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1
termini `buferi~ (Buffer) politikuri erTeulis mimarT pirvelad gamoyenebul
iqna 1876 wels, xolo termini `buferuli saxelmwifo~ (Buffer State) _ 1883 wels.
orive SemTxvevaSi ingliselebma amgvarad avRaneTi moixsenies, romelic imJamad
eqspansiis procesSi myofi ruseTisa da britaneTis imperiebis interesTa sferoebis
gammijvnel teritorias warmoadgenda centralur aziaSi.
1
inglisuri enis ganmartebiT leqsikonebsa da inglisurenovan enciklopediebSi
sityva `buferis~ mravali mniSvnelobaa mocemuli. zogadi gansazRvrebiT, buferi aris:
is, rac amcirebs an STanTqavs dartymis Zalas;
is, rac icavs raimes sawinaaRmdego zemoqmedebisa da gavlenisagan, misi
Sekavebis an Semsubuqebis gziT;
is, rac aSoriSorebs potenciurad antagonistur erTobebs; metoqe Zalebs
Soris moqceuli teritoria, romelic konfliqtis safrTxis Semcirebas
emsaxureba;
2
nebismieri mowyobiloba an sagani, romelic Sejaxebis simZlavres an kontaqtis
Sedegad miRebuli dartymis zians amcirebs;
nebismieri ram, rac damcav barierad gamoiyeneba;
3
raime moxvedrili or Zlier Zalas Soris, romelic maT Setakebas uSlis
xels.
4
politikis garda, termini `buferi~ gamoiyeneba teqnikis, qimiis, kompiuterebisa
da sxva sferoebSi. ase magaliTad: teqnikaSi: mowyobiloba dartymebis Sesamsubuqeblad
(gansakuTrebiT sarkinigzo vagonebze);
5
qimiaSi: xsnari, romelic mudmiv mJavianobas
inarCunebs anu axdens wyalbadis ionebis stabilizacias masSi damatebuli mJavis an
tutis neitralizaciis gziT;
6
kompiuterebSi: informaciis droebiTi Sesanaxi adgili;
7
da a.S.
qarTul enciklopediur gamocemebSi sityva `buferis~ mxolod teqnikuri
ganmartebebia mocemuli: buferi _ zambariani rkinis disko Sejaxebis Sesarbileblad

1
Thomas Ross, Buffer States: A Geographers Perspective, in Buffer States in World Politics, ed. John Chay and
Thomas Ross (Boulder: Westviev Press, 1986), 16. didi britaneTisa da ruseTis metoqeoba centralur aziaSi
XIX saukunidan XX saukunis dasawyisamde istoriaSi `didi TamaSis~ saxelwodebiT aris cnobili.
2
Buffer
2
, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Houghton Mifflin Company, Fourth Edition,
2000), http://www.bartleby.com/61/31/B0533100.html (accessed 10.06.2009).
3
Buffer
2
, Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2005), http://www.m-w.com/dictionary/buffer
(accessed 10.06.2009).
4
Buffer, The Dictionary of Government and Politics. ed. P. H. Collin (Middlesex: Peter Collin Publishing, Second
Edition, 1997), 33, 34.
5
Buffer, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, ed. J. Sykes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, Seventh Edition,
1982), 118; Buffer, Buffer
2
, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Fourth Edition, 2000,
Houghton Mifflin Company), http://www.bartleby.com/61/31/B0533100.html (accessed 10.06.2009).
6
Buffer, The Columbia Encyclopedia (Sixth Edition, 2001-2005), http://www.bartleby.com/65/bu/buffer.html
(accessed 10.06.2009).
7
Buffer
2
, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Houghton Mifflin Company, Fourth Edition,
2000), http://www.bartleby.com/61/31/B0533100.html (accessed 11.06.2009).
buferi _ cneba
2
(vagonis, lokomotivis Tavsa da boloSi);
8
buferis daniSnulebaa dartymebis miReba da
Serbileba avariis dros.
9
inglisuri sityva `buferi~ (Buffer) savaraudod warmoebulia inglisuri
sityvidan buff rac, rogorc arsebiTi saxeli, rbil, sqel tyavs (ZiriTadad kameCis
gadamuSavebul tyavs), xolo rogorc zmna, raime sagnis zedapiris moprialebas,
Serbilebas niSnavs. Tavis mxriv, sityva buff an kameCis inglisuri mniSvnelobidanaa
miRebuli (inglisuri buffalo < gvianlaTinuri bubalus < berZnuli ) an
ubralod msubuqi sxeulis dartymis xmis imitacias warmoadgens. buferis sinonimebia:
barieri, fari, damcveli, jebiri, zRude, bamperi, baliSi da sxva.
10
inglisuri enis leqsikonebSi termini `buferuli saxelmwifo~ (Buffer State)
ZiriTadad asea ganmartebuli:
patara saxelmwifo or SesaZlo metoqe Zalas Soris, romelic maT Soris
omis dawyebis albaTobas amcirebs;
11
or metoqe da potenciurad mtrul saxelmwifos Soris mdebare neitraluri
saxelmwifo, romelic maT Soris konfliqtis Tavidan acilebas emsaxureba;
12
neitraluri saxelmwifo, romelic or ufro did, potenciurad metoqe
saxelmwifos Soris aris ganlagebuli;
13

patara neitraluri saxelmwifo, romelic or potenciurad mowinaaRmdege
Zalas Soris aris moqceuli da maT Soris konfliqtis risks amcirebs;
14
saxelmwifo, romelic ufro did, potenciurad mtrul saxelmwifoebs Soris
mdebareobs.
15
termini `buferuli zona~ (Buffer Zone) ki imave inglisurenovan gamocemebeSi
Semdegnairad aris axsnili:
neitraluri teritoria mtrul an meomar Zalebs Soris, romelic
konfliqtis Tavidan acilebas axdens;
16

8
`buferi,~ qarTuli enis ganmartebiTi leqsikoni, erTtomeuli, red. a. Ciqobava (Tbilisi. saqarTvelos
ssr mecnierebaTa akademia, 1986), 65.
9
`buferi,~ qarTuli sabWoTa enciklopedia, II (Tbilisi: saqarTvelos ssr mecnierebaTa akademia, 1977),
590.
10
Buffer, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, ed. J. Sykes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, Seventh Edition,
1982), 118; Buffer
2
, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Houghton Mifflin Company, Fourth
Edition, 2000), http://www.bartleby.com/61/31/B0533100.html (accessed 11.06.2009).
11
Buffer State, The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Current English, ed. J. Sykes (Oxford: Clarendon Press, Seventh
Edition, 1982), 118.
12
Buffer State, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Houghton Mifflin Company, Fourth
Edition, 2000), http://www.bartleby.com/61/32/B0533200.html (accessed 11.06.2009).
13
Buffer State, Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (Merriam-Webster, Inc., 2005), http://www.m-
w.com/dictionary/buffer%20state (accessed 11.06.2009).
14
Buffer State, Encarta World English Dictionary (Microsoft Corporation, North American Edition, 2006),
http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861694156/buffer_state.html (accessed 11.06.2009).
15
Buffer State, Random House Unabridged Dictionary (Random House, Inc., on Infoplease, 1997),
http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0354846.html (accessed 11.06.2009).
16
Buffer Zone, The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language (Houghton Mifflin Company, Fourth
Edition, 2000), http://www.bartelby.com/61/33/B0533300.html (accessed 12.06.2009).
3
neitraluri teritoria, romelic mtrul Zalebs Soris mdebareobs da maT
Soris konfliqtis risks amcirebs. areali, romelic warmoadgens bariers
potenciuri konfliqtis an SeiaraRebuli Setakebis Tavidan asacileblad;
17
neitraluri zona an areali or potenciurad mtrul saxelmwifos Soris,
romelic Seqmnilia daufaravi agresiis Sesakaveblad. teritoria potenciuri
konfliqtis Sesamcireblad an gasaneitraleblad.
18
aqve, aucilebelia, xazi gaesvas gansxvavebas terminis `buferuli zona~ or
mniSvnelobas Soris: pirvel SemTxvevaSi, es aris erTi an meti buferuli saxelmwifos
momcveli teritoria, meore SemTxvevaSi ki, konfliqtur an sasazRvro regionSi,
mxareTa gamijnvis mizniT, saerTaSoriso SeTanxmebiT dadgenili specialuri
demilitarizebuli zona.
saerTaSoroso urTierTobebis literaturaSi buferuli saxelmwifos cnebis
axsnis pirveli mcdelobebi 1930-ian wlebSi gaCnda. amerikeli mecnieri pitman poteri
1930 wels gamocemul socialuri mecnierebebis enciklopediaSi werda: `termini
[`buferuli saxelmwifo~] xSirad ixmareba susti, zomiT patara, damoukidebeli sagareo
politikis armqone saxelmwifos dasaxasiaTeblad, romelic or an met Zlier
saxelmwifos Soris mdebareobs da, amrigad, saerTaSoriso agresias abrkolebs.~
19
1940-ian wlebSi buferuli saxelmwifoebis fenomenma geopolitikis amerikuli
skolis mamamTavris nikolas spaikmenis yuradReba miipyro. spaikmenis ganmartebiT,
buferebi arian `mcire politikuri erTeulebi, ganlagebulni ufro did saxelmwifoebs
Soris.~
20
realizmis amerikuli skolis patriarqma hans morgenTaum ki 1948 wels
gamoqveynebul Tavis klasikur naSromSi politika erebs Soris buferuli
saxelmwifoebi ganmarta, rogorc `susti saxelmwifoebi, romlebic Zlier
saxelmwifoebTan axlos mdebareoben da maT samxedro usafrTxoebas zrdian.~
21
1950-iani wlebis miwuruls buferul saxelmwifoebs metad saintereso Sroma
miuZRvna saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis inglisuri skolis fuZemdebelma martin uaiTma
es iyo misi statia `Zalis modeli,~ romelic Semdgom cnobil krebulSi Zalis
politika iqna Setanili. uaiTis gansazRvrebiT: `buferuli saxelmwifo aris susti
Zala (saxelmwifo) moqceuli or an met ufro Zlier Zalas (saxelmwifos) Soris,
romelic SenarCunebulia an sulac Seqmnilia maT Soris konfliqtis Sesamcireblad.
buferuli zona ki or an met Zlier Zalas (saxelmwifos) Soris mdebare regionia,
romelic erT an met ufro sust Zalas (saxelmwifos) ukavia; mas zogjer `Zalis
vakuumsac~ uwodeben.~
22

