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Jessica Miller

Bio 220 CE1

Prof. Kifle

The Spinal Cord
Assignment 2

1. There are 31 pairs of spinal nerves going all the way down the spinal cord. The white
matter surrounds the grey matter in the spinal cord.
2. Reflexes are automatic responses to a stimulus that occurs without conscious thought.
The spinal reflex is an action that is mediated by the spinal cord instead of the brain. In
the reflex arc a sensory receptor detects a stimulus. Then a sensory neuron conducts
action potentials through the nerve and dorsal root into the spinal cord. From there the
sensory neuron synapses with an interneuron which synapses with a motor neuron. A
motor neuron axon conducts action potentials through the ventral root and spinal nerve to
an effector.
3. A spinal cord injury (SCI) is damage to the spinal cord that causes loss of sensation from
the hips down, both motor and sensory.
4. The neurological level is the normal level immediately above the damaged level. The
level of neurological lesion is the lowest segment of the spinal cord with normal sensory
and motor function. Paraplegia is the complete paralysis of the lower half of the body.
Quadripalegia is the paralysis of all four limbs.
5. Spinal nerves have motor fiber and sensory fiber. Sensory fibers innervate certain areas
of the skin, these areas are the dermatome. Motor fibers innervate certain muscles, these
muscles are known as the myotome. SCI occurs when these areas arent working causing
immobility and lack of sensation.
6. Stretch reflex is when muscles contract in response to a stretching force that is applied to
them. If a stretching force is applied to certain muscles of the body it is possible to
determine where the spinal cord is damaged based on which muscles respond to the
stretch reflex.
7. Jasons spinal cord is injured on the thoracic level and is complete. The thoracic level is
the last level where the spinal cord is still functional and the cord is completely damaged
because there is no feeling or movement below the hips.
8. In some cases of spinal cord injury a drug can be given, although the full benefits are not
known the drug can be used to help control damaged nerve cells. Surgery also may be
performed to remove anything that may be penetrating the spinal cord. The prognosis of
SCI is widely varied depending on the location and severity of the injury. The first year is
always the most critical but after several months the severity of the damage can be more
properly determined. The extent of mobility will also can several months to determine but
physical and occupational therapists can help SCI patients to adjust to their new life.

Works Cited
Retrieved from Sarhan, F., Saif, D., & Saif, A. (2012). An overview of traumatic spinal cord injury: part 1.
Aetiology and pathophysiology. British Journal Of Neuroscience Nursing, 8(6), 319-325.
Field-Fote, E. C. (2009). Spinal Cord Injury Rehabilitation. Philidelphia: Davis Company.