5: nh xe omni................................................................................................... 9
Hnh 2.6: Cch di chuyn ca robot khi s dng bnh thng v bnh omni .............. 10
Hnh 2.7: Phng n thit k 1 ...................................................................................... 11
Hnh 2.8: Phng n thit k 2 ...................................................................................... 11
Hnh 2.9: Phng n thit k 3 ...................................................................................... 12
Hnh 2.10: Phng n thit k 4 .................................................................................... 12
Hnh 2.11: S truyn ng n bnh xe robot.......................................................... 13
Hnh 2.12: Phng n 1 ................................................................................................. 14
Hnh 2.13: Phng n 2 ................................................................................................. 15
Hnh 2.14: Tm khay ca b nng h v khoang cha ............................................ 16
v

Danh sch hnh v


Hnh 2.15: Phng n 1 b phn nng h .................................................................. 18
Hnh 2.16: Phng n 2 b phn nng h .................................................................. 18
Hnh 2.17: Xy lanh v phng n s dng xy lanh ....................................................... 19
Hnh 2.18: nh rng - thanh rng v phng n 2 ...................................................... 20
Hnh 2.19: Vt me ai c v phng n 3 .................................................................. 20
Hnh 2.20: y ai bnh ai v phng n 4 ............................................................. 21
Hnh 2.21: Phng n 1 vitme ai c ......................................................................... 21
Hnh 2.16: Phng n 2 b phn nng h .................................................................. 22
Hnh 2.21: S nguyn l b phn ly ct khay hng ................................................ 22
Hnh 3.1: S tnh ton trc ....................................................................................... 27
Hnh 3.2 Biu moment trc ...................................................................................... 28
Hnh 3.3: S tnh trc dn hng ............................................................................. 37
Hnh 3.4: bi trt ....................................................................................................... 38
Hnh 3.5: Thanh trt .................................................................................................... 38
Hnh 3.6: Kt cu tm ca b phn to chuyn ng ............................................... 52
Hnh 3.7: Hnh dng v thng s k thut bnh t la.................................................. 53
Hnh 3.8: S lp rp ca b phn to chuyn ng .................................................. 54
Hnh 3.9: Tm khay hng trong khoang cha .......................................................... 54
Hnh 3.10: Khung robot ................................................................................................. 55
Hnh 3.11: Tm khay hng trong c cu ly ct khay hng .................................. 56
Hnh 3.12: B trung gian .......................................................................................... 56
Hnh 3.13: Khung ca b cp pht thu hi nhu yu phm ......................................... 57
Hnh 3.14: S lp rp ca b phn cp pht thu hi nhu yu phm ...................... 58
Hnh 3.15: S lp rp chung phn khoang cha v b cp pht .............................. 59
vi

Danh sch hnh v


Hnh 3.16: M hnh 3d ca robot .................................................................................. 59
Hnh 4.1: S nguyn l h thng in ...................................................................... 60
Hnh 4.2: B rng line ................................................................................................... 61
Hnh 4.3: Quang tr v hot ng ca chng ................................................................ 61
Hnh 4.4: s nguyn l mch bm ng................................................................. 62
Hnh 4.5: Op-amp LM324 ............................................................................................. 62
Hnh 4.6: H thng R

............................................................................................. 64

Hnh 4.7: Hnh dng v cu to th R


Hnh 4.8: u c R

..................................................................... 65

.............................................................................................. 66

Hnh 4.9: u c CE630 ........................................................................................... 67


Hnh 4.10 Nguyn l TOF ............................................................................................. 68
Hnh 4.11: Cm bin siu m SFR05 ............................................................................ 70
Hnh 4.12: Biu thi gian ca SFR05....................................................................... 70
Hnh 4.13: u c RFID ........................................................................................ 72
Hnh 4.14: u bm line .......................................................................................... 73
Hnh 4.15: u hot ng ca robot ........................................................................ 74
Hnh 4.16: u giao tr khay nhu yu phm ............................................................ 75
Hnh 5.1: M hnh th nghim ...................................................................................... 77
Hnh 5.2: S u dy master .................................................................................... 78
Hnh 5.3: S u dy slave ....................................................................................... 78
Hnh 5.4: S line ....................................................................................................... 79

vii

Danh sch bng biu

DANH SCH BNG BIU


Bng 3.1: Thng s b truyn ai rng ......................................................................... 27
Bng 3.2: Bng tnh ng knh trc ............................................................................ 29
Bng 3.3: Bng tnh moment cn un ........................................................................... 30
Bng 3.4: Bng tnh kim nghim bn mi ............................................................ 31
Bng 3.5: Bng tnh bn then ........................................................................................ 31
Bng 3.6: Bng thng s ln...................................................................................... 31
Bng 3.7: Thng s chn chn 8201 .......................................................................... 35
Bng 3.8: Bng thng s ln...................................................................................... 36

viii

Chng 1: Tng quan

hng 1:
11

i i thi u v ro ot ph v

ng quan

Ngy nay, khi nim robot l mt khi nim v cng quen thuc, vi s tin
b vt bc ca khoa hc k thut, robot can thip ngy cng su vo hot ng ca
con ngi, t sn xut, di chuyn, n gii tr, phc v qun s, chm sc y t

tham gia ca robot vo cc lnh vc i sng dn to nn v th khng th thay


c ca chng, m ch yu l trong lnh vc sn xut. Nh c robot m qu trnh sn
xut ca con ngi ngy cng thun tin, nng sut tng cao v cht lng ngy cng
c ci thin. Sau nhng li ch ca robot trong sn xut, cc nh khoa hc nhn thy
nhng tim nng to ln ca robot nn tip tc nghin cu, pht trin v a robot vo
cc lnh vc khc, mt trong nhng lnh vc l y t, tc l s dng robot phc v
v chm sc ngi bnh.
Y t l mt lnh vc v cng rng, vi nhiu c th ring bit, nhng robot phc
v cho lnh vc ny cng v cng a dng vi nhiu chng loi, c chc nng ring
bit. Tuy nhin, c th phn nhng robot ny vo 2 nhm chnh:
Robot phc v qu trnh iu tr, cha bnh
Robot phc v qu trnh chm sc bnh nhn
Nhm robot phc v qu trnh iu tr, cha bnh l nhng robot c cc bc s
dng pht hin, tiu dit nhng nguyn nhn gy bnh nh dng phu thut;
hoc dng gip bnh nhn trong qu trnh hi phc cc chc nng hu phu; hoc
thay th mt s chc nng mt con ngi nh i li, cm nm

Mt v d

in hnh trong vic iu tr cho bnh nhn l Robot da Vinci hnh 1.1 , robot c
pht trin bi cc nh khoa hc M, c kh nng tin hnh phu thut di s iu
khin ca con ngi. Vic s dng robot ny gip lm gim nguy c nhi m trng v
chnh xc ca cc thao tc vt hn cc bc s phu thut. Robot ny thc hin
thnh cng ca phu thut u tin hon ton khng c bc s tham gia vo cui thng
10/2010 ti Canada, m ra k nguyn chim lnh y hc ca robot. Hin nay, robot ny
c s dng rt nhiu nc trn th gii.

Chng 1: Tng quan

Hnh 1.1: Robot da Vinci


Trong vic h tr qu trnh hi phc, thay th mt s chc nng mt ca bnh
nhn c th k n mt s robot nh:

alance Training

ssist

hnh 1.2 , l thit b

c hai bnh xe, dng khi phc li chc nng ng vng v chuyn ng cho cc
bnh nhn khng t iu khin c vic i ng; hoc

ndependent Walk

ssist

hnh 1.3 l mt b xng bn ngoi gip nhng ngi gi hay nhng ngi b gy
chn di chuyn d dng.

Hnh 1.2: Robot Balance Training Assist

Hnh 1.3: ndependent Walk ssist

Nhm robot phc v qu trnh chm sc bnh nhn l nhng robot dng h
tr cc y t trong qu trnh chm sc nh di chuyn, cp pht thuc, nhu yu phm cho
bnh nhn. Nhng robot trong nhm ny c th k n nh Patient Transfer

ssist

hnh 1.4 l robot gip y t nhc bnh nhn ra khi ging hay t bnh nhn xung
ging. Hay nh robot Pyxis Helpmate Robot hnh 1.5 l robot gip vn chuyn
thuc, h s bnh n cho bnh nhn, cng nh mang cc thit b y t phc v cho qu
trnh iu tr ca bc s.

Chng 1: Tng quan

Hnh 1.4: Patient Transfer ssist

Hnh 1.5: Pyxis Helpmate Robot

Nhng robot ny ang phc v v cng c lc trong qu trnh chm sc bnh


nhn nhiu bnh vin trn th gii v ngy cng nhn c nhiu s quan tm ca
cc nh khoa hc. Vi nhng tim nng to ln ca vic s dng robot trong lnh vc y
t, c th thy vic robot thay th con ngi trong vic cu cha v chm sc ngi
bnh l mt tng lai khng xa.

1 2 M ti u nhi m v v phm vi
1 2 1 M ti u

t i

t i

Vic ch to mt robot dng trong qu trnh iu tr, cha bnh phi c s phi
hp cht ch gia chuyn gia y khoa v k s thit k, ng thi qu trnh th nghim
hot ng ca robot l v cng kh khn, phc tp, ng thi rt nguy him nu i
tng th nghim l con ngi. V vy, lnh vc ny cn nhng chuyn gia tht s
trong lnh vc y khoa, c kh, in, iu khin. Trong khi , lnh vc v chm sc sc
khe bnh nhn l mt lnh vc c nguy him t hn, ng thi l mt lnh vc
tng i rng nn c s quan tm nhiu hn. y cng chnh l lnh vc m ti
nhm n.
Ngy nay, i km vi s pht trin ca con ngi, bnh tt cng ngy cng gia
tng vi nhiu chng loi bnh v cng kh cha v ly lan rt nhanh nh S RS,
H5N1, H1N1, lao

nhng bnh ny c bit nguy him khng ch bi nhng triu


3

Chng 1: Tng quan


chng gy ra cho bnh nhn m cn v kh nng ly nhi m cho nhng ngi xung
quanh. in hnh nh lao, S RS l bnh ly lan qua ng khng kh trong khi vic
h hp l vic khng th trnh khi khi giao tip v chm sc bnh nhn, y l l do
cho vic hnh thnh cc khu cch ly trong bnh vin cho cc loi bnh ny. Tuy nhin,
vic phn pht thuc, h s cho bnh nhn trong bnh vin nhng khu vc cch ly
ch yu da vo cc y t, h l. Hot ng trong mi trng ny gy nguy him n
sc khe cng nh tnh mng ca h. Vi mong mun to mt mi trng thun tin
cho bnh nhn trong qu trnh iu tr bnh, ng thi m bo an ton cho y t bng
vic hn ch tip xc vi bnh nhn, ti s thc hin vic nghin cu, thit k mt
dng robot t hnh thay y t trong vic cp pht nhu yu phm, thuc cho bnh
nhn.
Trn th gii, nhiu bnh vin s dng loi robot ny phc v cho bnh
nhn. Robot TU

hnh 1.6 dng trong bnh vin ethon, thnh ph Pittsburgh, bang

Pennsylvania, M l mt v d in hnh. Ngoi ra, cn c cc loi robot khc nh


Swisslog robocourier hnh 1.7 , QC OT

Hnh 1.6: Robot TU

Hnh 1.7: Swisslog robocourier

Nhng loi robot ny c u im l kt cu gn gng, di chuyn nhanh nhn, t


ng, ng thi cha c nhiu dng c, thit b y t nn tr gip c lc cho y bc
s trong qu trnh s cu, cha tr cho bnh nhn.
Tuy nhin, chng cn c nhc im chung l qu trnh cp pht hng cho bnh
nhn khng to c s thun tin cho h, gy kh khn vi nhng bnh nhn b hn
ch chuyn ng do cc thit b iu tr y t gn trn ngi v v tr ly hng khng

