# Electronics I lab

EE277

Objectives:
1. To learn how to measure the amplifier characteristics. 2. To investigate the common emitter and common collector amplifiers.

Equipments required:
1. 2N222 NPN transistor. 2. Resistors (68kΩ , 27kΩ , 1kΩ , 680Ω , 10kΩ, 470Ω). 3. Potentiometer. 4. Capacitors (10µF). 5. DC-voltage supply. 6. Function generator (Oscillator). 7. Digital Multimeter (DMM). 8. Oscilloscope. 9. Project board. 10. Coupling wires. 11. Probes.

Theory:
(1) Common Emitter Amplifier: The common emitter amplifier is a transistor circuit at which the input voltage connected to the base, and the output voltage is at collector, as in Figure 7-1.

Figure 7-1 In Figure 7-1(a), the circuit is called unbypassed, because at AC the emitter is not shorted, but the circuit in Figure 7-1(b) is called bypassed, because at AC the capacitor is shorted. For unbypassed amplifier: The ac equivalent circuit is as shown in Figure 7-2. So the ac-parameters are as follows: Z i = R1 // R2 // [βre + (β + 1)RE ]

Z o = RC // rc but rc >> RC ⇒ Z o ≅ RC V − β ib RC Av = o = Vi ibβ re + (β + 1)ib RE
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Electronics I lab

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Figure 7-2 If β >> 1 then (β + 1) ≅ β and: V − β i b RC RC Av = o = =− V i i b β(re + R E ) re + R E I V Z V Z Z RC R1 // R2 // [β re + (β + 1)R E ] Ai = o = o o = o . i = Av i = − I i Vi Z i Vi Z o Zo re + R E RC And if load resistance is connected, the voltage gain will be: V R // R L Av = o = − C Vi re + R E For bypassed amplifier: The ac equivalent circuit is as shown in Figure 7-3, the only different is that the capacitor connected across R E terminals will be short circuit, so R E will be shorted.

RE = 0Ω Z i = R1 // R2 // βre

Figure 7-3

Z o = RC // rc but rc >> RC ⇒ Z o ≅ RC V R − β i b RC Av = o = =− C Vi i b β re re Z R R // R 2 // β re R1 // R2 // β re I V Z V Z Ai = o = o o = o . i = Av i = − C 1 = Zo re RC re I i Vi Z i Vi Z o And if load resistance is connected, the voltage gain will be: V R // R L Av = o = − C Vi re
(2)

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Electronics I lab

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Common Collector Amplifier: In this amplifier, the input voltage applied on the base while the output voltage is read at the emitter as shown in Figure 7-4.

Figure 7-4 Then the ac equivalent circuit will be as shown in Figure 7-5.

Z i = R1 // R2 // [βre + (β + 1)RE ]

Figure 7-5

Z o = R E // re but re << R E ⇒ Z o ≅ re (β + 1)i b R E βi b R E V RE ≅ = , since re << R E then : Av = o = V i i b β re + (β + 1)i b R E β i b (re + R E ) re + R E Av ≅ 1

Experimental Procedure:
• We connected the circuit shown in Figure 7-6.

Figure 7-6

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Electronics I lab
We measured the used resistors and register their actual values as in Table 7-1: Labeled value Measured value R1 68 kΩ 67.3 kΩ R2 27 kΩ 26.46 kΩ RC 1 kΩ 1.006 kΩ RE 680 Ω 679.9 Ω Table 7-1 The calculated dc conditions are as follows: R2 27 k VTh = VCC = ( 15 ) = 4.263V R1 + R 2 68 k + 27 k

EE277

RTh = R1 // R 2 =
∴V B = VTh

R1 R 2 ( 68 k )( 27 k ) = = 19.32 kΩ R1 + R 2 68 k + 27 k = 4.263V
V E 3.563 = = 5.24 mA RE 680

V BE = V B − V E ⇒ V E = V B − V BE = 4.263 − 0.7 = 3.563V ∴ IC = I E =

∴VC = VCC − I C RC = 15 − ( 5.24 × 10 − 3 )( 1 × 10 3 ) = 9.76V • VCE = VC − V E = 9.76 − 3.563 = 6.2V The measured values were as in Table 7-2: ParaCalculated Measured % error meter value value VC 9.76 V 10.77 V 10.34 % VE 3.563 V 3.1 13 % VCE 6.2 V 7.6 22% IE 5.24 mA 4.56 mA 12.98 % Table 7-2 0.026 , The dynamic resistance of the emitter was re = IE So the measured and calculated values as in Table 7-3. Para Measured Calculated % error -meter value value re 5.7 Ω 5Ω 12.3 % Table 7-3 To measure the open circuit voltage gain, we measured the input ac voltage and the output ac voltage and found that: Vi = 4V p-p & Vo = 6Vp-p So the voltage gain is: V 6 Av = o = = 1.5 Vi 4 Compared with the theoretically value: RC 1 × 10 3 = −1.46 Av = − =− RE + re 680 + 5 In general, the open circuit voltage gain values were as in Table 7-4.

