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ELECROMAGNETIC THEORY FORMULA SHEET
CONTENTS
PARTA (CORE)
1. Electrostatics…………………………………………………………………..... (517)
1.1 Coulomb’s Law and Superposition Principle…….................................................. (5)
1.1.1 Electric field
1.2 Gauss’s law ……..................................................................................................... (6)
1.2.1 Field lines and Electric flux
1.2.2 Applications
1.3 Electric Potential……............................................................................................. (7)
1.3.1 Curl of Electric field
1.3.2 Potential of localized charges
1.4 Laplace’s and Poisson equations…….................................................................... (8)
1.5 Electrostatic boundary condition…….................................................................... (8)
1.6 Work and Energy in electrostatics…….................................................................. (9)
1.6.1 The energy of point charge distribution
1.6.2 Energy of continuous charge distribution
1.7 Basic properties Conductors ……........................................................................ (10)
1.8 Multiple Expansions……..................................................................................... (11)
1.8.1 The Electric Potential and Field of a Dipole
1.8.2 Approximate potential at large distances
1.9 Polarization……................................................................................................. (13)
1.9.1 The Field of a polarized Object (Bound Charges)
1.10 The Electric Displacement............................................................................. (1314)
1.10.1 Gauss Law in the Presence of Dielectrics
1.10.2 Linear Dielectrics (Susceptibility, Permittivity, Dielectric Constant)
1.10.3 Boundary Condition
1.10.4 Energy in dielectric system
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1.12 Image problems.................................................................................... (1517)
1.12.1 The Classic Image problem
1.12.2 Induced Surface Charge
1.12.3 Force and Energy
1.12.4 Other Image Problem
2. Magnetostatic.......................................................................................... (1824)
2.1 Magnetic force on current element............................................................. (18)
2.1.1 Current in a wire
2.1.2 Surface current density
2.1.3 Volume current density
2.2 Continuity equation................................................................................... (19)
2.3 BiotSavart law.......................................................................................... (19)
2.3.1 Magnetic field due to wire
2.3.2 Magnetic field due to Solenoid and Toroid
2.4 Ampere's Law........................................................................................... (20)
2.5 Magnetic Vector Potential........................................................................ (20)
2.6 Magnetostatic boundary condition........................................................... (21)
2.7 Multiple Expansion of Vector Potential................................................... (22)
2.8 Magnetisation........................................................................................... (23)
2.8.1 The Field of a magnetized Object (Bound Currents)
2.9 The Auxiliary field H.......................................................................... (2324)
2.9.1 Ampere’s Law in in presence of magnetic materials
2.9.2 Magnetic Susceptibility and Permeability
2.9.3 Boundary Condition
3. Dynamics of charged particles in static and uniform electromagnetic fields
3.1 Charged particle in static electric field………………………..……. (2526)
3.1.1 Charged particle enters in the direction of field (Linear motion)
3.1.2 Charged particle enters in the direction perpendicular to field
(Parabolic motion)
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3.2 Charged particle in static magnetic field.......................................................... (27)
3.2.1 Charged particle enters in the direction perpendicular to field
(Circular motion)
3.2.2 Charged particle enters in the direction making an angle with the field
(Helical motion)
3.3 Charged particle in uniform electric and magnetic field (Cycloid motion).... (28)
4. Electromagnetic induction…………………………………………………... (29)
4.1 Faraday’s Law
4.1.1 Lenz’s Law
4.1.2 Inductance
4.1.3 Energy stored in the field
5. Maxwell's equations…………………………………………………..…... (30)
5.1 Maxwell’s equation in free space
5.1.1 Electrodynamics before Maxwell’s
5.1.2 How Maxwell fixed Ampere’s Law
5.1.3 Paradox of charging capacitor
5.1.4 Maxwell’s equation in free space
5.2 Maxwell’s equation in linear isotropic media …………………………... (30)
5.3 Boundary conditions on the fields at interfaces ……………………….... (31)
6. Electromagnetic waves in free space…………………………….….... (3134)
6.1 Poynting Theorem…………………………………………………..….... (31)
6.2 Waves in one dimension (Sinusoidal waves) ……………….................... (32)
6.2.1 The wave equation
6.2.2 Terminology
6.2.3 Complex notation
6.2.4 Polarization
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6.3 Electromagnetic waves in vacuum……………….................................... (35)
6.3.1 The wave equation forE and B
6.3.2 Monochromatic plane waves
6.3.3 Energy and momentum in Electromagnetic wave
6.4 Electromagnetic waves in matter………………..................................... (38)
6.5 Electromagnetic waves in conductors……………….............................. (39)
7. Applications of Electromagnetic waves………................................ (4143)
7.1 Reflection and Refraction………………................................................ (41)
7.1.1 Normal incidence
7.1.2 Oblique incidence
7.1.3 Fresnel’s relation (Parallel and Perpendicular Polarization)
PART ‘B’ ADVANCED
8. Potential and Field formulation for Time Varying Fields……........ (4445)
8.1 Scalar and vector potentials..................................................................... (44)
8.2 Gauge transformation.............................................................................. (44)
8.3 Coulomb and Lorentz gauge.................................................................... (45)
9. Waveguides……................................................................................... (4549)
9.1 Rectangular Waveguides......................................................................... (45)
9.2.1 TE Waves in Rectangular Waveguide
9.2.2 TM Waves in Rectangular Waveguide
10. Radiation from moving charges ....................................................... (50)
10.1 Radiation
10.1.1 Power radiated by a point charge
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1. Electrostatics
The electric field at any point due to stationary source charges is called as electrostatic
field.
1.1 Coulomb’s Law and Superposition Principle
The electric force on a test charge Q due to a single point charge q, which is at rest and a
distance R apart is given by Coulomb’s law
2
0
1
4
Qq
F
R
R
tc
.
=
.
The constant
0
c is called the permittivity of free space.
In mks units,
2
12
0 2
8.85 10
.
C
N m
c
÷
= ×
1.1.1 Electric field
If we have many point charges
1 2
, ,...... q q at distances
1 2
, ,...... R R
from test charge Q,
then according to the principle of superposition the total force on Q is
1 2
1 2 2 2
0 1 2
1
............ ........
1 2
4
q Q q Q
F F F
R R
R R
tc
. .
 
= + + = + +


\ .
,
F QE ¬ =
where
( )
2
1 0
1
4
n
i
i
i i
q
E P R
R tc
.
=
=
¿
E
is called the electric field of the source charges. Physically ( ) E P
is the force per unit
charge that would be exerted on a test charge placed at P.
If charge is distributed continuously over some region, then
( )
2
0
1 1
ˆ
4
line
E r Rdq
R tc
÷
=
} .
The electric field of a line charge is ( ) dq dl ì ' =
( )
2
0
1 ( )
ˆ
4
line
r
E r Rdl
R
ì
tc
÷
'
' =
}
where ì is charge per unit length.
Q
q