Chng 1: Tng quan


c tin li, vi robot TU th n khng linh hot c trong nhng mi trng cht
hp.
T nhng u im ca cc robot trn, ng thi khc phc nhc im ca
cc loi robot ny, mc tiu ca ti c ra l:
Nghin cu, thit k robot di ng h tr chm sc y t trong mi trng
ly nhi m, cch ly ca bnh vin. Robot gm 2 phn chnh: phn to chuyn
ng v phn dng cha, cung cp nhu yu phm khay cm, thuc

phn to chuyn ng c kh nng di chuyn t ng, linh hot. Vn

tc di chuyn ti a l 0.15 m/s

phn cha v cung cp nhu yu phm c kh nng cp pht, thu hi

t ng, to s thun li ti a cho bnh nhn; kh nng cha hng cung


cp cho 18 bnh nhn.
Robot c kh nng t hnh, pht hin vt cn nm trn di chuyn ca n
v pht tn hiu cnh bo, ng thi c kh nng nhn din c ng bnh
nhn no cn loi nhu yu phm no cung cp.
1 2 2 Nhi m v v phm vi

t i

Nghin cu, thit k kt cu c kh ca robot, bao gm c phn to chuyn ng


v b phn cung cp nhu yu phm ca robot. phn to chuyn ng phi lm cho
robot di chuyn linh hot, nhanh nhn trn a hnh tng i bng phng, k c trong
mi trng cht hp vi vn tc 0.15 m/s v mang c lng hng c tng ti trng
50 kg. phn cha nhu yu phm s dng c cho 10 bnh nhn, c kh nng cp
pht thu hi t ng to s thun tin, thoi mi cho bnh nhn.
Tnh ton kt cu c kh, b truyn ng, cng sut ng c robot c kh nng
chu ti trong v di chuyn vi vn tc nh mong mun.
Tm hiu v cng ngh R

v ng dng trong vic nhn din trm t ng, c

th l nhn din c v tr ging bnh cp pht nhu yu phm tng ng vi


bnh nhn trn ging bnh .

Chng 1: Tng quan


Tm hiu thit k mch in h tr iu khin robot bm line nhm gip robot c
kh nng t hnh i theo s nh s n vi cc phng bnh cch ly tng ng. Phng
bnh ny hnh 1.8 c kho st ti bnh vin

nh (a ch: 146

nh,

phng 7, qun 5, Thnh ph H Ch Minh).

Hnh 1.8: Phng cch ly thuc bnh vin n nh


Qua kho st, phng cch ly bnh vin n nh gm 12 ging bnh, ging c
kch thc 1.1 x 2 x 1.2 m, cc ging bnh t cch nhau 1 m, vi 2 ging bnh i
din nhau th cch nhau 3.1 m.

hong trng gia 2 ging bnh l ni t cc loi

my nh my th, my to nhp tim, my sc tim, monitor, cc my ny t st tng


v chim 1 khong khng gian vi chiu di tnh t tng ra l 0.5 m. tr ging
bnh trong phng cch ly qua kho st nh hnh 1.9.

Hnh 1.9: S b tr ging bnh trong phng cch ly


6

Chng 1: Tng quan


Vic kho st b tr ging bnh, khong cch gia cc ging v kch thc
ging bnh s gip ti trong vic tnh ton thit k kch thc ca robot; ngoi ra
cn gip xut s line nhm phc v cho mc ch t hnh ca robot. S line
thit k trong ti nhm mc ch m phng mt phn nh so vi s line thc t
c s dng trong phng bnh, nhm mc ch kim nghim gii thut iu khin.
Thit k mch iu khin, mch cng sut, mch hin th cho robot. Mch iu
khin s dng vi iu khin, c th l h P C thc hin. Mch cng sut dng
iu khin ng c. Mch hin th dng nhp cc thng s cho robot hot ng
v hin th kt qu.
Xy dng lu gii thut v vit chng trnh iu khin cho robot. Vi gii
hn ca ti l robot c kh nng hot ng trong mt mi trng c nh, tc l
trong mt phng bnh vi b tr ging bnh c nh nn chng trnh iu khin v
lu gii thut trong ti ch p dng cho phng bnh ny.

Chng 2: La chn phng n


hng 2:
2.1.

ph n to hu n ng

h n phng n

ro ot

phn to chuyn ng ca robot c chc nng gip robot di chuyn. Yu cu


i vi b phn ny l gip robot chuyn ng nhanh chng, linh hot, ng thi phi
m i, bt to ra ting n v mi trng bnh vin l mi trng cn s yn tnh
bnh nhn ngh ngi, nht l khi mc tiu ca ti nhm n bnh nhn thuc cc
phng cch ly, phng chm sc c bit. nh nhn thuc nhng phng ny ch yu l
nhng bnh nhn mc bnh truyn nhi m nguy him hoc ang cn hi sc nn mi
trng yn tnh h ngh ngi l rt cn thit.
to chuyn ng cho robot th c th lu n 3 dng robot thng thy l
robot dng bnh xe di chuyn hnh 2.1 , robot dng chn di chuyn hnh 2.2
v robot dng xch di chuyn hnh 2.3 .

Hnh 2.1: Robot di chuyn bng bnh xe

Hnh 2.2: Robot di chuyn bng chn

Hnh 2.3: Robot di chuyn bng xch


8

Chng 2: La chn phng n


Robot bng di chuyn bng chn c kh nng di chuyn v cng linh hot trong
nhiu mi trng k c mi trng khng bng phng, c g gh cao, nhng kt
cu v cng phc tp v kch thc ln, tc di chuyn li khng cao do cn s phi
hp nhp nhng ca cc chn to chuyn ng, ng thi gi cn bng cho robot.
Vi loi robot di chuyn bng xch th do din tch tip xc vi mt t ln gip
robot cn bng, mang c ti trng ln nhng li c nhc im l kt cu phc tp,
kh chuyn hng v gy ting n khi di chuyn.
Trong khi robot di chuyn bng bnh xe th di chuyn cng rt linh hot, chuyn
hng d dng, kt cu li gn gng, n gin, hn th na c tc cao v di chuyn
t gy ting n. Vi nhng u im ca loi robot dng bnh xe nu, nht l khi
robot c s dng trong bnh vin th b mt di chuyn tng i bng phng nn
khng yu cu cao v vic bm mt ng tt nn ti s s dng phng n ny
lm phng n thit k.
nh xe dng cho loi robot ny c 2 loi: bnh xe thng hnh 2.4 v bnh
omni hnh 2.5 . nh xe thng l loi bnh xe thng thy trong cuc sng, chng
c hnh trn vi b khung lm bng th p m bo cng cho bnh xe, lp v lm
t cao su tng ma st vi mt ng, ng thi gim xc cho xe khi chy trn
mt ng g gh.

u im ca loi bnh xe ny l r tin, ma st ln gip xe t

tc cao khi vn hnh, gip gim xc v t gy ting n. Tuy nhin nhc im l


khng c kh nng gip robot va xoay va tnh tin khi hot ng.

Hnh 2.4: nh xe thng

Hnh 2.5: nh xe omni

Chng 2: La chn phng n


nh omni c cu to c bit gm nhng con ln gn dc theo chu vi ca bnh
xe. Cu to c bit gip bnh xe c kh nng va quay va trt theo mt phng
khc vi phng quay ca bnh xe. Chnh v vy m u im ni bt ca robot s
dng bnh omni l kh nng di chuyn a hng v cng linh hot, c th l robot c
th di chuyn theo phng bt k m khng cn phi thc hin vic quay hng xe v
hng cn di chuyn. Hnh 2.6 cho thy cch di chuyn ca robot dng bnh omni v
bnh thng

Hnh 2.6: cch di chuyn ca robot khi s dng bnh thng v bnh omni
Robot omni tuy c u im l linh hot trong di chuyn nhng c nhc im l
ti trng bnh xe chu c khng cao, rt mc tin ng thi gy nn ting n ln khi
chuyn ng nn khng thch hp dng trong bnh vin. Xem x t gia kha cnh kinh
t v u im v k thut nn ti s s dng bnh xe thng s dng cho robot.

Nhng phng n thit k cho robot dng bnh xe thng:


Phng n 1 hnh 2.7 : 4 bnh xe c iu khin bng ng c thng
qua c cu truyn ng. Phng n ny gip robot di chuyn tt trong mi
trng gp ghnh, khng bng phng do dng ti 4 bnh ng lc, nu 1 bnh
b ln hay b hng khi mt ng robot vn di chuyn c. Tuy nhin trong
bnh vin th mt ng tng i bng phng nn phng n ny khng cn
thit.

10

Chng 2: La chn phng n

Hnh 2.7: Phng n thit k 1

Phng n 2 hnh 2.8 : 2 bnh xe c iu khin bng ng c v c


t u robot, 2 bnh t la pha sau. Phng n ny tit kim hn phng
n trn do ch s dng 2 ng c, di chuyn tt trong mi trng mt ng
bng phng tuy nhin khng linh hot trong mi trng cht hp v khng c
kh nng xoay ti ch.

Hnh 2.8: Phng n thit k 2

11

Chng 2: La chn phng n


Phng n 3 hnh 2.9 : 2 bnh xe c iu khin bng 2 ng c v
c t gia robot, 2 bnh t la nm 2 pha u v cui. Phng n ny
bao gm nhng u im ca, ng thi khc phc c nhc im ca
phng n 2, l n c kh nng xoay ti ch, to nn s linh hot trong di
chuyn v i hng, thun tin trong mi trng cht hp.

Hnh 2.9: Phng n thit k 3


Phng n 4 hnh 2.9 : 2 bnh xe c diu khin bng 2 ng c nm
trn 1 u k o c khp xoay ni vi phn thn, 2 bnh xe c nh pha sau.
Phng n ny cng c u im l di chuyn tt trn mt ng bng phng,
kh nng chuyn hng tt nh khp xoay ni vi phn thn, nhng li khng
c kh nng xoay ti ch v kh khng ch hng ca robot.

