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1

Chapter 12
FiltersandTunedAmplifiers
(濾波器與調變放大器)
C.-Y. Su 2
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Outline
 Filter Transmission, Types, and Specification
 The Filter Transfer Function
 Butterworth and Chebyshev Filters
 First-Order and Second-Order Filter Functions
 The Second-Order LCR Resonator
 Second-Order Active Filters Based on Inductor
Replacement
 Second-Order Active Filters Based on the Two-
Integrator-Loop Topology
 Single-Amplifier Biquadratic Active Filters
 Sensitivity
 Switched-Capacitor Filters
 Tuned Amplifiers
3
Filter Transmission, Types,
andSpecification
C.-Y. Su 4
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Transfer Function
) (
) (
) (
s V
s V
s T
i
o
÷
dB |, ) ( | log 20 ) (
dB |, ) ( | log 20 ) (
 
 
j T A
j T G
÷ =
= Gain function
Transfer function
Attenuation function
| ) ( || ) ( | | ) ( |    j V j T j V
i o
=
output
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Filter TypesandSpecification
C.-Y. Su 6
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Specificationof Low-PassFilter
0.05 to 3dB
20 to 100 dB

s
/
p
: selectivity factor
C.-Y. Su 7
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Specificationof Band-PassFilter
8
TheFilter Transfer Function
C.-Y. Su 9
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TheFilter Transfer Function
) )...( )( (
) )...( )( (
) (
...
...
) (
2 1
2 1
0
1
1
0
1
1
N
M M
N
N
N
M
M
M
M
p s p s p s
z s z s z s a
s T
b s b s
a s a s a
s T
÷ ÷ ÷
÷ ÷ ÷
=
+ + +
+ + +
=
÷
÷
÷
÷
N M
N
s
order filter :
C.-Y. Su 10
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Pole-ZeroPattern
0 1
2
2
3
3
4
4
5
2
2
2 2
1
2
4
) )( (
) (
b s b s b s b s b s
s s a
s T
+ + + + +
+ +
=
 
 
C.-Y. Su 11
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All-PoleFilter
Figure 12.7 (a) Transmission characteristics of a fifth-order low-pass filter having all transmission zeros at infinity. (b) Pole–zero pattern for the
filter in (a).
12
ButterworthandChebyshev
Filters
C.-Y. Su 13
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ButterworthFilter
N
p
j T
2
2
1
1
) (
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
=




2
max
1 log 20  + = A
1 10
10 max/
÷ =
A

C.-Y. Su 14
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( )
N
p
/ 1
0
/ 1    =
) ( ) )( (
) (
2 1
0
N
N
p s p s p s
K
s T
÷ ÷ ÷
=


C.-Y. Su 15
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ChebyshevFilter
p
p
p
p
N
j T
N
j T
 
  

 
  

>
+
=
s
+
=
÷
÷
for
)] / ( cosh [ cosh 1
1
) (
for
)] / ( cos [ cos 1
1
) (
1 2 2
1 2 2
2
cosh
x x
e e
x
÷
+
=
C.-Y. Su 16
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MATLABSupport Tools
 MATLAB provides two tools, sptool and
fdatool, for FIR and IIR filter design, which
use a graphical user interface (GUI).
 sptool: filter designer
 fdatool: filter design and analysis tool
 Both of them are of signal processing toolbox.
C.-Y. Su 17
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FIRFilter DesignUsingSptool
 >>sptool
 Select a new design
 Enter fdatool
C.-Y. Su 18
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fdatool
1
2
3
4
C.-Y. Su 19
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Fdatool--IIR
1. Set parameters
Bandstop filter
IIR: Elliptic
Order: 10
Fs=8000
Fc1=1700
Fc2=1800
Apass=1
Astop=60
2. File->Export
3. Type variable name
bs1750 (5x6 SOS
matrix)
4. hn=round(bs1750*2
^15)
5. Save bs1750coe.mat
hn
C.-Y. Su 20
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Remark
 SOS: second-order section
Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3
Stage 4
Stage 5
b
0
b
1
b
2
1 a
1
a
2
[
=
÷ ÷
÷ ÷
+ +
+ +
=
5
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1 0
1
) (
i i i
i i i
z a z a
z b z b b
z H
Scaled value
C.-Y. Su 21
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Fdatool-FIR
1. Set parameters
Bandstop filter
FIR: window
Order: 88 (N=89)
Kaiser
Beta=4
Fs=8000
Fc1=2500
Fc2=2900
2. File->Export
3. Type variable name
bs2700
4. hn=round(bs2700*2
^15)
5. Save bs2700coe.mat
hn
22
First-Order Filter
Functions
C.-Y. Su 23
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C.-Y. Su 24
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First-Order All-PassFilter
25
Second-Order Filter
Functions
C.-Y. Su 26
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C.-Y. Su 27
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C.-Y. Su 28
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29
TheSecond-Order LCR
Resonator
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Resonator Natural Modes
CR Q
LC
LC CR s s
C s
R sC sL Y I
V
o
0
2
0
2
and
/ 1
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
/
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
1 1