R
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For surface charge ( ) dq da o ' =
( )
2
0
1 ( )
ˆ
4
surface
r
E r Rda
R
o
tc
÷
'
' =
}
where o is charge per unit area.
For a volume charge( ) dq d µ t ' =
( )
2
0
1 ( )
ˆ
4
volume
r
E r Rd
R
µ
t
tc
÷
'
' =
}
where µ is charge per unit volume.
1.2 Gauss’s law
1.2.1 Field lines and Electric flux
Consider that a point charge q is situated at the origin:
2
0
1
4
q
E
r
r
tc
.
=
This field is represented by the field line as shown in
figure below. The magnitude of the field is indicated by
the density of the field lines: it's strong near the center
where the field line are close together, and weak farther
out, where they are relatively far apart.
The field strength (E) is proportional to the number of
field lines per unit area (area perpendicular to the lines).
The flux of E through a surface S, .
E
S
E da 
÷
=
}
is a measure of the “number of field
lines” passing through S.
A charge outside the surface would contribute nothing to the total flux, since its field
lines go in one side and out the other. It follows, then, that for any closed surface,
0
1
.
enc
E d a Q
c
÷ ÷
=
}
where
enc
Q is the total charge enclosed within the surface. This is Gauss’s law in integral
form.
Gauss’s law in differential form:
0
1
.E µ
c
÷ ÷
V =
E
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1.2.2 Applications of Gauss’s Law
Gauss's law is always true, but it is not always useful. Gauss's law is useful for only three
kinds of symmetry:
1. Spherical symmetry. Make your Gaussian surface a concentric sphere.
2. Cylindrical symmetry. Make your Gaussian surface a coaxial cylinder.
3. Plane symmetry. Make your Gaussian surface a “pillbox,” which extends equally
above and below the surface.
1.3 Electric Potential
1.3.1 Curl of Electric field
Then integral around a closed path is zero i.e. . 0 E d l
÷ ÷
=
}
This line integral is independent of path. It depends on two end points.
Applying stokes theorem, we get 0 E V× =
. The electric field is not just any vector but
only those vector whose curl is zero.
So, we can define a function ( ) .
P
V r E d l
0
÷ ÷
= ÷
}
where0 is some standard reference point. V then depends only on the point r. It is called
the electric potential.
Evidently, the potential difference between two points a and b is
( ) ( ) .
b
a
V b V a E d l
÷ ÷
÷ = ÷
}
E V ¬ = ÷V
Potential obeys the superposition principle.
Gaussian surface
Gaussian pillbox
R
r
surface
Gaussian
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1.3.2 Potential of localized charges
Potential of a point charge q is
0
1
4
q
V
R tc
= where R is the distance from the charge.
The potential of a collection of point charge is
1 0
1
4
n
i
i i
q
V
R tc
=
=
¿
.
For continuous volume charge distribution
0
1 ( )
( )
4
r
V r d
R
µ
t
tc
'
' =
}
The potential of line and surface charges are
0
1 ( )
( )
4
r
V r dl
R
ì
tc
'
' =
}
and
0
1 ( )
( )
4
r
V r da
R
o
tc
'
' =
}
.
1.4 Laplace’s and Poisson equations
Since E V = ÷V
and
0
.E
µ
c
V =
2
0
V
µ
c
¬ V = ÷ .
This is known as Poisson's equation.
In regions where there is no charge, so that 0 µ = , Poisson's equation reduces to Laplace's
equation,
2
0 V V = .
1.5 Electrostatic boundary condition
The boundary between two medium is a thin sheet of surface chargeo .
0
above below
o
c
± ±
E ÷E = and
 
above below
E E =
0
ˆ above below E E n
o
c
¬ ÷ =
whereˆ n is unit vector perpendicular to the surface, pointing upward.
above below
V V =
0
above below
V V
n n
o
c
c c
¬ ÷ = ÷
c c
where n V
n
V
ˆ · V =
c
c
denotes the normal derivative of V (that is the rate of change in the
direction perpendicular to the surface.)
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1.6 Work and Energy in electrostatics
The work done in moving a test charge Q in an external fieldE, from point a to b is
( ) ( )
b b
a a
W F dl Q E dl Q V b V a ( = · = ÷ · = ÷
¸ ¸ } }
If a = · and b r =
( ) ( ) ( ) W Q V r V QV r ( ¬ = ÷ · =
¸ ¸
since ( ) 0 V · =
In this sense potential is potential energy (the work it takes to create the system) per unit
charge (just as the field is the force per unit charge).
1.6.1 The energy of point charge distribution
When the first charge
1
q is placed, no work has been
done. When
2
q is placed work done
2 2 1
W q V =
where
1
V is the potential due to
1
q so,
1
2 2
0 12
1
4
q
W q
R tc
 
=

\ .
.
Similarly when third charge
3
q is placed
1 2
3 3
0 13 23
1
4
q q
W q
R R tc
 
= +

\ .
.
The work necessary to assemble the first three charges is
1 3 2 3 1 2
0 12 13 23
1
4
q q q q q q
W
R R R tc
 
= + +

\ .
.
In general, ( )
1 1 1 1 1 0 0
1 1 1
4 8 2
n n n n n
i j i j
i i
i j i j i ij ij
j i j i
q q q q
W qV r
R R tc tc
= = = = =
> =
= = =
¿¿ ¿¿ ¿
,
where V(r
i
) is the potential at point r
i
(the position of q
i
) due to all other charges.
1
q




 



2
q
i
q


Q
a
b



1
q
1
r
2
r 2
q
3
q
3
r
13
R
12
R
23
R
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1.6.2 Energy of continuous charge distribution
For a volume charge density
1
2
W Vd µ t =
}
and
2 0
2
all space
W E d
c
t =
}
(i) Energy of a uniformly charged spherical shell of total charge q and radius R is
2
0
q
W
8 R
=
tc
.
(ii) Energy stored in a uniformly charged solid sphere of radius R and charge q is
2
0
1 3q
W
4 5R
=
tc
.
1.7 Basic properties Conductors
1. 0 E =
inside a conductor.
2. 0 µ = inside a conductor.
3. Any net charge resides on the surface.
4. A conductor is an equipotential.
5. E is perpendicular to the surface, just outside a conductor.
Because the field inside a conductor is zero, boundary condition
0
ˆ above below E E n
o
c
÷ =
requires that the field immediately outside is
0
ˆ E n
o
c
=
.
In terms of potential equation
0
above below
V V
n n
o
c
c c
÷ = ÷
c c
yields
0
V
n
o c
c
= ÷
c
These equations enable us to calculate the surface charge on a conductor, if we can
determine E
orV .
Force per unit area on the conductor is
2
0
1
ˆ
2
f n o
c
=
.
This amounts to an outwards electrostatic pressure on the surface, tending to draw the
conductor into the field, regardless the sign ofo . Expressing the pressure in terms of the
field just outside the surface,
2 0
2
P E
c
= .
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1.8 Multiple Expansions
1.8.1 The Electric Potential and Field of a Dipole
If we choose coordinates so that
p
(dipole moment) lies at the
origin and points in the z direction, then potential at
( , ) r u
is:
( )
2 2
ˆ. cos
,
4 4
dip
o o
r p p
V r
r r
u
u
tc tc
= =
.
( )
( )
3
0
1
ˆ ˆ , 3
4
dip E r p r r p
r
u
tc
(
¬ = · ÷
¸ ¸
Note:
(a) When a dipole is placed in a uniform electric field (E
), net force on the dipole is zero
and it experiences a torque
where p E p qd t = × =
.
(b) In nonuniform field, dipoles have net force
( )
F p E = · V
and torque E p × = t .
(c) Energy of an ideal dipole p in an electric field E
is
. U p E = ÷
.
(d) Interaction energy of two dipoles separated by a distance r is
( )( )   r p r p p p
r
U ˆ ˆ 3
4
1
2 1 2 1
3
0
· · ÷ · =
tc
.
1.8.2 Approximate potential at large distances
Approximate potential at large distances due to arbitrary localized charge distribution
( ) ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
2
' ' ' ' ' ' ' 2 ' ' '
2 2
0
1 1 1 1 3 1
cos cos ...
4 2 2
V r r d r r d r r d
r r r
µ t u µ t u µ t
tc
(  
= + + ÷ +
 (
\ . ¸ ¸
} } }
r
u
y

z
x
p
u'



P
R
r
' r
' dt
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The first term (n = 0) is the monopole contribution (it goes like
r
1
). The second term
(n = 1) is the dipole term (it goes like
2
1
r
). The third term is quadrupole; the fourth
octopole and so on.
The lowest nonzero term in the expansion provides the approximate potential at large r
and the successive terms tell us how to improve the approximation if greater precision is
required.
The monopole and dipole terms
Ordinarily, the multipole expansion is dominated (at large r) by the monopole term:
( )
0
1
4
mon
Q
V r
r tc
= .
where
}
= t µd Q is the total charge of the configuration.
If the total charge is zero, the dominant term in the potential will be the dipole (unless, of
course, it also vanishes):
( ) ( ) ( )
' ' ' ' ' ' '
2 2 2
0 0 0
ˆ 1 1 1 1 1 .
ˆ cos .
4 4 4
dip
r p
V r r r d r r r d
r r r
u µ t µ t
tc tc tc
= = =
} }
,
where dipole moment ( )
' ' '
p r r d µ t =
}
.
The dipole moment is determined by the geometry (size, shape and density) of the charge
distribute. The dipole moment of a collection of point charge is
'
1
n
i i
i
p q r
=
=
¿
.
Note: Ordinarily, the dipole moment does change when we shift the origin, but there is
an important exception: If the total charge is zero, then the dipole moment is independent
of the choice of origin.
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1.9 Polarization
(Polarization)P ÷
dipole moment per unit volume
1.9.1 The Field of a polarized Object (Bound Charges)
Suppose we have a piece of polarized material with
polarization vector P
containing a lot of microscopic
dipoles lined up. Then
( ) ( )
0 0
1 1 1 1
. ' '. '
4 4
S V
V r P da P d
R R
t
tc tc
 