Hnh 2.10: Phng n thit k 4


12

Chng 2: La chn phng n


T nhng u nhc im ca cc phng n phn tch, ti chn phng
n 3 l phng n thit k cho robot bi tnh linh hot, n gin v tit kim chi ph
khi thc hin, hn th na l do n v cng thch hp cho mi trng bnh vin l ni
kh cht hp v cn s yn tnh.
S nguyn l truyn ng n 1 bnh xe nh hnh 2.11

Hnh 2.11: S truyn ng n bnh xe robot

2.2.

ph n h

p ph t nhu

u ph m

phn cha v cp pht nhu yu phm l b phn chnh v quan trng ca


robot. Robot c tnh thm m, linh hot, an ton, m bo v sinh v tin li trong qu
trnh s dng cho c bnh nhn ln nhn vin y t hay khng u do kt cu c kh ca
n quyt nh. m bo tnh gn g, linh hot, kch thc robot khng c qu
ln; kt hp vi mc ch to thun tin cho bnh nhn khi nhn nhu yu phm t
robot, robot phi tin st ging bnh giao hng v ch giao hng phi nm trong tm
vi ca bnh nhn.

o c tnh ca bnh nhn thuc phng cch ly l nhng bnh

nhn ny mc nhng bnh truyn nhi m nguy him hoc bnh l. Mt s bnh khin
bnh nhn rt yu, khng c kh nng di chuyn ngay c trong phm vi ging bnh
13

Chng 2: La chn phng n


hoc bnh nhn ang c truyn nc bin, gn cc thit b y t trn ngi khin h
phi hn ch c ng nn h c th ly c nhu yu phm, robot phi tin vo
khong trng gia 2 ging bnh, l ni bnh nhn c th vi tay nhn. Vic tin
vo khong trng ny t ra gii hn v chiu rng cho robot.

o khong cch gia

cc ging bnh l 1 m nn robot d dng tin vo, gii hn t ra cho chiu rng
robot c thit k l 0.8m. Chiu cao ca ging l 1.2 m, bnh nhn d dng ly
hng, chiu cao robot nm trong gii hn 1 m n 1.6m. Chiu di khng b khng ch
bi yu cu no nn c th ty iu chnh sao cho t yu cu v tnh thm m.
C 2 phng n thit k cho b phn ny:
Phng n 1: b phn gm cc khoang cp pht t ng b tr nh hnh
2.12 c chc nng cha nhu yu phm ca bnh nhn, v cc khoang trng c
nh dng cha cc thit b y t ca y bc s, ni cha rc thi ca bnh
nhn. hi n v tr bnh nhn, khoang cha nhu yu phm tng ng s c
y ra bnh nhn ly; khi bnh nhn tr hng th c k o vo.

Hnh 2.12: Phng n 1


Phng n ny c u im l d dng trong qu trnh a hng vo khoang
cha, khong trng nhiu cha c nhiu thit b y t, phc v cho chm
sc, cha tr bnh nhn. Nhng c nhc im l vi nhng khoang cha
hng di cng, bnh nhn nm trn ging mun ly phi ci xung vi th
mi c th ly c, nhiu bnh nhn yu c ng kh khn hoc b gii hn
hong
thit b

14

Chng 2: La chn phng n


bi cc thit b y t gn trn ngi th s gp nhiu kh khn nu mun ly
c nhu yu phm cho mnh
Phng n 2: b phn t ng gm 2 phn l khoang cha v b phn ly
ct hng t ng. phn khoang cha c nhim v cha hng; b phn nng
h s ly v mang hng t khoang cha a ln v tr thun li nht cho
bnh nhn c th ly hng mt cch d dng, y v tr ny l trn nh ca
robot. V tr cc b phn b tr nh hnh 2.13.

Hnh 2.13: phng n 2


Phng n ny c u im l to thun li cho bnh nhn trong qu trnh
giao v nhn nhu yu phm, ng thi qu trnh a nhu yu phm ca bc s
cng n gin hn. Nhng n c nhc im l robot phi mt them mt
khong khng gian cho b phn nng h nn khong khng gian cho khoang
trng c nh dng cha thit b y t ca y bc s s gim i nu kch thc
robot b c nh, hoc s phi tng kch thc ca robot ln m bo
khong khng cha.
Vi mong mun to iu kin thun li ti a cho bnh nhn, phng n 2 s l
phng n c ti la chn tin hnh thit k.

15

Chng 2: La chn phng n


221

h n phng n

nhu y u ph m t

ho ng h

Trong phng n c chn c 2 b phn quan trng l khoang cha nhu yu


phm v phn ly ct khay hng t ng. to tnh linh hot, n gin v tit kim
chi ph, phn tm khay ca khoang cha v tm khay ca b phn ly ct khay
hng s c thit k dng rng lc. Cc rng ca tm thuc 2 b phn ny s n
khp vi nhau hnh 2.14), nh vy m khi khay hng c a ra t khoang cha s
d dng chuyn sang b phn ly ct khay t ng.

Hnh 2.14: Tm khay ca b nng h v khoang cha


- Qu trnh ly ct khay hng c 2 phng n c a ra:
Phng n 1: Cc khoang cha c sp xp theo tng tng, mi tng
gm 2 khoang cha. Mi khoang c kh nng a cc khay hng ra khng
gian ca b phn ly ct khay. Tm khay ca b phn ly ct khay c
kch thc v b tr rng khp vi 2 tm rng lc ca 2 khoang cha hng
trn 1 tng. Nh vy, khi ly khay hng, khoang cha tng ng ch vic y
khay ra, b phn ly ct khay s i t di ln; do kt cu rng lc nn
khay hng s chuyn t tm khay ca khoang cha sang b phn ly ct
khay. Qu trnh ct cng tng t, b phn ly ct khay s i t trn xung,
khay c chuyn qua tm ca khoang cha v c k o vo trong
khoang.
16

Chng 2: La chn phng n


u im ca phng n ny l kt cu c kh, qu trnh iu khin ly v
ct khay hng v cng n gin, d dng.
Nhc im ca phng n ny l cc khoang cha c kh nng a ra
v k o khay hng v th mi khoang phi c 1 b phn to chuyn ng nh
vy, ng thi phi c cc cm bin hay cng tc hnh trnh gim st. Vi
s lng ln cc khoang cha th vic gim st, iu khin s gy kh khn,
ng thi gy tn k m chi ph khi ch to.

hng to c s linh hot khi

mun thay i s khoang cha hng trong robot. Qu trnh ct khay hng s
gp kh khn trong trng hp cc khoang cha ca 1 bn robot y nhng
bnh nhn vn t khay hng v pha bn , lm cho robot khng c kh
nng chuyn hng vo khoang cn trng.
Phng n 2: Cc khoang cha c sp xp theo tng tng, mi tng
gm 2 khoang cha. Cc khoang ny c c nh trn robot nh cc rnh
v chng khng c kh nng a khay hng ra. Qu trnh ly v ct khay hng
t khoang cha s c thc hin bi b phn ly ct khay.
u im ca phng php ny l tit kim chi ph, ng thi khc phc
c ton b nhc im ca phng n 1.
Nhc im ca phng php l kt cu c kh phc tp, gy kh khn khi
lp t v sa cha.
t lun: ti s s dng phng n 2 tin hnh thit k robot.
2.2.2. L a ch n phng n to chuyn ng khi c p pht thu hi
phn ly ct khay ca robot gm 3 di chuyn chnh: ln xung di chuyn t
y robot ln nh robot v vo ra di chuyn t khoang ly ct khay n khoang
cha khay v di chuyn ngang (di chuyn qua li gia 2 dy khoang cha khay)
i chuyn ln xung ca b phn ny c 2 phng n c a ra:
Phng n 1: Phn nng h s dng ng c, thng qua kt cu dng vt
me ai c nng ln h xung tm , vi tm c gn vi phn ai
c

17

Chng 2: La chn phng n

Hnh 2.15: Phng n 1 b phn nng h


Phng n ny c u im l kt cu n gin, gn gng, c kh nng t
hm, d dng iu khin c v tr dng. Nhng n c nhc im l chiu
cao robot kh ln nn phn trc vt kh di, iu ny s gy tn k m khi ch
to..
Phng n 2: Tm c gn vi 1 sng trt v c k o bi b ai,
ty theo chiu quay ca ng c m tm c nng ln hoc h xung.

Hnh 2.16: Phng n 2 b phn nng h


18

Chng 2: La chn phng n


Phng php ny c u im l n gin, d ch to, kinh ph thp v t n.
Nhc im ca phng php ny l khng c kh nng t hm, ai nhanh b
gin nn thi gian s dng thp hn phng n dng vt me.
t lun: Chn phng n s dng vit me ai c

hay cha hng c t trong khoang cha, mun ly khay ra b phn nng h
t ng phi c kh nng y phn hng, tc l phn rng lc vo bn trong
khoang cha. Vic y v rt b phn ny c 4 phng n thit k c a ra:
Phng n 1 hnh 2.17): S dng cc xy lanh gn vi khung, khi mun
y ra hoc k o vo mt khoang no ch cn kch hot xylanh tng ng thc
hin tc v ny. Xylanh c th l xylanh kh hoc xylanh du.

Hnh 2.17: Xy lanh v phng n s dng xy lanh


Phng n ny c u im l d thc hin, n gin, chi ph thp. Nhng
n c nhc im l vi xylanh kh th trong qu trnh hot ng gy ra ting n
rt ln, khng thch hp cho bnh vin l ni cn s yn tnh; vi xylanh du th
tuy hot ng m i hn nhng n li khng m bo yu cu v sch s, v sinh.
Phng n 2 hnh 2.18): S dng ng c, ng c s gn vi 1 bnh
rng, khung s c gn thanh rng vo mt di. nh rng n khp vi thanh
rng nn ty chiu quay ca ng c m khung s c a ra hoc k o vo.

19

Chng 2: La chn phng n

Hnh 2.18: nh rng - thanh rng v phng n 2


Phng n ny c u im l qu trnh iu khin d dng, kt cu gn
gng, p mt v sch s, m bo yu cu v v sinh. Nhng n c nhc im
l chi ph ch to cao, lp t kh khn.
Phng n 3 hnh 2.19): s dng ng c, cc ng c ny qua b truyn
ri n vt me, ai c c gn vi khung. Ty vo chiu quay ca ng c m
khung s c y ra hoc k o vo.

Hnh 2.19: Vt me ai c v phng n 3


Phng n ny c u im l n gin, kt cu gn gng nhng c nhc
im l chi ph tng i cao, v phi bi trn trc vt nn khng m bo yu
cu v sch s v v sinh.
Phng n 4 hnh 2.20): S dng ng c, nhng khc vi phng n 2
l khung s c gn vi dy ai. Ty vo chiu quay ca ng c m khung s
c y ra hoc k o vo.

20

Chng 2: La chn phng n

Hnh 2.20: y ai bnh ai v phng n 4


Phng n ny c u im l d thc hin v ch to, khi hot ng t gy
ra ting ng, ng thi m bo c yu cu v sch s v v sinh.
t lun: T nhng u im phn tch ca cc phng n, ti s s
dng phng n 4 dng dy ai - gii quyt vn c t ra.

i chuyn ngang c 2 phng n c a ra:


Phng n 1: khay hng ca b phn ly ct khay s thng qua c
cu vit me ai c di chuyn ngang.

Hnh 2.21: Phng n 1 vitme ai c


Phng n ny c u im l kt cu n gin, gn gng, d lp t, d
dng iu khin c vn tc v v tr dng
Phng n 2: khay hng ca b phn ly ct khay c gn vi 1
sng trt v c k o bi b ai, ty theo chiu quay ca ng c m tm
c di chuyn qua li gia hai dy khoang cha khay hng.

