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fy¥¢S¢hnÄ, Bj¡−cl j¡e¤−ol¡ J p¤¤−h¡d −O¡o
Su¿¹ i–Q¡kÑ
j¡LÑp HLh¡l p¡¢q−aÉl B−m¡Qe¡ Ll−a ¢N−u H−‰mp-−L ¢m−M¢R−me - “I prefer hundred
Zolas to one Balzac.” HlLj −mM¡l fVi¨¢j ¢Rm, gl¡¢p p¡¢q¢aÉL H¢jm −S¡m¡ −ppju S¡¢jÑe¡m -Hl
j−a¡ EfeÉ¡p ¢mM−Re −kM¡−e Ec£uj¡e gl¡¢p nË¢jL−nËZ£l Lb¡, a¡−cl SeÉ pj−hce¡ M¤h Øfø i¡o¡u
hÉš² Ll−Rez Bh¡l h¡mS¡−Ll j−a¡ fËhm n¢š²n¡m£ EfeÉ¡¢p−Ll EfeÉ¡−p dl¡ gl¡¢p pj¡−Sl Lb¡J
epÉ¡v Ll¡ k¡−μR e¡z H L¡l−Z M¡¢eLV¡ ¢àd¡¢ZÄa ehÉk¤h¡ pj¡Sa¿»£ f¡WL pj¡−Sl fËnÀ ¢Rm - −L −hn£
NËqZ£u? −S¡m¡ e¡ h¡mS¡L? Hl Sh¡−h j¡LÑp-Hl HC ¢hMÉ¡a E¢š²z −S¡m¡ pl¡p¢l nË¢jL−nËZ£l f−r
cy¡¢s−u−Rez h¡mS¡L −p L¡S L−le ¢ez a¡ p−aÆJ HL−n¡ Se −S¡m¡l Q¡C−a HLSe h¡mS¡L i¡−m¡?
j¡LÑp-Hl ¢h−nÔoZ¢V h−s¡ j−e¡NË¡q£z k¢cJ −S¡m¡ nË¢jL−nËZ£−L ¢e−u ¢m−M−Re, −p −mM¡, j¡LÑp-Hl
d¡lZ¡e¤k¡u£, h¡Ù¹−hl −g¡−V¡NË¡¢g q−u−Rz EyQ¥ S¡−al p¡¢qaÉ qu ¢ez Bl öd¤ j¡LÑp −Le Bjl¡J −h¡d
qu HLV¥-BdV¥ S¡¢e −k, p¡¢qaÉ Bl k¡C −q¡L h¡Ù¹−hl −g¡−V¡NË¡¢g euz h¡mS¡−Ll p¡¢q−aÉ HC
−g¡−V¡NË¡¢g eu, lš²-j¡wp-O¡j-AnË¥-l h¡Ù¹−hl p¡¢qaÉ-¢Qœ °a¢l q−u−Rz ay¡l q¡−aC pª¢ø q−u−R La
Comédie Humaine-Hl j−a¡ A¢hØjlZ£u p¡¢qaÉLjÑz SeÈ ¢e−u−R La Grande Breteche-l a¥mÉ
¢nq¢la Ll¡l j−a¡ ¢hØjuLl pª¢øz
Ha…−m¡ Lb¡ −n¡e¡l f−l j−e q−a f¡−l q-k-h-l-m -l eÉ¡s¡l N¡−el j−a¡ i¢ea¡ −Le? M¤h
pw−r−f Ešl¢V HlLjz p¤¤−h¡d −O¡−ol c¤¢V NÒf - Ak¡¢¿»L Hhw g¢pm - ¢e−u B¢j Lb¡ hm−h¡z Hl
Q¡C−a hm¡ i¡−m¡ H c¤¢V NÒf ¢e−u B¢j HL dl−Zl sketchy (−lM¡¢Qœm?) f¡−Wl fË−Qø¡u la qhz
AeÉ AeÉ f¡W−Ll¡ a¡−cl j−a¡ L−l f¡W Ll−hez ph f¡W ¢j¢m−u Hhw H ph f¡W−LJ œ²j¡Na
A¢aœ²j Ll−a Ll−a NÒf…−m¡l BMÉ¡e h¡ eÉ¡−l¢Vi °a¢l q−h k¡l −L¡e¢VC N−Òfl AbÑ ¢edÑ¡l−Zl
−r−œ HLj¡œ eu - pÇf¨ZÑa hýj¡¢œL q−u b¡L−h NÒf…−m¡, AeÉ ph pª¢øL−jÑl j−a¡z
c¤¢V NÒf-C −mM¡ q−u−R 1940 p¡−mz pju h−s¡ …l¦aÆf§ZÑ L¡¢q¢e…−m¡l B−m¡Qe¡l −r−œ - ¢L
fVi¨¢j ¢q−p−h, ¢L BiÉ¿¹l£e Ef¡c¡e ¢q−p−hz fËb−j fVi¨¢j ¢q−p−h −cM¡ k¡Lz 1940 p¡−m L−õ¡m-Hl
(1923-1935) EμR¡p ¢Ù¹¢ja q−u H−p−Rz p¡¢q−aÉl SN−a lh£¾cÊe¡−bl phÑN¡Ë p£ fËaÉr fËi¡h
−plLji¡−h Ae¤ih Ll¡ k¡−μR e¡z ¢L¿¹ L−õ¡m-Hl al−g −p¡μQ¡−l −O¡¢oa j¡LÑp J é−u−Xl fË¢a
Be¤NaÉ Ec£uj¡e eh£e −mMLL¥m−L k−bø f¢lj¡−Z fË¡¢Za Ll−Rz Hl j¡−T i¡l−al L¢jE¢eø f¡¢VÑl