17
Buffer Zone, Encarta World English Dictionary (Microsoft Corporation, North American Edition, 2006),
http://encarta.msn.com/dictionary_1861694158/buffer_zone.html (accessed 12.06.2009).
18
Buffer Zone, Random House Unabridged Dictionary (Random House, Inc., on Infoplease, 1997),
http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0354848.html (accessed 12.06.2009).
19
Pitman Potter, Buffer State, Encyclopedia of Social Sciences, No. 3-4, 1930, 45.
20
Nicholas Spykman, Frontiers, Security and International Organization, Geographical Review, Vol. 32, No. 3 (1942):
440.
21
Hans Morgenthau, Politics Among Nations: The Struggle for Power and Peace, revised by Kenneth Thompson (New
York: McGraw-Hill, Sixth Edition, 1985), 196.
22
Martin Wight, Power Politics, ed. Hedley Bull and Carsten Holbraad (London: Leicester University Press, Royal
Institute of International Affairs, 1995), 160.
4
XX saukunis meore naxevridan buferuli saxelmwifoebis Seswavla patara/susti
qveynebis saerTo kvlevis kuTxiT mimdinareobs. ukanasknel aTwleulebSi buferuli
saxelmwifos cnebis ramdenime ufro vrceli ganmarteba SemuSavda.
trigve matisenis Tanaxmad, termini `buferi~ aRniSnavs damcav an Semakavebel
meqanizms, romelic dartymis Zalas asustebs an Sejaxebisas dartymis ZiriTad Zalas
Tavis Tavze iRebs. aqedan gamomdinare, misi TqmiT: `buferuli saxelmwifo ganimarteba,
rogorc patara, damoukidebeli saxelmwifo, romelic or ufro did, ZiriTadad metoqe
saxelmwifos Soris mdebareobs. is bunebrivad SeiZleba warmovidginoT politikur
damcav saSualebad, romelic Zlieri mezoblebis urTierTSetakebis safrTxes amcirebs.
Cvens droSi [matiseni amas 1971 wels werda] SesaZlebelia ara marto metoqe
saxelmwifoebs, aramed metoqe blokebs Soris arsebul buferul saxelmwifoebze
saubari. amgvar blokebs an koaliciebs Soris mdebare buferuli saxelmwifoebis
politikuri funqcia met-naklebad igivea, rac Zlier qveynebs Soris moqceuli
buferuli saxelmwifoebisa.~
23
gamoCenili norvegieli mecnieris olav knudsenis azriT: `teritoria SeiZleba
CaiTvalos potenciur buferul arealad, Tu mas akontrolebs erTi an meti patara
saxelmwifo da Tu is or mowinaaRmdege _ gacilebiT ufro did _ Zalas Soris
mdebareobs.~
24
amerikeli mecnieri lourens ziringi miiCnevs, rom `buferuli saxelmwifoebi
[saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis] meorexarisxovani monawileebi arian, moxvedrilni ufro
meti ZalauflebiT dajildoebul, pativmoyvare da xSir SemTxvevaSi erTmaneTisadmi
agresiulad ganwyobil erTobebs Soris.~
25
buferebs agreTve uwodeben `sisustis arealebs, romlebic Zlierebis arealebis
gasamijnad da maT Soris konfliqtis warmoSobis SesaZleblobaTa Sesamcireblad
gamoiyeneba.~
26
buferuli saxelmwifos zemomoyvanil zogad gansazRvrebebs Soris TiTqmis
araviTari winaaRmdegoba ar arsebobs, magram am cnebis ufro detaluri axsnis
mcdelobebis Seswavlisas irkveva, rom buferuli saxelmwifos idea yvela mecniers
erTnairad ar esmis.
maikl partemi buferuli saxelmwifos cnebaSi sam elements gamoyofs:
1. geografiuli mdebareoba: buferuli saxelmwifo or did saxelmwifos Soris
mdebareobs;
2. SesaZleblobaTa ganawileba: buferi patara [susti] saxelmwifoa or did
[Zlier] mezobels Soris;
3. sagareo-politikuri orientacia: buferi `damoukidebelia~

da misi Zlieri
mezoblebi, rogorc wesi, metoqe saxelmwifoebi arian.
27

23
Trygve Mathisen, The Functions of Small States in the Strategies of the Great Powers (Oslo: Universitetsvorlaget,
1971), 107.
24
Olav Knudsen, Eastern Europe: The Buffer Effect of a Cordon Sanitaire, in Buffer States in World Politics, ed. John
Chay and Thomas Ross (Boulder: Westview Press, 1986), 90.
25
Lawrence Ziring, Asias Pivotal Buffer States, in Buffer States in World Politics, ed. John Chay and Thomas Ross
(Boulder: Westview Press, 1986), 153.
26
Martin Glassner and Harm De Blij, Systematic Political Geography (New York: John Wiley and Sons, 1989), 236,
citirebulia naSromSi: aleqsandre rondeli, patara qveyana saerTaSoriso sistemaSi (Tbilisi:
saqarTvelos strategiisa da saerTaSoriso urTierTobaTa kvlevis fondi, `nekeri,~ meore gamocema,
2009), 164.
5
termin `buferuli saxelmwifos~ gansazRvrebisas stefan de spigeleiric sam
elementze amaxvilebs yuradRebas:
1. geografiuli elementi. buferi dabuferebul (buffered) monawileebs Soris
unda mdebareobdes;
2. Zalis ierarqiis elementi. buferis Zala mniSvnelovnad unda Camouvardebodes
orive dabuferebuli monawilisas;
3. politikuri elementi. buferuli saxelmwifo saerTaSoriso sistemis
WeSmaritad damoukidebeli, suverenuli monawile

unda iyos.
de spigeleiri aRniSnavs, rom ukanaskneli (politikuri) elementi buferuli
sistemis funqcionirebis aucilebeli pirobaa. rodesac mxolod pirveli da meore
elementebia mocemuli, ori logikuri SesaZlebloba arsebobs: 1) aRniSnuli saxelmwifo
uSualod damokidebulia romelime ufro Zlier saxelmwifoze da mis gafarToebul
Tavdacvis perimetrSi imyofeba (roca mis teritoriaze am ucxo saxelmwifos
SeiaraRebuli Zalebia ganlagebuli) an 2) aRniSnuli saxelmwifo mxolod
nominaluradaa damoukidebeli, sinamdvileSi ki ufro Zlier saxelmwifoebs Soris aris
danawilebuli (am SemTxvevaSi is erTi an meti didi saxelmwifos gavlenis sferoSia
moqceuli).
28
amave azrs iziarebs aleqsandre rondelic. misi sityvebiT: `buferuli
saxelmwifo, saboloo jamSi, ori an meti Zlieri saxelmwifos surviliT maT Soris
Seqmnil stabilur neitralur zonas warmoadgens... romlis upirvelesi funqcia
dapirispirebulTa gamijnva da konfliqtis SesaZleblobis minimumamde dayvanaa.~
29
nikolas spaikmeni neitralurobas buferuli saxelmwifos aucilebel
maxasiaTeblad miiCnevs.
30
jon Ceis mixedviTac, imisaTvis, rom did saxelmwifoTa
metoqeobaSi patara saxelmwifom WeSmariti buferis roli Seasrulos, is neitraluri
da damoukidebeli unda iyos.
31
olav knudsenic buferul saxelmwifoebsa da satelitebs
cal-calke kategoriebad ganixilavs.
32
martin uaiTi ki buferis cnebaSi ramdenime tipis qveyanas moiazrebs. misi
SexedulebiT: `buferebi [...] pirobiTad SeiZleba davyoT: trimerebad, neitralebad da
satelitebad (Trimmers, Neutrals, Satellites). trimerebi [anu `medroveebi,~
`oportunistebi~] arian saxelmwifoebi, romelTa politikis mTavari mizania Zlieri

xazgasma Cemia.
27
Michael Partem, The Buffer System in International Relations, Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol. 27, No. 1
(1983): 4.