21

Chng 2: La chn phng n

Hnh 2.16: Phng n 2 b phn nng h


Phng php ny c u im l n gin, d ch to, kinh ph thp v t n.
Nhc im ca phng php ny l kh iu khin chnh xc v tr dng.
t lun: Chn phng n s dng vit me ai c

S nguyn l ca b phn ly ct hng t ng hnh 2.21

Hnh 2.21: S nguyn l b phn ly ct khay hng

22

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


hng 3:
31

nh to n thi t k robot

i i thi u
Sau khi la chn c phng n kt cu cho robot, cng vic cn thit tip theo

l tnh ton la chn cc chi tit c s dng trong qu trnh ch to robot. y l


cng vic v cng quan trng, bi vic tnh ton s quyt nh xem cc loi chi tit
no c chn; kch thc cc chi tit ny ra sao; cch phn b lc trn robot v chi
tit, chi tit c bn trong qu trnh hot ng.
Qu trnh tnh ton bt u t cc thng s yu cu ca robot, l ti trng tng
m robot mang c 50 kg , dc ti a m robot c th di chuyn d dng 20 0 .
T cc thng s ny s tnh ra c thng s cc chi tit chn la, cc chi tit cn
tnh ton trong robot:
C cu to chuyn ng: ng c, b truyn ai, trc, ln
phn ly ct khay hng t ng: ng c, b truyn ai, vitme.
T nhng thng s v kch thc chi tit tnh c, tin hnh thit k, lp rp cc
chi tit to nn robot hon chnh sao cho c th d dng ch to, lp t, c kch
thc chung hp l v hnh dng c tnh thm m cao.
ph n to hu n ng

3.2.
321

nh to n ng

ng c c Moment xon Mc, qua b truyn ai thang s tc ng vo bnh xe.


nh tng tc vi mt ng sinh ra lc vng Fk . Lc

ny bao gm cc thnh

phn:
Lc qun tnh.
Lc ma st.
Trng lng P ca xe khi ln dc ( chn dc ti a l
Nh vy, lc tng tc dng ln bnh xe:
= 0,5(m.a + m.g.(

+ sin

Trong :
23

))

).

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot

m : tng khi lng ca xe. Xe khi lng 40kg, ti 10 kg nn m=50kg.

a: gia tc ca xe, chn a = 0,15 m/ .

: h s ma st, chn =0.68.

o ta c:
Fk 0,5(50.0,15 50.9,81(0,68.0,94 0,342)) 244,4 ( N )

Cng sut trn trc b ng:


P2 Fk .v 244, 4 .0,15 36,66 W

Cng sut cn thit trn trc ch ng


Pct P1

Fk v

ch

Fk v

drol

244, 4 .0,15
38,96 W
0,96.0,992

Trong :
v=0.15m/s l tc robot.
ch l hiu sut chung.
dr =0.96 l hiu sut b truyn ai rng.
ol =0.99 l hiu sut ln.
Gii hn vn tc di chuyn ca robot l 0,15m/s. S vng quay cn thit ca trc
bnh xe:

v
2 .n2

rbx
60

Vi:n1 l s vng quay ca trc bnh xe


rbx = 6cm l bn knh bnh xe
n2

60v
60.0,15

23,88 (vng/pht)
rbx 2 0,06.2.3,14

Suy ra s vng quay cn thit ca ng c:


=

.u =23,88.2,5 = 59,7 (vng/pht)

Vi u= 2,5 l t s truyn b ai rng


24

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


Moment cn thit:
Mc

Fk rbx

drol u
2

244, 4.0,06
6.2 N.m
0,96.0,992.2,5

Vy thng s ca ng c c chn nh sau:


Cng sut cn thit: 38,96 W
Moment cn thit : 6,2 N.m
Tc cn thit:

59,7 vng/pht

3.2.2. Tnh ton b truyn i


Cng sut trn trc dn P1 38.96 W
Modun ai rng c tnh theo cng thc ((4.28)[1]T1)):
m 35. 3

P1
0.03896
35. 3
2.56mm
n1
100

Tiu chun chn module: m = 3 (mm).


Chiu rng ai c tnh nh sau

chn h s chiu rng ai d 8 ):

b d .m 8.2,56 20.48mm

Theo bng ((4.28/69[1]T1) chn b=25 (mm).


Theo bng ((4.29/70[1]T1) chn s rng bnh ai nh: z1 12 rng .
S rng bnh ai ln: z2 uz1 2,5.12 30 rng .
Khong cch trc a c chn tha iu kin:
amin 0,5m( z1 z2 ) 2m 0,5.3.(12 30) 2.3 69 mm
amax 2m( z1 z2 ) 2.3.(12 30) 252 mm

Chn a = 150 (mm).


S rng ai c tnh theo cng thc ((4.30)/69[1]T1):
2a z1 z2 ( z1 z2 )2 p 2.150 12 30 (12 30)2 m.
zd

p
2
40a
m.
2
40.150
2.150 12 30 (12 30)2 .3.
=

56 rang
3
2
40.150
25

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


Theo bng ((4.30)/69[1]T1) chn c s rng dy ai

v chiu di ai

zd 56 rng
ld 527,5 mm

Theo cng thc ((4.6/54)[1]T1) xc nh li khong cch trc a:

a=
Vi: ld

p z1 z2
3 (12 30)
527,5
329.68mm
2
2

m( z2 z1 ) 3(30 12)

27mm
2
2

(329,68 329,682 8, 272 )


164,8 mm
Vy: a
4

ng knh vng chia ca cc bnh ai:


d1 m.z1 3.12 36 mm
d2 m.z2 3.30 90 mm

ng knh ngoi ca bnh ai ly =0,6 theo bng ((4.27)/70[1]T1)):


da1 m.z1 2 3.12 2.0,6 34,8 mm
da 2 m.z2 2 3.30 2.0,6 88,8 mm

Kim nghim ai v lc vng ring: theo cng thc ((4.33)/71[1]T1)) lc vng


ring trn ai phi tha iu kin:
q=

[q]

Trong :
Lc vng : Ft

1000 P1 1000P1 60000 60000.1000.0,03896

206,79 N
v
n1d1
100.36

v l vn tc ai: v

n1d1
60000

3,14.100.36
0,1884 m/s
60000

l khi lng mt m t ai c chiu rng 1mm, theo bng ((4.31)/71[1]T1)


= 0,004.

h s ti trng ng, theo bng ((4.7/55[1]T1)


26

= 1,1.

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot

lc vng ring cho php, theo bng ((4.31)/71[1]T1)

Vy q

= 10 N/mm.

206,79.1,1
0,004.0,1884 2 9,1 [ q] nn ai tha iu kin bn theo lc
25

vng ring.
Lc cng ban u cho ai c tnh theo cng thc:
= (1,1 1,3)

=(1,1 1,3)

=(1,11,3).0,004.25.

=(0,00390,0046) (N)
Lc tc dng ln trc c tnh theo cng thc:
=(11,2)
Chn

= (11,2)

= (206.79248.11) (N)

= 240 N.

Cc thng s ca b truyn ai rng c tm tt trong bng sau:


Bng 3.1: Thng s b truyn ai rng
m (mm)

b(mm)

25

rng

rng

12

(mm)

30

36

90

3.2.3. Tnh ton, thi t k trc:


Trc c thit k vi s nh sau hnh 3.1 :

Hnh 3.1: S tnh ton trc


Cc lc trong s c gi tr nh sau:
Fr 240N

FK 244, 4N
27

34,8

(mm)
88,8

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


Px

mg
sin(200 ) 41,94 N
4

Py

mg
cos(200 ) 115, 23N
4

Cc lc tc dng ln trc ti cc tit din lp ln:


Tng moment theo 3 phng X, Y, Z v tng lc theo OX, OY, OZ:

S lc v biu moment tc dng ln trc nh sau hnh 3.2 :

14664

Hnh 3.2 Biu moment trc


28

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


Xc nh moment tng ng v ng knh ti cc tit din:
=

Theo cng thc ((10.16)[1]T1) :

Theo cng thc ((10.17)[1]T1) :


Chn [

=63Mpa.

Tit din lp bnh ai, ln, bnh xe, ln ln lt l 0, 1, 2, 3. bng tnh ton
chn cc ng knh trc ti cc tit din nh sau:
Bng 3.2: Bng tnh ng knh trc
(Nmm) T(Nmm)

(Nmm)

Tit din

(Nmm) d(mm)

14664

10584,6

11,88

15

9600

14664

14289,6

13,14

15

926

2304.6

14664

10625

11,9

15

14664

10584,6

11,88

15

- Kim nghim trc v bn mi:


Vt liu thp 45 c cc thng s nh sau:

= 600 Mpa.

= 0,43

= 258 Mpa.

= 0,58

= 348 Mpa.

= 0,05.

= 0.

Cn c vo biu v bng tnh gi tr moment ti cc tit din nguy


him, cc tit din cn phi kim tra bn mi l tit din lp ln 1
v tit din 2 lp bnh xe.
Cc ln lp ln trc theo mi lp k6, bnh dn ng lp ln trc theo
mi lp k6 kt hp vi lp then bng.

29

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


Moment cn un v moment cn xon ca trc c rnh then c tnh
theo cng thc:
=

((10.6)[1]T1).
-

((10.6)[1]T1).

Cc gi tr moment cn un v cn xon c tnh trong bng sau:


Bng 3.3: Bng tnh moment cn un
(mm)

Tit din

bh

15

5x5

2,3

269,34

600,52

15

331,172

662,34

Xc nh cc h s

i vi cc tit din nguy him theo

cng thc ((10.25)[1]T1) v ((10.26)[1]T1)) :


=(

)/

=(

)/

Vi:

Theo bng ((10.12)/199[1]T1) :

=1,76 v

= 1,54

Theo bng ((10.10)/199[1]T1) :

= 0,95 v

= 0,92

i vi b mt lp then:

= 1,85 v

= 1,67

i vi b mt lp c di

= 2,06 v

((10.11)/198[1]T1).

Cc cng thc kim nghim bn mi :


[s]

10.19 /195[1]T1 .

30

= 1,64 ( theo bng

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


=

((10.20)/195[1]T1).

((10.21)/195[1]T1).

Bng 3.4: Bng tnh kim nghim bn mi


/
Tit
din

do

do

Rnh

Lp

then

cng then

cng

Rnh Lp

15

2,06 _

1,64

2,12 1,7

15

1,96

2,06 1,81

1,64

2,12 1,87 0

Ta thy

58846,3 14664 3,17 8,74 2,98

14664 _

4,99 4,99

[s] =1,52,5 nn trc tha mn iu kin bn mi.

- Tnh ton bn dp v bn ct cho then:


iu kin bn dp:

iu kin bn ct :

[
[

= 100 Mpa.

= 4060 Mpa.

Bng 3.5: Bng tnh bn then


d(mm)
15

(mm)
14

(mm) bh
3

5x5

T(Nmm)
12222

(Mpa)
58.2

(Mpa)
23,28

Vy then tha mn iu kin bn dp v bn ct.