p¡wú«¢aL fËi¡h phÑi¡la£u −r−œ ¢LoZQ¾cl, j¤mLl¡S Be−¾cl j−a¡ −mML−cl ea¥e dl−Zl p¡j¡¢SL
Hhw pj¡Sa¡¢¿»L h¡Ù¹ha¡ ¢e−u −mM¡l −h±¢ÜL fVi¨¢j °a¢l L−l−Rz −fËjQy¡c-J IPTA-l p−‰ k¤š² qh¡l
a¡¢Nc Ae¤ih Ll−Rez pj¡Sa¡¢¿»L l¡¢nu¡l Apñh n¢š²n¡m£ p¡¢qaÉpñ¡l ea¥e p¢qaÉ pª¢øl Evpj¤M
Ah¡¢la L−l ¢c−μRz B−lL¢c−L Bm−hÉu¡l L¡j¤, é¡evp L¡gL¡ Bl Sy¡ fm p¡aÑ-l lQe¡ c¤¢eu¡−L
Ty¡L¥¢e −ch¡l L¡S Ll−Rz fy¥¢Sl c¤¢eu¡l ¢c−L k¢c a¡L¡C a¡q−m −Q¡−M fs−h fË¢a¢e¢d-ÙÛ¡e£u ¢V Hp
H¢mu−Vl The Waste Land, The Hollow Men h¡ Murder in the Cathedral-Hl j−a¡ B−l¡ A−eL
p¡¢qaÉLjÑ Bj¡−cl H−a¡¢c−el −Qe¡ p¡¢qaÉi¢‰l −Qq¡l¡ Acm-hcm L−l a¥m−Rz Bh¡l pcÉ pcÉ
−Øf−el Nªqk¤Ü −no q−u−Rz −pM¡−e −m¡lL¡, ¢œ²−ØV¡g¡l LXJ−um h¡ A−Xe-Hl j−a¡ L¢h-p¡¢q¢aÉLpj¡−m¡Q−Ll¡ q¡−al Lmj Bl gÉ¡¢pØV c¡eh −Se¡−lm é¡w−L¡l j¤−M¡j¤¢M qh¡l SeÉ Ly¡−dl h¾c¥L

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HL¡L¡l L−l −g−m−Rez i¡l−al AiÉ¿¹−l S¡a£ua¡h¡c£ B−¾c¡m−el −YE-Hl mql£l f−l
mql£ °a¢l q−μRz Bh¡l Lj¤¢eØV f¡¢VÑl −ea«−aÆ −n¡m¡f¤l L¢jE−el SeÈ q−μRz
fy¥¢Sl C¢aq¡−pl p¡−b nË−jl C¢aq¡−pl −n¡¢Za-¢pš² Hhw n¡¢ea ms¡C aMez h¡wm¡l fVi¨¢j−a
aMe IPTA-l −ea«−aÆ nË−jl C¢aq¡−pl ea¥e p¡wú«¢aL hÉ”e¡u GÜ je−el Bhq p‰£az HlLj HL
p¢år−Z nË−jl C¢aq¡−pl f−r j¡−eC Lj¤¢eØV qJu¡ eu (−fËjQy¡c h¡ p¡aÑ AbÑ¡v Sartre −L¡e¢ce-C
Lj¤¢eØV ¢R−me e¡, ¢L¿¹¥ nË−jl C¢aq¡p lQe¡l HLSe L¡¢lNl ¢R−me)z Bh¡l H¢mu−Vl j−a¡
fË¢ai¡pÇfæ j¡e¤o-J neutral distance-Hl Lb¡ h−m fËL¡l¡¿¹−l fy¥¢Sl C¢aq¡−pl f−r Lb¡ hm−a
f¡−lez
p¤¤−h¡d −O¡o H pj−ul p¡wú«¢aL p¿¹¡e (1909-1980)z q¡S¡¢lh¡−N fËh¡p£ h¡‰¡¢m f¢lh¡−l SeÈz
BSeÈ AdÉue Hhw p¡wú«¢aL ¢M−c ¢e−u S−eÈ−Rez JM¡eL¡l −p¾V Lm¡ð¡p L−m−S fs¡ö−e¡z fËh¡p£
h¡‰¡¢m qh¡l SeÉ h¡wm¡l j¡¢V−a −ki¡−h lh£¾cÊe¡b, L−õ¡m −N¡ù£, j¡LÑph¡c ¢Lwh¡ S¡¢aua¡h¡c ¢Q¿¹¡u
p’¡¢la qh¡l pñ¡he¡ ¢R−m¡ −pi¡−h ü¡i¡¢hL ¢eu−jC O−V ¢ez ¢e−Sl j−a¡ L−l HL¢V ¢h−no fkÑ−hrZ
n¢š² S¡¢la q−u−R k¡l j¡−T h¡‰¡¢m i¡h¡m¤a¡, −l¡j¡¢¾VLa¡ h¡ Oe-¢feÜ B−h−Nl E−eÈo Lj O−V−Rz
Bl ay¡l hÉ¢š²Na LjÑS£h−el ¢c−L k¢c a¡L¡C a¡q−m Ah¡L q−h¡ −k HLSe j¡e¤o −f−Vl SeÉ, l¦¢Vl¦¢Sl fË−u¡S−e La ¢iæj¤M£ L¡S qu−a¡ h¡ pj¡e Be¾c ¢e−u Ll−a f¡−lez Hl p¡−b l¡¢nu¡l −N¡¢LÑ,
B−j¢lL¡l B−eÑØV −q¢jwJ−u h¡ Bj¡−cl pj−ln hp¤¤l ¢LR¥ ¢jm B−Rz p¤¤−h¡d −O¡o ¢L L−le ¢e?
