LEARNING & BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT

LEARNING

LEARNING IS A RELATIVELY PERMANENT CHANGE IN BEHAVIOR OR POTENTIAL BEHAVIOR BASED ON DIRECT OR INDIRECT EXPERIENCE

LEARNING - Definition

A process of acquiring, assimilating, and internalising cognitive, motor or behavioral inputs for effective and varied use when required, leading to enhanced capability for further self monitored learning.

Definition implications
Acquisition through cognition  Assimilation- retained over a period of time  Internalisation- input transformation  Effectively used  Creativity  Enhance self learning capabilities

COMPONENTS OF LEARNING
INVOLVES CHANGE  CHANGE IS LASTING  AFFECTS BEHAVIOR OR POTENTIAL BEHAVIOR  RESULT FROM DIRECT OR INDIRECT EXPERIENCE( VICARIOUS LEARNING)

VIEWS ON LEARNING

TRADITIONAL BEHAVIOURISTIC VIEW-CLASSICAL CONDITIONING or OPERANT CONDITIONING CONTEMPORARY VIEW-LEARNING AS A COGNITIVE PROCESS SOCIAL LEARNING -INTEGRATES BOTH BEHAVIORIST AND COGNITIVE CONCEPTS& EMPHASIZES THE INTERACTIVE, RECIPROCAL NATURE OF COGNITIVE, BEHAVIORAL & ENVIRONMENTAL DETERMINANTS

Learning theories
Stimulus response Theories
Classical Conditioningstimulus generalisation

Cognitive Theories
Constructivist theory Cognitive Dissonance

Social Learning Theories
Modelling Social Cognition

Instrumental conditioningresponse generalisation Lateral Thinking Operant Conditioningcontingency rel bet operants and events that Adult Learning Theories follow; reinforcement theory

Learning theories

Experiential Learning Theories
Action Learning Theory  Hunmanistic Theory  Double Loop  Cyclic –experiencing, processing, generalising and applying

Motivational theories
Attribution theory  Motivational acquisition theory

CLASSICAL CONDITIONING

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IS A SIMPLE FORM OF LEARNING THAT LINKS A CONDITIONED RESPONSE WITH UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS (S-R)- DESCRIBED BY PAVLOV . IT HOWEVER EXPLAINED HUMAN LEARNING INADEQUATELY RELIES ON SIMPLE CAUSE & EFFECT RELATIONSHIPS BETWEEN ONE STIMULUS & RESPONSE. THEREFORE CANNOT DEAL WITH COMPLEX FORMS OF LEARNED BEHAVIOR IGNORES CONCEPT OF CHOICE ASSUMES BEHAVIOR IS REFLEXIVE OR INVOLUNTARY

OPERANT CONITIONING

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MORE ATTENTION TO ROLE THAT CONSEQUENCES PLAY IN LEARNING OR THE RESPONSE-STIMULUS CONNECTION( R-S)ATTRIBUTED TO SKINNER CALLED CONNECTIONIST THEORIES OF LEARNING DEALS WITH INSTRUMENT OR OPERANT CONDITIONING OCCURS AS A CONSEQUENCE OF BEHAVIOR & NOT CONCERNED WITH ELICITING CONSEQUENCES OF BEHAVIOR AS IN CLASSICAL OPERANT CONDITIONING HAS A GREATER IMPACT ON HUMAN LEARNING.ob SIGNIFICANCE RELATES TO ENVIRONMENT AFFECTING EMPLOYEE BEHAVIOR.

DIFFERNCES BETWEEN CLASSICAL & OPERANT CONDITIONING

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CLASSICAL
CHANGE IN STIMULUS WILL ELICIT A PARTICULAR RESPONSE STRENGTH & FREQUENCY DETERMINED BY FREQUENCY OF ELICITING STIMULUS UNCONDITIONED STIMULUS SERVING AS A REWARD PRESENTED EVERY TIME.


OPERANT
ONE POSSIBLE RESPONSE OUT OF MANY POSSIBLE ONES OCCURS IN A GIVEN STIMULUS SITUATION WHICH ACTS AS CUE .DOES NOT ELICIT RESPONSE BUT ACTS AS A CUE FOR THE PERSON TO EMIT A RESPONSE STRENGTH & FREQUENCY OF OPERANTLYCONDITIONED BEHAVIOR ARE DETERMINED BY CONSEQUENCES REWARD PRESENTEDONLY IF CORRECT RESPONSE RECEIVED

LEARNING A COGNITIVE PROCESS

INVOLVES CONSCIOUS AND UNCONSCIOUS BEHAVIORRecognised by EDWARD TOLMAN
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draws on experiences & past learning as a basis of present behavior -therefore represent presumed knowledge or cognition's people make choices about their behavior-recognise two alternatives & choose one people recognise the consequences of their choices people evaluate those consequences & add them to prior learning, which affects future choices Consists of a relationship between cognitive environmental cues & expectation REINFORCEMENT THEORY BASED ON THIS PERSPECTIVE