3.2.4 Ch n

n:

Chn s b ln 1 dy c trung cho cc tit din lp ln 1 v 3 nh sau:


Bng 3.6: Bng thng s ln

31

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


Tit
din

Cc thng s ln
K hiu
d(mm)

D(mm)

B(mm)

C(Kn)

(Kn)

1000902

15

28

2,53

1,51

1000902

15

28

2,53

1,51

Lc tc dng ln cc ln nh sau:
= 503,17 N.
= 57,615 N.
= 23,17 N.
= 57,615 N.
Lc ti cc c tnh nh sau:
=

= 506,46 (N).

= 62,1 (N).

Do 2 ln ging nhau, nn ch cn tnh v kim nghim bn cho ln chu ti


ln hn, l ln ti tit din 1.
Ti trng qui c tc ng ln cc ( theo (11.3)/214[1]T1):
Q =(XV +Y )

Trong :
V=1 ( vng trong quay).
= 1 (lm vic nhit <

C).

= 1,2 ( ti va p nh).
= 0 nn , X=1 v Y=0.
Nn: Q = 1.1.1.506,46.1,2 = 607,752 (kN).
Theo bng ((11.2)/214[1] T1) chn tui th lm vic tnh theo gi :
gi).
32

= 8000(

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


Qui ra s vng quay: L = 60
- Kh nng ti ng:

= 60.29.8000.

= Q. = 607,752.

=13,92(triu vng).

=2,26 (kN)<C =2,53( kN).

Vy m bo kh nng ti ng.
- Ti trng tnh qui c:
=

= 0,6. 506,46 = 0,3 (kN) <

=1,51 (kN).

Vy m bo kh nng ti tnh.
ph n

3.3.
331

t h

h ng t ng

nh to n vitm

3.3.1.1 Vitm n ng h
Chn vt liu vt l thp cng ha 45, ai c- ng thanh. Dng ren hnh thang
cn, ren 1 mi, hng ren phi.
Tnh ng knh trung bnh ca vt theo cng thc ((8.1)/163[1]T1)):
d2

Fa
H h [q]

Chn:
H s chiu cao ai c: H 1,8 ai c nguyn).
H s chiu cao ren vung: h = 0,5.
p sut cho php: [q] = 9 Mpa.
Lc dc trc : Fa 10.10.1,5 = 150 (N) ( ti 10kg,h s an ton
1,5).
hi :

Theo tiu chun chn:

= 13 mm, d =14 mm,

c vt : ph Zh .p 1.2 = 2 (mm).
33

= 12 mm, p = 2 mm.

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


Gc vt:
H s ma st ca cp vt liu thp-ng thanh bi trn khng tt f = 0,1, do
gc ma st
Kim nghim vt v bn:
td 2 32 (

4Fa 2
T 2
) 3(
) [] ( theo (8.7)/164[1]T1).
2
d1
0, 2d12

Trong : T Tr Tg

Chn kt cu vt l ln 1 dy c siu nh, c d0 15mm , D0 28 mm, h


s ma st thay th f t 0,03 . Ta c moment gi t:

Vy moment T = 151,63 + 48,4 = 200,03 Nmm.


ng sut tng ng :
(
Vi thp 45,

= 360Mpa, do [] =

)
= 120 Mpa, do iu kin bn

c m bo.
Kim nghim vt v n nh:
Moment qun tnh:
(

Bn knh qun tnh :

mm vt s l:

=1, hai u vt c c nh bng

ln .
34

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


Do >100 nn dng cng thc Euler tnh ti trng ti hn:

o :

Vy iu kin n nh c m bo.
3 3 1 2 Vitm

i hu n ng ng

Tnh ton thit k Vit-me ai c cho c cu di chuyn khay ngang tng t nh


tnh ton thit k vit-me ai c c cu di chuyn ln
Chiu di di chuyn: l=300mm
Lc dc trc : Fa Fms =1,5.P. =1,5.5.9,81.0.2=14,72 (N) ( ti 5kg,h s an ton
1,5).
Theo tiu chun

= 11mm.

Cc thng s ca ren nh sau: d =12 mm,


332

nh to n

= 10 mm., p =2 mm., ph 2 (mm).

cho vitme

3 3 2 1 Vitm n ng h
Bng 3.7 Thng s chn chn 8201

K hiu
8201

(mm)

d1
(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(mm)

(kN)

C0
(kN)

12

12,2

28

11

1.0

8,68

15,4

Ti trng quy c:
Q Fa k t k d

Vi:
Lc dc trc: Fa 150N
35

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


k t 1 (lm vic nhit < 1500 C )
kd 1,2 (ti va p nh)

Nn
Theo bng ((11.2)/214[1] T1) chn tui th lm vic tnh theo gi : Lh 8000 (h)
triu vng

Qui ra s vng quay

Suy ra kh nng ti ng: Cd Q 3 L 0,18 3 288 1,189(kN) C 8, 68(kN)


Vy m bo kh nng ti ng.
Ti trng tnh qui c: Qt X0 Fr Y0 Fa 150.1 0,15(kN) Co 15, 4(kN)
Vy m bo kh nng ti tnh.
3.3.2.2. Vitme di hu n ng ng
Chn s b ln 1 dy c trung cho cc tit din lp ln 2 u vit-me:
Bng 3.8: Bng thng s ln
Tit
din

Cc thng s ln
K hiu
d(mm)

D(mm)

B(mm)

C(Kn)

(Kn)

1000900

10

22

2,62

1,38

1000900

10

22

2,62

1,38

Lc ti cc c tnh nh sau:
Pct

Fms .V
1,53.0,08

0.
4
4
d .ol 0,954.0,994

Do 2 ln ging nhau, nn ch cn tnh v kim nghim bn cho mt ln


Kim tra kh nng ti tnh trn ln nh phn tnh ton kim tra cho ln trc
bnh xe, thy ln c chn tha mn kh nng ti tnh.

36

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


333

nh to n tr

n h ng v

trt ho

u n ng

Phn ny s tnh ton trc dn hng cho c cu nng, trc dn hng s chu
moment un tc dng bi ti, c cu vt me s chu lc dc trc. Biu moment ca
c cu nng nh sau:

F=150N
a

150xa

150x(800- a)

M N.mm
Hnh 3.3: S tnh trc dn hng
Moment cc i tc dng ln trc l: Mmax

50.800
20000(N.mm)
2

Chn vt liu l thp C45 c gii hn bn: [] = 65Mpa.


ng knh trc dn hng:
d 3

Mmax
20000
3
14.5 (mm)
0,1[]
0,1.65

Theo tiu chun ln, chn ng knh trc dn hng: d=16mm.


Cn c theo ng knh tnh c, chn s b bi trt c thng s nh sau: L
= 37 mm, d = 16 mm, D = 28 mm, C = 775 N,

37

= 1180 N

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot

Hnh 3.4: bi trt


Kim tra bn cho trt: ch tiu tnh lc tc dng vung gc vi
Lc tc dng ln nht (tng trng lng phn di trt) ln trt:
Fmax = 75 (N) < C =980 (N)
Nh vy m bo bn cho trt.
334

nh to n th nh trt

Sng trt s dng cho robot trong thi gian 5 nm vi chiu di hnh trnh l
500mm/1 ln trt.

o trong 5 nm vi 1 ngy cp 4 ln, 1 ln 24 hnh trnh n.

Suy ra sng trt cn c tui th l 88km.

Qs1

Qs2

Hnh 3.5: Thanh trt


Sng trt chu tt c trng lng (30Kg) ca b phn nng h nn lc tc dng
ln sng trt:

38

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


Vi s = 1.5 l h s an ton
d = 378 l khong cch gia hai sng trt
Tc di chuyn: 4m/pht
Chn loi sng trt MGN dng cho thit b y t
Chn chnh xc P theo tiu chun nh sn xut
Chn loi ti trng ZA vi ti trng t trc c gi tr: 0,08C=0,0153kN (C l
ti trng ng c s), tui th 88km
Ch xt nh hng ca ti trng n sng trt, khng xt nh hng ca nhit
v cng
(

Chn loi sng ln c k hiu: MGN7C


C ti trng ng c s: C=1,4kN
Ti trng tnh c s: C0 =2,1kN
H s an ton: fsl C0 2,1 5,3 3
Qs 0,396
Nn sng trt tha iu kin an ton
Lc ma st :
335

F=4.0.4.(Qs1+Qs2)=4.0,4(396+396) = 634N

nh to n ng

3 3 5 1 Vitm n ng h
Chn ng c dng iu khin c cu vitme nng thng ng khong 4cm/1s.
Cc thng s nh sau: bc vt me:

, moment cn thit 200,03 N.mm, vn

tc khu tnh tin: v = 40 mm/s, hiu sut b truyn vime l 0,7.


Vn tc ca khu dn ng quay vng/pht c tnh nh sau:
vng/pht
Vy cn chn ng c tha mn
39

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


+ Vng quay ti a: 1200 vng/pht.
+ Cng sut:
3.3.5.2. Vitme di hu n ng ng
Chn ng c dng iu khin c cu vitme chy ngang vi tc khong
3cm/1s. Cc thng s nh sau: bc vt me:

, moment cn thit 20 N.mm,

vn tc khu tnh tin: v = 30 mm/s, hiu sut b truyn vitme 0,7.


Vn tc ca khu dn ng quay vng/pht c tnh nh sau:
vng/pht

Vy cn chn ng c tha mn
+ Vng quay ti a: 900 vng/pht.
Cng sut:
3353

h nh trt

Chn ng c dng k o h thng ly ct hng theo phng dc trn thanh


trt. ng c sinh c Moment xon Mc, qua b truyn ai rng s tc ng vo bnh
xe. ai mang thanh trt dc sinh ra lc vng F= 317 N
Cng sut cn thit
Pct

Fv

ch

Fv

dr ol tv
2

317.0,067
275 W
0,952 0,995 0,32

Trong :
v=0,067m/s l tc thanh trt dc
dr =0,95 l hiu sut b truyn ai rng.
ol =0,99 l hiu sut ln.
br 0,3 l hiu sut trc vt bnh vt t hm.
Gii hn vn tc di chuyn trn thanh trt ca robot l 0,067m/s. S vng quay
cn thit ca trc bnh ai:

v
2 .n2

rbd
60
40

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


n2 l s vng quay ca trc bnh ai
rbd = 4cm l bn knh bnh ai

vng/pht
o tc nh nn chn ng c gn km hp gim tc trc vit, bnh vt 1 cp c
t s truyn 24, vy tc cn thit ca ng c: 16.24 = 386 vng/pht
Vy thng s ca ng c c chn nh sau:
+ Cng sut cn thit: 300 W
+ Tc cn thit: 500 vng/pht
Cng sut trn trc dn ca b truyn ai rng:
P2

dr

F .v
23,5W
0,952

Cng sut trn trc dn ca b truyn trc vt bnh vt:


P1

P2

ol 4tv 2

Kim tra cng sut cn thit: Pct

P1

ol

272, 2W

275W < 300W

S vng quay trn trc dn b truyn trc vt bnh vt: n1 ndc 384 vng/ pht
S vng quay trn trc dn b truyn ai rng: n2 n1 / u 16 vng/pht
Moment xon trn trc vt:

T1 9,55.106

P1
272,2
9,55.103.
6769,6 Nmm
n1
384

Moment xon trn trc bnh vt:

T2 9,55.106

P2
23,5
9,55.103.
14026,6 Nmm
n2
16

3.3.6 Tnh ton trc vt bnh vt


T s truyn ca b truyn.