xazgasma Cemia.
28
Stephan De Spiegeleire, Of Buffers and Bridges. Some Geodetic Thoughts on European Stability in the Post-Cold
War Era, 13 January 1994, http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/sdspieg/buffer.htm (accessed 17.06.2009).
29
aleqsandre rondeli, patara qveyana saerTaSoriso sistemaSi (Tbilisi: saqarTvelos strategiisa da
saerTaSoriso urTierTobaTa kvlevis fondi, `nekeri,~ meore gamocema, 2009), 169-170, 165.
30
Nicholas Spykman, Frontiers, Security and International Organization, Geographical Review, Vol. 32, No. 3 (1942):
440.
31
John Chay, Korea, a Buffer State, in Buffer States in World Politics, ed. John Chay and Thomas Ross (Boulder:
Westview Press, 1986), 194.
32
Olav Knudsen, Eastern Europe: The Buffer Effect of a Cordon Sanitaire, in Buffer States in World Politics, ed. John
Chay and Thomas Ross (Boulder: Westview Press, 1986), 90.
6
mezoblebis urTierTdapirispirebidan sargeblis miReba [xan erTis, xan ki meoris
mxareze yofniT]. evropeli trimerebidan yvelaze cnobilia savoiis sahercogo, romelmac
amgvari politikiT jer samefo Seqmna, xolo Semdeg mTel italiaze hegemonia daamyara;
[...] neitralebi arian saxelmwifoebi, romlebsac ar gaaCniaT aqtiuri sagareo politika.
isini Cumad yofnas arCeven da am gziT SeumCnevlad darCenas imedovneben. satelitebi ki
arian saxelmwifoebi, romelTa sagareo politikas sxva saxelmwifo akontrolebs. Tu
sustma saxelmwifom es ufleba Zlier saxelmwifos xelSekrulebiT gadasca, anu
iuridiuladac da faqtobrivadac suverenitetis garkveuli nawili daTmo, mas
proteqtorati SeiZleba ewodos. gansxvaveba trimersa da neitrals, neitralsa da
mokavSires, mokavSiresa da satelits Soris bundovania da gaurkveveli.~
33
trigve matisenis azriT, buferi SeiZleba iyos rogorc sruliad neitraluri an
neitralizebuli, ise romelime Zlieri mezoblis mokavSire an daqvemdebarebuli
mokavSire.
34
matisenisaTvis buferuli saxelmwifos gansazRvrebaSi mTavaria misi
geografiuli mdebareoba Zlier metoqe qveynebs Soris.
amdenad, saerTaSoriso urTierTobebis ramdenime aRiarebuli mecnieris mier
SemoTavazebul buferis cnebis gansazRvrebebs Soris winaaRmdegobis danaxva SeiZleba.
erTi mxriv, spaikmeni, knudseni, Cei, partemi, de spigeleiri, rondeli da sxvebi
aRniSnaven, rom buferuli saxelmwifo WeSmaritad damoukidebeli da neitraluri unda
iyos da arc erTi Zlieri qveynis gafarToebul Tavdacvis perimetrsa Tu gavlenis
sferoSi ar unda Sediodes. meore mxriv, ki uaiTi, matiseni da sxvebi dasaSvebad
miiCneven, rom buferi romelime dabuferebuli Zalis satelits warmoadgendes. orive
pozicias garkveuli sisuste gaaCnia.
vfiqrob, rom `WeSmariti damoukideblobis~ kriteriumiT buferuli
saxelmwifoebis gamovlena sakmaod Znelia, radganac es cneba Zalze bundovania da
`damoukideblobasa~ da `daqvemdebarebas~ an `gavlenis sferoSi~ yofnas Soris mkacri
zRvaris gavleba SeuZlebelia. ufro metic, nebismier istoriul epoqaSi susti qveynis
srul damoukideblobasa da avtonomiurobaze saubari ararealuri Cans, gansakuTrebiT,
roca mas Zlieri da eqspansionizmisaken midrekili mezoblebi hyavs. saerTaSoriso
samarTlis mier suverenulad aRiarebuli patara/susti qveynebi TiTqmis ar iReben
sagareo-politikur gadawyvetilebebs did/Zlier saxelmwifoTa interesebisaTvis
angariSis gawevis gareSe. amasTan, Tanamedrove epoqaSi saxelmwifoebi uprecedentod
urTierTdamokidebulni arian, rac zogjer TviT didi qveynebis `WeSmariti
damoukideblobis~ eWvqveS dayenebis sababs iZleva. Tumca, saWiroa imis aRiarebac, rom,
xSir SemTxvevaSi, susti saxelmwifos ama Tu im Zlieri saxelmwifosadmi daqvemdebareba
an mimxroba-mitmasneba TvalnaTliv Cans.
Cemi azriT, sityva `buferis~ originaluri (da etimologiuri) mniSvnelobidan
gamomdinare, Zlier saxelmwifoTa dapirispirebaSi neitraluri poziciis dakaveba,
buferuli politikuri erTeulis aucilebeli Tvisebaa. amdenad, `WeSmarti
damoukideblobis~ aspeqtis gamoklebiT, me terminis `buferi~ mecnierTa pirveli
jgufis mier SemoTavazebul ganmartebas viziareb, vinaidan meore jgufis
damokidebuleba safuZvelSive arakoreqtulia. sateliti, anu did saxelmwifos

33
Martin Wight, Power Politics, ed. Hedley Bull and Carsten Holbraad (London: Leicester University Press, Royal
Institute of International Affairs, 1995), 160.
34
Trygve Mathisen, The Functions of Small States in the Strategies of the Great Powers (Oslo: Universitetsvorlaget,
1971), 109.
7
daqvemdebarebuli patara/susti qveyana, romlis teritoriaze xSirad am didi
saxelmwifos samxedro nawilebia dislocirebuli, buferis _ rogorc erTmaneTisadmi
mtrulad ganwyobil Zlier saxelmwifoebs Soris konfliqtis Tavidan acilebis
meqanizmis _ sruliad sapirispiro movlenaa. sateliti erTi Zlieri saxelmwifos mier
meoreze Setevis gansaxorcieleblad an mowinaaRmdegis SesaZlo Tavdasxmisagan Tavis
dasacavad da ara mSvidobis SesanarCuneblad gamoiyeneba.
Tumca, yovelive zemoTqmulis miuxedavad, me meore jgufis pozicias saR azrs
moklebulad ar miviCnev. zogierTi sateliti qveyana, marTlac, mravali niSniT waagavs
buferul saxelmwifos da konfliqtis erT-erTi mxarisaTvis buferis funqciasac ki
asrulebs. magaliTad, aseT calmxriv buferebad SeiZleba miviCnioT martin uaiTis mier
`trimerebad~ da `satelitebad,~ xolo trigve matisenis mier `mokavSire buferebad~
(Allied Buffers) da `ganapira buferebad~ (Rim Buffers) wodebuli qveynebi. es ukanasknelni,
avtoris sityvebiT, arian `mcire saxelmwifoebi, romlebic did saxelmwifoTa
sazRvrebTan mdebareoben da maT Tavdacvis perimetrSi imyofebian, magram or did
saxelmwifos Soris uSualod moqceulni ar arian.~
35
me ar maqvs buferis universaluri, uxarvezo gansazRvrebis Camoyalibebis
pretenzia, magram vimedovneb, rom Cems mier aq warmodgenili konceptualuri modeli
Searigebs zemoganxilul or sapirispiro pozicias da buferis ufro mowesrigebul da
sistematizebul cnebas Seqmnis.
amisaTvis, me, pirvel rigSi, sasargeblod mimaCnia cnebis `kvazibuferi~ (Quasi-
Buffer TiTqmis buferi, naxevradbuferi) Semotana da SemdgomSi gansxvavebis
dafiqsireba buferebsa da kvazibuferebs Soris. buferebs _ ormxriv da mravalmxriv
buferebad, kvazibuferebs ki _ calmxriv buferebad warmovaCen. buferi ori an meti
mimarTulebiT moqmedebs _ warmoadgens damcav zRudes rogorc erTi, ise meore (mesame
da sxva) mowinaaRmdege ZalisaTvis da maT Soris konfliqtis eskalacias abrkolebs,
kvazibuferi ki mxolod erTi mimarTulebiT moqmedebs _ erTi romelime Zalis
TavdacviTi faris funqcias asrulebs da metoqe Zalebs Soris mSvidobis SenarCunebas
naklebad uwyobs xels, piriqiT, maT Soris dapirispirebas aRvivebs kidec. Sesabamisad,
martin uaiTis mier buferebis rigSi moxseniebul trimerebsa da satelitebs, agreTve
trigve matiseniseul mokavSire buferebsa da, zogierT SemTxvevaSi, ganapira buferebsac
me kvazibuferTa kategorias mivakuTvneb.
amrigad, buferis Cemi gansazRvreba ufro metad mecnierTa pirveli jgufis xedvas
uaxlovdeba, romlebic buferuli mdebareobis mqone, magram erT-erT Zlier
saxelmwifosTan aliansSi Sesul sust saxelmwifoebs buferebad ar aRiareben.
magaliTad, stefan de spigeleiris gancxadebiT, bevri mecnieri saubrobda civi omis
droindel aRmosavleT evropaze, rogorc buferze, magram es mcdari Sexedulebaa.~
36
olav knudseni xazgasmiT aRniSnavs, rom varSavis paqtis wevri qveynebi ar iyvnen
buferebi aSS-sa da ssrk-s Soris.
37
aleqsandre rondelis azriTac: `civi omis dros
yofili sabWoTa satelitebi, e.w. saxalxo demokratiis qveynebi (poloneTi, gdr,
Cexoslovakia da a.S.) ar iyvnen buferuli saxelmwifoebi... zogierT maTganSi sabWoTa

