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Chemistry SK 027: Kolej Matrikulasi Pulau Pinang

Experiment 2: Electrochemical Cells

EXPERIMENT 2: ELECTROCHEMICAL CELL

NAME SITI NUR FATIHAH BT AB MANAF

MATRIC MS0913510874
NUMBER

PARTNER’S NUR SYAMIMI BT SELAMAT


NAME

PRACTICUM H1P1

DATE 4 DISEMBER 2009

Item Scheme Mar


k
Tittle Electrochemical Cells
Objectives 1.To construct electrochemical cells.
2.To arrange Al,Zn,Mg,Fe and Cu in an electrochemical
series.
3.To determine the Faraday’s constant by electrolysis of
CuSO4 solution.
Introduction There are two types of electrochemical cells: galvanic and
electrolytic cells.
A galvanic cell is an electrochemical cell in which redox
reaction occurs spontaneously to generate electricity.
For a cell that is connected by a salt bridge,oxidation will
occur at anode and this causes electrons to flow to
cathode where reduction will occur.
A standard reduction potential is defined as a reduction
potential obtained at a standard condition where the
concentration of solution is 1.0 M,the gas partial pressure
is 1 atm and temperature is 25°C.The standard reduction
potential values are arranged in a certain order and the
list is known as the Standard Reduction Potential Table or
the emf series.
The potential difference between two metals in an
electrochemical cell is called cell potential.The cell
potential or the cell voltage at the standard condition is :
E°cell = E°cathode - E°anode

In other conditions,the cell potential can be calculated by


using Nernst equation.
Ecell = E°cell –0.0592/n log Q

In this experiment,cell potential is obtained from the


Chemistry SK 027: Kolej Matrikulasi Pulau Pinang
Experiment 2: Electrochemical Cells

voltmeter reading.By inserting the value and the


concentration of electrolyte in Nernst equation,standard
cell potential,E°cell can be determined.
An electrolytic cell uses electricity to produce chemical
changes in electrolyte.The cell is made up of two
electrodes connected to battery which functions as a
source of direct current.During electrolysis,cations are
reduced at cathode while anions are oxidized at
anode.The amount of substance formed at each electrode
can be predicted based on Faraday’s first and second law.

Procedure 1. The metal strips were cleaned with abrasive cloth.


(A). Galvanic Cell 2. A 50mL beaker was filled with 35 mL of 0.1 M
CuSO4 and the other beaker with 0.1 M ZnSO4.
3. The apparatus was set up as shown.

4. The cell potential was recorded.


5. Steps 1- 4 was repeated by replaced Zn2+\Zn half
cell with a
a) Magnesium strip in 0.1 M MgSO4
b) Aluminium strip in 0.1 M Al(NO3)3
c) Iron strip in 0.1 M FeSO4
1. The metals were arranged in ascending order of
strength as reducing agents.
(B)
Chemistry SK 027: Kolej Matrikulasi Pulau Pinang
Experiment 2: Electrochemical Cells

Determination of
Faraday’s 1. A copper electrode was cleaned with a piece of
Constant. abrasive cloth.
2. The copper electrode was weighed accurately.
3. The Apparatus was set up as shown by fixing
copper as the cathode and the carbon electrode as
the anode.
4. The circuit was completed by connecting the wires
from each electrode to the ammeter and
transformer.The transformer was set with a voltage
of 3V to supply the direct current.
5. The electrolysis was run for exactly 15 minutes and
the ammeter reading was recorded.
6. The observation of each electrode ware recorded.
7. The circuit was disconnecting after 15 minutes.
8. The copper strip was dried using a hair dryer.
9. The copper strip was weighed again.
10.The mass of copper deposited was calculated.The
Faraday’s constant was determined.

Data/Result (A) Galvanic Cell

Electrode Voltmeter
reading
Zn/Zn2+//Cu2+/Cu 0.55 V

Mg/Mg2+ //Cu2+/Cu 0.67 V

Al/Al3+//Cu2+/Cu 0.71 V

Fe/Fe2+//Cu2+/Cu 0.40V

(B) Determination of Faraday’s constant

Mass of copper electrode before 0.175


electrolysis 6g

Mass of copper electrode after 0.334


electrolysis 3g

Mass of deposited copper 0.158


Chemistry SK 027: Kolej Matrikulasi Pulau Pinang
Experiment 2: Electrochemical Cells

7g

Ammeter reading 0.50 A

Time 900 s

Observation : i. On Carbon
electrode:
Bubble of O2 gas is produced.

ii. On Copper
electrode :
Metal deposited

(from CuSO4 SOLUTION;Cu2+)

Calculation (A) Galvanic Cell.

-Arrange the metal in the order of increasing strength of


reducing agent according to the E°cell value

Fe, Zn,Mg,Al

- Explain/Give reason

Standard Reduction Potentials provide a direct measure


of the relative strength of reducing agents and oxidising
agent. The more negative value of the E°cell the tendency
for it to behave as an reducing agent is higher. The
stronger reducing agent in this experiment is Aluminium
(Al) and Iron (Fe) the weaker reducing agent.

(B) Determination of Faraday’s number.


-Calculation

Number of mole of Cu: 0.1587/63.5


= 2.4992x10-3mole

Q=It
=0.50x(15×60)
=450C

2.4992X10-3mole Cu = 450 C
Chemistry SK 027: Kolej Matrikulasi Pulau Pinang
Experiment 2: Electrochemical Cells

1 mole Cu = (1x450)/(2.4992x10-3)
= 1.8006x105 C/mol

Cu2+(aq) + 2e  Cu(s)

1 mole Cu = 2 F = 1.8006x105 C/mol


1 F = 90030 C/mol

Discussion (A) Galvanic Cell

1.Aluminium electrode and copper electrode has highest


cell potential. So, this pair of electrode has longest
distance in electrochemical series.
2.Copper is placed at a lowest position compared with
others. Thus copper is serves as positive terminal
(cathode)
3. The further the distance between the metals in
electrochemical series.
4.The theoritical order of increasing strength of reducing
agent according to the Eocell value is Fe, Zn, Al, Mg.
5.However for this experiment get the Eocell value for
Aluminium (Ag) is greater compare than Magnesium
(Mg). This is because quality of Mg used for this
experiment is not good. So that the strength of reducing
agent of Mg is lower than Al.

(B) Determination of Faraday’s Number.

1.The theoretical value of 1 Faraday is equal to 96500 C.


2. However for this experiment Faraday’s constant is
90030 C /mol.
Some of error make the different value of Faraday’s
constant is:
1) Transformer is not function as well.
2) The wires that connecting from each electrode to
the ammeter and transformer is not following the
procedure.

The crocodile clip enters a solution and this might effect


of ammeter and transformer readings.

Conclusion -The metal is ascending order of strength as reducing


Chemistry SK 027: Kolej Matrikulasi Pulau Pinang
Experiment 2: Electrochemical Cells

agents is Fe, Zn,Mg, Al


-The Faraday’s costant by electrolysis of CuSO4 solution is
90030 C/mol.