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Educational Functional Vision Evaluation

Learning Media Assessment

Expanded Core Curriculum Assessment

Student Name: Mikhail
Date of Evaluation: 8/28/2014
School: _______High School

Testing Tools Used
Basic Reading Inventory (10th ed.) by Jerry Johns Penlight
LEA letters for Near Assorted pens, balls, items
LEA letters for Distance Colored paint strips
DLM teaching resources self-care sequential cards Continuous text card (from
Lighthouse International)

Medical Information
Mikhail has been diagnosed with a visual impairment of X-linked juvenile retinoschisis and
persistent fetal vasculature syndrome in both eyes. Retinoschisis can be genetic, degenerative
and persistent. Persistent retinoschisis produces bleeds in the eyes due to abnormal
vascularization causing the individuals to see lines, shadows, or floaters. According to Mikhails
most recent eye report from Dr. Joseph Paviglianiti, Mikhails visual acuity in the right eye is
20/300 and his visual acuity in the left eye is 20/20. Additionally, Mikhail had a cataract
removed from his right eye in 2013.

Educational Functional Vision Assessment
The purpose of an Educational Functional Vision Assessment is to determine how Mikhail uses
his vision within the school environment in a variety of tasks and settings. A definitive acuity
measures not determined since lighting, distance, and size of objects cannot be controlled as in a
primary eye care providers office. An Educational Functional Vision Assessment considers the
following areas: Overall Appearance of the Eye, Near and Distance Vision, Visual Field, Visual
Motility, Visual Motor Skills, Color Vision, Depth Perception, Binocularity, and Lighting.
Observations are conducted as well.

This assessment was conducted within the school school environment in the high school
cafeteria during August 2014. The room was well lit with overhead fluorescent lighting and
there was minimal to no noise distractions. Mikhail wore his glasses during the assessment.

Overall Appearance of the Eye
When looking at Mikhails eyes, his right pupil was larger than the left pupil. Mikhail stated that
during his cataract surgery in 2013, his pupils were dilated and the right one never went back to
its normal size. When asked to look straight ahead, Mikhails right eye turned outward.

Near and Distance Vision
Acuity is the ability to distinguish details. Near vision generally refers to the use of vision within
12 to 14 inches from the eyes. Using the LEA letters chart for near visual acuity at 16 inches
away, Mikhail was asked to read each line starting at the top of the chart. Mikhail demonstrated
the ability to read on the 20/20 line, making only one error but then corrected himself when
asked to read a second time. Furthermore, using the Continuous Text Card (by Lighthouse
International), Mikhail read at the 20/20 line with no issues. Reading on the 20/20 line is
equivalent to reading 3 point font size.

Distance Vision refers to the use of vision from 18 inches and beyond. Using the LEA letters
chart, Mikhail read on the 20/20 line with no errors. Mikhail was also asked to identify common
objects at 30 feet away including the following: pencil, stapler, scissors, tape, glue stick, gum
band, battery, and paper clip. When presented with the battery, Mikhail moved to 8 feet away to
identify it. He stated that he could see the battery but was not able to see the details on it. There
were no other issues identifying the remaining common objects at 30 feet. When asked to
identify body movements and facial expressions, Mikhail had no trouble completing this task (30
feet away.)

Visual Fields
Visual field is the total area in which objects can be seen in the peripheral while the eye is
focused on a central point. Using an object attached to a ruler, Mikhail was asked to focus
straight ahead and identify the object by pointing to it when it comes into his visual field. In
Mikhails central upper field, he did display some field loss. Mikhail identified that he did notice
a change in this area. Furthermore, Mikhail stated that there were spots in his right central field
in which the item would be present and then quickly disappear.

Visual Motility
Visual Motility is the ability to attend, localize, and follow stimuli for efficient processing of
visual information. It also refers to the coordinated movements of the eyes to conditions in
which irregular eye movements occur. Utilizing a marker in different areas of the central field,
Mikhail was asked to localize and point to the object. He was able to successfully complete this
task indicating no problems with this skill. When given a picture of an assortment of objects,
Mikhail was asked to find hidden objects. Mikhail completed this task with 100% accuracy.