= ÷ V

\ .
} }
.
The first term looks like the potential of a surface bound charge ˆ .
b
P n o =
(whereˆ n is
the normal unit vector).
The second term looks like the potential of a volume bound charge
.
b
P µ = ÷V
.
Thus
( )
0 0
1 1
' '
4 4
b b
S V
V r da d
R R
o µ
t
tc tc
= +
} }
, this means the potential (and hence also the
field) of a polarized object is the same as that produced by a volume charge
density
.
b
P µ = ÷V
plus a surface charge density ˆ .
b
P n o =
.
1.10 The Electric Displacement
1.10.1 Gauss Law in the Presence of Dielectrics
Within the dielectric, the total charge density can be written as
b f
µ µ µ = + where
b
µ is
volume bound charge
f
µ free charge density.
0
.
f
D where D E P µ c V = = +
is known as the electric displacement.
Thus Gauss’ law reads, .
f
D µ V =
Or, in integral form .
enc
f
Dda Q =
}
, where
enc
f
Q denotes the total free charge enclosed
in the volume.

p
R

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1.10.2 Linear Dielectrics (Susceptibility, Permittivity, Dielectric Constant)
For any substances, the polarization is proportional to the field provided E
is not too
strong:
0 e
P E P E c _ · ¬ =
(Materials that obey this relation are called linear dielectrics)
The constant of proportionality,
e
_ is called the electric susceptibility of the medium.
The value of
e
_ depends on the microscopic structure of the substance and also on
external conditions such as temperature.
In linear media we have
0 0 0 0 0
(1 ) , (1 )
e e e
D E P E E E E where c c c _ c _ c c c _ = + = + = + = = +
This new constantc is called the permittivity of the material.
Also
0
(1 )
r e
c
c _
c
= + is called relative permittivity or dielectric constant, of the material.
1.10.3 Boundary Condition onD
The boundary between two medium is a thin sheet of free surface charge
f
o .
f below above
D D o = ÷
± ±
and
   
below above below above P P D D ÷ = ÷
1.10.4 Energy in dielectric system
( )
1
2
all space
W D E dt = ·
}
.
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1.12 Image problems
1.12.1 The Classic Image problem
Suppose a point charge q is held a distance d above an infinite grounded conducting
plane. We can find out what is the potential in the region above the plane.
Forget about the actual problem; we are going to study a complete different situation.
The new problem consists of two point charges +q at (0, 0, d) and –q at (0, 0,d) and no
conducting plane.
For this configuration we can easily write down the potential:
( )
( ) ( )
2 2 2 2 2 2
0
1 q q
V x,y,z
4
x y z d x y z d
(
(
= ÷
(
tc
+ + ÷ + + +
(
¸ ¸
(The denominators represent the distances from (x, y, z) to the charges +q and –q,
respectively.) It follows that
1. 0 V = when 0 z = and
2. 0 V ÷ for
2 2 2 2
x y z d + + >> ,
and the only charge in the region 0 z > is the point charge +q at (0, 0, d). Thus the
second configuration produces exactly the same potential as the first configuration, in the
upper region 0 z > .
q +

z
d
y
x
d
q ÷

0 V =

q
z
d
y
x
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1.12.2 Induced Surface Charge
The surface charge density o induced on the conductor surface is
0
0 z
V
z
o c
=
c
= ÷
c
( )
( )
3
2 2 2 2
,
2
qd
x y
x y d
o
t
÷
¬ =
+ +
As expected, the induced charge is negative (assuming q is positive) and greatest at
x=y=0.
The total induced charge Q da q o = = ÷
}
1.12.3 Force and Energy
The charge q is attracted towards the plane, because of the negative induced surface
charge. The force:
( )
2
2
0
1
ˆ
4
2
q
F z
d
tc
= ÷
.
One can determine the energy by calculating the work required to bring q in from
infinity.
2 2 2
2
0 0 0
1 1 1
.
4 4 4 4 4 4
d
d d
q q q
W F dl dz
z z d tc tc tc
· ·
·
 
= = = ÷ = ÷

\ .
} }
1.12.4 Other Image Problem
The method just described is not limited to a single point charge; any stationary charge
distribution near a grounded conducting plane can be treated in the same way, by
introducing its mirror image.

  
u
r
' R
R
q
' q
b
a
q
a
R
0 V =
 
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Let us examine the completely different configuration, consisting of the point charge q
together with another point charge
R
q' q
a
= ÷
placed at a distance
2
R
b
a
= to the right of
the centre of sphere. No conductor, nowjust two point charges.
The potential of this configuration is
0
1 q q'
V(r, )
4 R R
 
u = +

' tc
\ .
2 2 2 2
0
q 1 1
V(r, )
4
r a 2racos R (ra/ R) 2racos
¦ ¹
¦ ¦
u = ÷
´ `
tc
¦ ¦ + ÷ u + ÷ u
¹ )
Clearly when r = R, V ÷ 0
Force
The force on q, due to the sphere, is the same as the force of the image charge q', thus:
2
2 2 2
0
1 q Ra
F
4
(a R )
= ÷
tc
÷
Energy
To bring q in from infinity to a, we do work
2
2 2
0
1 q R
W
4
2(a R )
= ÷
tc
÷
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2. MAGNETOSTATICS
The magnetic field at any point due to steady current is called as magnetostatic field.
2.1 Magnetic force on current element
The magnetic force on a charge Q, moving with velocity v in a magnetic fieldB
is,
( ) B v Q Fmag × = . This is known as Lorentz force law. In the presence of both electric and
magnetic fields, the net force on Q would be: ( )   B v E Q F × + =
2.1.1 Current in a wire
A line charge λ traveling down a wire at a
speed v constitutes a currentI v ì =
.
Magnetic force on a segment of current
carrying wire is,
( )
mag F I dl B = ×
}
2.1.2 Surface current density
When charge flows over a surface, we describe it by the surface currentK
.
±
I
=
dl
d
K is the current per unit width
perpendicular to flow.
Also K v o =
where iso surface charge
density and v
is its velocity.
Magnetic force on surface current
( )
mag F K B da = ×
}
2.1.3 Volume current density
d
J
da
±
I
=
is the current per unit areaperpendicular to
flow. Also J v µ =
where µ is volume charge density
and v
is its velocity. Magnetic force on volume
current
( )
mag F J B dt = ×
}
.Current crossing a surface S is
S
J da I = ·
}
P
t vA
v
ì
K
Flow
±
dl
J
±
da
Flow
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2.2 Continuity equation
General continuity equation
t
J
c
c
÷ = · V
µ
This is the precise mathematical statements of local charge conservation.
Thus for magnetostatic fields
0 =
c
c
t
µ
and hence the continuity equation becomes:
0 J V· =
.
2.3 BiotSavart law (magnetic field of steady line current)
The magnetic field of a steady line current is given by
( )
0 0
2 2
ˆ ˆ
'
4 4
I R dl R
B r dl I
R R
µ µ
t t
× ×
' = =
} }
7
0 2
4 10 ( )
N
where permeability of free space
A
µ t
÷
= ×
For surface and volume current Biot  Savart law becomes:
0 0
2 2
ˆ ˆ
( ') ( ')
( ) ' ( ) '
4 4
K r R J r R
r da and r d
R R
µ µ
t
t t
× ×
B = B =
} }
.
2.3.1 Magnetic field due to wire
Let us find the magnetic field a distance d from a long straight wire carrying a steady
current I.
0
2 1
I
ˆ
B (sin sin )
4 d
µ
= u ÷ u 
t
For Infinite wire:
1
2
t
u = ÷ and
2
2
t
u =
0
I
ˆ
B
2 d
µ
¬ = 
t
Note:
1. Force (per unit length) of attraction between two
long, parallel wires a distance d apart, carrying
currents I
1
and I
2
in same direction are:
d
I I
f
2 1 0
2t
µ
= .
2. If currents are in opposite direction they will repel with same magnitude.
 I
R
' dI
r