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Electronics I lab
Parameter Av

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Calculated Measured % error value value 1.46 1.5 2.74 % Table 7-4 The input resistance:( β = 100) The theoretical value is: Z i = R1 // R2 // [β re + (β + 1)R E ] = RTh // [β(re + R E )] = 19.32 k // 68.5 k

( 19.32 k )( 68.5 k ) = 15.07 kΩ 19.32 k + 68.5 k The measured value was: Z i = 17 kΩ So, the error was in Table 7-5. Para- Calculated Measured % error meter value value Zi 15.07 k 17 k 12.8 % Table 7-5 The output resistance: The theoretical value is: Z o = RC = 1kΩ The measured value was: Z o = 1009Ω The two values were as in Table 7-6. Para- Calculated Measured % error meter value value Zo 1 kΩ 1.009 kΩ 0.9 % Table 7-6 A 10-kΩ resistor was connected as a load, then the voltage gain was reduced to 1.3. Theoretically: R // R L 1k // 10 k 0.91 =− =− = −1.33 Av = − C re + R E 5 + 680 685 The two values and the error are in Table 7-7. Para- Calculated Measured % error meter value value Av 1.33 1.3 2.26 % Table 7-7 When a 470-Ω load resistance is connected, the voltage gain theoretically is: R // R L 1k // 470 319.73 =− =− = −0.467 Av = − C re + R E 5 + 680 685 When it was measured, it was: Av = 0.45 The two values and the error are in Table 7-8. Para- Calculated Measured % error meter value value Av 0.467 0.45 3.64 % Table 7-8 ∴ Zi =

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Electronics I lab •

EE277

Then, we started to change the input voltage and reads the output voltage, until the output signal started to be distorted, the maximum output swing was: Vo(max) = 4.4V p− p We connected the common collector amplifier circuit as shown in Figure 7-7.

Figure 7-7 And measured the open circuit voltage gain which was 1.1, compared with the theoretically voltage gain 1. See Table 7-9. Para- Calculated Measured % error meter value value Av 1 1.1 10 % Table 7-9 The input and output resistance was calculated as follows: V B = VTh = 4.263

V E = V B − V BE = 4.263 − 0.7 = 3.563V 3.563 = 5.24 mA 680 0.026 ∴ re = = 5Ω 5.24 × 10 − 3 Z i = R1 // R2 // [β(re + R E )] = 19.32k // 68.5 k = 15.07 kΩ IC = I E =

Z o = R E // re but re << R E ⇒ Z o ≅ re = 5 Ω Av ≅ 1 Measured values and error was as in Table 7-10. Para- Calculated Measured meter value value Zi 15.07 kΩ 17 kΩ
Zo
5Ω 9Ω Table 7-10

% error 13 % 80 %

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Conclusions:
1. In common emitter amplifier, we can amplify both voltage and current. 2. The input resistance in common emitter amplifier is high (In kΩ ranges), which satisfy one of the ideal amplifier characteristics. 3. The output voltage has 180ْ angle phase from the input voltage. 4. The output resistance in the common emitter amplifier is high. 5. When a very high load resistance (RL >> RC) is connected the voltage gain will be less than the open circuit voltage gain but with very little difference. 6. When low resistance is connected with the amplifier the voltage gain will decrease. 7. In common collector amplifier, only the current is amplified but the voltage remains at the same value of input. 8. The input resistance of common collector amplifier is as high as it of common emitter. 9. The output resistance of common collector amplifier is very small. 10. To have an amplifier network with a voltage gain and high input resistance and low output resistance we can make a cascaded network, where the input stage is common emitter and the output stage is the common collector. 11. There is some range of input voltage to get an output voltage signal without distortion. There are some errors appeared in this experiment with are related to: 1. Personal errors. 2. Thermal and time drift of the electronic and electric components used in the experiment. 3. Error in reading the results. 4. The resolution in the measurement devices. 5. Miller effect of the transistor which were not included in our calculations.

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