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GabrielS.

Gusmo
Dr.Tam
CHE175B
DueonMay30
th
,2012

Chemical Process Design Problem Set 3


1. A pipeline constructed of carbon steel failed after 3 years of operation. On
examination it was found that the wall thickness had been reduced by corrosion to
about half the original value. The pipeline was constructed of nominal 100 mm
(4 in) schedule 40, pipe, inside diameter 102.3 mm (4.026 in), outside diameter
114.3 mm (4.5 in). Estimate the rate of corrosion in ipy (inches per year) and mm
per year.
The aveiage iate of coiiosion pei yeai, thioughout the thiee consecutive yeais of
exposuie to the enviionment can be obtaineu by analyzing the thickness (t) loss.
t
0
= (114.S mm - 1u2.S mm)2 = 2 mm
t
3
= u.S 6 mm = S mm or u.118 in
Theiefoie;
t

= 6 mm (1 - u.S) S ycors = 1mm year ur . 35 |py


2. The pipeline described in question 1 was used to carry wastewater to a holdup
tank. The effluent is not hazardous. A decision has to be made on what material to
use to replace the pipe. Three suggestions have been made:
a. Replace with the same schedule carbon steel pipe and accept renewal at 3
year intervals.
b. Replace with a thicker pipe, schedule 80, outside diameter 114.3 mm (4.5
in), inside diameter 97.2 mm (3.826 in).
c. Use stainless steel pipe, which will not corrode.
The estimateu cost of the pipes, pei unit length is scheuule 4u caibon steel $S, scheuule 8u
caibon steel $8.Su, stainless steel (Su4) scheuule 4u $24.8u. Installation anu fittings foi all
the mateiials auus $16.Su pei unit length. The uowntime iequiieu to ieplace the pipe uoes
not iesult in a loss of piouuction. If the expecteu futuie life of the plant is 7 yeais,
iecommenu which pipe to use.
Answei: The cost pei unit of length (C

) of each alteinative foi the expecteu futuie life of


the plant of 7 yeais can be estimateu as follows.
GabrielS.Gusmo
Dr.Tam
CHE175B
DueonMay30
th
,2012

= C

mutcuI
+ C

nstuIIuton

Since the scheuule 4u caibon steel pipe has to be ieplaceu eveiy thiee yeais anu the
expecteu futuie life of the plant is 7 yeais, the cost that incuis fiom installing anu fitting
the pipe will occui thiee times: in the yeai u, S anu 6.
C

CSschcd40
= ($S.uu + $16.Su) S = $64.Su
Foi the scheuule 8u caibon steel pipe, its ieplacement iate can be estimateu by assuming
that the coiiosion iate on the pipe walls is the same as foi the scheuule 4u caibon steel
pipe anu that the maximum alloweu thickness at which the pipe may be susceptible to
failuie is the same as the pievious question, wheieas they aie maue of the same mateiial.
t
0
= (114.S mm - 97.2 mm) 2 = 8.SS mm or u.SS7 in
t
ct
= S mm or u.118 in = u.SS7 in - t

t
t S.S ycors
Theiefoie, assuming that the ieuuction in the caibon steel pipe innei uiametei uue to the
inciease in scheuule uoes not affect the piocess, the scheuule 8u caibon steel pipe woulu
have to be ieplaceu one moie time befoie the plant ceases its opeiation.
C

CSschcd80
= ($8.Su + $16.Su) 2 = $49.6u
As the stainless steel uoes not suffei coiiosion, its cost incuis only once, anu it tuins to be
the best alteinative.
C

SS34
= $24. 4 + $1. 5 = $4. 9 (Bext Opt|un)

GabrielS.Gusmo
Dr.Tam
CHE175B
DueonMay30
th
,2012

3. Six tanks of different construction materials and six different materials to be stored
in these tanks are listed in the following columns:
Tanks Materials
BrassLined 2u% hyuiochloiic aciu
Carbon Steel 1u% caustic soua
Concrete 7S% Phosphoiic Aciu Foi foou Piouucts
NickelLined 98% sulfuiic aciu
Stainless Steel Type 316 vinegai
Wood Watei
All tanks must be useu, anu all mateiials must be stoieu without using moie than one tank
foi any one mateiial. Inuicate the mateiial that shoulu be stoieu in each tank.
Answei: Fiom the uata available foi coiiosion chaiacteiistics foi some mateiials of
constiuctions in the couise iefeience book anu class lectuie on mateiials anu coiiosion,
the constiuction mateiial foi each solution can be assesseu.
Biass (Coppei Alloy):
Coiiosion iesistance to stiong alkalis, except ammonium hyuioxiue
Resistant against oiganic solvents anu oiganic acius.
Nickel Alloys (Chiomium, Coppei, Iion, Nolybuenum):
Resistance to sulfuiic aciu, hyuiochloiic acius, salt watei anu some caustic
enviionments.
Withstanus attack fiom hot concentiateu aqueous solutions containing
chloiiue ions.
Cement anu Conciete (Peiiy et al.)
Limiteu iesistance to acius anu bases anu will fail mechanically following
absoiption of ciystalfoiming solutions such as biines anu vaiious oiganic.
Woou (Peiiy et al.|1j anu |2j)
Faiily ineit chemically, woou is ieauily uehyuiateu by concentiateu solutions.
It is also slowly hyuiolyzeu by acius anu alkalis, especially when hot. In tank
constiuction, if sufficient shiinkage once takes place to allow ciystals to foim
between the staves, it becomes veiy uifficult to make the tank tight again.
GabrielS.Gusmo
Dr.Tam
CHE175B
DueonMay30
th
,2012

Chemical
Component Brass
Carbon
Steel Nickel
Stainless
Steel 316
20% HCl sol. N N A N
10% NaOH sol. N A A A
75% H
3
PO
4
sol. C A C
98% H
2
SO
4
sol. N A N
Vinegar A A A A
A = acceptable; C = cautious use at ceitain conuitions; N = not iecommenueu
By alteinative analysis anu mateiial compatibility pioviueu it is possible to match each
specific solution to the piefeiieu tank which mateiial has iesistance against.
Tank Material
Chemical
Component
BrassLined Watei
Carbon Steel [1] 1u% Na0B sol.
Concrete 98% B
2
S0
4
sol
NickelLined 2u% BCl sol.
Stainless Steel Type 316 [2] 7S% B
S
P0
4
sol.
Wood vinegai
Fiom geneial knowleuge, as sugai anu othei caibohyuiates feimentation foi alcoholic
beveiage piouuction usually takes place in woouen baiiels, vinegai, which is a fuithei
step of the feimentation piocess, coulu piobably be stoieu in woouen tanks. Conciete
shoulu not be useu with watei given that it piesents ceitain peimeability foi watei with
the time.
References
I. Tuiton, R.; Bailie, R.C.; Whiting, W. B.; Shaeiwitz, }. A.; Anaysis, Synthesis and Design of
Chemical Processes S
iu
eu.; 2u1u by Pientice Ball PTR.
II. Petei, N. S.; Timmeihaus, K. B.; Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers;
Fouith Euition; NcuiawBill, 1991.