D on vn tc trt

.
41

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


( )

Trong :

l s vng quay trn trc vt (vg/ph).


l momen xon trn bnh vt (Nmm).
Tng ng vn tc trt

( ), ta chn cp chnh xc 8.

Ta chn ng thanh Br SnP10-1 ch to bnh vch, cch ch to l c trong


khun kim loi vi

Chn vt liu cho trc vt l

th p 40Cr c ti vi rn

, sau c mi v nh bng ren vt.

ng sut tip xc cho php ca bnh vt.

ng sut un cho php ca bnh vt.

Chn s ren

, nn ta c

, vi t s truyn

T s truyn chnh xc
Chn h s ng knh

, chn

Chn s b
(
Tnh khong cch trc

theo bn tip xc.

42

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot

) (

Tnh mun m.

Ta chn
Suy ra khong cch trc.

Ta chn
H s dch chnh.

Xc nh cc thng s hnh hc ca b truyn.


Trc vt:
ng knh vng chia:

ng knh vng nh:

ng knh vng y:

Gc xon c vt :

Chiu di phn ct ren trc vt:

43

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot

Bnh vt:
ng knh vng chia:

ng knh vng nh:

ng knh vng y:

Khong cch trc:

ng knh ln nht bnh vt:

Chiu rng bnh vt

Vn tc trt.

H s ti trng tnh.

Hiu sut

Tnh ton li ng sut tip xc cho php.


44

( )

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot

Gi tr ny ph hp vi gi tr chn ban u.
Xc nh s rng tng ng ca bnh vt.

Chn h s
Kim nghim bn un ca bnh vt.

Tha iu kin ban u.


Gi tr cc lc tc dung trn b truyn.

Kim tra bn un ca trc.

Chn
Vy trc vt tha mn bn un.

45

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


Kim tra cng trc vt.

Vy trc vt tha mn cng.


3.3.7. Tnh ton trc vt
Do thit k lin trc nn chn vt liu l thp 40Cr c
Phn tch lc tc dng ln trc

Fr1'

Fr1''
Ft1''
Fa1''

Ft1'
Fa1'

Chn vt liu lm trc l thp 40Cr, chon


Xc nh ng knh trc s b:

Chn ng knh s b l d= 16mm

46

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


44

54

838
Fr1''

Fr1'
Ft1'

Ft1''

Fa1'

Fa1''

Fr1'

Fr1''

Ma'

Ma''
y
z

R1y

R2y

2068N.mm
8624.6N.mm
Ft1'

Ft1''

z
R1x

2210.1N.mm

R2x

2656.8N.mm
6769.6N.mm

Trong mt phng yoz:

M /1 Ma ' Ma '' F

r1

'44 Fr1 ''882 R 2y 936 0

R 2y 114N

F / y F

r1

' Fr1 ' R 2y R1y 0

R1y 98,6N

Trong mt phng xoz:

47

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot

M /1 44F ' 882F '' 936R


t

2x

R 2x 49, 2N

M / 2 892 F ' 54F '' 936R


t

1x

R1x 50, 23N

Mt ct nguy him ti v tr ca rng trc vt.


Momenun:

ng sut php ti mt ct nguy him:

ng sutxon:

Khi ng sut xon thay i theo chu k mch ng:

Theo bng 10.8 ta chn

vi

Theo bng 10.3 ta chn

Hs

tra hnh 2.9

Xc nh h s an ton.

H s an ton:

48

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot

o iu kin bn mi ca trc ti tit din nguy him c tha.


nh i

3.3.8. Tnh ton tr

Chn vt liu l thp 40Cr c


Phn tch lc tc dng ln trc
64

161

161
Ft2

Fa2
Ft

Fr2

Chn vt liu lm trc l thp 40Cr, c


Xc nh ng knh trc s b:

49

Ft

64

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


Chn ng knh s b l d = 15mm
64

161

64

161
Ft2

Fa2
Ft

Ft

Fr2
Ft2

y
z
R3y

R4y

32850N.mm
R3x

R4x
Ma2

z
Fr2
Ft

Ft

23284.6N.mm
13203N.mm

13888N.mm

14026.6N.mm
T

Trong mt phng yoz:


R 3y R 4y

Ft 2
146 (N)
2

Trong mt phng xoz:

M / 3 F 450 M
t

a2

+Fr2 225-R 4y 450=0

R 4x =217 N

F/x 2F F
t

r2

R 4x R 3x 0

R 3x =206,3 N

Mt ct nguy him ti v tr ca rng trc vt.


Momenun:
50

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot

ng sut php ti mt ct nguy him:

ng sutxon:

Khi ng sut xon thay i theo chu k mch ng:

Theo bng 10.8 ta chn

vi

Theo bng 10.3 ta chn

H s

tra hnh 2.9

Xc nh h s an ton.

H s an ton:

o iu kin bn mi ca trc ti tit din nguy him c tha.

51

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


3.4. Thi t k robot
3.4.1. Thi t k b ph n to chuyn ng
Da theo yu cu lm vic ca robot, chn kch thc theo chiu ngang ca
robot l 500 mm, do khong cch gia hai ging bnh l 1000 mm, nn kch thc
theo chiu ngang nh vy l hp l robot d dng di chuyn vo gia cung cp
hng cho bnh nhn. Kt hp vi s truyn ng, kch thc v kt cu tm
lp b truyn ng nh hnh 3.6.

Hnh 3.6: Kt cu tm ca b phn to chuyn ng


Bnh t la c s dng vi thng s k thut v hnh dng nh hnh 3.7.

52

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot

Hnh 3.7: Hnh dng v thng s k thut bnh t la


S lp rp ca b phn to chuyn ng nh hnh 3.8:

53

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot

Hnh 3.8: S lp rp ca b phn to chuyn ng

3.4.2. B ph n khoang ch a v c p pht nhu y u ph m


3.4.2.1 B ph n khoang ch a nhu y u ph m
B phn cha nhu yu phm chnh l khoang cha khay hng.
khoang cha hng ph thuc vo kch thc khay cha hng.

ch thc

ch thc khay hng

c chn l 250 x 200 x 100 mm nn tm rng lc khay hng c kch thc


nh hnh 3.9:

Hnh 3.9: Tm khay hng trong khoang cha

54

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


Kt cu khung gn cc tm khay v b phn ly ct khay hng nh hnh
3.10

Hnh 3.10: Khung robot


3.4.2.2. B ph n c p pht thu hi nhu y u ph m
B phn cp pht thu hi nhu yu phm l b phn chnh ca robot, n gm 3
chuyn ng theo 3 phng XYZ, gm nhiu cm c cu kt hp vi nhau.
B phn ny gm cc b phn chnh l: tm khay hng s dng vitme di
chuyn ngang; b trung gian gn tm khay hng, s dng vitme di chuyn
theo phng thng ng; b khung trung gian gn b trung gian, s dng thanh
trt kt hp vi b truyn ai rng v trc vt bnh vt di chuyn theo phng
dc.
Tm khay hng (hnh 3.11) trong b phn cp pht thu hi nhu yu phm.

55

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot

Hnh 3.11: Tm khay hng trong c cu ly ct khay hng


B trung gian (hnh 3.12)

Hnh 3.12: B trung gian


56

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot


Khung ca b cp pht thu hi nhu yu phm (hnh 3.13).

Hnh 3.13: Khung ca b cp pht thu hi nhu yu phm


S lp rp gia tm khay hng, b trung gian v khung ca b phn cp
pht thu hi nhu yu phm nh hnh 3.14). Khung ny s c lp vi khung chnh
ca robot thng qua thanh trt v c dn ng bi b truyn ai rng.

57

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot

Hnh 3.14: S lp rp ca b phn cp pht thu hi nhu yu phm


S lp rp chung ca khoang cha v b cp pht thu hi nhu yu phm nh
hnh 3.15 v m hnh 3d ca robot nh hnh 3.16

58

Chng 3: Tnh ton thit k robot

Hnh 3.15: S lp rp chung phn khoang cha v b cp pht

Hnh 3.16: M hnh 3d ca robot

59

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot

hng 4:
41

th ng i n v iu hin

ro ot

i i thi u
Yu cu t ra cho robot l di chuyn bm line, nhn din c v tr ging

bnh bng R

v pht hin vt cn trn ng di chuyn. H thng in thit k

nhm gii quyt vn t ra thng qua s hnh 4.1.

Hnh 4.1: S nguyn l h thng in


Mch gm 1 master v 1 slave, giao tip vi nhau thng qua chun giao tip
I2C. Master v slave l vi iu khin thuc h P C, c th l loi P C18f4620 dng
lm master v PIC18F4431 dng lm slave.
Mch bm line gip robot nhn bit ng chng phi i.
u c R

gip nhn bit c trm, y l v tr cc ging bnh.

Cc cm bin sonar gip robot pht hin c vt cn trn ng di chuyn


ca chng a ra tn hiu cnh bo.
n phm v bng hin th gip nhp thng s iu khin v hin th cc kt
qu trong qu trnh hot ng ca robot.
Cc ng c c iu khin thng qua driver v gi tr tc s c kim
tra bng encoder.

60

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot


4.2.

m ng
Mch bm ng l phn quan trng ca robot, v n c tc dng dn hng cho

robot trong qu trnh di chuyn. ng i ca robot y l vch en trn nn trng,


vi b rng ng en nh hnh 4.2.

Hnh 4.2: B rng line


phn bit c ng i vi mi trng xung quanh, ti s dng cm bin
nh sng, c th l quang tr. Quang tr hnh 4.3 l linh kin c th thay i gi tr
in tr ca chng ty theo cng nh sng chiu vo b mt.

hi khng c nh

sng chiu vo, in tr ca chng rt ln, nhng khi c chiu sng, in tr ca


chng gim xung rt nhanh.
nh sng phn x khc nhau khi chiu vo b mt c mu sc khc nhau. Trong
iu kin l tng, kh chiu nh sng vo b mt mu trng n s phn x ton b,
cn kh chiu vo b mt mu en chng s hp th ton b hnh 4.3 . o mch d
ng s s dng led lm ngun sng v quang tr lm cm bin. Nh vy khi nh
sng t led pht ra v phn x t mt ng n quang tr, nu mt ng mu trng
quang tr s nhn c nh sng, cn nu mu en n s khng nhn c.

Hnh 4.3: Quang tr v hot ng ca chng


Trng thi quang tr nhn c nh sng hay khng qua mch nh hnh 4.4 s
thnh 2 tn hiu logic 0 v 1, vi mc 0 l en v 1 l trng. Mch c thit k gm 8

61

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot


quang tr v 8 n led, tn hiu tr v mch x l trung tm l 1 byte, t cho bit v
tr ca robot so vi ng i.
HI

+5V
1

R2
2k2

BIEN TRO

HI

R1
120

U5

4
3

CAMBIEN_i

LM324

quang tro

U1A

11

LOW

V0

Hnh 4.4: s nguyn l mch bm ng


cho ra 2 mc logic 0 v 1 tng ng vi 2 mu en v trng, mt op-amp
c dng lm b so snh. Tn hiu in p t bin tr mu c a vo ng vo
dng ca op-amp, tn hiu hiu in p t quang tr c a vo ng vo m ca
op-amp. S bin i gi tr in tr ca quang tr khi gp vch trng v en s lm gi
tr chnh lch p V=

thay i, t ng ra s c gi tr 0 hoc 1 tng ng.