35
Trygve Mathisen, The Functions of Small States in the Strategies of the Great Powers (Oslo: Universitetsvorlaget,
1971), 84.
36
Stephan De Spiegeleire, Of Buffers and Bridges. Some Geodetic Thoughts on European Stability in the Post-Cold
War Era, 13 January 1994, http://ourworld.compuserve.com/homepages/sdspieg/buffer.htm (accessed 24.01.2008).
37
Olav Knudsen, Eastern Europe: The Buffer Effect of a Cordon Sanitaire, in Buffer States in World Politics, ed. John
Chay and Thomas Ross (Boulder: Westview Press, 1986), 95-108.
8
SeiaraRebuli Zalebi iyo ganlagebuli da maT sazRvrebze gadioda e.w. ssrk-is
Tavdacvis perimetri. isini varSavis paqtis wevrebi iyvnen. amitom maTi buferebad
aRiareba marTebuli ar iqneboda.~
38
Tumca, am xedvisagan gansxvavebiT, me ar mimaCnia, rom buferad yofnisaTvis
saxelmwifo, `WeSmaritad damoukidebeli~ da `avtonomiuri~ unda iyos, is, SeiZleba,
sakuTari nebis gareSe Zlieri qveynebis mier iqnes buferad qceuli anu
neitralizebuli, rac sakmaod xSirad xdeba. amis sailustraciod mravali istoriuli
magaliTis moyvana SeiZleba. 1815 wlis venis kongresze evropis wamyvan saxelmwifoebs,
romlebsac warmoadgendnen: meternixi, taleirani, qestlri da aleqsandre pirveli, ar
ukiTxavT SveicarielTa azri imis Taobaze, surdaT Tu ara maT sakuTari qveynis
neitralur saxelmwifod gamocxadeba; arc 1831 da 1839 wlebSi gauTvaliswinebiaT
evropis uZlieres saxelmwifoebs: britaneTs, prusias, avstria-ungreTs, ruseTsa da
safrangeTs axalwarmoqmnili belgiis samefos interesebi: 1831 wlis ianvarSi maT
belgia neitralur saxelmwifod gamoacxades, luqsemburgi, romelsac belgia Tavis
ganuyofel nawilad Tvlida, niderlandebis samefos gadasces, xolo belgiis erovnul
kongress, romelic londonis konferenciis am gadawyvetilebebs protestiT Sexvda,
omiT daemuqrnen (prusiam Tavisi armiac ki daZra belgiisken), Sedegad, belgielebi
iZulebulni gaxdnen, samefo taxtze safrangeTis imJamindeli monarqis lui filipe
orleanelis Zis hercog lui nemurelis nacvlad, ingliselTa mier SemoTavazebuli
kandidati leopold saqsen-koburgeli daemtkicebinaT da londonis protokoliT maTi
qveynisaTvis gaTvaliswinebuli neitraluri/buferuli statusi eRiarebinaT, 1839 wels
ki kvlav londonSi mowveul konferenciaze sami xelSekrulebis ZaliT daedasturebinaT
belgiis Seqmnil viTarebasTan Segueba da neitralur buferad gadaqceva;
39
1870-80-ian
wlebSi ruseTi da britaneTi avRanelebis nebisaTvis angariSis gauwevlad SeTanxmdnen am
qveynisaTvis buferis rolis dakisrebaze (avRaneTma sagareo politikis damoukideblad
ganxorcielebis ufleba mxolod 1919 wels, inglis-avRaneTis mesame omis Sedegad
moipova); da a.S.
Cemi xedviT, saerTaSoriso sistemis, saerTaSoriso samarTlis mier suverenulad
aRiarebuli, politikuri erTeuli (an erTeulTa jgufi) warmoadgens bufers (buferul
saxelmwifos an buferul zonas), Tu is Semdeg oTx pirobas akmayofilebs:
1. geopolitikuri mdebareoba. buferi _ buferuli saxelmwifo, buferuli zona
_ met-naklebad erTnairi siZlieris mowinaaRmdege, metoqe Zalebs Soris
sivrceSi mdebareobs (metoqe Zalebad aq SeiZleba mogvevlinon rogorc
calkeuli saxelmwifoebi, ise samxedro aliansebi an gavlenis sferoebi.
SemdgomSi maT dabuferebul Zalebadac movixsenieb).
2. Zala. buferi sagrZnoblad ufro sustia, vidre mis mier dabuferebuli
Zalebi. is romelime dabuferebul ZalasTan samxedro dapirispirebis
SemTxvevaSi damoukideblad damarcxdeba.
3. sagareo-politikuri orientacia. buferis teritoriaze ar imyofebian arc
erTi mis mier dabuferebuli mxaris SeiaraRebuli Zalebi. buferi ar aris
romelime dabuferebul ZalasTan formalur an araformalur samxedro

38
aleqsandre rondeli, patara qveyana saerTaSoriso sistemaSi (Tbilisi: saqarTvelos strategiisa da
saerTaSoriso urTierTobaTa kvlevis fondi, `nekeri,~ meore gamocema, 2009), 166, n. 247.
39
, , I, (: , 1947), 303-385.
9
aliansSi, e.i. mocemuli konfliqtis/metoqeobis mimarT is arsebiTad
neitraluria _ nebayoflobiT an iZulebiT.
4. usafrTxoebis interesTa Sejaxeba. erTi dabuferebuli Zalis mier buferis
teritoriaze samxedro SeWra sxva dabuferebuli Zalis (Zalebis) mxridan
misi (maTi) erovnuli usafrTxoebisadmi pirdapir muqarad aRiqmeba.
xolo saerTaSoriso sistemis, saerTaSoriso samarTlis mier suverenulad
aRiarebuli, politikuri erTeuli an erTeulTa jgufi warmoadgens kvazibufers
(kvazibuferul saxelmwifos an kvazibuferul zonas), Tu is Semdeg oTx pirobas
asrulebs:
1. geopolitikuri mdebareoba. kvazibuferi _ kvazibuferuli saxelmwifo,
kvazibuferuli zona _ met-naklebad erTnairi siZlieris mowinaaRmdege,
metoqe Zalebs Soris sivrceSi mdebareobs (Tumca, aRsaniSnavia, rom
kvazibuferi, SesaZloa, erT romelime ZalasTan ufro miaxloebuli iyos
geografiulad).
2. Zala. kvazibuferi sagrZnoblad ufro sustia, vidre mis mier dabuferebuli
da am ukanasknelis metoqe Zala (Zalebi). kvazibuferi nebismier maTganTan
samxedro dapirispirebis SemTxvevaSi damoukideblad damarcxdeba.
3. sagareo-politikuri orientacia. kvazibuferis teritoriaze SeiZleba
imyofebodnen mis mier dabuferebuli mxaris SeiaraRebuli Zalebi. kvazibuferi
SeiZleba iyos formalur an araformalur samxedro aliansSi dabuferebul
mxaresTan misi metoqe Zalis (Zalebis) sawinaaRmdegod, Sediodes
dabuferebuli Zalis Tavdacvis perimetrSi da warmoadgendes mis satelits
(ganapira zRudes) _ nebayoflobiT an iZulebiT.
4. usafrTxoebis interesTa Sejaxeba. kvazibuferi mxolod erT Zalas abuferebs
(icavs) da, amavdroulad, sxva Zalis (Zalebis) winaaRmdeg Setevis potenciur
placdarms warmoadgens. kvazibuferis teritoriaze mis mier dabuferebuli
mxaris samxedro nawilebis yofna Cveuli movlenaa, rac, metoqe Zalas
(Zalebs) aRizianebs, magram yovelTvis misi (maTi) mxridan sapasuxo samxedro
Carevas ar iwvevs. metoqe Zalis mier kvazibuferis teritoriaze SeWra ki
dabuferebuli Zalis mxridan sakuTriv masze Tavdasxmis tolfas nabijad
aRiqmeba. amasTan, droTa ganmavlobaSi kvazibuferma SeiZleba Seicvalos
dabuferebis obieqti, anu jer erTi Zalis `fari~ iyos, Semdgom ki meoris
`sargeblobaSi~ gadavides.
amdenad, buferi arsebiTad miumxrobelia da neitraluri, kvazibuferi ki aSkarad
erT-erTi mxarisaken aris gadaxrili da xSirad romelime Zlieri saxelmwifos
`sakuTrebis obieqtad~ aRiqmeba.
10
buferuli saxelmwifoebis geopolitikuri mdebareoba.
saqarTvelo buferi?
saxelmwifos buferad yofnis erT-erTi mTavari ganmsazRvreli faqtoria misi
mdebareoba metoqe Zalis centrebis mimarT saerTaSoriso sistemaSi. buferuli da
kvazibuferuli saxelmwifoebis sivrculi ganlageba dapirispirebul Zalebs Soris,
Teoriulad, Semdeg formebs SeiZleba iRebdes:
1) buferi an kvazibuferi uSualod esazRvreba _ saxmeleTo sazRvriT exeba _
or an met mowinaaRmdege Zalas. amis magaliTebia:
(Cems mier qvemoT moyvanil magaliTebSi istoriul buferebsa da kvazibuferebs
Soris, aseve civi omis dasrulebisa da sabWoTa kavSiris daSlis Semdgom evraziis
kontinentze aRmocenebul potenciur buferebs Soris zRvari gavlebuli ar aris da
wlebis aTvlac miaxloebiTia)
niderlandebi 1815-1831 wlebSi, belgia 1831-1945 wlebSi da luqsemburgi
1867-1945 wlebSi prusiasa (1871 wlidan germanias) da safrangeTs Soris;
Sveicaria 1815-1945 wlebSi prusias (germanias), safrangeTs, italiasa da
avstrias (1867-1918 wlebSi avstria-ungreTs) Soris;
poloneTi, Cexoslovakia da litva 1918-1939 wlebSi germaniasa da ruseTs
(1922 wlidan sabWoTa kavSirs) Soris;
monRoleTi 1921 wlidan CineTsa da ruseTs (1922-1991 wlebSi sabWoTa
kavSirs) Soris;
avRaneTi 1870-iani wlebidan (rogorc suverenuli saxelmwifo 1919 wlidan)
1947 wlamde ruseTsa (1922 wlidan sabWoTa kavSirs) da did britaneTs
Soris; 1947-1991 wlebSi sabWoTa kavSirsa da aSS-is gavlenis sferos
(pakistans) Soris;
nepali 1947 wlidan da butani 1949 wlidan CineTsa da indoeTs Soris;
libani 1948 wlidan israelsa da sirias Soris;
quveiTi 1961 wlidan eraysa da saudis arabeTs Soris;
urugvai 1828 wlidan da paragvai 1811 wlidan braziliasa da argentinas
Soris;
avstria, fineTi da iugoslavia 1949/1955-1991 wlebSi nato-sa da varSavis
paqts Soris;
angola 1975-1990 wlebSi, zimbabve 1965 wlidan (rogorc damoukidebeli
saxelmwifo 1980 wlidan), mozambiki 1975 wlidan, botsvana 1966 wlidan,
11
svazilendi 1968 wlidan da namibia 1990 wlidan 1994 wlamde (aparteidis
reJimis gauqmebamde) samxreT afrikis respublikasa da saharis samxreTiT
mdebare/Savi afrikis saxelmwifoebs Soris;
yazaxeTi 1991 wlidan ruseTsa da CineTs Soris;
fineTi 1991 wlidan ruseTsa da nato-s Soris;
belorusia da ukraina 1999 wlidan (poloneTisa da ungreTis nato-Si
gawevrianebis Semdgom) ruseTsa da nato-s Soris;
saqarTvelo da azerbaijani 1991 wlidan ruseTsa da nato-s Soris; (ixileT
rukebi danarTSi).
2) bufers an kvazibufers saxmeleTo sazRvari aqvs erT-erT mowinaaRmdege
ZalasTan, xolo meorisagan (mesamisagan da a.S.) mas wylis sistema aSorebs (srute,
yure, zRva da sxva). amis magaliTebia:
korea adreuli Sua saukuneebidan 1910 wlamde CineTs, XIX saukunis meore
naxevridan, damatebiT, ruseTsa da iaponias Soris, ukanasknelisagan gamijnuli
koreis srutiT; 1945 wlidan ki gayofili orad, erTi mxriv, CineTis saxalxo
respublikasa da sabWoTa kavSirs (1991 wlidan ruseTis federacias), xolo
meore mxriv, aSS-is samxedro gavlenis sferos (meore msoflio omis Semdgom
aSS-is strategiul mokavSired qceul iaponias) Soris;
belgia 1831-1945 wlebSi prusias (1871 wlidan germanias), safrangeTsa da did
britaneTs Soris, am ukanasknelisagan gancalkevebuli la-manSisa (inglisis
arxis) da pa-de-kales (duvris) sruteebiT;
niderlandebi 1815-1945 wlebSi prusiasa (1871 wlidan germanias) da did
britaneTs Soris, am ukanasknelisagan dacilebuli CrdiloeTis zRviT;
albaneTi 1912-1943 wlebSi serbeTs, Cernogorias (1918 wlidan iugoslavias),
saberZneTsa da italias Soris, ukanasknelisagan gamoyofili adriatikis
zRviTa da otrantos srutiT;
latvia da estoneTi 1918-1939 wlebSi ruseTsa (1922 wlidan sabWoTa
kavSirs) da germanias Soris, ukanasknelisagan daSorebulni baltiis zRviT;
SvedeTi 1949/1955-1991 wlebSi nato-sa da varSavis paqts Soris,
norvegiasTan dakavSirebuli saxmeleTo sazRvriT, xolo sabWoTa kavSirisa da
poloneTisagan gamoyofili baltiis zRviT;
quveiTi, bahreini, katari da arabTa gaerTianebuli saamiroebi 1979 wlidan
saudis arabeTsa da iranis islamur respublikas Soris, ukanasknelisagan
daSorebulni sparseTis yuriT;
litva, latvia da estoneTi 1991-2004 wlebSi (nato-Si maT Sesvlamde)
ruseTsa da nato-s Soris, germaniisa da daniisagan gamijnulni baltiis
zRviT; (ixileT rukebi danarTSi).
3) buferi an kvazibuferi kunZulia da ori an meti mowinaaRmdege ZalisaTvis
strategiulad mniSvnelovan wylis sistemaSi mdebareobs. amis magaliTebia:
sicilia, sardinia da korsika Zveli welTaRricxvis III saukuneSi romsa da
karTagens Soris;
12
kuba 1959-1991 wlebSi aSS-sa da sabWoTa kavSirs Soris; (ixileT rukebi
danarTSi).
or an met metoqe Zalas Soris ganlagebuli susti saxelmwifo maTgan yovelTvis
Tanabari manZiliT daSorebuli ar aris. xSirad is erT-erT Zlier saxelmwifosTan an
aliansTan ufro axlos mdebareobs, vidre meoresTan, rac mniSvnelovanwilad
gansazRvravs mis geopolitikur rols anu imas, buferia es saxelmwifo Tu
kvazibuferi. magaliTisaTvis, amerikeli mecnieris karlos astizis TqmiT, laTinuri
amerikis dominanti Zalis, aSS-is potenciuri konkurentebi am regionidan Zalian Sors
imyofebian imisaTvis, rom aq misi Zliereba da gavlena gaawonasworon.
40
amrigad,
rodesac susti qveyana erT-erT Zlier saxelmwifos geografiulad `mibjenilia,~ is,
rogorc wesi, misi kvazibuferis funqcias asrulebs. am viTarebis amsaxveli ramdenime
magaliTis moyvana SeiZleba: aSS-sTan mezoblobam garkveuli xniT ganapiroba kanadis
kvazibuferad gadaqceva civi omis dasawyisSi; xolo aRmosavleT evropis qveynebis
sabWoTa kavSirTan geografiulma siaxlovem xeli Seuwyo maT komunistur blokSi
Seyvanas anu maT sabWoTa kavSiris kvazibuferebad gaxdomas imave periodSi;
garesamyarosagan faqtobrivma geografiulma izolirebulobam gamoiwvia nepalis samefos
indoeTis vasalad/kvazibuferad Camoyalibeba 1950-ian wlebSi, da sxva. Tumca, msgavsi
geografiuli mdebareobis mqone susti qveyana buferad an misgan Sors mdebare meore
Zlieri saxelmwifos kvazibuferadac SeiZleba gadaiqces, rac maSin xdeba, rodesac
Sors myofi Zala aRniSnuli susti qveynis did mezobelze SesamCnevad ufro Zlieria.
magaliTad, 2004 wlidan ruseTis federaciis mosazRvre, postsabWoTa sivrcis
zogierTi saxelmwifo, ruseTis kvazibuferad an ruseTsa da Crdilo atlantikur
alianss Soris buferad yofnis nacvlad, aSS/nato-s kvazibuferis funqcias asrulebs
(litva, latvia, estoneTi), zogierTic ki, gansxvavebuli mondomebiT, am geopolitikuri
statusis mopovebas cdilobs (saqarTvelo da ukraina).
gamoCenili britaneli mecnieris bari buzanis azriT, zogierT patara
saxelmwifos or an met regionul usafrTxoebis kompleqss anu erovnuli
usafrTxoebis interesebiTa da problematikiT urTierTdakavSirebul saxelmwifoTa
jgufs Soris ganmacalkeveblis funqciac SeiZleba ekisrebodes. rogorc magaliTad,
mianmas samxreT da samxreT aRmosavleT azias Soris, TurqeTs evropasa da axlo
aRmosavleTs Soris, avRaneTs samxreT aziasa da axlo aRmosavleTs Soris, fineTs,
SvedeTs, avtriasa da iugoslavias sabWoTa kavSirsa da dasavleT evropas Soris, nepals
CineTsa da indoeTs Soris; da a.S.
41
qarTuli politikuri erTeulebi istoriis manZilze xSirad iyvnen moqceulni
maTze ufro Zlier saxelmwifoebs Soris sivrceSi, erTdroulad samxreT-dasavleTidan,
samxreT-aRmosavleTidan da, bolo saukuneebSi, CrdiloeTidanac:
iberiis (qarTlis) da kolxeTis (egrisis) samefoebi Zveli welTaRricxvis 65
wlidan axali welTaRricxvis 224 wlamde romis respublikas/romis imperiasa
da (I saukunidan) parTiis imperias Soris; III saukunis 40-iani wlebidan VII