Mh−ll L¡NS −g¢l −b−L Aï M¢e−a L¡S Ll¡, −cq¡¢a h¢Ù¹−a L−ml¡l ¢VL¡c¡−ll L¡S −b−L h¡pLä¡LV¢l, p¡LÑ¡−pl −M−m¡u¡l h¡ m¡C−hË¢ll LjÑQ¡¢l −b−L −hL¡¢ll hÉhp¡ Hhw S¡q¡−S L−l fË¡u L¥¢m
¢q−p−h B¢éL¡u f¡¢s −ch¡l j−a¡ ph dl−Zl L¡S-C L−l−Rez g−m nË−jl S£h−el −k R¢h ¢a¢e
−cM−Re a¡ My¡¢V, ay¡l j−a¡ L−l My¡¢Vz Hl j¤−M¡j¤¢M fy¥¢Sl C¢aq¡p-J ¢a¢e −cM−Rez AbÑ¡v, E−õM Ll¡l
¢hou q−m¡ ay¡l lQe¡−a S£h−el −g¡−V¡NË¡¢g f¡h¡l pñ¡he¡ Ljz hl’ h¡mS¡−Ll j−a¡ −k k¡¢fa S£he
¢e−u ay¡l A¢Ù¹aÆ −pM¡−e ¢a¢e A−eL üμR−¾c Lb¡ hm−a f¡−le, −kjeV¡ −f−l¢R−me Hl ¢LR¥¢ce f−l
¢hi¨¢a-a¡l¡nˆl-j¡¢e−Ll¡z H −ke M¡¢eLV¡ La Grande Breteche-l X¡š²¡−ll öl¦ Ll¡ L¡¢q¢el j−a¡z
I X¡š²¡−ll ü−l −ke p¤−¤ h¡d hm−a f¡−le - I have some appalling stories in my collection. But
each one has its proper hour in a conversation...

p¤¤−h¡−dl L¡−RJ ¢h¢iæ −jS¡−S J ¢h¢iæ pj−u −fn Ll¡l SeÉ N−Òfl avL¡m£e −Qe¡ −Qq¡l¡l
h¡C−l AeÉ dlZ J ¢houhÙ¹¥ ¢R−m¡z fËbj NÒf Ak¡¢¿»L-H Hl ej¤e¡ dl¡ B−Rz SNŸm e¡−j A¢a
f¤l−Z¡ −g¡XÑ N¡¢sl j¡¢mL ¢hjm, k¡l ¢hou-h¤¢Ü p¡d¡lZ ¢hQ¡−l ¢L¢’v M¡−V¡ h−m ¢h−hQe¡ Ll¡ −k−a
f¡−lz H N−Òfl −L¡e critique °a¢l Ll¡ Bj¡l mrÉ euz hl’, Bjl¡ N−Òfl I ¢cL¢V−a HLh¡l
eSl −gm−a f¡¢l −kM¡−e na fË−m¡i−eJ ¢hjm SNŸm-−L q¡aR¡s¡ Ll−a e¡l¡Sz SNŸm Jl L¡−R
Q¡m¤ k¤¢š²-h¤¢Ü, ¢hQ¡l-¢h−hQe¡l h¡C−l f¡¢bÑh, ¢L¿¹, −h¡d L¢l, A°ep¢NÑL HL¢V pš¡z jS¡l hÉ¡f¡l q−m¡,
−k pjÙ¹ Q¢lœ−L ¢O−l Ak¡¢¿»L-Hl L¡¢qe£ a¡l¡ ph¡C fZÉ c¤¢eu¡l h¡¢p¾c¡ J Q¢lœz fË−u¡Sej−a¡ N¡¢sl
j−Xm hc−m k¡u H c¤¢eu¡l ¢euj −j−ez ¢hnÄ¡p Ll−a Lø qu, p¤¤−h¡d −O¡o fZÉ c¤¢eu¡l HC A−j¡O
¢eu−jl j¡TM¡−e ¢hjm Bl SNŸ−ml Q¢lœ N−s a¥m−Re - k¡l¡ ¢hØjuLli¡−h f¡l×f¢lL pÇf−LÑ BhÜ,
k¡l¡ −Qe¡ ¢eu−j ¢e−S−cl f¡−ÒV ¢e−μR e¡z HLV¥ −Mu¡m Ll−m −Q¡−M fs−h, ¢hjm Bl SNŸ−ml
Q¡lf¡−nl fª¢bh£ œ²j¡Na Hhw â¥a hc−m k¡u, ea¥e j−Xm B−l¡ ea¥e j−X−ml p−‰ q¡a hcm¡−a
b¡−Lz ¢L¿¹¥, Jl¡ hcm¡u e¡ - na fË−m¡i−eJz HL¢V uncanny pÇf−LÑl j¡−T pju −ke ¢ÙÛl q−u