To test visual closure, Mikhail was asked to finish the drawing by completing the shapes.
Mikhail had no issues completing this task. Mikhail was also asked to copy the shape and had
no problems with this task either.

To test convergence, Mikhail was asked to focus on an object 16 inches away and then follow the
object as it gets closer to his face. Mikhail was unable to use both of his eyes to focus on the
object as it got closer indicating the inability to converge.

Visual Motor
Visual motor integration looks at the students ability to combine visual skills with motor ones
also known as eye-hand coordination. Giving Mikhail the picture of shapes to copy not only
tested visual motility but tested visual motor skills. Mikhails drawing was legible but was
similar to his writing which is slightly messy. A writing sample was observed and it contained
no punctuation, grammar, capitalization or spelling errors. Mikhail stated that he doesnt take his
time with writing which impacts his ability to write neat.

Localizing the marker in different areas of the central field was used to test visual motor, also.
Mikhail was able to complete this task by pointing directly to the marker with no issues. He
stated that when he could not find the object immediately in his fields, he would scan to locate it.

Visual Perception
Visual perception is the ability to interpret and understand visual stimuli. The visual stimuli
gathered from the environment is combined with our other senses and stored information to
derive meaning of the image. Using DLM teaching resources self-care sequential cards, Mikhail
was asked to put the cards in order based off of the pictures. This activity is designed to test
visual perception skills. Also, his visual perception skills were observed in the visual closure
activity where he was expected to finish each picture. Mikhail completed these activities quickly
and accurately indicating no issues with visual perception.

Color Vision
Color vision is the ability to discriminate various hues and saturations of colors. Using a sheet of
paper with different color paint dots, Mikhail was asked to match the correct color marker to the
matching paint dot. Mikhail identified and matched the markers with 100% accuracy. When
presented with the Color Testing Made Easy booklet by Dr. Terrace Waggoner, Mikhail was
asked to identify the shape in each picture. Each page of the book is designed to test a different
color deficiency. Mikhail completed the task successfully indicating no color vision issues.

Classroom Observations
Mikhail was observed in the regular education classroom in his second period english class. He
was an active participant by asking questions and leading classroom discussions. Mikhail chose
to sit in the back left hand corner where he had his own desk to work even though preferential
seating would be up close or on the right side of the classroom due to his visual acuities in the
right eye. The teacher stated that at the beginning of the year the classroom did not have enough
seats and Mikhail volunteered to sit in his current location. It was observed that Mikhail did not
demonstrate any issues sitting in the back and his teacher supported that observation by stating
how he is a class leader, is very bright, and advocates for himself if he needs to move closer.

Learning Media Assessment
The learning media assessment is an objective process of systematically selecting learning and
literacy media for students with visual impairments. This assessment process guides the
educational team in making decisions on the total range of instructional media needed to
facilitate learning for students with visual impairments. The learning media assessment, when
used in a meaningful and holistic manner, will provide essential information needed to develop
appropriate programs for all students, regardless of the level of vision or severity of additional

Sensory Learning Channels
Mikhails primary sensory channel is vision. He completes all of his classroom tasks such as
reading materials and exams visually. Mikhail can read regular print 16 inches away depending
on the size, complexity, and contrast of the material. Mikhail receives most of his work on his
laptop and will enlarge or adapt materials when needed especially during a flair up of his eye

Mikhails secondary sensory learning channel appears to be auditory. Mikhail will use read out
loud for books and other large text materials in conjunction with print. However, he does not use
read aloud materials often. He is being instructed on using his auditory learning channel incase
his vision gets worse.

His tertiary learning sense appears to be tactual. He does not use braille or tactual items for
learning unless he in vision class. Mikhail is being trained to learn braille and build up his
tactual sensitivity due to the possibility that his vision will get worse.