1
u
I
2
u
Wire segment
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3. The magnetic field a distance d above the center of a circular loop of radius R, which
carries a steady current I is
2
0
2 2 3/2
I R
ˆ B z
2
(R d )
µ
=
+
.
At the center of the circle
0
I
ˆ B(0) z
2R
µ
=
2.3.2 Magnetic field due to Solenoid and Toroid
The magnetic field of a very long solenoid, consisting of n closely wound turns per unit
length of a cylinder of radius R and carrying a steady current I is:
0
ˆ inside the solenoid
0 outside the solenoid.
nI z
B
µ ¦
=
´
¹
Magnetic field due to toroid is
^
0
for points inside the coil
2
0 for points outside the coil
NI
B r
µ

t
¦
+
¦
=
´
¦
¹
where N is the total number of turns.
2.4 Ampere's Law
In general we can write
0 enc
B dl I µ · =
}
where .
enc
I J da =
}
is the total current enclosed
by the amperian loop.
0
B J µ ¬ V× =
Right hand Rule
If the fingers of your right hand indicate the direction of integration around the boundary,
then your thumb defines the direction of a positive current.
2.5 Magnetic Vector Potential ( ) A : Since 0 B B A V· = ¬ = V×
For magnetostatic fields,
2
0
0 A and A J µ V· = V = ÷
If J goes to zero at infinity, ( )
( )
0
'
' .
4
J r
A r d for volume current
R
µ
t
t
=
}
For line and surface currents, ( ) ( )
0 0
1
'; '
4 4
I K
A r dl A r da
R R
µ µ
t t
= =
} }
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2.6 Magnetostatic boundary condition (Boundary is sheet of current, K
)
J ust as the electric field suffers a discontinuity at a surface charge, so the magnetic field
is discontinuous at a surface current. Only this time it is the tangential component that
changes.
Since . 0 Bda =
}
above below
B B
± ±
¬ =
For tangential components
( )
( )
 
0 0
 
0
. is parallel to surface but to
. is parallel to surface and along
r
enc above below
enc above below
B dl I B B K B K
B dl I B B B K
µ µ
µ
¦
= ¬ ÷ = ±
¦
´
= ¬ = ¦
¹
}
}
Thus the component of
( )
B
that is parallel to the surface but perpendicular to the current
is discontinuous in the amount
0
K µ . A similar amperian loop running parallel to the
current reveals that the parallel component is continuous. The result can be summarized
in a single formula:
( ) n K B B below above
ˆ
0
× = ÷ µ ,
where ˆ n is a unit vector perpendicular to the surface, pointing “upward”.
Like the scalar potential in electrostatics, the vector potential is continuous across, an
boundary: above below A A =
For . 0 A V =
guarantees that the normal component is continuous, and A B V× =
, in the
form . .
line S
Adl B da  = =
} }
But the derivative of
( )
A
inherits the discontinuity of
( )
B
:
0
above below A A
K
n n
µ
c c
÷ = ÷
c c
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2.7 Multiple Expansion of Vector Potential
We can always write the potential in the form of a power series in
1
r
, where r is the
distance to the point in question. Thus we can always write
( ) ( )
(
¸
(
¸
+ 
.

\

÷ + + =
} } }
......... '
2
1
' cos
2
3
'
1
' ' cos '
1
'
1
4
2 2
3 2
0
l d r
r
l d r
r
l d
r
I
r A u u
t
µ
First term, monopole 0 dl' ¬ =
}
(no magnetic
monopole)
Second term, dipole ( )
0
2
ˆ
4
dip
m r
A r
r
µ
t
×
¬ =
where m is the magnetic dipole moment:
}
= = A I a d I m where A is area vector
Thus ( ) 
u
t
µ
ˆ
sin
4
2
0
r
m
r Adip =
Hence
( ) ( ) u u u
t
µ
ˆ
sin ˆ cos 2
4
3
0
+ = × V = r
r
m
A r Bdip ( )
0
3
1
ˆ ˆ 3
4
m r r m
r
µ
t
(
= · · ÷
¸ ¸
Note:
(a) When a magnetic dipole is placed in a uniform magnetic field ( B
), net force on the
dipole is zero and it experiences a torque m B t = ×
.
(b) In nonuniform field, dipoles have net force
( )
F m B = V ·
and torque B m× = t .
(c) Energy of an ideal dipole m in an magnetic field B
is . U m B = ÷
.
(d) Interaction energy of two dipoles separated by a distance r is
( )( )   r m r m m m
r
U ˆ ˆ 3
4
1
2 1 2 1
3
0
· · ÷ · =
tc
.
.

u
m
x

r
z
y

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2.8 Magnetisation( ) M
Magnetization( ) M is magnetic dipole moment per unit volume.
2.8.1 The Field of a magnetized Object (Bound Currents)
Consider a piece of magnetized material with magnetization( ) M .
Then the vector potential is given by
( ) ( ) ( )
0 0
1 1
'
4 4
v
A r M r d M r da
R R
µ µ
t
t t
( ( ' ' ' ' = V × + ×
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
} }
.
This means the potential(and hence also the field) of a magnetized object is the same as
would be produced by a volume current M J
b
× V = throughout the material, plus a
surface current n M K
b
ˆ × = , on the boundary. We first determine these bound currents,
and then find the field they produce.
2.9 The Auxiliary field ( H
)
2.9.1 Ampere’s Law in in presence of magnetic materials
In a magnetized material the total current can be written as b f J J J = +
where b J
is
bound current and f J
is free current. Thus f H J V× =
where
0
B
H M
µ
= ÷
In integral form
enc
f
H dl I · =
}
where
enc
f
I is the total free current passing through the
amperian loop.
H
plays a role in magnetostatic analogous to D
in electrostatic: J ust asD
allowed us to
write Gauss's law in terms of the free charge alone, H
permits us to express Ampere's
law in terms of the free current alone and free current is what we control directly.
Note:
When we have to find B
or H
in a problem involving magnetic materials, first look for
symmetry. If the problem exhibits cylindrical, plane, solenoid, or toroidal symmetry, then
we can get H
directly from the equation
enc
f
H dl I · =
}
.
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2.9.2 Magnetic Susceptibility and Permeability
For most substances magnetization is proportional to the fieldH , H M
m
_ = ¬ ,
where
m
_ is magnetic susceptibility of the material.
( ) ( ) H B H M H B
m
µ _ µ µ = ¬ + = + = ¬ 1
0 0
where ( )
m r
_ µ µ µ µ + = = 1
0 0 0
, is
permeability of material.
2.9.3 Boundary Condition ( H
)
The boundary between two medium is a thin sheet of free surface current
f
K .
The Ampere’s law states that
ˆ
above below f H H K n ¬ ÷ = ×
.
And
( )
± ± ± ±
÷ ÷ = ÷
below above below above
M M H H
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3. Dynamics of charged particles in static and uniform electromagnetic fields
(The Lorentz Force Law)
The magnetic force on a charge Q, moving with velocity v in a magnetic fieldB
is,
( ) B v Q Fmag × =
This is known as Lorentz force law.
In the presence of both electric and magnetic fields, the net force on Q would be:
( )
F Q E v B
(
= + ×
¸ ¸
3.1 Charged particle in static electric field
3.1.1 Charged particle enters in the direction of field (Linear motion)
The force on the charge Q in electric field E is E Q F = .
Acceleration of the charge particle in the direction of the electric field is
m
E Q
m
F
a = = .
If r is the position vector at any time t then
Let at t=0,
0
r r =
0 1
r C = ¬
0
2
2
r t u t
m
E Q
r + + = ¬
If initially 0 , 0
0
= = r u
2
2
t
m
E Q
r = ¬ and t
m
E Q
v = .
The energy acquired by the charged particle in moving from point 1 to 2 is
} } } }
= = = =
2
1
2
1
2
1
2
1
. . . . v d v m dt v
dt
v d
m l d a m l d F W ( )
2
1
2
2
2
1
v v m W ÷ = ¬
If the potential difference between points 1 to 2 is V then ( )
2
1
2
2
2
1
v v m QV W ÷ = =
If the particle starts from rest i.e( ) 0
1
= v and final velocity is v then
Q
E
 
1 2
ut
 
1 2
0
r
2
2
QE
t
m
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m
QV
v mv QV W
2
2
1
2
= ¬ = =
Kinetic energy of the particle QEr t
m
QE
QE t
m
E Q
m mv E K = × = = =
2 2
2
2 2
2
2
.
2
1
2
1
. .
3.1.2 Charged particle enters in the direction perpendicular to field (Parabolic
motion)
Let us consider a charge particle enters in an electric field region with velocity
x
v at t=0.
The electric field is in the ydirection and the field region has length l. After traversing a
distance l it strikes a point P on a screen which is placed at a distance L from the field
region.
Thus
2
2
2 2
1


.

\

= =
x
y
y
v
x
m
QE
t a y and which represents parabolic path.
2
1
2


.