B−Rz gl¡¢p c¡nÑ¢eL h¢âu¡-l (Baudrllard) i¡o¡u pju Sj¡V −hy−d B−R (frozen)z ¢ÙÛl q−u b¡L¡ H

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pju−L fy¥¢Sl ¢h−nÄl ¢eu−j ¢hfZ−el fË−u¡S−e HL¢V antique pš¡u ¢Q¢q²a (signifyyy) Ll¡ quz
Bjl¡ kMe −L¡e antique ¢L−e B¢e aMe fËL«af−r pj−ul HL¢V ¢Qq²−L Bjl¡ Bj¡−cl Bd¤¢eL
c¤¢eu¡l fË¢a¢c−el j¡−T ÙÛ¡fe L¢lz HV¡ HLdl−Zl ¢el¦μQ¡l J AcªnÉ (insidious) j¡e¢pL LaÑ«−aÆl SeÈ
−cu, SeÈ −cu HC −h¡−dl −k - −k −L¡e Aa£a−L Bjl¡ rja¡Na Ll−a f¡¢lz Hi¡−hC −nqÚÚ−eJu¡SHl −ioS fËp¡de ¢hœ²£ quz öd¤ −ioS qh¡l cl¦e Hl ¢hœ²u−k¡NÉa¡ °a¢l qu e¡, −L¡e HL p¤¤c§l
Aa£a dl¡ B−R H fZÉp¡jNË£−a - HC −h¡d f−ZÉl ea¥e h¡S¡l °a¢l Ll−a b¡−Lz Hi¡−hC jd¤he£
¢nÒf h¡ Hb¢eL p¡jNË£ a¡−cl h¡S¡l œ²j¡Na fËp¡¢la L−l Q−mz h¢âu¡l-C B−lL¢V …l¦aÆf§ZÑ B−m¡Qe¡
fË¢a¢ce fËj¤q−¨ a ÑBj¡−cl hc−m hc−m Qm¡l l¡p¡u¢eL fË¢œ²u¡ ¢Li¡−h O−V a¡l A¿¹¢eÑ¢qa Q¢lœ h¤T−a
f¡WL−cl p¡q¡kÉ L−lz
QVSm¢c Øj¡VÑ Hhw Bd¤¢eL qh¡l pjÙ¹ EfLlZ Q¡lf¡−n l¡M¡ B−R - S¡j¡ S¥−a¡ A¿¹hÑ¡p −Wy¡V q¡a
f¡ eM ph¢LR¥l SeÉ Bm¡c¡ Bm¡c¡ p¡jNË£z Bj¡−cl ¢Le−aC q−h a¡ e¡q−m ¢f¢R−u fs−a q−hz k¡−L
Bjl¡ ¢h‘¡f−Zl c¤¢eu¡ h−m S¡¢e, h¢âu¡-l L¡−R a¡ hyper-real world. B¢j ay¡l ja−LC NËqZ
Ll¢Rz H c¤¢eu¡ Hjei¡−h ¢e¢jÑa qu −k LM−e¡ Ah¡Ù¹h h−m H−L h¡¢am Ll¡ k¡u e¡z Bj¡−cl f¢l¢Qa
h¡Ù¹h-−LC ¢hh¢ÜÑa, QVLc¡l, f§ZÑ j−e¡−k¡N d−l l¡M¡l j−a¡ L−l f¤Z¢eÑjÑ¡Z Ll¡ quz HSeÉ HV¡ hyperreal h¡ A¢a-h¡Ù¹hz HM¡−e öd¤ p¡g−mÉl NÒf −mM¡ qu, Apgm h¡ Lj-pgm j¡e¤o Bp−m X¡ØV¢h−el
p¡jNË£z HM¡−e ph¡C−L Qljaj ¢qwpËa¡ ¢nM−a qu f¡−nl j¡e¤o−L Vf−L k¡h¡l SeÉz HM¡−e öd¤
haÑj¡−el L¡¢qe£ −mM¡ qu, −k haÑj¡e fË¢aj¤q¨−aÑ hc−m −k−a b¡−L ea¥e ea¥e −Le¡-−i¡N Ll¡-−g−m
−cJu¡l fl−a fl−az HV¡−LC i¢hoÉv h−m Bjl¡ ¢Q−e ¢e−a b¡¢Lz HV¡ Hje HL social psyche-l
(Efk¤š² h¡wm¡ Ll−a e¡ f¡l¡l SeÉ c¤:¢Ma) ¢ejÑ¡Z L−l −kM¡−e i¢hoÉv h−m ¢LR¥ −eC, j§mÉj¡e dl¡