The best approach for Mikhails learning is a multi-sensory approach. This approach will help
him learn how to compensate for his vision when he is experiencing issues.

Using the Informal Reading inventory (5th edition) by Burns and Roe, Mikhail was tested using
reading word lists, reading passages, auditory reading passages and comprehension questions.
The reading graded word list is used to determine Mikhails ability to decode words within one
second or at sight. Mikhail read regular print reading word lists on a 12th grade level.

The silent reading passage was used to test Mikhails silent reading rates and comprehension.
The reading passages were short with approximately 250 regular print words.
Grade Sight Anaylsis Score
12 20/20 20/20 Independent

According to the Learning Media Assessment of Students with Visual Impairments (Koenig &
Holbrook), the target silent reading rate for 12th grade students is between 241 and 251 wpm.
Mikhail only read at 132 wpm however, he stated that he prefers to read at a slower rate to fully
grasp the information.

The oral reading passages were used to test Mikhails oral reading rates and comprehension. The
reading passages were approximately 200 regular print words.

According to the Learning Media Assessment of Students with Visual Impairments (Koenig &
Holbrook), the target oral reading rate for 12th grade students is 150 wpm. Mikhail read at 108
wpm but with 100% accuracy. He did not stumble over any words and enunciated each word

An auditory reading was also distributed to Mikhail. He read at 193 wpm with 63%
comprehension. Based on his reading results, Mikhail reads at a faster rate with auditory
material but comprehends more with visual material. A combination of both visual and auditory
material may be beneficial to Mikhail based on this assessment.

Writing and Typing
Mikhails handwriting can be difficult to read which is why most of his work is done on the
computer. However, when necessary, he can write legibly and read his own handwriting. If
Mikhail experiences a flare up with his visual impairment, Mikhail sticks strictly to the keyboard
and voice over on his computer. Mikhail was observed to take notes in class on the computer and
is a fluent typer. He has expressed his preference for using the keyboard because it makes
assignments a lot easier for him and for his teachers to grade.

Mikhail knows the braille code and is able to utilize the perkins brailler to write. He does not use
any other devices. Braille writing is being learned incase his vision gets worth or he experiences
a flair up.
Grade Print Silent Reading
on Scoring
12 standard 132 10/10 approx. 12
Grade Print oral reading
accuracy comprehen
12 Standard 108 100% 8/10 approx. 12

Expanded Core Curriculum Assessment (ECC)

Student: Mikhail
Date: 9/16/2014
School: Fox Chapel High School

Assessment Environments
Observations One on-one assessment periods in school
Student Interview Parent Interview

The Expanded Core Curriculum (ECC) is the body of knowledge and skills that are
necessary for students with visual impairments to learn. Typically, these skills are learned
incidentally by sighted students however, those with a visual impairment need to be taught
these concepts. The areas of the ECC include: compensatory skills, social skills, assistive
technology, sensory efficiency, orientation and mobility, adaptive living skills, recreation/
leisure, career education, and self-determination.

The following yearly screening is completed in order to determine the students skills in the areas
of the ECC. A (+) is used to indicate age appropriate, (-) is used for needs assessment, and NA is
used when this area is not applicable.

Sensory Efficiency
Sensory efficiency skills covers the area on how to integrate all remaining senses and use
remaining vision effectively. This component covers optical devices, communication devices,
hearing aids, and how to use residual vision.

ECC Areas * Notes
Sensory Efciency skills Resources 1,2,8,9,13,15
Developmental vision skills +
Proper care of glasses + yes, cleans thoroughly. Puts
glasses in a safe place after use.
use of low vision devices- near NA He doesnt use any devices
Use of low vision devices- far NA He doesn't use any devices
Proper care of low vision
ECC Areas

Independent Living Skills
Daily living skills consists of task and functions a person performs day to day. This area covers
hygiene, food preparation, money management, time management, organization, cleaning, etc.