=
= ¬
+ +
=
+ +
= =
C.-Y. Su 31
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Realizationof TransmissionZeros
) ( ) (
) (
) (
) (
) (
2 1
2
s Z s Z
s Z
s V
s V
s T
i
o
+
= =
Zeros: Z
2
(s)=0 or Z
1
(s)=·
C.-Y. Su 32
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Realizationof theLow-PassFunction
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
/ 1
/ 1
1
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
/ 1
) (
2
2
2 1
1
2 1
2
LC CR s s
LC
R sL LC s
R sC sL
sL
Y Y
Y
Z Z
Z
s T
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
+
=
+
=
C.-Y. Su 33
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Realizationof theHigh-PassFunction
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
/ 1
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
) (
2
2
2
2
2 1
1
2 1
2
LC CR s s
s
R sL LC s
LC s
R sL sC
sC
Y Y
Y
Z Z
Z
s T
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
+
=
+
=
C.-Y. Su 34
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Fig. 12.18 Realization of various second-order filter functions using the LCR resonator of Fig. 12.17(b): (d) BP, (e) notch at e
0
, (f)
general notch, (g) LPN (e
n
> e
0
), (h) LPN as s ÷ ·, (i) HPN (e
n
< e
0
).
Realizationof
VariousSecond-Order Filter Functions
C.-Y. Su 35
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Realizationof theBand-PassFunction
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
) / 1 (
/ 1
/
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
/ 1
) (
2
2
2 1
1
2 1
2
LC CR s s
CR s
R sL LC s
R sL
R sL sC
R
Y Y
Y
Z Z
Z
s T
+ +
=
+ +
=
+ +
=
+
=
+
=
C.-Y. Su 36
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Realizationof theNotchFunction
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
) / 1 (
/ 1
1
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
) / 1 (
) (
2
2
2
2
2 1
1
2 1
2
LC CR s s
LC s
R sL LC s
LC s
R sL sC
sL sC
Y Y
Y
Z Z
Z
s T
+ +
+
=
+ +
+
=
+ +
+
=
+
=
+
=
C.-Y. Su 37
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Realizationof theGeneral NotchFunction
) (
) / 1 / 1 (
) (
1
) (
1
) (
) / 1 / 1 ( ) / 1 ( ) (
) / 1 (
) / 1 ( ) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
) / 1 (
) (
2 1
2 1
2 1
2
2 1 1 2 1
1 2
2 1 2 1
2
1 1
2
2 2 1 1
1 1
2 1
1
2 1
2
C C
L L
R C C
s s
C C L C C
C
s
L L R s C C s
L C s
R sL sC sL sC
sL sC
Y Y
Y
Z Z
Z
s T
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ + + +
+
=
+ + + +
+
=
+
=
+
=
C.-Y. Su 38
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Realizationof theLPN Function
L C C R C C
s s
L C C C C
C
s
L R s C C s
L C s
R sC sL sC
sL sC
Y Y
Y
Z Z
Z
s T
) (
1
) (
1
) (
1
) (
) / 1 ( ) / 1 ( ) (
) / 1 (
) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
) / 1 (
) (
2 1 2 1
2
2 1 2 1
1 2
2 1
2
1
2
2 1
1
2 1
1
2 1
2
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
=
+ + +
+
=
+ + +
+
=
+
=
+
=
C.-Y. Su 39
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Realizationof theHPN Function
)
1 1
(
1 1
1
) / 1 / 1 ( ) / 1 (
) / 1 (
) / 1 ( ) / 1 ( ) / 1 (
) / 1 (
) (
2 1
2
1
2
2 1
2
1
2
2 1
1
2 1
1
2 1
2
L L C CR
s s
C L
s
L L R s C s
L C s
R sL sL sC
sL sC
Y Y
Y
Z Z
Z
s T
+ + +
+
=
+ + +
+
=
+ + +
+
=
+
=
+
=
C.-Y. Su 40
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Second-Order All PassFunction
) / (
)] / ( 2 [
1
) / (
) / (
) (
2
0 0
2
0
2
0 0
2
2
0 0
2
 