\

=
x
y
v
l
m
QE
y and u tan
2
L y ==
Thus distance of point P from the center of the screen is, u tan
2
2
2 1
L
v
l
m
QE
y y
x
y
+


.

\

= +
Angle of deviation in the field region, x
mv
QE
dx
dy
x
y
2
tan = = 
Angle of deviation in the field free region, l
mv
QE
x
y
2
tan = u
u
+ + + +
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷

L
x
v
y
E
l
1
y
2
y
x
y

P
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3.2 Charged particle in static magnetic field
The magnetic force on a charge Q, moving with velocity v in a magnetic fieldB
is,
( ) B v Q Fmag × =
This is known as Lorentz force law.
3.2.1 Charged particle enters in the direction perpendicular to field (Circular
motion)
If a charge particle enters in a magnetic field at angle of 90
o
, then motion will be circular
with the magnetic force providing the centripetal acceleration.
For uniform circular motion:
2
v mv
QvB m R
R QB
= ¬ =
where R is the radius of the circle and m is the mass of the charge
particle.
Momentum of the charged particle p QBR =
Kinetic energy (KE)
m
R B Q
m
p
2 2
2 2 2 2
= =
Time period
QB
m
v
R
T
t t 2 2
= =
3.2.2 Charged particle enters in the direction making an angle with the field
(Helical motion)
If the charge particle enters in a magnetic field making an angle θ,
then motion will be helical.

sin and cos v v v v u u
±
= =
,
and the radius of helix is
mv
R
QB
±
=
.

F
B
z
Q
x
v
y
R
B

u
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3.3 Charged particle in uniform electric and magnetic field (Cycloid motion)
( )
( )
( )
ˆ ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ
,
( )
F Q E v B Q Ez Bz y Byz
ma m y y z z
E
y z z y
B
QB
where cylotron frequency
m
e e
e
= + × = + ÷
= = +
 
¬ = = ÷

\ .
=
Solving above differential equations, we get
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
2 2
2
sin , 1 cos
E E
y t t t z t t
B B
E
y R t z R R where R
B
e e e
e e
e
e
= ÷ = ÷
¬ ÷ + ÷ = =
This is the formula for a circle, of radius R,
whose center is ( ) 0, , R t R e travels in the ydirection at constant speed,
B
E
R v = = e
The curve generated in this way is called a cycloid.
Magnetic forces do not work because ( ) B v × is perpendicular to v , so
( ) 0 = · × = · = dt v B v Q l d F dW mag
mag .
Magnetic forces may alter the direction in which a particle moves, but they can not speed
up or slow down it.
E
o
B
x
z
y
a
b
c
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4. Electromagnetic induction
4.1 Faraday’s Law
Experiment 1: He pulled a loop of wire to the right through a magnetic field. A current
flowed in the loop (Figure a).
Experiment 2: He moved the magnet to the left, holding the loop still. Again, a current
flowed in the loop (Figure b).
Experiment 3: With both the loop and the magnet at rest, he changed the strength of the
field (he used an electromagnet, and varied the current in the coil). Once again current
flowed in the loop (Figure c).
Thus, universal flux rule is that, whenever (and for whatever reason) the magnetic flux
through a loop changes, an e.m.f. ( ) c will appear in the loop.
d
dt
c
u
= ÷ (Where magnetic flux . B da u =
}
)
In experiment 2, A changing magnetic field induces an electric field.
It is this “induced” electric field that accounts for the e.m.f.
d
E dl
dt
c
u
= · = ÷
}
Then
.
B
E dl da
t
c
· = ÷
c
} }
t
B
E
c
c
÷ = × V ¬
4.1.1 Lenz’s Law
In Faraday’s law negative sign represents the Lenz’s law. (The induced current will flow
in such a direction that the flux it produces tends to cancel the change).
For example if the magnetic flux is increasing then induced e.m.f will try to reduce and
vice versa.
( ) c
I
B
field magnetic
changing
v
I
B
( ) a
v
I
B
( ) b
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5. Maxwell's equations
5.1 Maxwell’s equation in free space
5.1.1 Electrodynamics before Maxwell’s
(i)
0
c
µ
= E · V (Gauss’ Law),
(ii) 0 B V· =
(No name),
(iii)
B
t
c
V×E = ÷
c
(Farday’s Law),
(iv)
0
B J µ V× =
(Ampere’s law).
5.1.2 How Maxwell fixed Ampere’s Law
From continuity equation and Gauss Law
0 0
. ( . ) .
E
J E
t t t
µ
c c
 
÷c c c
V = = V = ÷V


c c c
\ .
0
. 0
E
J
t
c
 
c
¬ V + =


c
\ .
.
Thus
0 0 0
E
B J
t
µ µ c
c
V× = +
c
A changing electric field induces a magnetic field.
Maxwell called this extra term the displacement current
0 d
E
J
t
c
c
=
c
.
Integral form of Ampere's law
0 0 0
. .
enc
E
B dl I da
t
µ µ c
 
c
= +


c
\ .
} }
5.1.4 Maxwell’s equation in free space
(i)
0
c
µ
= E · V (Gauss’ Law),
(ii) 0 B V· =
(No name),
(iii)
B
t
c
V×E = ÷
c
(Farday’s Law),
(iv)
0 0 0
E
B J
t
µ µ c
c
V× = +
c
(Ampere’s law with Maxwell's correction).
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5.3 Boundary conditions on the fields at interfaces
( )
( )
above below f
above below
a D D
b B B
o
± ±
± ±
¹ ÷ =
¦
`
=
¦
)
 
 
( )
ˆ ( )
above below
above below f
c E E
d H H K n
¹
=
¦
`
¦ ÷ = ×
)
In particular, if there is no free charge or free current at the interface between medium1
and medium 2, then
1 1 2 2
1 2
( ) 0
( )
a E E
b B B
c c
± ±
± ±
¹ ÷ =
¦
`
=
¦
)
and
 
1 2
 
1 2
1 2
( )
1 1
( ) 0
c E E
d B B
µ µ
¹
=
¦
`
÷ =
¦
)
.
6. Electromagnetic waves in free space
6.1 Poynting Theorem (“work energy theorem of electrodynamics”)
The work necessary to assemble a static charge distribution is
2 0
2
e
W E d
c
t =
}
, where E is the resulting electric field
The work required to get currents going (against the back emf) is
2
0
1
2
m
W B dt
µ
=
}
, where B is the resulting magnetic field
This suggests that the total energy in the electromagnetic field is
2
2
0
0
1
2
em
B
U E d c t
µ
 
= +

\ .
}
.
Suppose we have some charge and current configuration which at time t, produces
fields & E B
. In next instant, dt, the charges moves around a bit. The work is done by
electromagnetic forces acting on these charges in the interval dt.
According to Lorentz Force Law, the work done on a charge ‘q’ is
( ) F dl q E v B v dt qE v dt · = + × · = ·
.
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Now q d µ t = and v J µ =
, so the rate at which work is done on all the charges in a
volume V is
( )
2 2
0
0 0
1 1 1
2
V S
dW d
E B d E B da
dt dt
c t
µ µ
 
= ÷ + ÷ × ·

\ .
} }
,
where S is the surface bounding V.
This is Poynting's theorem; it is the “work energy theorem” of electrodynamics.
The first integral on the right is the total energy stored in the fields,
em
U .
The second term evidently, represents the rate at which energy is carries out of V, across
its boundary surface, by the electromagnetic fields.
Poynting's theorem says, that, “the work done on the charges by the electromagnetic
force is equal to the decrease in energy stored in the field, less the energy that flowed out
through the surface”.
The energy per unit time, per unit area, transported by the fields is called the Poynting
vector
( )
0
1
S E B
µ
÷ ×
.
a d S · is the energy per unit time crossing the infinitesimal surfaceda
– the energy or
energy flux density.
Momentum density stored in the electromagnetic field is:
0 0 dem
S µ c ¸ =
6.2 Waves in one dimension (Sinusoidal waves)
6.2.1 The wave equation
A wave propagating with speed v in zdirection can be expressed as:
2 2
2 2 2
1 f f
z v t
c c
=
c c
The most general solution to the wave equation is the sum of a wave to the right
(+z direction) and a wave to the left (z direction):
( ) ( ) ( ) , f z t g z vt h z vt = ÷ + + .
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6.2.2 Terminology
Let us consider a function ( )   , cos ( ) f z t A k z vt o = ÷ +
A is the amplitude of the wave (it is positive, and represents the maximum displacement
from equilibrium).
The argument of the cosine is called the phase, and o is the phase constant (normally,
we use a value in the range0 2 o t s < ).
Figure given below shows this function at time 0 t = . Notice that atz vt
k
o
= ÷ , the phase
is zero; let's call this the “central maximum.” If 0 o = , central maximum passes the origin
at time 0 t = ; more generally
k
o
is the distance by which the central maximum (and
therefore the entire wave) is “delayed.”
Finally k is the wave number; it is related to the wavelength ì as
2
k
t
ì = , for when z
advances by
2
k
t
, the cosine executes one complete cycle.
As time passes, the entire wave train proceeds to the right, at speedv . Time period of
one complete cycle is
2
T
kv
t
= .
The frequency v (number of oscillations per unit time) is
1
2
kv v
T
v
t ì
= = = .
The angular frequency 2 kv e tv = =
In terms of angular frequencye , the sinusoidal wave can be represented as
( ) ( ) , cos f z t A kz t e o = ÷ + .
A