40
Carlos Astiz, Latin American International Politics (South Bend: University of Notre Dame Press, 1969), 21,
citirebulia naSromSi: Michael Handel, Weak States in the International System (London: Frank Cass, Second
Edition, 1990), 173.
41
Barry Buzan, People, States and Fear: An Agenda for International Security Studies in the Post-Cold War Era
(Boulder: Lynne Rienner Publishers, Second Edition, 1991), 196.
13
saukunis 40-ian wlebamde romis imperias (IV saukunis bolodan bizantiis
imperias) da iranis sasanidur imperias Soris; VII saukunis 50-iani wlebidan
VIII saukuneSi arabTa mier maT srul dapyrobamde bizantiis imperiasa da
arabTa (oTxi wminda xalifisa da omaiadebis) saxalifoebs Soris;
kaxeTis, hereTis, afxazeTis, tao-klarjeTis samefo-samTavroebi da Tbilisis
saamiro VIII saukunis bolodan X saukunis Sua xanebamde bizantiis imperiasa
da arabTa (abasidebis) saxalifos Soris;
saqarTvelos samefo 1064 wlidan XI saukunis bolomde Turq-selCukebisa da
bizantiis imperiebs Soris;
saqarTvelos samefo 1256-1335 wlebSi ilxanTa saxelmwifosa da oqros
urdos Soris;
saqarTvelos samefo 1386-1405 wlebSi Temur-lengis imperiasa da oqros
urdos Soris;
qarTuli samefo-samTavroebi (qarTli, kaxeTi, samcxe, imereTi, guria,
samegrelo, svaneTi, afxazeTi) XV saukunis Sua xanebidan XIX saukunis
dasawyisSi damoukideblobis dakargvamde osmaleTisa da iranis (sparseTis)
imperiebs, 1768 wlidan ki, damatebiT, ruseTis imperias Soris;
saqarTvelos respublika 1918-1921 wlebSi ruseTsa da TurqeTs Soris;
saqarTvelo 1991 wlidan ruseTsa da aSS-is samxedro gavlenis sferos (aSS-
is nato-el mokavSire TurqeTs) Soris; (ixileT rukebi danarTSi).
saqarTvelos teritoria istoriis uZvelesi periodidan Zlier saxelmwifoebs
Soris metoqeobis sagani iyo (Zalis poluss saqarTvelo, albaT, mxolod: 1010-1064
wlebSi,

1097-1220 wlebSi

da 1335-1386 wlebSi

warmoadgenda) da, umetesad, ama Tu


im imperiis SemadgenlobaSi an gavlenis sferoSi Sedioda magaliTad, asureTis,
urartus, aqemenidebis, selevkidebis, pontos, romis, sasanidebis, bizantiis, arabuli
saxalifoebis, Turq-selCukebis, monRoluri saxanoebis, osmaleTis, iranis (sparseTis),
ruseTisa da sabWoTa kavSiris Sesabamisad, am imperiebis sasazRvro provincias an
kvazibufers warmoadgenda. qarTuli saxelmwifoebi iSviaTad asrulebdnen WeSmariti
buferis rols. buferebad SesaZlebelia miviCnioT, albaT, mxolod:
iberiis (qarTlis) samefo II saukunis 30-iani wlebidan 224 wlamde romisa da
parTiis imperiebs Soris;
kaxeTis samefo 1466-1614 wlebSi iranis (sparseTis) da osmaleTis imperiebs
Soris;
saqarTvelos respublika 1918-1921 wlebSi ruseTsa da TurqeTs Soris.
1991 wlidan, sabWoTa kavSirisagan damoukideblobis aRdgenis Semdeg, saqarTvelo
kvlav aRmoCnda gansxvavebuli Zalisa da prestiJis mqone saxelmwifoebis/aliansebis
interesTa urTierTSejaxebis arealSi. erTi mxriv, ruseTma yovelmxriv daiwyo

saqarTvelos erTiani saxelmwifos Camoyalibebidan saqarTveloSi Turq-selCukTa pirvel laSqrobamde.