b¡−L −Lhmj¡œ j¤â¡l j§−mÉ z HlLj HL psyche-l ¢hfl£−a AhÙÛ¡e L−l ¢hjm-SNŸm pÇfLÑz 1940
p¡−m −mM¡ qh¡l fË¡u 70 hRl f−l ea¥e L−l Ak¡¢¿»L f¡W Ll−a ¢N−u HSeÉ Qj¢La q−a quz
HM¡−e B−l¡ HL¢V …l¦aÆf§ZÑ fËp‰ Bj¡−cl ¢h−hQe¡l SeÉ H−p f−sz œ²j¡Na pÇj¥MN¡j£ fZÉ
c¤¢eu¡ Hl ¢e−Sl fË−u¡S−e pju Hhw k¤¢š²l HL¢V ¢h−no d¡lZ¡ LÓ¡¢¿¹q£ei¡−h ¢ejÑ¡Z L−l Q−mz B¢j
Bf¡aa: öd¤ pj−ul d¡lZ ¢e−u Lb¡ hm−h¡z −h−e¢Xƒ AÉ¡ä¡lp−el Ad¤e¡ LÓÉ¡¢pL h−m f¢lN¢Za
Imagined Communities-H AÉ¡ä¡lpe −c¢M−u−Re ¢Li¡−h empty homogeneous time-Hl d¡lZ¡
fy¢¥ Sl C¢aq¡−pl ¢hL¡−nl p¡−b p¡−b fª¢bh£ S¥−s ¢h¢iæ L¢jE¢e¢V-l ¢e−S−cl Bm¡c¡ Bm¡c¡
heterogeneous time-Hl d¡lZ¡−L ¢N−m ¢e−u−Rz HLV¡ pqS Ec¡qlZ l−u−R Bj¡−cl q¡−al L¡−RCz
Bj¡−cl Q¡L¥¢l S£he, A¢g−pl L¡SL−Çj¡ CaÉ¡¢c Q−m empty homogeneous time-Hl d¡lZ¡ ¢e−u,
Bh¡l Bj¡−cl ¢e−S−cl HL¢V ¢eSü pju-J B−Rz ¢q¾c¥ h¡ j¤p¢mj f¢lh¡−l a¡l fËL¡n O−V ¢h¢iæ
f¡¢lh¡¢lL p¡j¡¢SL Ae¤ù¡−e f¢”L¡- h¡ −L¡l¡e-¢eiÑl j¡‰¢mLa¡l j¡−Tz −p−r−œ pj−ul −h¡d pÇf¨ZÑ
¢iæz j¡LÑph¡c£ ¢hMÉ¡a I¢aq¡¢pL E. P. Thompson ay¡l The Making of the English Working Class-H
fË¡L-¢nÒf¢hfÔh CwmÉ¡ä-HJ HL¡¢dL dl−Zl pju ¢Li¡−h pj¡−S ¢hl¡S Ll−a¡ a¡l Øfø d¡lZ¡
E−eÈ¡¢Qa L−l−Rez H R¡s¡ Past & Present f¢œL¡u (1967) p¡−m fËL¡¢na ay¡l Time, workdiscipline, and industrial capitalism fËhå¢V H ¢hou¢V−a ¢h−noi¡−h B−m¡Lf¡a L−l−Rz H−cn£u
¢hMÉ¡a I¢aq¡¢pL −l¡¢jm¡ b¡f¡l ay¡l Time as a Metaphor of History f¤Ù¹−L pj−ul ¢iæa¡ ¢e−u
j−e¡‘ B−m¡Qe¡ L−l−Rez H R¡s¡J O¢s-pju ¢e−u …l¦aÆfZ§ Ñ B−m¡Qe¡ L−l−Re p¤¤¢ja plL¡l ay¡l
Writing Social History f¤Ù¹−Lz Empty homogeneous time-Hl d¡lZ¡l …l¦aÆ HM¡−e −k H d¡lZ¡
R¡s¡ fy¢¥ Sl SeÉ fË−u¡Se£u nËj-O¾V¡l f¢lj¡f Ll¡ pñh euz HL¢V pjNË i¨Mä−L HL lL−jl pj−ul

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R−¾c −hy−d −gm¡ pñh euz Bl −pV¡ pñh e¡ q−m O¢sl pju AbÑ¡v clock-time Qy¡c-p§kÑ h¡ AeÉ¡eÉ