/ k o
z
( ) ,0 f z
Central
maximum
ì
v
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A sinusoidal oscillation of wave number k and angular frequencye traveling to the left
would be written
( ) ( ) , cos f z t A kz t e o = + ÷ .
Comparing this with the wave traveling to the right reveals that, in effect, we could
simply switch the sign of k to produce a wave with the same amplitude, phase constant,
frequency, and wavelength, traveling in the opposite direction.
6.2.3 Complex notation
In view of Euler's formula,
cos sin
i
e i
u
u u = + ,
the sinusoidal wave ( ) ( ) , cos f z t A kz t e o = ÷ + can be written as
( )
( )
, Re
i kz t
f z t Ae
e o ÷ +
(
=
¸ ¸
,
where ( ) Re q denotes the real part of the complex number q . This invites us to introduce
the complex wave function
( )
( )
,
i kz t
f z t Ae
e ÷
=
with the complex amplitude
i
A Ae
o
=
absorbing the phase constant.
The actual wave function is the real part of
f
:
( ) ( ) , Re , f z t f z t ( =
¸ ¸
.
The advantage of the complex notation is that exponentials are much easier to manipulate
than sines and cosines.

/ k o
z
( ) ,0 f z
Central
maximum
v
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6.2.4 Polarization
In longitudinal wave, the displacement from the equilibrium is along the direction of
propagation. Sound waves, which are nothing but compression waves in air, are
longitudinal.
Electromagnetic waves are transverse in nature. In a transverse wave displacement is
perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
There are two dimensions perpendicular to any given line of propagation. Accordingly,
transverse waves occur in two independent state of polarization:
“Vertical” polarization ( )
( )
ˆ ,
i kz t
v
f z t Ae x
e ÷
=
,
“Horizontal” polarization ( )
( )
ˆ ,
i kz t
h
f z t Ae y
e ÷
=
,
or along any other direction in the xy plane ( )
( )
ˆ ,
i kz t
f z t Ae n
e ÷
=
The polarization vector ˆ n defines the plane of vibration. Because the waves are
transverse, ˆ n is perpendicular to the direction of propagation:
ˆ ˆ . 0 n z =
6.3 Electromagnetic waves in vacuum
6.3.1 The wave equation for E and B
Write Maxwell’s equations in free space ( 0 0 and J µ = =
) then,
2
2
0 0 2
E
E
t
µ c
c
¬ V =
c
and
2
2
0 0 2
B
B
t
µ c
c
V =
c
Thus, E and B satisfy the wave equation
2
2
2
1
t
f
v
f
c
c
= V .
So, EM waves travels with a speed
8
0 0
1
3 10 / ( ) v m s c velocity of light in free space
µ c
= = × =
2
7 12
2 2 0 0
4 10 , 8.86 10
N C
where
A Nm
µ t c
÷ ÷
= × = ×
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6.3.2 Monochromatic plane waves
Suppose waves are traveling in the zdirection and have no x or y dependence; these are
called plane waves because the fields
are uniform over every plane
perpendicular to the direction of
propagation.
The plane waves can be represented as:
( )
( ) t kz i
e E t z E
e ÷
=
0
~
,
~
, ( )
( ) t kz i
e B t z B
e ÷
=
0
~
,
~
where
0
~
E and
0
~
B are the (complex)
amplitudes (the physical fields, of course are the real parts of E
~
and B
~
).
That is, electromagnetic waves are transverse: the electric and magnetic fields are
perpendicular to the direction of propagation.
Also 0 0 ˆ ( )
k
B z E
e
= ×
There is nothing special about the z direction; we can generalize the monochromatic
plane waves traveling in an arbitrary direction. The propagation vector or wave vector k
points in the direction of propagation, whose magnitude is the wave number k. The scalar
product . k r
is the appropriate generalization of kz, so
( )
( )
( )
( )
( )
. .
0 0
1 1
ˆ ˆ
ˆ ˆ , , ,
i k r t i k r t
E r t E e n B r t E e k n k E
c c
e e ÷ ÷
= = × = ×
where ˆ n is polarization vector.
The actual (real) electric and magnetic fields in a monochromatic plane wave with
propagation vector k
and polarizationˆ n are
( )
( )
( )
( )( ) 0 0
1
ˆ
ˆ ˆ , cos . , , cos . E r t E k r t n B r t E k r t k n
c
e o e o = ÷ + = ÷ + ×
c
E
0
E
c /
0
E
B
z
y
x
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6.3.3 Energy and Momentum in Electromagnetic Wave
The energy per unit volume stored in electromagnetic field is
2 2
0
0
1 1
2
u E B c
µ
 
= +

\ .
In case of monochromatic plane wave
2
2 2
0 0 2
E
B E
c
µ c = =
So the electric and magnetic contributions are equal i.e.
2 2
0
0
1 1
2 2
E B
u u E B c
µ
= = = .
2 2 2
0 0 0
= cos ( )
E B
u u u E E kz wt c c o = + = ÷ + .
As the wave travels, it carries this energy along with it. The energy flux density (energy
per unit area, per unit time) transported by the fields is given by the Pointing vector
0
1
( ) S E B
µ
= ×
For monochromatic plane wave propagating in the zdirection,
2 2
0 0
ˆ ˆ cos ( ) S c E kz wt z cuz c o = ÷ + =
.
The energy per unit time, per unit area, transported by the wave is therefore uc.
Electromagnetic fields not only carry energy, they also carry momentum. The
momentum density stored in the field is
2
1
S
c
¸=
.
For monochromatic plane wave,
2 2
0 0
1 1
ˆ ˆ cos ( ) E kz wt z uz
c c
c o ¸= ÷ + =
.
Average energy density
2
0 0
1
2
u E c ( ) = ,
Average of Poynting vector
^
2
0 0
1
2
S c E z c ( ) =
,
Average momentum density
^
2
0 0
1
2
E z
c
c (¸) =
.
The average power per unit area transported by an electromagnetic wave is called the
intensity
2
0 0
1
2
I S c E c = ( ) = .
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Note:
(a) When light falls on perfect absorber it delivers its momentum to the surface. In a
time t A the momentum transfer is p Ac t A = ¸ A ,
so the radiation pressure (average force per unit area) is
2
0 0
1 1
2
p I
P E
A t c
c
A
= = =
A
.
(b) When light falls on perfect reflector, the radiation pressure
c
I
P
2
=
because the momentum changes direction, instead of being absorbed.
6.4 Electromagnetic waves in matter
Inside matter, but in regions where there is no free charge or free current. If the medium
is linear and homogeneous,
1
and H= D E B c
µ
=
.
Now the wave equation inside matter is
2 2
2 2
2 2
E B
E and B
t t
µc µc
c c
V = V =
c c
.
Thus EM waves propagate through a linear homogenous medium at a speed
1 c
v
n cµ
= = where
0 0
n
cµ
c µ
=
thus
r
n c = is the index of refraction (since 1
r
µ = for nonmagnetic material).
The energy density
2 2
1 1
2
u E B c
µ
 