 
 
+ +
÷ =
+ +
+ ÷
=
Q s s
Q s
Q s s
Q s s
s T
AP=1-(BP with a center-frequency gain of 2)
C.-Y. Su 41
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Realizationof theAll-PassFunction
42
Second-Order ActiveFilters
BasedonInductor Replacement
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TheAntoniouInductance-SimulationCircuit
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L
C.-Y. Su 45
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TheOpAmp-RC Resonator
5 3 1
2
4
6
6
2 5 3 1 6 4 0
/ / 1
R R R
R
C
C
R Q
R R R R C C
=
= 
Design Equations
C Q R
C R R R R
C C C
0 6
0 5 3 2 1
6 4
/
/ 1


=
= = = =
= =
C.-Y. Su 46
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Low-PassFilter
gain DC
1 1
/
) (
/
6 6 6
2
6
2 5 3 1 4
=
+ +
=
=
K
LC R C
s s
LC K
s T
R R R R C L
C.-Y. Su 47
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High-PassFilter
gain frequency - High
1 1
) (
/
6 6 6
2
2
2 5 3 1 4
=
+ +
=
=
K
LC R C
s s
Ks
s T
R R R R C L
C.-Y. Su 48
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BandpassFilter
gain frequency - Center
1 1
/
) (
/
6 6 6
2
6 6
2 5 3 1 4
=
+ +
=
=
K
LC R C
s s
R C Ks
s T
R R R R C L
C.-Y. Su 49
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Regular Notch
gain frequency - high and - Low
1 1
] / 1 [
) (
/
6 6 6
2
6
2
2 5 3 1 4
=
+ +
+
=
=
K
LC R C
s s
LC s K
s T
R R R R C L
C.-Y. Su 50
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Fig. 12.22b (e) LPN, e
n
> e
0
; (f) HPN, e
n
> e
0
; Design equations are given in Table 12.1.
Low- andHigh-PassNotch
C.-Y. Su 51
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All-PassFilter
1 gain Flat ) / (
1 1
1 1
) (
/
2 1 0
6 6 6
2
6 1
2
6 6
2
2 5 3 1 4
= = =
+ +
+ ÷
=
=
r r Q Q
LC R C
s s
LC r
r
R C
s s
s T
R R R R C L
z z
 
Design Equations
Q Q r
r r r
z
=
= =
make to Adjust
) (arbitrary
2
2 1
52
Two-Integrator-Loop
Topology
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Two-Integrator-LoopBiquad
C.-Y. Su 54
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ProcessingLab.
KHN Biquad
RC
1
0
= 
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ |
.
|

\
|
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
+
=
hp
f
hp
f
i
f
hp
V
s R
R
V
s R
R
R R
R
V
R
R
R R
R
V
2
2
0
1
0
1 3 2
2
1 3 2
3
1 1
 