fË¡L«¢aL R−¾cl fy¡¢S-fy¥¢b ¢eiÑl −k pju −pV¡−L fË¢aÙÛ¡¢fa Ll−a f¡l−h e¡z Bh¡l H L¡S¢V e¡ q−m
°ce¢¾ce S£h−e plm°l¢ML °h‘¡¢eL °ehÉ¢š²ÑL pj−ul d¡lZ¡ c¡e¡ hy¡d−a f¡l−h e¡z f¢lZ¢a−a Evf¡ce
rja¡ J j¤e¡g¡ j¡l M¡−hz HSeÉ p¡j¡¢SLi¡−h pj−ul d¡lZ¡J fy¥¢Sl ¢h−nÄ Ha Sl¦l£z
Ak¡¢¿»L N−Òf −kV¡ eSl L¡−s a¡ qm, Q¢lœ…−m¡ f¢lf§ZÑi¡−h AhÙÛ¡e Ll−R empty
homogeneous time-Hl ¢h−nÄ, AbQ HC pj−ul −éj-Hl j−dÉ −b−LJ N−Òfl e¡uL ¢hjm ¢e−Sl HL¢V
pju-−L Bm¡c¡ L−l −euz Jl L¡−R H−p œ²j¡Na plm°l¢ML f−b ANËpl qh¡l −k rja¡ fy¥¢Sl
pj−ul B−R −pV¡ q¡¢l−u k¡−μR, pju Sj¡V −hy−d b¡L−R SNŸ−ml j¡−Tz H dl−Zl BMÉ¡e J ¢Qœ¡uZ
h¡wm¡ p¡¢q−aÉ p¤¤−h¡d −O¡−ol B−N Bl q−u−R ¢L e¡ Bj¡l S¡e¡ −eCz lh£¾cÊe¡−bl euep¤¤−Ml S¢jc¡l
¢e−u HL¢V N−Òf H d¡lZ¡l qu−a¡ h¡ M¡¢eLV¡ R¡u¡f¡a O−V¢Rmz a−h −p fVi¨¢j H−Lh¡−l üa¿»,
pj−ul fËp‰ LM−e¡C Hi¡−h B−p¢ez
k¡C −q¡L, empty homogeneous time-Hl ¢h−nÄ BLã AhÙÛ¡e L−l ¢eSü pju−L üa¿»i¡−h
Bm¡c¡ L−l −eJu¡ - HLV¥ −M¡m¡j−el ¢hQ¡−l l¡M−m H−L HL ¢h−â¡q h−m j−e q−hz p¤−¤ h¡d −O¡o H
L¡S¢V p−Qaei¡−h L−l¢R−me ¢L e¡ a¡ HM¡−e ¢h−hQÉ euz L¡lZ pªSen£m p¡¢q−aÉl °h¢nøÉ-C q−μR
pj¡−Sl ¢h−no −Qq¡l¡−L ¢e−Sl j−a¡ L−l Lb¡l R¢h−a Hy−L −gm¡z HSeÉ j¡LÑp h¡mS¡L-−L
−hn£ …l¦aÆf§ZÑ j−e L−lez Bj¡−cl a¡l¡nˆl f§ZÑa r¢uo·¥ p¡j¿¹ pj¡−Sl fË¢a¢e¢d q−uJ pj¡−Sl
AfË¢aqa −p¡Ëa−L ¢ei¥Ñmi¡−h ¢Q−e ¢e−a f¡−lez öd¤ a¡ eu, Hl A¢a pw−hc£ BMÉ¡e lQe¡ L−lez Hl
¢WL ¢iæ fË¡−¿¹ j¡¢eL h−¾c¡Éf¡dÉ¡uz HL-C lLj, pw−hc£ J n¢š²n¡m£z ¢L¿¹¥ S£he−h¡−dl fË−nÀ
a¡l¡nˆ−ll ¢hfl£a −jl¦−a AhÙÛ¡e L−lez ¢L¿¹¥ c¤S−el p¡¢qaÉ-C −hy−Q b¡−L L¡m−L A¢aœ²j L−l
L¡−m¡š£ZÑ q−uz
p¤¤−h¡−dl fËbj NÒf Ak¡¢¿»L z ¢àa£u g¢pm z HL-C hR−l AbÑ¡v 1940-H −mM¡ q−u¢Rm NÒf
c¤¢Vz Ak¡¢¿»L-Hl BMÉ¡e J dlZ g¢p−m H−p pÇf¨ZÑ hc−m −N−m¡z
g¢p−m M¢eLV¡ LÒf¢Q−œl j−a¡ HL iNÀ cn¡ S¢jc¡l h¡¢s, S¢jc¡l, a¡l e¡−uh, ea¥e e¡−uh
Bl fËS¡−cl L¡¢qe£ ByL¡ q−u−Rz mrZ£ui¡−h NË¡−jl e¡j A”eNsz H ¢L ¢QœLÒf °a¢ll −L¡e A”e?