Trong mch dng op-amp LM324, IC ny gm 4 op-amp c lp, hot ng


c c ngun n v ngun i t 3V n 30 VDC:

Hnh 4.5: Op-amp LM324


Tn hiu in p 2 ng vo ca op-amp c so snh vi nhau. Khi ng vo
dng c in p cao hn ng vo m, ng ra c mc logic 1, nu ngc li ng ra c
mc logic 0.
62

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot


V =

V > 0:

V < 0:

- Tinh chnh bin tr

c mt t s

sao cho khi khng c s phn x

ca nh sng ( gp ng mu en th
- Khi gp nn trng th

gim sao cho

,ng ra l mc logic 0.
,ng ra l mc logic 1.

Nh vy, khi gp nn trng cm bin s tr v mc 1, khi gp ng mu en


cm bin s tr v mc 0, robot s da vo tn hiu tr v ca cm bin iu khin
chy theo ng i vch s n.

43

ng ngh

431

i i thi u

RFID (Radio Frequency dentification l cng ngh xc nh i tng bng


sng v tuyn.

thut R

l k thut nhn dng t xa bng sng v tuyn, cho

ph p d liu trn mt con chip c c m khng cn thc hin bt k giao tip vt


l no, khong cch c c th ln n phm vi 10 m t.
Hu ht cc th RFID c cu to t nht gm 2 phn: mt mch tch hp dnh cho
vic lu tr v x l d liu,iu ch v gii iu ch sng RF( Radio Frequency),v
mt anten dnh cho vic thu v pht sng RF. Vi cng ngh hin nay, tt c cc phn
trn c ng gi thnh mt th c kch thc rt nh,thng thng chip ch c kch
thc nh hn 5mm.
thut R

c pht trin v nhiu ngi bit n trong thp nin 60, 70 v

ngy cng xut hin nhiu hn cc ng dng ca cng ngh ny trong cuc sng. Hin
nay, ng dng quen thuc nht ca n l qun l hng ha trong cc ca hng, siu th,
nh kho. Ngoi ra, n cn c nhng ng dng nh:
Qun l i tng, nhn s
im sot vo ra, chm cng in t, kim sot thang my
63

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot


Qun l hng ha trong kho, ca hng.
Nghin cu ng ng vt trong thin nhin
u tr thng tin bnh nhn trong y khoa
m th h chiu, chng minh nhn dn
S d R

c s dng ngy cng rng ri l nh nhng u im ni bt ca

n. Nhng u im ni tri ca R

l chnh xc, an ton, bo mt cao; tnh n

gin, tin li, nhanh gn trong qu trnh s dng; tnh thm m cao, dng c trong
nhiu mi trng. Nh m n ngy cng c ph bin v thay th dn phng
php nhn dng ang s dng hin nay l m vch.

432

u tr

v ph n oi h th ng

Mt h thng R
Th R

hnh 4.6 gm cc b phn:


Tag : chip + angten

u c th R

Reader : c thng tin ca cc th

+ Angten: thit b lien kt gia th v u c


+ Server: thu nhn, x l d liu, phc v gim st, thng k, iu khin

Hnh 4.6: H thng R


Th R

hnh 4.7) l thnh phn gn ln i tng cn nhn dng, n bao gm

mt angten kt ni vi u c v mt con chip lu tr d liu.


c thng qua u c th R

liu c

m khng ph thuc vo hng m ch cn th nm

trong phm vi ph sng ca u c.

nh trong th R
64

c th cha t 96 n

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot


512 bit d liu, nhiu gp 64 ln m vch. Thng tin lu tr trn chip c th thay i
c bi s tng tc ca b c. Ty theo ng dng m th c ch to vi nhiu
hnh dng khc nhau, th c th c ng gi thnh mt tm plastic mng gn vo
vt cn qun l hay tch hp thnh mt chip rt nh cy vo da.

Hnh 4.7: Hnh dng v cu to th R


Th R

phn loi thnh:

+ Th ch ng

ctive Tag : l th c tch hp mt ngun pin nh gip

n t gi tn hiu n u c, do nng lng tn hiu ln hn, khong


cch c xa hn v hot ng hiu qu hn trong mi trng nc hoc c vt
cn. Mt s th cn tch hp them cm bin o m, rung, nhit .
Pin ca th c tui th ln n 10 nm.

hong cch c c th ln n vi

trm m t, ty theo tn s s dng.


+ Th th ng Passive Tag : l th khng c s n ngun pin hot ng, n
nhn nng lng v tuyn o u c th gi n, nng lng ny kch
thch mch in trong th hot ng v gi tn hiu li u c th. Tui th
ca th rt ln do khng cn dng pin. hong cch c t 10cm n vi m t,
ty theo tn s s dng.
u c RFID hnh 4.8 gm mt anten lin lc vi th RFID v mt thit b
in t c ni mng vi my tnh, thit b ny tip sng gia my tnh v tt c
cc th trong phm vi c ca anten, cho php mt u c lin lc vi hng trm th
ng thi, n cng thc thi cc chc nng bo mt nh m ha hoc gii m v xc
thc ngi dng. u c RFID c th pht hin th ngay c khi khng nhn thy
chng.
65

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot

Hnh 4.8: u c R
Hu ht cc mng RFID gm nhiu th v nhiu u c c ni mng vi
nhau bi mt my tnh trung tm, thng l mt trm lm vic gn bn. y l ni
lu tr d liu, x l cc thng tin v cng vic lin quan n cc i tng c gn
th. Ngi qun l s thc hin cng vic ca mnh bng cch nhp, xa, thay i d
liu, lnh ti server.
H thng R

phn loi da trn di tn s hot ng ca chng:

Tn s thp

: 100 kHz 150 kHz, tc c d liu thp, khong

cch c ngn, khong 10cm. Thng dng trong iu khin truy nhp, kim
k, chm cng.
Tn s cao H : 10 15 MHz, tc c trung bnh, khong cch c t
10cm n 1m. Thng dng trong qun l hng ha trong ca hng, iu
khin truy nhp
Siu cao tn UHF): >850 MHz, tc c cao, khong cch c ln, c
th ln n vi trm m t. Thng dng trong h thng thu ph xe, kim tra xe
ra vo t ng, kim tra hng ha xut nhp kho.
433

th v th

ti s s dng cng ngh R

ng trong t i
trong vic nhn dng bnh nhn, y chnh

l ging bnh m bnh nhn nm. Mi ging bnh s c quy nh bng mt m


th R

, th ny s c gn trn ng chy ca robot, ng thi mi ngn cha

hng cng c gn mt m th.

hi cung cp hng vo ngn cha, ngi s dng s


66

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot


quy nh ngn cha hng no s tng ng vi bnh nhn no. T , robot s nhn
dng c vt phm cn cung cp cho bnh nhn khi n ng v tr ging bnh.
u c th R

ti s dng l CE630 hnh 4.9 . u c hot ng tn

s 125 kHz, vi phm vi c 50 100 mm ty thuc vo loi th. Th R

ti s

dng l loi th th ng vi tn s hot ng 125 kHz.

Hnh 4.9: u c CE630


u c ny s dng chun truyn RS232 truyn d liu 8 bit, bit stop l 1
vi baud rate 9600.

liu truyn ph thuc vo in p ca chn iu khin

, gi

tr 0 tng ng vi in p 0V v gi tr 1 tng ng vi in p 5V.

ti chn d liu truyn khi chn iu khin in p 0V, nh vy d liu


truyn s l <02> <10 k t

SC

m th > <03>. Nh vy ch cn c c 10 k

t SC ta s bit c m th, t thc hin cc tc v iu khin khc.

67

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot


44

m i n si u m
Cm bin siu m c dng pht hin chng ngi vt trong qu trnh di

chuyn ca robot, t a ra tn hiu cnh bo ngi khc di di chng ngi vt


khi ng i ca robot. Cm bin siu m s dng nguyn l TO pht hin vt
cn.
Nguyn l TO

time of flight l nguyn l o khong cch bng thi gian

truyn ca sng. Phng php ny c c bit ng dng vi cc thit b s dng


sng siu m do vn tc di chuyn ca sng trong khng kh v trong cc vt liu khc
tng i chm, v ngi ta c th o c khong cch vi sai s nh (khong
343m/s trong khng kh).

Hnh 4.10 Nguyn l TOF


Phng php ny khng c dng trong cc thit b thu nhn sng in t, v
vn tc sng in t rt cao bng vi vn tc nh sng (300.000 km/s). Khong cch
t thit b pht n chng ngi vt c tnh bng vn tc ca sng trong mi trng
tng ng nhn vi mt na thi gian truyn ca sng.

68

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot


Trong , d l khong cch cn o, v l vn tc sng siu m trong mi trng
truyn sng, t l thi gian t lc sng c pht i n lc sng c ghi nhn li.
Phng php ny c mt nhc im l khi sng c pht ra, khng qun l
c cc sng tn x v phn x, ch bit rng a s nng lng sng phn x tp
trung vo tia phn x theo nguyn l gc ti bng gc phn x. Mt khc, ngoi tr
cc thit b siu m chuyn dng, cc cm bin siu m thng thng c gc m ln,
s dn n nhiu sai s.
Cc sai s thng gp trong khi s dng:
Sai s lp: l sai s lun xy ra vi tt c cc thit b o lng no, trong
c c cm bin siu m. Cm bin siu m SRF5 c nh sn xut cung
cp sai s lp l 3% so vi khong cch tr v ca cm bin.
Hin tng orceasting: l hin tng phn x gc sai lch ca cm bin.
o nguyn l TO , c khong cch ng, cm bin siu m phi hng
vung gc vi b mt chng ngi vt cn o. Tuy nhin, cc chng ngi vt
khng bao gi l phng, mn, nn tia phn x c th khng tng ng vi gc
ti. Cc chm tia phn x ny c nng lng phn x thp hn. Tuy vy,
mt khong cch no , cm bin siu m vn c th ghi nhn c nhng
tn hiu phn x ny. Kt qu, thng s c v ca cm bin siu m b lch do
gc m ca cm bin siu m ln.
Hin tng c ch o: l hin tng m cm bin siu m ny ghi nhn tn
hiu phn x hoc trc tip t cm bin siu m khc, hoc sau qu trnh sng
siu m truyn i v phn x qua cc b mt quay li cm bin mt cch
khng mong mun.
Sai s lp v hin tng forecasting l sai s khng th trnh khi khi s dng,
cn sai s do c ch o xy ra khi dng nhiu cm bin siu m mt lc, ti ch s
dng 1 cm bin nn khng xy ra sai s ny.
Cm bin siu m ti s dng l loi S R05 hnh 4.11 , tm hot ng 1cm4m, tn s 40 kHz.