C.-Y. Su 55
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Tow-ThomasBiquad
所有的OPA都使用反相輸入模式
C.-Y. Su 56
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) (
) (
1 1
) )( ( ) 1 (
) )(
1
(
) (
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0 0
0
0
lp i
lp i bp
lp i bp
bp lp i
hp bp
V
sQ
Q
KV
sQ
Q
V
sQ
s
KV
sQ
s
V or
s
V KV V
sQ
s
V
Q
V KV
s
V V
÷
+
÷
+
+
÷
=
÷
+
÷
+
+
÷
=
÷ ÷ = + ¬
÷ + ÷ =
÷ =








 


C.-Y. Su 57
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) (
) (
/ 1
/
/ 1
/
) (
1
1
1
) (
1
//
/
1
//
0
0
0
0
lp i
lp i
lp i
lp i bp
V
sQ
Q
KV
sQ
Q
V
RC sQ
RC Q
KV
RC sQ
RC Q
V
sQRC
QR
R
V
sQRC
QR
R
K
V
R
sC
QR
V
K R
sC
QR
V
÷
+
÷
+
÷ =
÷
+
÷
+
÷ =
÷
+
÷
+
÷ =
÷ ÷ ÷ =




C.-Y. Su 58
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Tow-ThomasBiquadwithFeedforward
2 2
2
2
2
3 1
1 2
1 1
1 1
R C QCR
s s
RR C
r
RR
r
R C
s
C
C
s
V
V
i
o
+ +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
C.-Y. Su 59
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2 2
2
2
2
3 1
1 2
1 1
1 1
R C QCR
s s
RR C
r
RR
r
R C
s
C
C
s
V
V
i
o
+ +
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ + |
.
|

\
|
÷ =
60
Single-Amplifier Biquadratic
ActiveFilters
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Synthesisof theFeedback
Loop
特徵方程式為:
1+At(s)=0
求閉迴路的極點得
t(s)=-1/A
理想上, A÷·, 可得閉迴路的極點在t(s)=0
處,亦即在RC網路的零點上
C.-Y. Su 62
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Bridged-T Networks
4 3 2 1 0
/ 1 R R C C = 
2 1 4 3 0
/ 1 R R C C = 
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Active-FeedbackLoopGeneratedUsing
theBridged-T Network
1
2 1 3
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
0
4 3 2 1 3 2 1
2 2
0
0 2
1 1
1
1 1 1 1
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
= ¬
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ + = + +
C C R
R R C C
Q
R R C C
R R C C R C C
s s
Q
s s



0
2
4 3
2 1
2
4
, given a For
/ ;
Select

Q
CR
Q m
Q
m R R R R
C C C
=
=
¬
= =
= =
C.-Y. Su 64
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InjectingtheInput Signal
4 3 2 1 3 2 1
2
4 1
1 1 1 1
) / (
R R C C R C C
s s
R C s
V
V
i
o
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
÷
=

Bandpass function
o: center-frequency gain
C.-Y. Su 65
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4 3 2 1 3 1 3 2
2
4 1
4 3 2
4 1 4 3 2 1
2
4 2
4
4
3 2
3 2
1
4
3 2
3
4
4
3 2
3 2
1
4
3 2
3
4
1
4 3 4
3 2 3 2
4
1
4 3
1
)
1 1
(
) / ( -
1
/
) 1 /(
/ 1
)
1
1 (
/
/ 1 1
/
]
) 1 /(
/ 1
)
1
1 (
/
/ 1 1
[
) 1 /(
) (
/ /
1
) 1 /(
) (
/
R R C C R C R C
s s
R C s
R R sC
R sC R R C C s R sC
R
R
R sC
R sC
sC
R
R sC
R
R
V
V
R
R sC
R sC
sC
R
R sC
R
V
R
V
V V sC
R
V
R
V
R
V
R sC V
V
R sC
V
V
R
V
V V sC
R
V V
R
V
i
o
o
x
x o
x o i
o
x o
x
x
x o
x i o
+ + +
=
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷
=
÷
÷
+ + ÷
÷
+ ÷
= ¬
÷
÷
+ + ÷
÷
+ ÷ =
÷
+ ÷ ÷ + ÷ = ¬
÷ = ÷ =
÷
= ÷ +
÷
+