daviT aRmaSeneblis mier Turq-selCukebisadmi xarkis Sewyvetidan saqarTveloSi monRolTa pirvel


laSqrobamde.

giorgi brwyinvalis mier saqarTvelos monRolTagan gaTavisuflebidan saqarTveloSi Temur-lengis


pirvel laSqrobamde.
14
saqarTvelos sakuTari gavlenis sferoSi Sekaveba mis xelT arsebuli samxedro,
politikuri da ekonomikuri berketebis mTeli arsenalis gamoyenebiT (maT Soris, 1991-
1992 wlebSi `samxreT oseTsa~ da 1992-1993 wlebSi afxazeTSi sisxlismRvreli
konfliqtebis gaCaRebiT), meore mxriv ki, aSS-ma da misma partniorebma Crdilo
atlantikuri aliansidan (romelic TurqeTis teritoriiT exeba saqarTvelos) aqtiuri
TanamSromloba ganaviTares saqarTvelosTan, rasac saqarTvelos meore prezidentis
eduard SevardnaZis mier gancxadebulma prodasavlurma sagareo-politikurma kursmac
Seuwyo xeli, romlis farglebSi saqarTvelos momavlisaTvis didi mniSvnelobis mqone
ramdenime process Caeyara safuZveli, maT Soris saqarTvelos evropa-aziis
damakavSirebel energetikul derefnad gadaqcevas (baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenis
gayvanis Sesaxeb xelSekrulebis dadebiT 1999 wels da misi mSeneblobis dawyebiT 2003
wels) da saqarTvelodan teritoriidan rusuli samxedro bazebis gayvanas (1999 wlis
noembris euTo-s stambolis samitze vazianisa da gudauTis samxedro bazebis gauqmebis
Sesaxeb dadgenilebis miRebiT). Tumca, SevardnaZis mmarTvelobis periodSi saqarTvelos
Sidapolitikurma problemebma (ruseTTan damarcxebam `samxreT oseTisa~ da afxazeTis
omebSi, saxelmwifo sistemis korumpirebulobam da araefeqtianobam, socialur-
ekonomikuri ganviTarebis Zalze dabalma donem, aslan abaSiZis ruseTze orientirebulma
diqtatorulma reJimma aWaraSi, da a.S.) xeli SeuSala saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriv
ganviTarebasa da evro-atlantikur struqturebTan integraciisaken mimarTuli
Tanamimdevruli saSinao da sagareo politikis Camoyalibebas, ris gamoc qveynis
geopolitikuri funqcia regionSi didi xnis manZilze ver gamoikveTa.
2003 wlis noembris `vardebis revoluciisa~ da saqarTvelos mesame prezidentis
mixeil saakaSvilis xelisuflebis mier saqarTvelos saxelmwifoebriobis mSeneblobis
gzaze miRweuli araerTi seriozuli warmatebis Semdgom (2004 wlis maisSi
centraluri xelisuflebis mier kontrolis dabruneba aWaraze, saxelwifo
institutebis Zireuli reformireba, 2005 wlis maisSi ruseTTan xelSekrulebis
gaformeba, baTumsa da axalqalaqSi ganlagebuli rusuli samxedro bazebis, aseve
saqarTvelos teritoriaze darCenili sxva rusuli samxedro obieqtebis gauqmebis
Sesaxeb, 2005 wels baqo-Tbilisi-jeihanis navTobsadenisa da 2006 wels baqo-Tbilisi-
erzerumis gazsadenis amoqmedeba, qveynis socialur-ekonomikuri ganviTarebis
maCveneblebis gaumjobeseba, da a.S.), saqarTvelos swrafva aSS/nato-sken ufro
mizanmimarTuli da Sedegiani, ruseTis mimarT politika ki gacilebiT principuli da
gulaxdili gaxda, ramac evraziis `did saWadrako dafaze~
42
saqarTvelos rolis ufro
naTlad gansazRvris albaToba gazarda.
saqarTvelos dasavleTTan Semdgomi daaxloebisa da regionul geopolitikur
metoqeobaSi TandaTanobiTi marcxis Tavidan asacileblad, 2008 wlis agvistoSi
ruseTma, `samxreT oseTis~ konfliqtis zonaSi viTarebis uecari eskalaciisa da
SeiaraRebuli Setakebebis provocirebis kvaldakval, saqarTveloSi masStaburi samxedro
intervencia ganaxorciela, magram mixeil saakaSvilis xelisuflebis damxobasa da
qveynis sagareo-politikuri orientaciis Secvlas ver miaRwia. samagierod, saqarTvelos
ori regionis `samxreT oseTisa~ da afxazeTis sruli okupacia moaxdina da,
nominalurad `damoukidebel saxelmwifoebad~ aRiarebis miuxedavad, maTi faqtobrivi
aneqsiisa da samxreT kavkasiaSi Tavis samxedro bastionebad Camoyalibebis didi xniT
adre dawyebuli procesi daasrula.

42
ixileT: Zbigniew Brzezinski, The Grand Chessboard (New York: Basic Books, 1997).
15
amgvari kataklizmebis fonze, saqarTvelo jer kidev 1991 wlidan dawyebuli
geopolitikuri tranziciis periodSi imyofeba da misi geopolitikuri statusi
sabolood garkveuli ar aris, radgan:
erTi mxriv, ruseTi saqarTvelos sakuTar kvazibuferad SenarCunebas cdilobs,
belorusiisa da centralur aziaSi dsT-is koleqtiuri usafrTxoebis
xelSekrulebis organizaciis sxva wevrebis: yazaxeTisa da misi mosazRvre
yirgizeTis, uzbekeTisa da tajikeTis msgavsad, `uares SemTxvevaSi~ ki
saqarTvelos, iseve rogorc suam-is jgufis sxva wevrebis: ukrainis,
azerbaijanisa da moldaveTis neitralitetze anu buferul statusze droebiT
Tanxmdeba, uaxloes xelsayrel viTarebaSi kvlav sakuTar kvazibuferebad
gadaqcevis mizniT.
meore mxriv ki, saqarTvelos arc ruseTis kvazibuferad da arc ruseTsa da
aSS/nato-s Soris buferad yofna ar surs. dReisaTvis saqarTvelos sagareo
politikis prioriteti ruseTis geopolitikuri orbitidan Tavis daRweva da
evro-atlantikuri usafrTxoebis sivrceSi SeRweva anu aSS/nato-s
kvazibuferad gaxdomaa, rac baltiispireTis saxelmwifoebma 2004 wels
moaxerxes. Tumca, samxreT kavkasiaSi ruseTis Tavdacvis perimetris
gavrceleba misi SeiaraRebuli Zalebis ganlageba zogan legalurad
(somxeTSi), zogan ki aralegalurad (saqarTvelos separatistul regionebSi:
`samxreT oseTsa~ da afxazeTSi) Crdilo atlantikuri aliansis
postsabWoTa sivrceSi Semdgom eqspansias arTulebs da saqarTvelos aSS/nato-
s kvazibuferad, iseve rogorc WeSmarit buferad, Camoyalibebas xels uSlis.
axlo perspeqtivaSi saqarTvelos, rogorc or metoqe Zalis poluss Soris
moqceul sust, potenciurad buferul saxelmwifos, Teoriuli TvalsazrisiT,
saerTaSoriso sistemaSi xuTi sxvadasxva geopolitikuri rolis Sesruleba SeuZlia:
1. buferis _ im SemTxvevaSi, Tu `samxreT oseTsa~ da afxazeTSi dislocirebuli
ruseTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi (romlebic 1992-1993 wlebidan 2008 wlamde
samSvidobo kontigentis statusiT sargeblobdnen, xolo 2008 wlis
agvistodan saokupacio jarebs warmoadgenen) datoveben saqarTvelos
teritorias, an maT saerTaSoriso samSvidobo Zalebi Secvlis, xolo
saqarTvelo Crdilo atlantikur aliansSi gawevrianebisaken swrafvaze uars
ityvis, Sesabamisad mis teritoriaze arc aSS-is da arc nato-s wevri
romelime sxva qveynis samxedro nawilebi ar ganlagdeba.
2. aSS/nato-s kvazibuferis _ im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ruseTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi
`samxreT oseTidan~ da afxazeTidan gavlen, an maT saerTaSoriso samSvidobo
kontingenti Caenacvleba, amavrodulad ki saqarTvelo Crdilo atlantikuri
aliansis wevri gaxdeba an aSS-sTan ormxriv samokavSireo xelSekrulebas
gaaformebs, ris Semdgomac mis teritoriaze aSS-is an nato-s wevri sxva
romelime qveynis samxedro Zalebi SeiZleba ganTavsdes.
3. ruseTis kvazibuferis _ im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ruseTis SeiaraRebuli Zalebi
`samxreT oseTsa~ da afxazeTSi darCebian da saqarTvelos danarCen
16
teritoriazec `eqskluziuri uflebiT~ ganlagdebian, xolo saqarTvelo nato-
Si integraciasa da aSS-sTan TanamSromlobaze uars ityvis.
4. feTqebadsaSiSi zonis (Shatterbelt)

