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) “HALO EFFECT AND SELECTIVE PERCEPTION” is the shortcut in judging others. Explain? Ans.) PERCEPTION can be defined as, “a process by which individuals organize and interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment.” Individuals differ in their perceptions with regard to people and inanimate objects. People have beliefs, motives, or intentions. Therefore an individual’s perception and judgment of another person’s actions are influenced by these assumptions.
SHORTCUTS IN JUDGING OTHERS: Individuals have a tendency to use a number of shortcuts when they judge others. An understanding of these shortcuts can be helpful toward recognizing when they can result in significant distortions.
SELECTIVE PERCEPTION: Any characteristic that makes a person, object or event stand out will increase the probability that it will be perceived. It is impossible for an individual to internalize and assimilate everything that is seen. Only certain stimuli can be taken in selectively . Selectivity works as a shortcut in judging other people by allowing us to “speed read” others, but, not without the risk of drawing an inaccurate picture. The tendency to see what we want to see can make us draw unwarranted conclusions from an ambiguous situation
HALO EFFECT: The Halo effect occurs when we draw a general impression on the basis of a single characteristic. For example, while appraising the lecturer, students may give prominence to a single trait, such as, enthusiasm and allow their entire evaluation to be tainted by how they judge the instructor on that one trait which stood out prominently in their estimation of that person.
Q2.) Explain “Emotional Intelligence”? Ans.) Emotional intelligence is “an aggregate of individual’s cognition of own and other’s emotions, feelings, interpretation and action as per environmental demand to manipulate the consequence which in turn result in superior performance and better human relationship”. Emotional intelligence is a measure of the degree to which a person makes use of his/her reasoning in the process of emotional responses in a given situation. The most popular and accepted mixed model of emotional intelligence is the one proposed by Goleman (1995). He viewed emotional intelligence as a total of personal and social competences. Personal competence determines how we manage ourselves, whereas social competences determine how we handle our interpersonal relationships.
GOLEMAN’S EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE MODEL
EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE (1995)
PERSONAL EMPATHY SELFSOCIAL COMPETENC AWARENESS COMPETENC E SOCIAL
E SKILLS SELFREGULATION MOTIVAION
PERSONAL COMPETENCE: It comprises three dimensions of emotional intelligence such as, SELF-AWARENESS, SELF-REGULATION and MOTIVATION. SELF-AWARENESS is the ability of an individual to observe him/herself and to recognize a feeling as it happens. The hallmarks of this ability are self-confidence, selfassessment and openness to positive criticism. SELF-REGULATION is the ability to control emotions and to redirect these emotions that can have negative impact. Trustworthiness, integrity, tolerance of ambiguity and attitude to accept change are some characteristics off this ability. MOTIVATION is the ability to channelize emotion to achieve a goal through self-control and by moderating impulses as per the requirement of the situation. The people who have this ability are optimistic and committed towards organizational as well as individual goals.
SOCIAL COMPETENCE: It comprises of two dimensions namely EMPATHY and SOCIAL SKILLS. EMPATHY is the ability to feel and get concerned for others, take their perspective and to treat people according to their emotional reactions. People with this ability are experts and generating and motivating others. SOCIAL SKILLS are the ability to build rapport and to manage relationships with people. People having this ability are very effective in persuasiveness and team management. Social skill is the culmination of all other components of emotional intelligence, assuming that people can effectively manage social and work relationships only when they can understand and control their own emotion and can emphasize with the feelings of others.
Q3.) ‘A group passes through various stages”. Explain the various stages of group formation? Ans.) The most important models of group development have been cited below: A) THE FIVE-STAGE MODEL: 1. Forming In this stage the members are entering the group. The main concern is to facilitate the entry of the group members. The individuals entering are concerned with issues such as what the group can offer them. Their needed contribution the similarity to their personal needs, goals and group goals, the acceptable norms and behavior standards expected for group membership and recognition for doing the work as a group member. 2. Storming This is a turbulent phase where individuals try to basically form coalitions and cliques to achieve a desired status within the group. Members also go through the process of identifying to their expected role requirements in relation to group requirements. In the process membership expectations tend to get clarified and attention shifts towards hurdles coming in the way of attaining group goals. Individual begin to understand and appreciate each other’s styles and efforts are made to find ways to accomplish group goals while also satisfying individual needs. 3. Norming From the Norming stage of group development, the group really begins to come together as a coordinated unit. At this point close relationships develop and the group shows cohesiveness. Group embers will strive to maintain positive balance at this stage. 4. Performing The group now becomes capable of dealing with complex tasks and handling internal disagreements in novel ways. The structure is stable and members are motivated by group goals and are generally satisfied. The structure is fully functional and accepted at this stage. Group energy makes a transition from member’s focus on getting to know and understand each other to performing. For permanent work groups performing is the last stage in their development.