 

 
  
 

C.-Y. Su 66
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ComplementaryTransformation
C.-Y. Su 67
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Applicationof ComplementaryTransformation
注意輸入端點的接腳不同
可產生等效的回授迴路,使之具有相同的特徵方程式
用法: 1. b, c角色互換; 2. OPA兩個輸入接腳互換
0 1 = + ¬
÷ =
÷ =
At
AtV
AV V
o
a o
0 1
1 ) 1 (
1
1
1
) (
= + ¬
+ = ÷ ¬
÷
=
+
= ¬
÷ =
÷ =
At
A t A
t A
A
V
V
AV AV
V V A V
a
o
o a
o a o
C.-Y. Su 68
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Example1
Sallen-and-Key circuit
High-pass function
a
c
b
a
b
c
C.-Y. Su 69
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ProcessingLab.
Sallen-and-KeyHigh-PassCircuit
 二階HP標準式
 Special Case
 C
1
=C
2
=C, R
3
=R
4
=R
e
0
=1/RC
Q=1/2
2
0
0 2
2
2


+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
Q
s s
s a
範例:
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Example2
Low-pass function
a
b
c
a
b
c
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Sallen-and-KeyLow-PassCircuit
 二階LP標準式
 Special Case
 C
1
=C
2
=C, R
3
=R
4
=R
 e
0
=1/RC
 Q=1/2
2
0
0 2
0


+
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
Q
s s
a
範例:
72
Sensitivity
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Classical SensitivityFunction
 Variation in RC component values
 Variation in amplifier gain
x x
y y
y x
x y
x x
y y
S
x
y
x
/
/
/
/
Lim
0 A
A
~
c
c
=
A
A
÷
÷ A
x: the value of a component
y: a circuit parameter of interest
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Example12.3
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2
3
4
1
2 1 3
4 3 2 1
4 3 2 1
0
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
1 1
1
÷
÷ ÷
÷
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
(
(
¸
(

¸

|
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
=
C C C C
R
R
C C R
R R C C
Q
R R C C

2
1
2
1
) (
) ( ) (
2
1
0
4
0
3
0
2
0
1 2 / 1
4 3 2 1
1
4 3 2
2 / 3
4 3 2 1
÷ = = =
÷ = · · ÷ =
÷
÷
  

R R C
C
S S S
R R C C
C
R R C R R C C S
1
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
÷
|
|
.
|

\
|
+
|
|
.
|

\
|
÷ =
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
C
S
Q
C
Let C
1
=C
2
.
0
1
=
Q
C
S Similarly, we can show that
2
1
,
2
1
, 0
4 3 2
÷ = = =
Q
R
Q
R
Q
C
S S S
75
Switched-Capacitor Filters
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Switched-Capacitor Filters
i C
v C q
1 1
=
c
i
av
T
v C
i
1
=
1
/ / C T i v R
c av i eq
= ÷
1
2
2
constant Time
C
C
T R C
c eq
= =
T
c
和C
2
/C
1
的比值
在IC製造時,可
以很容易被控制
R
eq
T
c
的時間非常短時
(i.e. f
c
非常高)上述
的等效電路才成立
等效之積分器
積分器之
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Stray-InsensitiveSwitched-Capacitor Integrators
i C
v C q
1
1
=
c
i
av
T
v C
i
1
=
Noninverting SCI
Inverting SCI
1
/ / C T i v R
c av i eq
= ÷
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Fig. 12.37 A two-integrator-loop active-RC biquad and its switched-capacitor counterpart.
4 3 2 1
0
1
R R C C
= 
3 3
/ C T R
C
=
4 4
/ C T R
C
=
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4 3 2 1
0
1
R R C C
= 
1
4
2
3
4 3
2 1
0
4 4 3 3
1 1
/ , /
C
C
C
C
T
C
T
C
T
C C
C T R C T R
C C C
C C
= =
= =