_ im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ruseTis
SeiaraRebuli Zalebi `samxreT oseTsa~ da afxazeTs ar datoveben da arc maTi
saerTaSoriso samSvidobo misiiT Canacvleba moxdeba, xolo saqarTvelo
Crdilo atlantikuri aliansis wevri gaxdeba an aSS-sTan ormxriv
samokavSireo xelSekrulebas gaaformebs, rasac saqarTvelos teritoriaze
aSS-is an nato-s wevri sxva romelime qveynis samxedro Zalebis ganlageba
SeiZleba mohyves. es ki, faqtobrivad, saqarTvelos gavlenis sferoebad dayofa
iqneba erTi mxriv ruseTis, meore mxriv ki aSS/nato-s mier.
5. ekonomikuri da politikuri xidis _ im SemTxvevaSi, Tu ruseTsa da aSS/nato-
s Soris samxedro-politikuri metoqeoba WeSmariti TanamSromlobiTa da
megobrobiT Seicvleba, saqarTvelo Tavis teritoriul mTlianobas aRadgens,
ruseTidan safrTxes aRar igrZnobs da Zalis politikaze orientirebis
saWiroebas aRar dainaxavs (rogorc, magaliTad, es problema moexsnaT belgias,
niderlandebsa da luqsemburgs meore msoflio omis damTavrebisTanave,
safrangeTs, germaniasa da did britaneTs Soris xangrZlivi dapirispirebis
Sewyvetis Sedegad).
es ukanaskneli anu mexuTe scenari, romelic ZiriTadad pirveli an meore
scenaris gagrZelebac SeiZleba iyos, udaod, yvelaze sasurvelia saqarTvelosaTvis,
magram dRevandeli gadasaxedidan utopias warmoadgens, vinaidan miuxedavad saqarTvelos
dainteresebisa da Zalisxmevisa, ganaviTaros ekonomikuri da politikuri TanamSromloba
rogorc dasavleTTan, ise ruseTTan, kremlis damokidebuleba postsabWoTa sivrcisadmi,
naklebad savaraudoa, kidev mravali wlis manZilze realpolitikis CarCoebs gascdes.
ruseTis post-sabWoTa sivrceze erTpirovnuli batonobis imperialisturi
miswrafebebidan gamomdinare, saqarTvelo am etapze meore scenars anu aSS/nato-s
kvazibuferad gaxdomas aniWebs upiratesobas im garemoebis gaTvaliswinebiTac, rom
marTalia, ruseTi aSS-sTan SedarebiT sustia, magram aSS sakmaod Sorsaa samxreT
kavkasiis regionidan imisaTvis, rom aq ruseTis Zliereba da gavlena advilad
gaawonasworos.

termini Shatterbelt, romelic sityva-sityviT `msxvrevis/daqucmacebis sartyels~ niSnavs azrobrivad


feTqebadsaSiS zonad SeiZleba gadaiTargmnos. amgvari zona warmoiSveba maSin, rodesac ama Tu im regionSi
ori an meti mowinaaRmdege Zala sakuTar dasayrdens/gavlenis sferos moipovebs, ris Semdegac mTel
regionze kontrolisaTvis metoqeobas agrZelebs. ixileT: Philip Kelly and Luisa Prez, Shatterbelts of the
Americas, Historical Text Archive, 2003,
http://www.historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle&artid=415 (accessed 28.06.2009). marTalia,
amerikuli geopolitikis skolis cnobili warmomadgeneli da am terminis damamkvidrebeli sol koeni
`feTqebadsaSiS zonebs~ vrcel regionebs uwodebda, sxva mecnierebi SemdgomSi am cnebas ufro viwro,
lokaluri mniSvnelobiT iyeneben (rogorc magaliTad, amerikeli filip keli). mocemul naSromSi am
cnebas mec ufro mcire zomis, lokaluri geografiuli arealis aRsaniSnavad gamoviyeneb. feTqebadsaSiSi
zonebis masStaburobis gansxvavebuli interpretaciebis Sesaxeb ixileT: Saul Cohen, Geography and Politics
in a World Divided (New York: Oxford University Press, Second Edition, 1973) da Philip Kelly, Escalation of
Regional Conflict: Testing the Shatterbelt Concept, Political Geography Quarterly, Vol. 5, No. 2 (1986): 161-180,
aseve misi Checkerboards and Shatterbelts: The Geopolitics of South America (Austin: University of Texas Press,
1997). `feTqebadsaSiS zonebs~ meorenairad `Sejaxebis zonebsac~ (crush zones) uwodeben.
17
sabednierod, saqarTvelos rogorc amJamindeli, ise winamorbedi xelisufleba
dasawyisidanve mixvda, rom pirveli scenari anu qveynis neitralur, buferul
saxelmwifod gadaqcevis arCevani, romlis garegnul mimzidvelobas rusuli propaganda
mTeli am xnis manZilze aqtiurad asazrdoebs (ara marto saqarTveloSi, aramed,
magaliTad, ukrainaSic), post-sabWoTa sivrceSi ruseTis revizionistuli politikis
gaTvaliswinebiT, mxolod droebiTi, mosamzadebeli etapi iqneba movlenebis mesame
scenariT dasrulebisaTvis. 2008 wlis agvistoSi ruseTis armiis mier saqarTvelos
teritoriis nawilis okupaciis Semdeg ki am scenaris srulad ganxorcieleba
SeuZlebelic ki gaxda. Tumca, moskovi mis danarCen saqarTveloze Tavs moxvevas mainc
cdilobs, raTa mesame scenariT gaTvaliswinebul mocemul mizans anu saqarTvelos
sakuTar kvazibuferad gadaqcevas ufro advilad miaRwios.
dasanania, magram ruseT-saqarTvelos 2008 wlis agvistos omis Sedegad
sagrZnoblad gaizarda movlenebis meoTxe scenariT ganviTarebis albaToba, rac
saqarTvelosTvis xelsayreli ar aris, radganac, erTi mxriv, saqarTvelos
teritoriuli mTlianobis aRdgenis Sansebi amiT mcirdeba, meore mxriv ki,
feTqebadsaSiSi zona viTarebis nebismier momentSi eskalaciisa da regioniT
dainteresebul metoqe Zalebs Soris omis gaCaRebis safrTxes Seicavs. rogorc
amerikeli mecnieri filip keli aRniSnavs, feTqebadsaSiSi zonebisaTvis damaxasiaTebelia
mudmivi samxedro da diplomatiuri daZabuloba, gamowveuli didi saxelmwifoebis mier
mocemul regionSi fexis mokidebiT, rac rogorc adgilobrivi, ise regionSi SemoWrili
didi saxelmwifoebis monawileobiT masStabur omSi SeiZleba gadaizardos.
43
Tumca, feTqebadsaSiSi zonis perspeqtiva, Cemi azriT, cud scenarebs Soris
yvelaze uaresi ar aris, radganac is ruseTis morigi agresiis Sekavebisa da misgan
qarTuli saxelmwifoebriobisa da saqarTvelos danarCeni teritoriis usafrTxoebis
dacvis met garantiebs gulisxmobs. am mimarTulebiT gadadgmul mniSvnelovan nabijs
warmoadgens 2009 wlis ianvarSi aSS-sa da saqarTvelos Soris gaformebuli
strategiuli partniorobis qartia.
44
rogorc filip keli ambobs, feTqebadsaSiSi
zonebi adgilobriv doneze ZalTa xisti bipolaruli balansis formirebas uwyobs
xels,
45
xolo Tu saxelganTqmul amerikel mecniers, neorealizmis skolis fuZemdebels
keneT uolcs davujerebT da mis mosazrebebs bipolarulobis mastabilizebeli efeqtis
Sesaxeb,
46
sistemuri donis miRma, regionul da lokalur doneebzec gavavrcelebT,
miviRebT daskvnas, rom ZalTa bipolarul balans adgilobrivi masStabiT feTqebadsaSiS
zonaSic ki stabilurobis sakmaod maRali xarisxis uzrunvelyofa SeuZlia. amdenad,
saqarTvelos teritoria, rogorc `feTqebadsaSiSi zona~ adgilobriv doneze ZalTa
wonasworobis/ekvilibriumis pirobebSi `stabilurobis zona~ SeiZleba gaxdes, ramac
grZelvadian perspeqtivaSi, SesaZloa, mexuTe (an, sulac, meore) scenaris
ganxorcielebas Seuwyos xeli. Tumca, imis gamo, rom feTqebadsaSiS zonaSi ZalTa

43
Philip Kelly and Luisa Prez, Shatterbelts of the Americas, Historical Text Archive, 2003,
http://www.historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle&artid=415 (accessed 30.06.2009).
44
ixileT: aSS-saqarTvelos qartia strategiuli partniorobis Sesaxeb,
http://www.mfa.gov.ge/index.php?lang_id=GEO&sec_id=461&info_id=8713 (accessed 30.06.2009).
45
Philip Kelly and Luisa Prez, Shatterbelts of the Americas, Historical Text Archive, 2003,
http://www.historicaltextarchive.com/sections.php?op=viewarticle&artid=415 (accessed 30.06.2009).
46
ixileT: Kenneth Waltz, The Stability of a Bipolar World, Daedalus, Vol. 93, No. 3 (1964): 881-909, da misive
The Spread of Nuclear Weapons: More May Better, Adelphi Papers, No. 171 (London: International Institute for
Strategic Studies, 1981).
18
wonasworobis nebismieri meryeobisas konfliqtis gaCaRebis albaToba maRalia, romelime
rogorc wesi, naklebad dainteresebulma metoqe Zalam am regionze xelis aReba da
misgan Tavis Sors daWera SeiZleba gadawyvitos. ruseTsa da aSS/nato-s Soris ki aseT
naklebad riskian da motivirebul Zalad, SesaZloa, es ukanaskneli mogvevlinos (yovel
SemTxvevaSi, 2008 wlis ruseT-saqarTvelos omis Semdeg amis saSiSroeba ufro cxadad
SeigrZnoba), rac saqarTvelos ruseTis `privilegirebuli interesebis sferoSi~
47
dabrunebas uqadis.
sxva sityvebiT rom vTqvaT, im SemTxevaSi Tu dRes aSS, arc calmxrivad da arc
nato-sTan erTad, ruseTis mier saqarTvelos teritoriis nawilis okupaciis
miuxedavad, Cveni qveynis suverenitetisa da erovnuli usafrTxoebis garantad ar
dadgeba da rogorc saqarTveloSi, ise mTlianad samxreT kavkasiaSi Zalis vakuumis
Seqmnas gamoiwvevs, geopolitikuri tranziciis es periodi saqarTvelosTvis (iseve,
rogorc mogvianebiT azerbaijanisaTvis) mesame scenariT anu ruseTis
satelitad/kvazibuferad gadaqceviT SeiZleba dasruldes, rac saqarTvelos istoriaSi
1921 wels momxdari tragediis ruseTis mier saqarTvelos damoukideblobis didi
xniT dasamarebis erTgvari gameoreba iqneba da, saboloo jamSi, katastroful
Sedegebs moutans mTlianad evropas, romlis strategiuli energetikuli resursebiT
momaragebis ruseTisagan alternatiuli gza swored am regionze gadis.
amrigad, dReisaTvis saqarTvelo ar aris buferuli saxelmwifo da iqneba Tu ara
momavalSi, rTuli saTqmelia. yovel SemTxvevaSi, misi amJamindeli sagareo politika am
geopolitikuri rolis mopovebas miznad ar isaxavs, rac sworad mimaCnia, radgan
buferad yofna saxarbielo sulac ar aris da [es Cemi naSromis srulad gacnobisas
mkiTxvelisaTvis ufro naTeli gaxdeba].