SOCIAL LEARNING

RECOGNISES THAT THERE IS MORE TO LEARNING THAN DIRECT LEARNING VIA ANTECEDENT STIMULI AND CONTINGENT CONSEQUENCES

STATES THAT LEARNING CAN ALSO TAKE PLACE VIA VICARIOUS OR MODELLING& SELF CONTROL PROCESS THROUGH SELF EFFICACY

REINFORCEMENT THEORY & LEARNING

REINFORCEMENT THEORY OR OPERANT CONDITIONING IS BASED ON THE IDEA THAT BEHAVIOR IS A FUNCTION OF ITS CONSEQUENCES ( SKINNER)
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THEREFORE PLEASANT BEHAVIOR IS LIKELY TO BE REPEATED & UNPLEASANT CONSEQUENCES LESS LIKELY TO BE REPEATED IN A GIVEN SITUATION, PEOPLE WILL EXPLORE A VARIETY OF POSSIBLE BEHAVIORS FUTURE BEHAVIORAL CHOICES ARE AFFECTED BY THE CONSEQUENCES OF EARLIER BEHAVIORS

TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT IN ORGANISATIONS

POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT IS A REWARD OR OTHER DESIRABLE CONSEQUENCES THAT A PERSON ACHIEVES AFTER EXHIBITING BEHAVIOR AVOIDANCE-OR NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT IS THE OPPORTUNITY TO AVOID OR ESCAPE FROM AN UNPLEASANT CIRCUMSTANCES AFTER EXHITING BEHAVIOR EXTINCTION-DECREASES THE FREQUENCY OF BEHAVIOR BY ELIMINATING A REWARD OR DESIRABLE CONSEQUENCES THAT FOLLOWS THAT BEHAVIOR PUNISHMENT- IS AN UNPLEASNT , OR AVERSIVE CONSEQUENCES THAT RESULTS FROM BEHAVIOR

SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT

INDICATE WHEN OR HOW OFTEN MANAGERS SHOULD REINFORCE CERTAIN BEHAVIORS

TYPES OF REINFORCEMENT SCHEDULES

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CONTINUOS REINFORCEMENT- BEHAVIOR IS REWARDED EVERY TIME IT OCCURS FIXED INTERVAL REINFORCEMENTVARIABLE INTERVAL REINFORCEMENT FIXED RATIO REINFORCEMENT-PROVIDES REINFORCEMENT AFTER A FIXED NUMBER OF BEHAVIORS VARIABLE REINFORCEMENT -VARIES THE NUMBER OF BEHAVIORS BETWEEN REINFORCEMENT

RELATED ASPECTS OF LEARNING IN ORGANISATIONS

STIMULUS GENERALISATIONS IN ORGANISATIONS- IS THE PROCESS OF RECOGNISING THE SAME OR SIMILAR STIMULI IN DIFFERENT SETTINGS STIMULUS DISCRIMINATION-IS THE PROCESS OF RECOGNISING DIFFERENCES AMONG STIMULI VICARIOUS LEARNING -IS THE PROCESS OF LEARNING THROUGH EXPERIENCES OF OTHERS SOCIAL LEARNING - IS A FORM OF VICARIOUS LEARNING IN WHICH PEOPLE LEARN BEHAVIOR AND ATTITUDES IN RESPONSE TO WHAT OTHERS EXPECT OF THEM PUNISHMENT-UNPLEASANT / AVERSE ONSEQUENCES OF BEHAVIOR

MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS OF BEHAVIOR

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LEARNING & MOTIVATION-EXTENT TO WHICH REWARDS FOLLOW HIGH PERFORMANCE/APPROPRIATE BEHAVIOR LEARNING & TRAINING-EXPANSION OF SKILLS & ABILITIES LEARNING & PERFORMANCE EVALUATION/REWARDSASSESSMENT OF WORK BEHAVIOR OF INDIVIDUALS AND GROUPS-REWARDS ARE THE POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT

Learning as motivator

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Reward for performance related behavior to ensure upfront variables have the desired impact. Money as a reward-new pay techniques like commissions,rewarding new goals, leadership effectiveness, skill pay , competence pay , broad banding. Non Financial rewards Feedback as reward

BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT OR OB MODIFICATION

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Identify performance related behavioral events relating to quantity /quality of output or service Number of such occurrences ABC Analysis -Antecedents or cues (A) for the performance Behavior(B) and what are the contingent consequences(C) OD Intervention-Accelerate functional performance behaviors and decelerate the dysfunctional behaviors Evaluate to ensure that performance leads to performance improvement

APPLICATIONS OF BEHAVIOR MANAGEMENT
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Employee Productivity Absenteeism Tardiness Safety & Accident Prevention Sales Performance

QUESTIONS FOR ASSIGNMENT & DISCUSSIONS

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Do you agree with the statement that learning is involved in almost everything that everyone does? Explain What are the major dimensions of behavioristic , cognitive and social learning theories? What is the difference between Classical & Operant Conditioning? What is the difference between positive & negative reinforcement? What is the difference between Negative reinforcement & punishment?Explain with examples. Describe the steps involved in OB Modification or Behavior Management? In what areas do you think Behavior Management has been successfully applied?

LEARNING STYLES
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Field independence vs Field dependence Levelling vs Sharpening Reflection vs Impulsivity Socialist vs holist 4MAT framework-analytic, imaginative, common sense and dynamic

LEARNING PROCESS
ENDOSYSTEM  MECHANICS  INFLUENCE

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