HL Aá¥a dl−Zl AeÉlL−jl NÒf g¢pm (qu −a¡ ¢ho−ul ¢iæa¡u J j¤¢¾pu¡e¡u ¢LR¥V¡ ¢jm B−R
j¡¢e−Ll q¡l¡−el e¡a S¡j¡C h¡ fË¡°N¢aq¡¢pL-Hl p¡−b)z Øføa m¡¢Wa−¿»l c¡f−V A”eN−s l¡SÉf¡V
J n¡pe Q−mz HL¢ce −pM¡−e H−m¡ A¢ja ¢hšn¡m£ ¢h−cn£ h¢Z−Ll cmz J−cl M¢e−a JM¡eL¡l i¥M¡
j¡e¤o−cl nË¢jL ¢q−p−h hÉhq¡−ll SeÉ Jl¡ m¡¢W-¢eiÑl l¡S¡l ¢hl¦−Ü fËS¡l pwNË¡−j jca ¢c−a b¡−Lz
fË¡b¢jL −r−œ ms¡C qu ¢œj¤M£ - l¡S¡l p¡−b fËS¡l, r¢uo·¥ p¡j¿¹a−¿»l p¡−b Ec£uj¡e h¢ZL-¢nÒff¢a
pj¡−Sl Hhw Ec£uj¡e h¢ZL-¢nÒff¢a pj¡−Sl p¡−b h¤ir
¥ ¥ fËS¡−clz H−cl j¡−T, l¡S¡l −haei¥L
LjÑQ¡l£ ¢q−p−h, HLSe B−m¡LfË¡ç ¢n¢ra k¤hL B−Rz −mM−Ll hu¡−e --- Bj¡−cl j¤M¡SÑ£ BcnÑh¡c£z

−R−m−hm¡l C¢aq¡p-fs¡ j¡¢LÑe£ −X−j¡œ²É¡p£l üfÀV¡ B−S¡ a¡l ¢Q¿¹¡l f¡−L f¡−L S¢s−u
B−Rz.....Eš−ll fÔ−Vl pjÙ¹V¡C e¡pÑ¡¢l, Bm¤ Bl a¡j¡L; c¢r−Z BM, kh Bl Njz a¡lfl---

Hlf−l L¡¢qe£ alal L−l H−N¡u - A¢a lš²ru£, pwO¡af§ZÑ −p k¡œ¡z N−Òfl fË¡u −n−o
B−lL¢V cªnÉ °a¢l quz −mM−Ll hu¡−e S¡e−h¡ −p OVe¡ -

Ai¨af§hÑ cªnÉ ! jq¡l¡S¡, p¢Q−h¡šj Bl −g±Sc¡l -- ¢Nhpe, jÉ¡L−Le¡ j§l Bl fÉ¡V¡lpe !
p¤¤c£OÑ −jqN¢e −V¢h−m −Nm¡p Bl ¢XLÉ¡¾V¡−ll W¡p¡W¡¢pz

5

pÇj¢ahc−e jq¡l¡S¡ j¤M¡SÑ£−L AiÉbÑe¡ Ll−mez -- j¡q¡−a¡ (B−¾c¡m−el fËd¡e −ea¡) dl¡
f−s−R j¤M¡SÑ£ z i¡¢NÉp pju b¡L−a h¤¢ÜV¡ ¢c−u¢R−mz
¢Nhpe p¡u ¢c−u hmm -- ¢eÕQu, A−eL LÓ¡j¢S T¡−jm¡ −b−L hy¡Q¡ −Nmz Bj¡−cl Ei−ul i¡NÉ
i¡−m¡ hm−a quz
HLSe j−e¡−k¡N£ f¡WL−L Hl f−ll OVe¡fËh¡q ØjlZ Ll¡−e¡l −L¡e fË−u¡Se −eCz …¢m L−l
−j−l −gm¡ q−u−R fË¢a−l¡d£ B¢ch¡p£−cl −cq, Hje ¢L M¢el f£−V −g−m Q¡f¡ ¢c−u −cJu¡ q−u−Rz
f¢lLÒfe¡l Ec³¡a¡ OVe¡Q−œ² j¤M¡SÑ£z −k j¡e¤−ol cm fy¥¢S J p¡j¿¹fËb¡−L pj¡ei¡−h fË¢a−l¡d Ll−a
−Q−u¢Rm a¡l¡ hý mr hRl f−l q−u EW−h fËaÀa¡¢aÆL p¡jNË£ --AÜÑföNWe, Af¢lZa j¢Ù¹×L J

BaÈqaÉ¡fËhZ a¡−cl p¡h¢qEjÉ¡e −nËZ£l ¢fa«f¤l¦−ol ¢nm£i¨a A¢ÙÛLˆ¡mz Bl −R¢e q¡a¥¢s Bl Ny¡Ca¡
-- La…¢m −m¡q¡l œ²¥X ¢LR¥ AÙ»nÙ» ....öd¤ LaL…¢m p¡c¡ g¢pm; a¡−a BS−Ll HC Ha l−š²l m¡m
c¡N −eCz

¢L −eC HC BMÉ¡−e? HL¢c−L r¢uo·¥ p¡j¿¹fËb¡ Bl h¢Z−Ll q¡a d−l Bp¡ h−s¡ fy¥¢Sl p¡−b
i¨¢jl p¿¹¡e−cl L«¢oS¢j lr¡l ms¡C, j¤M¡SÑ£l j−a¡ j¡¢LÑe£ −X−j¡œ²É¡p£-pÀ¡a ¢n¢ra p¿¹¡−el p¡j¿¹ J
fy¢¥ S Ei−ul fr ¢e−u fËL«a J fËL«¢al j¡e¤o−cl p¡−b flj ¢hnÄ¡p q¿¹¡l−Ll i¨¢jL¡ f¡me Ll¡,