Techniques to increase visual
+ Yes, he scans the environment
and tracks items when
Visually locate, track, and
* Notes ECC Areas
ECC Areas * Notes
Independent Living Skills Resources 5, 11
Eating & Table manners + His parents drilled into his head
eating and table manners. He
understands how to eat properly
such as chewing, no elbows on
table, etc.
Dressing + Understands how to dress
appropriately. Dresses himself.
Was observed to dress with
different social situations in
school and outside of school
Personal Hygiene & Grooming + Comes to school clean and
groomed well
Use of Telephone + Has a cellphone and knows how
to use it
Use of Calendar/planner + He has a calendar but doesn't
always use it
Time management + Procrastinates on assignments
but is very punctual. He will get
his work done but often is last
Measurement +
Organization (home
- He stated that he needs work in
this area. He said he is lazy
Clothing identication & care +
Food preparation + He enjoys cooking. Reported to
cook a lot at home
ECC Areas

Compensatory Skills
Compensatory skills involve the adaptations needed to access the core curriculum and day to day
life. This area includes specific techniques and strategies such as braille, large print, using
optical devices, and other skills that allow individuals to access information in the most efficient
way possible.

Housekeeping/ home
+ Can clean. One of his chores is
to vacuum.
Identication & management
of money
+ He likes to save money but will
often spend his extra money on
items at the mall.
Budgeting + Has a savings he is setting up
with his uncle
Dining Out skills + Understands the etiquette
Shopping + Loves shopping
Use of Personal Shopper NA
* Notes ECC Areas
ECC Areas * Notes
Compensatory Skills Resources 3, 4, 7, 8, 16, 17, 18,
19, 20
Concepts (space, time,
directions, quantity, sequence,
Organization - Stated that he needs work. he
tries to keep things electronically
auditory readiness +
Listening Skills + follows directions well
Management of Live Reader + Uses read out loud but does not
use it a lot. He knows how to use
it though
Study skills - Needs work. Tries to get
comprehensive knowledge
looking at everything but not
individual information.
Reference Skills + Can nd glossary in a dictionary.
Uses the internet to nd items
Note taking skills + Types notes because
handwriting is bad
ECC Areas

Recreation and Leisure
Recreation and leisure skills consist of activities involving teamwork, social interaction,
extracurricular activities, sports, etc.

Reading charts, graphs,
Map skills + Stated that he needed to learn
map skills before he got his
license. Parents rules
tactual readiness - Needs work. Learning braille not
but is reading about 26 wpm.
(learns braille for predatory
braille code + Knows the entire braille code.
Can read it visually but is slow at
tactual reading
Braille reading - Needs work. 26 wpm
use of braille writer and
+ Procient.
Slate and Stylus - Touched base on it with his old
vision teacher but doesnt ever
use it. He claims he will never
use it
nemeth code - At the algebra 1 level. Needs
more instruction
math formatting - Has not had a lot of instruction
on formatting
use of abacus - Needs refresher but feels like he
is ne with it
use of calculator +
Handwriting + Can read his own writing but is a
little messy
signature (w/guide) + Does not need a guide
Check writing guide + No guide needed
use of adaptations/
+ may magnify on computer when
* Notes ECC Areas

Orientation and mobility
This area of the ECC refers to the skills of traveling safely, efficiently, and effectively. It is a
vital part of the ECC because it promotes independence.

Recreation and leisure skills Resources 12
Exposure to games and
+ Participates in fencing
Knowledge of games and rules +
develop hobbies/special
+ Fencing, cooking, video games
participate in games and
independent access activities +
independently manage leisure
uses community resources +
Orientation and mobility Resources 14
Body awareness/image +
gross motor skills +
increase strength//stamina +
environmental concepts +
spatial concepts +
directionality +
search patterns +
protective technique +
trailing +
use in all senses in travel +
sighted guide + May need review
precane skills +

Assistive Technology
Assistive technology includes tools and devices that enhance communication, access, and
learning. Technology used consists of magnification software, screen readers, portable
notetakers, braillers, etc.