69

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot

Hnh 4.11: Cm bin siu m SFR05


Nguyn l hot ng ca S R05: S R05 s pht ra mt xung vi tc 40kHz,
sau ch xung phn x v. T thi gian gia xung i v xung v, d dng tnh c
khong cch gia S R05 n vt cn.
Khi pht ra xung, v ch xung phn x v, chn ECHO ca SRF05 s c ko
ln cao. khi c xung phn x v chn ECHO s c ko xung thp, hoc sau 30ms
nu khng c xung phn x v.

Hnh 4.12: Biu thi gian ca SFR05

70

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot


o khong cch chnh l o thi gian chn ECHO mc cao. hong cch c
tnh theo cng thc:

45

u gii thu t
Robot s hot ng theo chu trnh nh sau:
+ Thng tin v cc trm dng (cc bnh nhn c a nhu yu phm) ca
robot c ci t.
+ Robot t ca i vo v bm theo line.
+ Nu n v tr ging bnh ca bnh nhn cn cung cp nhu yu phm
(nhn din bng RFID), robot s i vo khong trng gia 2 ging bnh v
tin hnh giao nhu yu phm v nhn tr li (nu c). Bnh nhn n nt
xc nhn vic giao v tr.
Robot i ra khi ging bnh v tip tc hnh trnh.
+ Nu c vt cn trn ng i, robot dng li v ra tn hiu yu cu trnh
ng.
+ Sau khi giao tr ton b, robot s i ra khi phng bnh.
Nh vy qu trnh hot ng ca robot cn lu tm ti 2 vn chnh l c tn

hiu t RFID v chy bm theo line. Qu trnh c tn hiu RFID s cho thng tin v
m th gn vi mi ging bnh, t so snh vi thng tin v bnh nhn c giao
nhu yu phm ci t lc cho robot hot ng. Qu trnh c mch bm line s cho
thng tin v lch ca robot so vi hnh trnh line c v s n. Nhng thng tin
ny s cung cp cho b x l chnh ca robot tin hnh x l.
u c tn hiu t u c R

CE630 nh hnh 4.13.

71

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot


B t u

o
ng lu c c
t
o
ng lu g tr c
c t u c t

Ng t RS232
Y

t u

tr u = 2?
Y

- c 10 g tr ti p v
lu v o
ng
- Chuy n c ng t
ASCII sang s
- c g tr cu i

tr cu i = 3?
Y

K tt

Hnh 4.13: u c RFID


72

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot


u bm line ca robot nh hnh 4.14

B t u

o
ng l ch
o
ng v n t c
tr i v p i

cg

tr port D

tr
c c c b ng g tr n o
trong
ng l ch?

Xu t v n t c tr i

L ch p

Xu t v n t c p

K tt

Hnh 4.14: u bm line


73

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot


T nhng kt qu trong vic bm line v c R

, lu hot ng ca robot

nh hnh 4.15:
B t u

Nh p c c tr m c n v o

N t Start?
Y
y theo line

Khng v t c n?

D ng robot

N
Ng t RS232
Y
N

r mc nv o
Y
o tr m, a tr m
trong danh s ch c n v o

N t OK?
Y

Ra tr m, ti p t c

nh tr nh

H t tr m?
Y
V v tr ban u

K tt

Hnh 4.15: u hot ng ca robot

74

Chng 4: H thng in v iu khin ca robot


u giao nhn khay nhu yu phm nh hnh 5.16

B t u

- M ng lu tr v tr c c
ay
ng tng ng v
b n n n

o ng v tr ?
Y

L y

ay
ng v
giao hng

B n n n n
nt xong hay 5 pht
qua?
Y

t
ay
ng v o
oang c a v b o
g ao n n ong

K tt

Hnh 4.16: u giao tr khay nhu yu phm

75

Chng 5: Thc nghim v kt qu t c

hng 5: h c nghi m v nh gi

t qu

5.1. Th c nghi m
Vi mc ch kim nghim gii thut bm ng kt hp vi nhn din trm t
ng bng phng php R

v pht hin vt cn bng cm bin siu m, ti thit

k 1 m hnh robot thu nh thc hin. M hnh robot thu nh c 2 ng c dn


ng 2 bnh xe thng qua b truyn ai rng, 1 bnh t la t pha sau, b tr nh
hnh 5.1

76

Chng 5: Thc nghim v kt qu t c

Hnh 5.1: M hnh th nghim


M hnh c kch thc 400 x 400 mm, chiu dy tm l 6mm c lm t
nhm. nh xe c ng knh 100 mm.
B truyn ai:
+ S rng puli ln: 42
+ S rng puli nh: 16
+ T s truyn: 2.6
ng c s dng c in p hot ng 12V, vn tc trc ra qua hp gim tc
l 100 vng/pht.
Vy vn tc ti a ca m hnh:
iu khin m hnh hot ng, mch in c thit k v kt ni vi cc
thit b theo nh s hnh 5.2 i vi master v hnh 5.3 i vi slave.

77

Chng 5: Thc nghim v kt qu t c

Hnh 5.2: S u dy master

Hnh 5.3: S u dy slave


78

Chng 5: Thc nghim v kt qu t c


Mi trng thc nghim:
+ M hnh chy theo s line trong khng gian 1,7 x 1,2 m, vi a hnh
tng i bng phng, b rng line l 40 mm
+ M hnh chy vi vn tc 0,1 m/s
+ C 4 trm c gn th RFID
+ Vt cn c t vo ng line c kch thc b mt i din vi cm
bin siu m t 4x4 cm tr ln, c th l mt cong hoc mt phng
S line th nghim s nh hnh 5.4. Vic iu khin s da vo s line
thc hin.

Hnh 5.4: S line


5.2. K t qu t c
V ch to m hnh:
+ Ch to thnh cng m hnh c kh th nghim theo nh thit k.
+ Ch to c mch iu khin chnh, mch bm ng, mch ngun v
driver cho ng c.
V hot ng ca m hnh:
+ M hnh chy bm c theo ng line v s n
+ Nhn din c cc trm bng RFID v r vo trm.
79

Chng 5: Thc nghim v kt qu t c


+ Pht hin c vt cn trn ng i v dng li cho n khi vt cn
c di di
nh gi kt qu:
+ M hnh hot ng theo ng chng trnh.
Cc module bm ng, RFID v cm bin siu m hot ng tt, c
bit l cm bin siu m.
+ Tuy nhin c xy ra li trong vic bm ng v nhn din RFID. Li
trong bm ng l m hnh i khi chy lch ng, cn li trong nhn din
RFID l b qua trm c ci t. Vi s ln th nh bng 5.1 th sai s trong
c RFID l 5%.
Nguyn nhn xy ra li trong qu trnh bm ng l do b nhi u bi ngun nh
sng bn ngoi. Cc quang tr c iu chnh cho thch hp vi lng nh sng nht
nh phn bit gia ng line v nn, khi lng nh sng t mi trng ngoi thay
i mnh s lm sai lch vi quang tr, t lm sai lch kt qu c c.
Nguyn nhn trong nhn din RFID l do tm c ca thit b trn thc t ngn
(3-4 cm nn khi u c v th khng nm trong phm vi th khng th nhn din
c. Hoc do u c b s c, d i qua th trong phm vi nhng khng nhn din
c th.

80

Chng 6: Tng kt v hng pht trin ca ti

hng 6:
61

nh gi

ng k t v h ng pht trin c

ti

t qu t c

ti thc hin c nhng yu cu c t ra:


+ Thit k c kt cu c kh cho robot phc v trong phng cch ly ca
bnh vin. Kt cu c kh linh hot trong di chuyn, k c vi khng gian cht
hp, v linh hot trong qu trnh cung cp v thu nhn nhu yu phm t bnh
nhn, to s thun tin trong qu trnh s dng cho h.
Tm c phng php dng xc nhn bnh nhn cng hng c
giao cho h phng php R

, phng php robot hot ng theo ng

l trnh nh s n bm ng , v phng php pht hin vt cn trn


ng i ca robot.
+ Thit k c h thng iu khin, h thng in, mch cng sut cho
ng c, mch bm ng cho robot.
+ Lp c lu gii thut hot ng cho robot.
+ S dng c phng php nhn din RFID v pht hin vt cn bng
cm bin siu m.
+ Ch to c m hnh dng th nghim gii thut iu khin trong
vic bm ng, nhn din trm bng RFID v pht hin vt cn bng cm
bin siu m.
Nhng hn ch ca ti:
+ Kt cu c kh c thit k ch c th cha nhng vt phm c kch
thc gii hn, c trong khay nh s n. hng c khoang cha nhng
thit b y t khc nu cn thit.
+ Robot ch c th pht hin c vt cn m khng c kh nng trnh vt
cn tip tc l trnh, tc nu vt cn khng di chuyn khi ng i th
robot s mi ng yn.

81

Chng 6: Tng kt v hng pht trin ca ti


u c R

c s dng trong m hnh th nghim l loi thng v

c tm hot ng khng xa, th s dng l loi b ng, v vy qu trnh c


th i khi xy ra li.
62

ng pht trin c

ti

nc ngoi cc robot phc v y t trong vic giao hng, thuc men, bnh n
v ang c p dng vo cc hot ng trong bnh vin phc v cho bnh
nhn, trong khi Vit Nam hu nh cha c bnh vin no s dng. Vi vic thit
k c kh v la chn phng php hot ng ca robot, ti bc u a nhng
ng dng ca robot trong vic phc v bnh nhn thuc khu vc cch ly Vit Nam.
Tuy nhin ti thc s i vo i sng cn phi hon thin thm kt cu c
kh robot c th mang thm nhiu loi hng ha hn, cha c cc thit b y t
kt hp cng vi bc s trong qu trnh chm sc bnh nhn ch khng ch n thun
l vn chuyn nhu yu phm. tng s thun tin cho bnh nhn, robot nn ci tin
kh nng giao hng t ng n tn tay bnh nhn. ng thi, phi ci tin phng
php hot ng robot c th hot ng theo l trnh nh s n, ng thi c kh nng
trnh c nhng chng ngi vt trong qu trnh hot ng. S dng nhng thit b
RFID tin tin hn bt chnh xc v tr bnh nhn, trnh nhng sai st trong qu
trnh hot ng

82

TI LIU THAM KHO


[1] Trnh Cht, Vn Uyn. Tnh ton h thng dn ng c kh. Nh xut bn
gio dc.
[2] Trn Thin Phc (2011). Thit k chi tit my cng dng chung. Nh xut bn
i hc quc gia Tp.HCM.
[3] Nguy n Hu Lc. C s thit k my. Nh xut bn i hc quc gia
Tp.HCM.
[4] Ninh c Tn. Dung sai v lp ghp. Nh xut bn gio dc Vit Nam.
[5] Ninh c Tn, Nguy n Th Xun By. Gio trnh dung sai lp ghp v k
thut o lng. Nh xut bn gio dc.
[6] L Phi Yn, Nguy n Nh nh, u Ph. K thut in t. Nh xut bn i
hc Quc Gia Tp.HCM.
[7] hnh in. V k thut c kh. Nh xut bn i hc Quc Gia Tp.HCM.
[8] Misumi. Catalog Misumi's Product of Misumi coperation.
[9] THK. Catalog THK's Product of THK coperation.
[10] HIWIN. Catalog HIWIN's Product of HIWIN coperation.

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