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Level 3 basic facts See the answers: http://treenablythe.weebly.com/level-3-chemistry.

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Phases and phase changes

1 Sodium melts at 98 C and boils at 892 C. Its fusH is 3 kJ mol
1
and its vapH is 106 kJ mol
1
.
a Write the equation for fusH for sodium.
b Define fusH.
c Write the equation for vapH for sodium.
d Define vapH.
e Write an equation for subH for carbon dioxide.
2 Explain why vapH is always greater than fusH.

Heats of combustion and formation

1 Write the equation for the heat of combustion of ethanoic acid, CH3COOH(l).
2 Define the term Standard enthalpy of combustion.
3 Write the equation for the heat of formation of ethanoic acid.
4 Define the term Standard enthalpy of formation.

Which of the following pairs of elements has the greater first ionisation energy?
a He or Ne?
b Be or B?
c N or O?
d Ne or Na?
e Na or Mg

Electron configurations
Write the electron configurations of these atoms or ions using s p d notation. (Atomic numbers have been provided to
help you.)
1 15P 2 4Be 3 24Cr 4 34Se
5 27Co 6 29Cu 7 26Fe
2+
8 24Cr
3+


Atomic and ionic radii

Write the atom or ion that is the larger of each pair.

1 B or C 6 Mg
2+
or S
2
2 N or N
3
7 Mg or Ca
3 Na or Cl 8 Mg
2+
or Al
3+

4 Na
+
or Cl

9 Ar or K

5 Li or Na 10 P
3
or S
2


Drawing Lewis diagrams
Draw Lewis diagrams for these molecules and ions.

1 NO3

2 SF6 3 BF3 4 ClO2


+



Name the shapes

1

6

2

7

3

8

4

9

5

10

Bond angles
Estimate the bond angles of the bonds indicated.

1

6

2

7

3

8

4

9

5

10




Melting and boiling points
Decide which member of these pairs has the higher boiling point.

1 pentane or propane 2 2, 2-dimethylpropane or pentane
3 4




5 a which has the higher melting point A or B?
b which has the higher boiling point A or B?
Entropy




In the ENTROPY term, reactions with an ___________ in ENTROPY are
An INCREASE in entropy is seen if:
o _______ ______ _____
o ___________ particles are formed
o __________ volume
o A ___________ temperature
thematically, a
negative number minus a positive number is _______)

positive number minus a negative number is ________)
If ONE is favoured and one not, __________ is the defining factor
HIGH TEMPERATURES favour ____________ REACTIONS (mathematically, a positive number minus a LARGER positive number
(multiplying by temperature to get larger) is NEGATIVE)
LOW TEMPERATURES favour ____________ REACTIONS (mathematically, a negative number minus a SMALLER negative
number (multiplying by a small temperature to get smaller) is NEGATIVE)
ENTROPY is an increase in ____________________

Recognising organic compounds 1
State the family of compounds each of these belongs to.
Name each compound.
1

6

2

7

3

8

4

9

5

10

1-aminopropane
G = H-TS

Optical isomers
Which of the following compounds will have optical isomers? (Hint: Draw the structure.)

1 HOCH2CH2COOH
2 CH3CH(OH)COOH
3 NH2CH2COOH
4 NH2CH(CH3)COOH
5 CH(CH3)2OH
6 CH3CH(OH)CH2CH3

Reactions of alkenes
Complete these equations showing some reactions of alkenes. State any necessary conditions and name the products.

1 CH3CH=CHCH3 + HCl
2 CH3CH=CH2 + H2O
3 CH2=CH2 + H2
3
4 CH3CH=CHCH3 + Br2
Reaction types
Complete these reactions and state the reaction type in each case. State any necessary conditions.
1 CH2=CH2 + Br2
2 CH3CH 2CH3 + Cl2
3 CH3OH + CH3COOH
4 CH3CHOHCH3 + conc H2SO4
5 CH3CH2CH2OH + Cr2O7
2-
/H
+

3




Reactions of alcohols
Complete the following reactions and name the organic products in each case. State any necessary conditions.

1 CH3CH2OH + MnO4
-
/H
+

2 CH3CH2OH + conc H2SO4
3 CH3CHOHCH3 + MnO4
-
/H
+

4 (CH3)3COH

+ MnO4
-
/H
+

5

CH3OH + PCl5


6 CH3CHOHCH3 + HCl
7 CH3CHOHCH3 + ZnCl2

Reactions of haloalkanes
Complete the following reactions and name the organic products in each case.
1 CH3CH2Cl + NH3(alc)
2 CH3CH2CH2Br + KOH(alc)
3 CH3I + NaOH(aq)

Reactions of amines
Complete the following reactions and name the organic products in each case.
1 CH3CH2NH2(g) + H2O(l)
2 CH3NH2(g) + HCl(g)
3 4 CH3CH2CH2CH2NH2 + Cu
2+
(aq)






Reactions of aldehydes and ketones
Complete the following reactions and name the organic products in each case.
1 CH3CH2CHO + MnO4
-
/H
+