AeÉ¢c−L Jph eø-flj¡u¤, qai¡NÉ j¡e¤o−cl ¢eSü heterogeneous time-−L fy¥¢Sl empty
homogeneous time ¢c−u ¢N−m −gm¡z −no Ah¢d, hý hý ¢ce f−l k¡−cl S£h−e j¤−M¡j¤¢M h¢ph¡l −L¡e
hema¡ −pe −eC −p j¡e¤−ol¡ Ae¡Na fËS−eÈl L¡−R Bl j¡e¤o b¡−L e¡, fËaÀS£h q−u J−Wz ea¥e −p
fËS−eÈl ¢e−S−cl ¢h−h−Ll L¡−R H j¡e¤o…−m¡l SeÉ Bl −L¡e c¡u b¡−L e¡ - fËaÀp¡jNË£l SeÉ Bh¡l
c¡u ¢L−pl? j¤e¡g¡ R¡s¡ Bl pjÙ¹ ¢LR¥l L¡−R c¡uhÜa¡q£ea¡l FZÑS¡−mC −a¡ p¤¤l¢ra qu fy¥¢Sl
C¢aq¡pz p¤¤−h¡d −O¡o H−L eNÀ L−l−Re, ¢e−j¡ÑL −j¡Qe L−l−Rez k¡−cl c¡u i¥−m b¡L¡l Lb¡ Bj¡−cl
p¤¤M£ ¢e−V¡m S£h−e, a¡−cl m¡m l−š²l c¡Nq£e p¡c¡ g¢pm-Hl −fR−e œ²j¡Na Qy¥C−u fs¡ l−š²l −p¡Ë−al
cNc−N R¢h Hy−L−Rez Hlf−lJ ¢L p¡c¡ −L p¡c¡ hm¡ k¡u? pñh?
HC A-pñh fË−nÀl j¤−M¡j¤¢M cy¡s L¢l−u−Re −mML f¡WL pj¡S−Lz Bj¡−cl j−e Bp−h −Yy¡s¡CHl Lb¡ - ¢e:p‰, HL¡, QJs¡ l¡Ù¹¡, â¥a d¡hj¡e N¡¢sl ¢j¢R−m a¡l ph¢LR¥ JmV-f¡mV q−u k¡uz a¡l
pju, ¢e−Sl ÙÛ¡e, ü−fÀl l¡jl¡SÉ - ph¢LR¥z fy¥¢Sl N¢al p¡−b −Yy¡s¡C ¢e−S−L −jm¡−a f¡−l e¡, Q¡u-J
e¡z ph¡C ¢L HL-C i¡−h −Lhm HLdl−Zl fZÉ-C Q¡u? Q¡u e¡, Q¡C−a −n−M, Ah¡d fy¢¥ Sl Ah¡¢la
f¡Wn¡m¡u œ²j¡Na HL¢V ¢nr¡C ¢n−M −k−a b¡−Lz JV¡C HLj¡œ f¡Wœ²j q−u J−Wz HlLj HL
nÄ¡pl¦ÜLl AhÙÛ¡u −h±¢ÜL fË¢a−l¡−dl HL HL¢V ¢cL¢Qq² Ak¡¢¿»L h¡ g¢pm z
−el¦c¡ kMe h−me - Come and see the blood in the streets/ Come and see the blood in the
streets/ Come and see the blood in the streets! ¢Lwh¡ Bj¡−cl p¤¤L¡¿¹ kMe EμQ¡lZ L−le - l−š²
B−e¡ m¡m, l¡¢œl Ni£l hª¿¹ −b−L ¢Ry−s B−e¡ g¥V¿¹ pL¡m, aMe - öd¤ LaL…¢m p¡c¡ g¢pm; a¡−a
BS−Ll HC Ha l−š²l m¡m c¡N −eC - HC h¡LÉhå¢V H−cl p¡−b HL fw¢š²−a h−p f−sz
p¤¤−h¡dh¡h¤ Bj¡−cl −m¡L−cM¡−e¡, −j¢L, lw-Qw-H −h±¢ÜL J ¢Q¿¹−el p‹¡−L M¤h pq−S SÆ¡m¡
dl¡−e¡ −nÔo, ¢hâ¥f Bl Øfø Lb−e ¢hÜ L−lez ¢Lwh¡ E−ÒV¡V¡J qu −a¡ p¢aÉ - ¢a¢e i¡−he H−cl
B−c± SÆ¡m¡ dl−h −a¡? Ešl Bj¡−cl S¡e¡ −eCz BN¡j£ ¢ce Ešl −c−hz

6

fËp‰a, p¤¤−h¡d −O¡−ol A¿¹a ¢ae¢V RcÈe¡j ¢R−m¡ - p¤¤f¡¿Û, ih¡e£ f¡WL J L¡mf¤l¦oz p¤¤f¡−¿Ûl
j−a¡ ¢a¢e −h¡d L¢l Bj¡−cl q¡a dl−a Q¡e - k¢c h¡¢s−u ¢cC Bjl¡z Bl h¡¢L c¤−V¡ e¡−jl AbÑ −a¡
Hq h¡qÉ! A¿¹a L¡mf¤l¦o ¢q−p−h L¡−ml −i¢s h¡¢S−u p¤¤−h¡d −O¡−ol B¢hiÑ¡h O−V−R −a¡ h−VCz

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