5. Adjourning A well integrate d group is able to disband if required when its work is accomplished though in itself it may be a painful process fro group members emotionally. The adjourning stage of group development is especially important for the many temporary groups that are rampant in today’s workplaces. Members of these groups must be able to convene quickly do their jobs on a tight schedule and then adjournoften to reconvene later, whenever required.
A) PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM MODEL : Temporary groups with deadlines do not seem to follow the model explained above. Their pattern is called the punctuated-equilibrium model. Phase 1: the first meeting sets the group’s direction. This stage is the first inertia phase. A structure of behavioral patterns and assumption emerges. Transition: then a transition phase takes place when the group has used up almost half its allotted time. The group’s direction becomes fixed and is unlikely to be reexamined throughout the first half of the group’s life. The group tends to stand still or become locked into a fixed course of action. The group is incapable of acting on new insights in phase 1. The midpoint seems to set an alarm clock going increasing member’s awareness that their time is limited and that they need to move on fast. A transition triggers off major changes. This ends phase 1 and is characterized by a concentrated burst of changes, replacement old patterns and adoption of new perspectives. The transition sets a revised direction for phase 2. Phase 2: it is a new equilibrium and is also a period of inertia. In this phase, the group executes plans created during the transition period. The group’s last meeting is characterizes by a flurry of activities. The punctuated-equilibrium model characterizes groups as demonstrating long periods of inertia interspersed with brief and rapid changes triggered mainly by their member’s awareness of time and targets.
Q4) “Power is the ability to make things happen in the way a individual wants, either by self or by the subordinates. The essence of power is to control over the behavior of others”. Explain what are the various bases of powers? Ans.) Power can be categorized into 2 types: Formal and Informal A) FORMAL POWER: It is based on the position of an individual in an organization. Formal power is derived from either one’s ability to coerce or reward others or is derived from the formal authority vested in the individual due to his/her strategic position in the organizational hierarchy. The availability of coercive power also varies across organizations. The presence of unions and organizational policies on employee treatment can weaken this power base significantly. Formal power may be categorized into four types which are as follows: 1. COERCIVE POWER The coercive power base is being dependant on fear. It is based on the application or threat of application. Of physical sanctions such as the infliction of pain, the generation of frustration through restriction of movement or the controlling by force of basic physiological or safety needs. 2. REWARD POWER The opposite of coercive power is reward power. Reward power is the extent to which a manager can use extrinsic and intrinsic rewards to control other people. Examples of such rewards include money, promotions, compliments etc. although all managers have some access to rewards, success in accessing and utilizing rewards to achieve influence varies according to the skills of the manager. 3. LEGITIMATE POWER The third base of position of power is legitimate power or formal authority. It stems from the extent to which a manager can use subordinates internalized values or beliefs that the boss has a right of command to control their behavior. Legitimate power represents a special kind of power a manager has because subordinates believe it is legitimate for a person occupying the managerial position to have the right to command. The lack of this is legitimacy will result in authority not being accepted by subordinates. Thus this type of power has the following elements: a) It represents the power a person receives as a result of his/her position in the formal hierarchy.
b) Positions of authority include coercive and reward powers. c) Legitimate power, however, is not limited to the power to coerce and reward. It encompasses the acceptance of the authority of a position by members of an organization.
4. INFORMATIVE POWER This type of power is derived from access to and control over information. When people have needed information, others become dependant on them. Normally the higher the level, the more information would be accessed by managers.
A) INFORMAL OR PERSONAL POWER: Personal power resides in the individual and is independent of that individual’s position. Three bases of personal power are – EXPERTISE, RATIONAL PERSUSAION and REFERENCE.
EXPERT POWER- it is the ability to control person’s behavior by virtue of possessing knowledge, experience or judgment that the other person lacks but needs. Expert power is relative, not absolute. However the table may turn in case the subordinate has superior knowledge or skills than his/her boss. In this age of technology driven environments, the second proposition holds true in many occasions where the boss is dependent heavily on the junior’s for technologically oriented support. RATIONAL PERSUSAION – is the ability to control another’s behavior, since, through the individual’s effort, the person accepts the desirability of an offered goal and a viable way of achieving it. Rational persuasion involves both explaining the desirability of expected outcomes and showing how specific actions will achieve these outcomes REFERENT POWER - is the ability to control another’s behavior because the person wants to identify with the power source. Followership is not based on what the
subordinate will get for specific actions or specific levels of performance, but on what the individual represents- a path towards lucrative future aspects.