= +

\ .
2
0
1
2
u E c ¬ ( ) =
The Poynting vector ( ) B E S
× =
µ
1
^
2
0
1
2
S v E z c ¬ ( ) =
Intensity
2
0
1
2
I S vE c = ( ) =
Thus in a medium c→ v, c c ÷
0
and µ µ ÷
0
c
t cA
A
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6.5 Electromagnetic waves in conductors
Any initial free charge density ( ) 0
f
µ given to conductor dissipate in a characteristic time
/ t c o ÷ where σ is conductivity and ( )
( )
( )
/
0
t
f f
t e
o c
µ µ
÷
= .
This reflects the familiar fact that if we put some free charge on conductor, it will flow
out to the edges. The modified wave equation for E and B
are,
2 2
2 2
2
E E B B
E and B
t t t t
µc µo µc µo
c c c c
V = + V = +
c c c c
The admissible plane wave solution is ( )
( ) t z k i
e E t z E
e ÷
=
~
0
~
,
~
, ( )
( ) t z k i
e B t z B
e ÷
=
~
0
~
,
~
“wave number” k
is complex. Let k k ik = +
wherek and k are real and imaginary part
of k
.
1/2 1/2
2 2
1 1 1
2 2
k and
cµ o cµ o
e k e
ce ce
( (
   
( (
¬ = + + = + ÷
 
( ( \ . \ .
¸ ¸ ¸ ¸
Thus, ( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0 , , ,
i kz t i kz t z z
E z t E e e B z t B e e
e e k k ÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
= =
The distance it takes to reduce the amplitude by a factor of
e
1
is called the skin depth (d)
1
d
k
= ;
it is a measure of how far the wave penetrates into the conductor.
The real part of k
determines the wavelength, the propagation speed, and the index of
refraction:
k
t
ì
2
= , v
k
e
= ,
e
ck
n =
Like any complex number, k
can be expressed in terms of its modulus and phase:
i
k Ke

=
where
2
2 2
1 K k k
o
k e cµ
ce
 
= = + = +

\ .
and
( )
1
tan
k

k
÷
÷
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The complex amplitudes
0 0 0 0
E B
i i
E E e and B B e
o o
= =
are related by
0 0 0 0
B E
i
i i
k Ke
B E B e E e

o o
e e
= ¬ =
.
Evidently the electric and magnetic fields are no longer in phase; in fact
B E
o o  ÷ = , the
magnetic field lags behind the electric fields.
1/2
2
0
0
1
B K
E
o
cµ
e ce
(
 
(
= = +

( \ .
¸ ¸
Thus,
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
0
0
ˆ , cos
ˆ , cos
z
E
z
E
E z t E e kz t x
B z t B e kz t y
k
k
e o
e o 
÷
÷
= ÷ +
= ÷ + +
Note:
(a) In a poor conductor (o ec << )
2
o µ
k
c
= i.e independent of frequency.
(b) In a very good conductor (o ec >> )
1 2 1
,
2
d
f
eµo
k
k eµo t µo
= = = =
(c) When an electromagnetic wave strikes a perfect conductor (o ÷·) then all waves
are reflected back i.e.
0 0 0
and 0
R I T
E E E = ÷ =
.
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7. Applications of Electromagnetic waves
7.1 Reflection and Refraction
7.1.1 Normal incidence
At 0 z = , the combined field on the left
I R I R
E E and B B + +
, must join the fields on the right
&
T T
E B
, in accordance with the boundary conditions.
2 1 2
0 0 0 0
2 1 1 2
2
,
R I T I
v v v
v v v v
    ÷
¬ E = E E = E
 
+ +
\ . \ .
Note:
Reflected wave is in phase if
2 1 2 1
v v or n n > <
and out of phase if
2 1 2 1
v v or n n < > .
In terms of indices of refraction the real
amplitudes are
1 2 1
0 0 0 0
1 2 1 2
2
,
R I T I
n n n
n n n n
÷
E = E E = E
+ +
.
Since Intensity
2
0
1
2
I vE c = , then the ratio of the reflected intensity to the incident intensity is
the Reflection coefficient
2 2
0 1 2
0 1 2
R R
I I
E I n n
R
I E n n
    ÷
= = =
 
+
\ . \ .
.
The ratio of the transmitted intensity to the incident intensity is the Transmission coefficient
( )
2
0 2 2 1 2
2
1 1 0
1 2
4
T T
I I
E I v n n
T
I v E
n n
c
c
 
= = =

+
\ .
.
1 R T ¬ + =
1 2
z
y
x
Interface
I
B
I
E
1
v
T
E
2
v
T
B
R
B
1
v
R
E
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7.1.2 Oblique incidence
In oblique incidence an incoming wave meets the boundary at an arbitrary angle
I
u . Of course,
normal incidence is really just a special case of oblique incidence with 0
I
u = .
First Law (law of refraction)
The incident, reflected and transmitted wave vectors
form a plane (called the incidence plane),
which also includes normal to the surface.
Second law (law of reflection)
The angle of incidence is equal to the angle of reflection
i.e.
I R
u u =
Third Law: (law of refraction, or Snell’s law)
1
2
sin
sin
T
I
n
n
u
u
= .
7.1.3 Fresnel’s relation (Parallel and Perpendicular Polarization)
Case I: (Polarization in the plane of incidence)
Reflected and transmitted amplitudes
0 0 R I
E E
o 
o 
  ÷
=

+
\ .
and
0 0
2
T I
E E
o 
 
=

+
\ .
where
1 1 1 2
2 2 2 1
cos
cos
T
I
v n
and
v n
u µ µ
o 
u µ µ
= = =
These are known as Fresnel’s equations.
Notice that transmitted wave is always in phase with
the incident one; the reflected wave is either in phase ,
if o  > , or 180
0
out phase ifo  < .
At Brewster’s angle (
B
u ) reflected light is completely extinguished wheno  = , or
1
2
tan
n
n
B
~ u
90
o
I B
and u u + =
T k
I k
R k
2
T
u
z
R
u
I
u
Plane of Incidence
1
R B
R E
I k
T k
R k
2
T
u
z
R
u
I
u
1
I E
I B
T E
T B
×
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When light enters from denser to rarer medium (
2 1
n n > ) then after a critical angle (
C
u )
there is total internal reflection.
0
1 2
2 1
sin90
sin
sin
c
c
n n
n n
u
u
= ¬ =
, 90
o
C T
at u u =
.
Reflection and Transmission coefficients are
2


.

\

+
÷
=
 o
 o
R
and
2
2


.

\

+
=
 o
o T
1 = + ¬ T R
CaseII: (Polarization perpendicular to plane of incidence)
I T I R
E E and E E
0 0 0 0
1
2
1
1


.

\

+
=


.

\

+
÷
=
o o
o
In this case
B
u is not possible.
Thus
2 2
1 2
1 1
R and T
o
o
o o
    ÷
= =
 
+ +
\ . \ .
1 R T ¬ + =
I k
T k
R k
2
T
u
z
R
u
I
u
1
R B
R E
I E
I B
T E
T B
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8. Potential and Field formulation for Time Varying Fields
8.1 Scalar and vector potentials
Now from first Maxwell’s equation (i)
( )
2
0
V A
t
µ
c
c
V + V· = ÷
c
...............(1)
From fourth Maxwell’s equation
2
2
0 0 0 0 0 2
A V
A A J
t t
µ c µ c µ
 
c c  
¬ V ÷ ÷V V· + = ÷


c c
\ .
\ .
…............(2)
Equations (1) and (2) contain all the information of Maxwell’s equations. Thus we need
to calculate only four components (one for V and three for A
) instead of six components
(three for E
and three forB
).
8.2 Gauge transformation
Suppose we have two sets of potentials,
( )
, V A
and
( )
, V A ' '
, which correspond to the
same electric and magnetic fields.
Thus A A o ' = +
andV V  ' = + .
It follows that
,
.
A A
V V
t
ì
ì
¹ ' = +V
¦
`
c
' = ÷
¦
c )
Conclusion: For any old scalar functionì , we can add ì V
toA
, provided we
simultaneously subtract
t
ì c
c
from V. None of these will affect the physical quantitiesE
andB
. Such changes inV and A
are called gauge transformations.
B A = V×
A
E V
t
c
= ÷V ÷
c
¬
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8.3 Coulomb and Lorentz gauge
Coulomb Gauge reads 0 A V· =
.
Lorentz Gauge condition is
0 0
V
A
t
µ c
c
V· = ÷
c
.
Since
2
2
0 0 0 0 0 2
A V
A A J
t t
µ c µ c µ
 
c c  
V ÷ ÷V V· + = ÷
 
c c
\ .
\ .
and
( )
2
0
V A
t
µ
c
c
V + V· = ÷
c
,
Using Lorentz Gauge condition
2
2
0 0 0 2
A
A J
t
µ c µ
c
¬ V ÷ = ÷
c
and
2
2
0 0 2
0
V
V
t
µ
µ c
c
c
V ÷ = ÷
c
.
The virtue of the Lorentz gauge is that it treatsV and A
on an equal footing: the same
differential operator
2
2
2
0 0 2
t
µ c
c
V ÷ ÷
c
(called the d' Alembertian) occurs in both
equations:
(i)
2
0
V
µ
c
= ÷ , (ii)
2
o
A J µ = ÷
.
9.2 Waveguides
Electromagnetic waves confined to the interior of a hollow pipe or wave guide. The wave
guide is a perfect conductor, 0 0 = = B and E
inside the material itself, and hence the
boundary conditions at the inner wall are:

0 E =
and 0 B
±
=
Free charges and currents will be induced on the surface in such a way as to enforce these
constraints. Let us assume E.M. Waves that propagate inside the waveguide is
represented by:
( )
( )
( )
( )
0 0 , , , ( , ) , , , , ( , )
i kz t i kz t
E x y z t E x y e B x y z t B x y e
e e ÷ ÷
= =
.
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These electric and magnetic field must satisfies Maxwell's equations in the interior of the
waveguide.Since confined waves are not (in general) transverse; in order to fit the
boundary conditions we shall have to include longitudinal components ( )
z z
E and B :
0 0
ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ ,
x y z x y z
E E x E y E z B B x B y B z = + + = + +
.
Putting this into Maxwells equations(iii) and (iv) and compare R.H.S and L.H.S
z
y x
E
ikE i B
y
e
c
÷ =
c
,
z
x y
E
ikE i B
x
e
c
÷ =
c
,
y
x
z
E
E
i B
x y
e
c
c
÷ =
c c
2
z
y x
B i
ikB E
y c
e c
÷ = ÷
c
,
2
z
x y
B i
ikB E
x c
e c
÷ = ÷
c
,
2
y
x
z
B
B i
E
x y c
e
c
c
÷ = ÷
c c
Let us rewrite these six equations
(i)
y
x
z
E
E
i B
x y
e
c
c
÷ =
c c
, (iv)
2
y
x
z
B
B i
E
x y c
e
c
c
÷ = ÷
c c
(ii)
z
y x
E
ikE i B
y
e
c
÷ =
c
, (v)
2
z
y x
B i
ikB E
y c
e c
÷ = ÷
c
(iii)
z
x y
E
ikE i B
x
e
c
÷ =
c
, (vi)
2
z
x y
B i
ikB E
x c
e c
÷ = ÷
c
Equation (ii), (iii), (v), and (vi) can be solved for
x
E ,
y
E ,
x
B , and
y
B :
(i)
( )
2
2
z z
x
E B i
E k
x y
k
c
e
e
  c c
= +

c c
\ .
÷
(ii)
( )
2
2
z z
y
E B i
E k
y x
k
c
e
e
  c c
= ÷

c c
\ .
÷
(iii)
( )
2 2
2
z z
x
B E i
B k
x c y
k
c
e
e
  c c
= ÷

c c
\ .
÷
(iv)
( )
2 2
2
z z
y
B E i
B k
y c x
k
c
e
e
  c c
= +

c c
\ .
÷
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Finally, we will get coupled differential equation
(i)
2
2 2
2
2 2
0
z
k E
x y c
e
(
c c  
+ + ÷ =
(

c c
\ .
(
¸ ¸
(ii)
2
2 2
2
2 2
0
z
k B
x y c
e
(
c c  
+ + ÷ =
(

c c
\ .
(
¸ ¸
If 0
z
E = we call these TE (“transverse electric”) waves; if 0
z
B = they are called TM
(“transverse magnetic”) waves; if both 0
z
E = and 0
z
B = , we call them TEM waves.
Note: It turns out that TEM waves can not occur in a hollow waveguide.
9.2.1 TE Waves in Rectangular Waveguide
Suppose we have a wave guide of rectangular shape with height a and with b( ) a b > , and
we are interested in the propagation of TE waves.
The problem is to solve
2
2 2
2
2 2
0
z
k B
x y c
e
(
c c  
+ + ÷ =
(

c c
\ .
(
¸ ¸
(since 0
z
E = )
subject to boundary condition 0 B
±
=
.
Thus 
.

\


.

\

=
b
y n
a
x m
B B
z
t t
cos cos
0
where ...... 2 , 1 , 0 ..... 2 , 1 , 0 = = n and m
x
a
b
y
z
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This solution is called the
mn
TE mode. (The first index is conventionally associated with
the larger dimension.)
Wave number k is obtaine from equation
2
2 2 2
0
x x
k k k
c
e  
÷ ÷ + ÷ =

\ .
by putting
x
k and
y
k .
So wave number ( ) ( ) ( )
(
¸
(
¸
+ ÷ =
2 2
2
2
b
n
a
m
c
k t
e
where f t e 2 = .
If ( ) ( )
mn
b
n
a
m
c e t e ÷
(
¸
(
¸
+ <
2 2
or ( ) ( )
(
¸
(
¸
+ =
2 2
2
b
n
a
m
c
f
mn
,
the wave number is imaginary, and instead of a traveling wave we have exponentially
attenuated fields. For this reason
mn
e or
mn
f is called cutoff frequency for the mode in
question.
The lowest cutoff frequency (fundamental mode) for the waveguide occurs for the
mode
10
TE :
a
ct
e =
10
or
a
c
f
2
10
= .
Frequencies less than this will not propagate at all.
Wave number can be written more simply in terms of the cutoff frequency
2 2
1
mn
c
k e e ÷ = .
The wave velocity is
2 2
1 1
mn mn
c c
v c
k
f
f
e
e
e
= = = >
   
÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
.
Group velocity
2 2
1
1 1
mn mn
g
f
v c c c
f
dk
d
e
e
e
   
= = ÷ = ÷ <
 
\ . \ .
.
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Wavelength inside the waveguide
0 0
2 2
1 1
g
mn mn
f
f
ì ì
ì
e
e
= =
   
÷ ÷
 
\ . \ .
Characteristic impedance
2 2
377 377
1 1
TE
mn mn
f
f
q
e
e
= =
   
÷ ÷
 
\ .
\ .
9.2.2 TM Waves in Rectangular Waveguide
The problem is to solve
2
2 2
2
2 2
0
z
k E
x y c
e
(
c c  
+ + ÷ =
(

c c
\ .
(
¸ ¸
(since 0
z
B = )
subject to boundary condition

0 E =
.
We will get similar expression as we have derived in TE waves. Thus

.

\


.

\

=
b
y n
a
x m
E E
z
t t
sin sin
0
where ...... 3 , 2 , 1 ..... 3 , 2 , 1 = = n and m
This solution is called the
mn
TM mode. (The first index is conventionally associated
with the larger dimension.)
Formula for cutoff frequency
mn
e , wave velocityv , group velocity
g
v and
g
ì are same as
TE waves.
Characteristic impedance
2
1 377 
.

\

÷ =
w
w
mn
TM
q
The fundamental mode is
11
TM and
( ) ( )
2 2
11
1 1
2
c
f
a b
= +
.
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10. Radiation from moving charges
10.1 Radiation
Accelerating charges and changing current produce electromagnetic waves (radiation).
If the source is localized near the origin, the total power passing out through the spherical
shell of radius r is the integral of pointing vector:
( ) ( )
0
1
. . P r S da E B da
µ
= = ×
} }
The power radiated is the limit of this quantity as r goes to infinity:
( ) lim
rad
r
P P r
÷·
÷
This is the energy (per unit time) that is transported out to infinity, and never comes back.
10.1.1 Power radiated by a point charge
The electric field E
and magnetic field Bof an EM wave due to a point charge q, having
acceleration a
at any point P (position vector
r
) is given by
r
qa
E
u sin
·
,
r
qa
B
u sin
·
(where u is the angle which r makes with zdirection)
Thus
r
r c
a q
r
a q
S ˆ
sin
16
sin
2
2
2
2 2
0
2
2 2 2


.

\

= ·
u
t
µ u
The total power radiated is evidently
c
a q
d d r
r c
a q
a d S P
t
µ
 u u
u
t
µ
6
sin
sin
16
.
2 2
0 2
2
2
2
2 2
0
= = =
} }
The direction of E
can be determined from the following rule:
(i)
. r and E is always perpendicular
(ii)
E and r a
,
lies in one plane.
r
Source
z
y
x
P
r u
a
E
q