47
ixileT ruseTis prezidentis dimitri medvedevis gamonaTqvamebi: http://news.kremlin.ru/transcripts/1294,
http://news.kremlin.ru/transcripts/2092 (accessed 02.07.2009).
19
danarTi
ruka 1.
niderlandebi germaniasa da did britaneTs Soris (1922 w.).
belgia germanias, safrangeTsa da did britaneTs Soris (1922 w.).
luqsemburgi germaniasa da safrangeTs Soris (1922 w.)
Sveicaria germanias, safrangeTs, italiasa da avstrias Soris (1922 w.)
wyaro: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/images/maps/Europe1922.jpg
(accessed 10.12.2009)
20
ruka 2.
poloneTi, Cexoslovakia, litva, latvia da estoneTi germaniasa da sabWoTa kavSirs
Soris (1922 w.)
albaneTi italias, saberZneTsa da iugoslavias Soris (1922 w.)
wyaro: http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/jsource/images/maps/Europe1922.jpg
(accessed 10.12.2009)
21
ruka 3.
avstria, fineTi, iugoslavia da SvedeTi natosa da varSavis paqts Soris (1980-iani
ww.)
wyaro: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cold_war_europe_military_alliances_map_en.png
(accessed 10.12.2009)
22
suraTi 1.
avRaneTi ruseTsa da did britaneTs Soris (britanul Jurnal Punch-Si dabeWdili
karikatura, 1878 w.)
wyaro: http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Great_Game_cartoon_from_1878.jpg
(accessed 10.12.2009)
ruka 4.
avRaneTi sabWoTa kavSirsa da aSS-is mokavSire pakistans Soris (1986 w.)
wyaro: http://www.lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/afghanistan_pol86.jpg
(accessed 10.12.2009)
23
ruka 5.
monRoleTi da yazaxeTi ruseTsa da CineTs Soris
nepali da butani CineTsa da indoeTs Soris
CrdiloeT korea da samxreT korea CineTs, ruseTsa da aSS-is mokavSire iaponias
Soris
wyaro: http://lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/asia_pol00.jpg
(accessed 10.12.2009)
24
ruka 6.
libani israelsa da sirias Soris
quveiTi erays, saudis arabeTsa da irans Soris
bahreini, katari da arabTa gaerTianebuli saamiroebi saudis arabeTsa da irans Soris
wyaro:
http://lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/txu-oclc-192062619-middle_east_pol_2008.jpg
(accessed 10.12.2009)
25
ruka 7.
saqarTvelo da azerbaijani ruseTsa da nato-s (aSS-is mokavSire TurqeTs) Soris
wyaro:
http://lib.utexas.edu/maps/middle_east_and_asia/txu-oclc-192062619-middle_east_pol_2008.jpg
(accessed 10.12.2009)
26
ruka 8.
fineTi, belorusia da ukraina ruseTsa da nato-s Soris
litva, latvia da estoneTi ruseTsa da natos Soris (1991-2004 ww.)
wyaro: http://lib.utexas.edu/maps/europe/europe_pol01.jpg
(accessed 10.12.2009)
27
ruka 9.
urugvai da paragvai braziliasa da argentinas Soris
wyaro: http://lib.utexas.edu/maps/americas/south_america_pol98.jpg
(accessed 10.12.2009)
28
ruka 10.
angola, zimbabve, mozambiki, botsvana, svazilendi da namibia samxreT afrikis
respublikasa da saharis samxreTiT mdebare/Savi afrikis saxelmwifoebs Soris (1993 w.)
wyaro: http://lib.utexas.edu/maps/africa/africa_pol_1993.gif
(accessed 10.12.2009)
29
ruka 11.
kuba aSS-sa da sabWoTa kavSirs Soris (1962 w.)
wyaro: http://unimaps.com/cuba-crisis/mainmap.gif
(accessed 10.12.2009)
30
ruka 12.
sicilia, sardinia da korsika romsa da karTagens Soris (Zv. w. 264 w.)
wyaro: http://sitemaker.umich.edu/mladjov/files/romanabc264.jpg (accessed 10.12.2009)
31
ruka 13.
sicilia, sardinia da korsika romsa da karTagens Soris (Zv. w. 218 w.)
wyaro: http://sitemaker.umich.edu/mladjov/files/romanabc218.jpg (accessed 10.12.2009)
32
ruka 14.
iberiis (qarTlis), kolxeTis (egrisis, lazikas) da somxeTis (armeniis) samefoebi
romis respublikas/romis imperiasa da parTiis imperias Soris (Zv. w. 65 w. ax. w. 115
w.)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/geor_histr1.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
33
ruka 15.
iberiis (qarTlis), kolxeTis (egrisis, lazikas) da somxeTis (armeniis) samefoebi
romis/bizantiis imperiasa da parTiis/iranis sasanidur imperias Soris (117 600 ww.)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/geor_histr1.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
34
ruka 16.
kaxeTis, hereTis, afxazeTis, tao-klarjeTis samefo-samTavroebi da Tbilisis saamiro
bizantiis imperiasa da abasidebis (baRdadis) arabul saxalifos Soris (830 1020
ww.).
saqarTvelos gaerTianebuli samefo 1010 wlidan.
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/geor_histr%202.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
35
ruka 17.
saqarTvelos samefo da bizantiis imperia (1000 1051 ww.)
saqarTvelos samefo, rogorc Zalis polusi (1010 1064 ww.)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/Iberia_Theme.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
36
ruka 18.
saqarTvelos samefo da Turq-selCukTa dapyrobebi (1000 1095 ww.)
saqarTvelos samefo Turq-selCukebisa da bizantiis imperiebs Soris (1064 1095
ww.)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/geor_histr%202.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
37
ruka 19.
saqarTvelos samefo daviT aRmaSeneblis mefobis xanaSi (1089 1125 ww.)
saqarTvelos samefo, rogorc Zalis polusi (1097 wlidan)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/geor_histr%2021.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
38
ruka 20.
saqarTvelos samefo Tamar mefis zeobis xanaSi (1184 1213 ww.)
saqarTvelos samefo, rogorc Zalis polusi (1220 wlamde), da misi kvazibuferebis
sartyeli
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/geor_histr%2021.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
39
ruka 21.
saqarTvelos samefo monRolTa dapyrobebis Semdgom (1220 1245 ww.)
saqarTvelos samefo ilxanTa da oqros urdos monRolur saxanoebs Soris (1256
1335 ww.)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/geor_histr%2022.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
40
ruka 22.
saqarTvelos samefo (1340 1453 ww.)
saqarTvelos samefo, rogorc Zalis polusi (1335 1386 ww.)
saqarTvelos samefo Temur-lengis imperiasa da oqros urdos Soris (1386 1405 ww.)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/geor_histr%2022.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
41
ruka 23.
qarTuli samefo-samTavroebi (qarTli, kaxeTi, samcxe, imereTi, guria, samegrelo,
svaneTi, afxazeTi) osmaleTis imperiasa da iranul (yara-yoinlu, aRyoinlu) saxanoebs
Soris (1450 1515 ww.)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/geor_histr%2022.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
42
ruka 24.
qarTuli samefo-samTavroebi (qarTli, kaxeTi, samcxe, imereTi, guria, samegrelo,
svaneTi, afxazeTi) osmaleTisa da iranis (sparseTis) imperiebs Soris (1500 1555
ww.)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/geor_histr%2022.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
43
ruka 25.
qarTuli samefo-samTavroebi (qarTli, kaxeTi, samcxe, imereTi, guria, samegrelo,
svaneTi, afxazeTi) osmaleTisa da iranis (sparseTis) imperiebs Soris (1555 1639
ww.)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/geor_histr%2022.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
44
ruka 26.
qarTuli samefo-samTavroebi (qarTli, kaxeTi, imereTi, guria, samegrelo, svaneTi,
afxazeTi) osmaleTisa da iranis (sparseTis) imperiebs Soris (1640 1722 ww.)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/geor_histr%2022.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
45
ruka 27.
qarTuli samefo-samTavroebi (qarTl-kaxeTi, imereTi, guria, samegrelo, svaneTi,
afxazeTi) osmaleTisa da iranis (sparseTis) imperiebs Soris (1762 w.), 1768 wlidan
ki, damatebiT, ruseTis imperias Soris.
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/geor_histr%2022.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
46
ruka 28.
ruseTis imperiis mier qarTuli samefo-samTavroebis SemoerTebis procesi (1810 w.)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/Lang_3.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtori: endriu anderseni
47
ruka 29.
saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublika ruseTsa da TurqeTs Soris (1918 w.
damoukideblobis gamocxadebis Semdgom)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/arm_geor_war/map%202.jpg
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtorebi: endriu anderseni da georg ege
48
ruka 30.
saqarTvelos demokratiuli respublika ruseTsa da TurqeTs Soris (1918 w. pirveli
msoflio omis damTavrebis Semdgom)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/arm_geor_war/map%203.jpg
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtorebi: endriu anderseni da giorgi farcxalaZe
49
ruka 31.
sabWoTa intervencia saqarTveloSi (1921 w.)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/Lang_9a.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtorebi: endriu anderseni da giorgi farcxalaZe
50
ruka 32.
saqarTvelos gasabWoeba da sazRvrebis Secvla (1921 1931 ww.)
wyaro: http://www.conflicts.rem33.com/images/Georgia/Lang_11.htm
(accessed 15.12.2009)
rukis avtorebi: endriu anderseni da giorgi farcxalaZe