cane skills + Works with mobility instructor
once month. Knows 2 pt, 3 pt,
touch and slide, etc.
Independent/ safe travel + Travels independently without a
cane. Learns the cane for prep
Use of distant low vision
Request decline assitance +
Use of public transportation - Needs instruction; newer goal
Arrange personal
- Newer goal
Technology Resources 8, 19, 20
Keyboarding skills + Pretty good, types over 70 wpm
Use of computer + has a laptop; uses it everyday
Use of screen magnication +
Use of screen reader NA
use of electronic braille note
NA does not use
Use of braille mbosser - Needs instruction. Has not ever
Use of standard printer +
use of scanner +
Use of word processing +
use of spread sheets +
use of powerpoint +
use of closed circuit television NA

Social Interactive skills
This area of the ECC cores interaction and communication verbally and non-verbally. Social
skills include body language, gestures, facial expressions, relationships, self-control, etc. These
set of skills help individuals interact with others.

Self-determination is the power or ability to make decision for one self. This area of the ECC
assists in the individuals ability to perform a task successfully, overcome learned helplessness,
set goals, and become more independent.
Managing/securing equipment +
use of audio reading devices +
use of recorder for notes NA
Social Interactive Skills Resources 10
Self-concept + Condent
posture - Slouches, states because he is
Nonverbal communication +
Face and eye contact +
Social interaction with peers + Has lots of friends
Social interaction with adults + Does this well
manners and ettiquite + Very polite
Knowledge of social
emotional awareness +
Knowledge of human secuality +
accepts/declines assitance +
Self- Determinations Resources 6, 19

Career Education
This area of the ECC is the skill set needed to help individuals work or go to school (continue

Knowledge of disability and
+ Does this well with teachers and
his IEP team
self advocacy for needs + Communicates well
Knows and uses resurces +
Knowledge of strengths and
Setting and reaching goals + Has lots of goals especially for
college and his future
career goals identied + go to college for engineering
then maybe medical school
Career Education Resources 6, 19
Career/job awareness +
Interest/aptitude awareness +
Career exploration + Interested in engineering and
medical eld
Career preparation +
Job search skills
Application and interview
+ Never been interviewed outside
mock interview. has had a lot of
instruction on it though.
Volunteer work + Has volunteered before
paid work experience +
job modication awareness/
+ understands his needs and what
he will need to do for them
Predictors of successful
laws re:disabled person - Does not know a lot of the laws.
He does know that you are not
allowed to ask someone about
their disability in an interview

Recommendations of Assessments

Mikhail is a 12th grade student who will be graduating in May 2015 and continuing his
education at a post-secondary school. He is a student who is in need of preparatory instruction
incase his vision gets worse in the future or for when he experiences a flare up. The following
are recommendations based off of the evaluations and observations completed:
Due to his visual impairment, preferential seating and the ability to move around in the
classroom in order to facilitate best viewing should be given (near the front or on the ride side).
Due to his visual impairment, Mikhail should continued instruction in braille and nemeth for
preparatory reasons.
Due to his visual impairment, Mikhail should avoid activities in which objects may be thrown
at his face or could result in a blow to the head.
Due to his visual impairment, Mikhails written assignments and homework should be typed.
Upon request, Mikhail should be given electronic formatted assignments, homework, and other
classroom materials.
It is suggested that Mikhail be allowed auditory and print materials for reading assignments
based on his reading inventory scores.
Based off his current travel skills and his visual impairment, Mikhail should continue
instruction with an orientation and mobility instructor to learn more advanced skills such as
transportation, crossing streets, business district travel, etc.
Due to his visual impairment, Mikhail should continue to learn assistive technology devices
that produce voice output.
Due to his visual impairment, Mikhail should be given extra time on assignments or classroom
work, upon request, when he is experiencing issues with his vision.
Due to his visual impairment, Mikhail qualifies for services with OVR/BVS and should
continue with transition services into his post-secondary education.