Selecting R
3
C
2
=R
4
C
1
yields T
C
C
2
/C
3
=T
C
C
1
/C
4
1
4
2
3
0
1 1
C
C
T C
C
T
C C
= = 
Let C
1
=C
2
=C and C
3
=C
4
=KC. We have
C
T
K
=
0

4
5
4
5
/
/
C T
C T
R
R
Q
C
C
=
=
Thus C
5
should be selected from
0
4
5
Q
C
T
Q
KC
Q
C
C
C
 = = =
0
6
5
6
C T
C
Q
C
C
C

= =
Center-frequency gain
80
TunedAmplifiers
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FrequencyResponse
B: 3-dB bandwidth, 數百KHz ~數百MHz
In many application, B is less than 5% of w
0
. (narrow-band property)
Applications: RF and IF sections of communications receivers.
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BasicPrinciple
R g
j V
j V
CR B Q
CR
B dB
LC
LC CR s s
s
C
g
V
V
sL R sC
V g
Y
V g
V
m
i
o
m
i
o
i m
L
i m
o
÷ =
= ÷
= ÷
= ¬
+ +
÷ = ¬
+ +
÷
=
÷
=
) (
) (
: gain frequency - center
/
1
bandwidth 3
/ 1
/ 1 ) / 1 (
/ 1 / 1
0
0
0 0
0
2


 

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ProcessingLab.
Inductor Losses
 Use r
s
to represent the power loss in the inductor.
| | ) / 1 ( 1
1
) / 1 ( 1
) / 1 ( 1 1
) (
) / 1 ( 1
1 1
) / ( 1
1 1
1
) (
0
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0 0 0 0
0
0
Q j
L j
Q
Q j
L j
r
L
Q
Q j L j L r j L j
L j r
j Y
s s
s
+ ~
+
+
=
÷
÷
=
÷
=
+
=



  


| | ) / ( 1
1
1 1
) (
0
0
0
0
0
0
P
P
P
P
R L j
L j
LR j
L j R
R L j
j Y






+ =
+
=
+ =
Equating them, we get
0 0
0
0
or LQ R
L
R
Q
p
p


= =
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Useof Transformers
 高Q值, L要很小, 使得所需要的電感值變得不實際
 利用中心抽頭式的變壓器,使得電路能使用較高的電
感值及較低的電容值
0
0
L
R
Q
p

=
n
1
n
2
2
1
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
1
2
2
2
2 1 1 2 1 2
2 1 1 2
1 2 1 2
1 1
/ /
/ /
/ /
n
C
C
C
n
C
X n X
L n L
X n X
n I V I V Z Z
n n I I
n n n V V
C C
L L
= ¬ = ¬
=
= ¬
=
= =
=
= =
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Application
Equivalent circuit
Figure 12.42 (a) The output of a tuned amplifier is coupled to the input of another amplifier via a tapped coil. (b) An equivalent circuit. Note that the
use of a tapped coil increases the effective input impedance of the second amplifier stage.
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MultipleTunedCircuits
 RFC: radio-frequency choke. 對感興趣的頻率呈
現高阻抗, 可避免R
B1
, R
B2
造成負載效應
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TheCascodeandtheCC-CBCascade
 可降低Miller電容的影響
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SynchronouslyTunedCase
1 2
/ 1 0
÷ =
N
Q
B

Bandwidth-shrinkage factor
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Stagger-TuningCase
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)
4
1
1
2
)(
4
1
1
2
(
) (
2 0
0
2 0
0
1
2
0
0 2
1
Q
j
Q
s
Q
j
Q
s
s a
Q
s s
s a
s T
÷ + + ÷ ÷ +
=
+ +
=






For Q>>1 (narrow-band filter) and for s in the neighborhood of +j
0
, we have
~= 2s
. and 2 / where
2 2
2 /
) (
0 1
0
0
0
1




j s p a K
Q
p
K
j
Q
s
a
s T
÷ = =
+
=
÷ +
~
Bandpass filter 在極點-e
0
/2Q+je
0
的特性
如同Lowpass filter 在極點-e
0
/2Q 的特性
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Example12.5