2 CH3COCH3 + MnO4
-
/H
+

3 CH3CH2COCH3

3
+ Cr2O7
2-
/H
+

3



8
4 CH3CHO + Cr2O7
2-
/H
+

3




9
5 CH3CH2CH2CHO + Ag(NH3)2
+




6 CH3CH2COCH2CH3 + Cu
2+


Reactions of carboxylic acids
Complete these equations showing some reactions of carboxylic acids.
1 HCOOH(aq) + NaOH(aq)
2 CH3COOH(aq) + H2O(l)
3 CH3OH + CH3COOH
4 CH3COOH + PCl5(s)
5 CH3CH2COOH(aq) + Mg(s)


6 CH3COOH(aq) + Na2CO3(s)


7 HCOOH + SOCl2

Reactions of acyl chlorides
Complete these equations showing some reactions of acyl chlorides.
1 CH3COCl(l) + H2O(l)
2 CH3CH2COCl(l) + CH3OH(l)
3 CH3COCl(l) + NH3(alc)
4 CH3COCl(l) + CH3NH2(alc)



Ester formation
Complete the following description of the formation of an ester by filling in the blanks.

Alcohols react with ___________ _______ to make esters. The reaction is an _______________ reaction.
Concentrated ________ acid is added to ________ the reaction and to remove the _____. A water bath is used to
______ up the reaction rate. Sodium carbonate solution is used to ___________ the excess acid, producing ________
__________ gas. The ester formed has a characteristic _______ _____ quite different to the odours of the parent acid
and _______.

Reactions of esters
Complete these equations showing some reactions of esters.
1 CH3COOCH3(l) + H2O(l)
2 CH3CH2COOCH3(l) + NaOH(aq)
3 HCOOCH2CH3(l) + NH3(alc)


4 CH3CH2COOC2H5(l) + H2O(l)

Reactions of amides
Complete the following reactions and name the organic products in each case.

1 CH3CONH2(s) + H2O(l)
2 CH3CH2CONH2 + NaOH

Solubility product 1
For each of the following sparingly soluble compounds write the equilibrium equation and the equilibrium expression
for Ks in each case.

a AgCl b CaF2 c BaSO4 d Ag2SO4

Solubility product 2
At a given temperature the solubility of CaF2 is 1.24 10
5
mol L
1
.
Calculate the solubility product of CaF2 at this temperature.


Solubility product 3
20 mL of 0.1 mol L
-1
Na2CrO4 was added to 50 mL of 8.0 x 10
-3
mol L
-1
Sr(NO3)2. (Ks for SrCrO4 = 2.2 x 10
-5
)
Will a precipitate form?

Acidic, basic and neutral solutions
Write suitable equations to show whether solutions of the following salts are acidic, basic or neutral.
Na2CO3 KCl NH4NO3

Strong acids and bases
A solution is labelled 0.500 mol L
1
HCl.

What is the [H3O
+
] of this solution?
What is the pH of this solution

A solution is labelled 0.450 mol L
1
NaOH

What is the [OH

] of this solution?
What is the pOH of this solution?
What is the pH of the solution?

Species in solution
List the species in solution, from highest to lowest concentration, for each of the following aqueous solutions.
NaCl(aq) CaCl2(aq) KF(aq) CH3COOH(aq) C12H22O11(aq)

Titration curves 1

This is the typical shape of a _____ acid versus _____ base titration curve.
[Fill in the blanks.]






What is the pH at the
beginning?
What is the pH at the end?
What volume of base was
added at the equivalence point?
What is the pH at equivalence?
Name a suitable indicator for
this titration.


Titration curves 2

This is the typical shape of a _____ acid versus _____ base titration curve. [Fill
in the blanks.]








Titration curves 3

This is the typical shape of a _____ ____ versus a _____ ____ titration
curve. [Fill in the blanks.]





What is the pH at the
beginning?
What is the pH at the end?
What volume of base was
added at the equivalence point?
What is the pH at equivalence?
Name a suitable indicator for
this titration.

What is the pH at the beginning?
What is the pH at the end?
What volume of base was added at
the equivalence point?
What is the pH at equivalence?
Name a suitable indicator for this
titration.


Titration curves 4
A 0.1 mol L
1
solution of propanoic acid has a pH of 2.94. 10 mL of this solution is titrated with a 0.1 mol L
1
solution of
sodium hydroxide. Draw a titration curve on the grid to show the change in pH as the titration proceeds.



10



On the graph, circle the buffer region

If the following indicators are available which would be most suitable for this titration?
Indicator pKa
ethyl red 4.9
bromothymol blue 7.0
phenolphthalein 9.6



Buffers

1. A buffer is made from methanoic acid (HCOOH) and sodium methanoate (NaHCOO). If K
a
(methanoic acid) =
1.8 x 10
-4
and the solution contains equal concentrations of methanoic acid and sodium methanoate, what
is the pH of the buffer?
2. Calculate the new pH if enough strong acid (HCl) was added to make the methanoic acid concentration twice
the methanoate ion concentration.
3. Write the equation for the reaction that takes place when HCl is added to the buffer.
4. Write the equation for the reaction that takes place when NaOH is added to the buffer.
5. What would happen to the pH of the buffer if it was diluted with water?
6. Calculate the mass of solid ammonium chloride that must be added to one litre of 0.1 mol L-1 ammonia to make a
buffer of pH 9.4.
(Given, M(NH
4
Cl) = 53.5 g mol
-1
, Ka (NH
4
+
) = 5.75 x 10
-10
)