CHARISMATIC POWER- is an extension of referent power stemming from an individual’s personality and interpersonal style. Others follow because they can articulate visions, take personal risks, demonstrate follower sensitivity etc.
Q5.) Explain the “Organizational Development” process?
Ans.) Organization development is a planned approach to improve employee and organizational effectiveness by conscious interventions in those processes and structures that have an immediate bearing on the human aspect of the organization. Organization Development is an organization wide planned effort, managed from the top, to increase organizational effectiveness and health through planned interventions in the organizational processes, using behavioral science knowledge. Process of Organization Development: A typical OD process can be divided into the following phases: ✔ PROBLEM IDENTIFICATION: The first step in OD process involves understanding and identification of the existing and potential problems in the organization. The awareness of the problem includes knowledge of the possible organizational problems of growth, human satisfaction, the usage of human resource and organizational effectiveness. ✔ DATA COLLECTION Having understood the exact problem in this phase, the relevant data is collected through personal interviews, observations and questionnaires. ✔ DIAGNOSIS OD efforts begin with diagnosis of the current situation. Usually, it is not limited to a single problem .Rather a number of factors like attitudes, assumptions, available resources and management practice are taken into account in this phase. According to Rao and Hari Krishna, four steps in organizational diagnosis can be identified: • STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS: Determines how the different parts of organization are functioning in terms of laid down goals.
PROCESSES ANALYSIS: Process implies the manner in which events take place in a sequence. It refers to the pattern of decision making, communication, group dynamics and conflict management patterns within organizations to help in the process of attainment of organizational goals FUNCTION ANALYSIS: This includes strategic variables, performance variables, results, achievements and final outcomes. DOMAIN ANALYSIS: Domain refers to the area of the organization for organizational diagnosis.
✔ PLANNING AND IMPLEMENTATION: After diagnosing the problem, the next phase of OD, with the OD interventions, involves the planning and implementation part of the change process. ✔ EVALUATION AND FEEDBACK: Any OD activity is incomplete without proper feedback. Feedback is a process of relaying evaluations to the client group by means of specific report or interaction.
Q6.) Write short note on STRESS MANAGEMENT? Ans.) High or low levels of stress over long periods of time can lead to reduced employee performance and thus require action by the management.
1. Individual Approaches: • Effective individual strategies include implementing time management techniques, increasing physical exercise, relaxation training and expanding the social support network. • Practicing time management principles also leaves as an element in managing stress such asa) making daily lists of activities to be accomplished b) prioritizing activities by importance and urgency c) Scheduling activities according to priorities set. d) Knowing your daily cycle and handling the most demanding parts of your job during the high part of your cycle when you are most alert and productive. • • • Non-competitive physical exercises have long been recommended as a way to deal excessive stress levels. Individuals can teach themselves to reduce tension through relaxation techniques such as meditation, hypnosis and biofeedback. Having friends, family, or work colleagues to talk to provides an outlet for excessive stress.
1. Organizational Approaches: • Strategies that management might want to consider includea) Improved personnel selection and job placement leading to right person-job-fit thereby reducing chances of non-performance and stress level. b) Use of realistic goal setting, redesigning of jobs can help in aligning the individuals and job effectively and reduce stress. c) Training in stress management techniques can be helpful. d) In creased employee involvement improves motivation, morale, commitment and leads to better role integration and reduction in stress. e) Improved organizational communication helps in creating transparency in organizations and reduces confusion thereby decreasing stress levels at work. f) Establishment of corporate wellness programs is an important component in managing stress among members by rejuvenating and refreshing them from time to time leading to increased productivity with renewed energy. A SUGGESTED FRAMEWORK FOR STRESS ANAGEMENT
As there is a positive side to stress and provides, drive, excitement, there is no requirement to eliminate stress from one’s life. Managing stress should be given more importance than stress elimination. The goal should be to find the optimal level of stress that can be handled effectively by an individual which will motivate the person and not overwhelm and distress an individual. HOW CAN ONE MANAGE STRESS BETTER? Identifying unrelieved stress and being aware of its effect on an individual’s life is insufficient for reducing its harmful effects. There are two choices in stress management- either change the source of stress and / change you reaction to it. What is the path for doing so? 1. Become aware of the stressors and the emotional and physical reactions: Notice what causes distress. Ignoring them is not a solution. Listing out all the events that cause distress is important. What does an individual tell himself/herself about the meanings of these events?
2. Recognizing what can be changed: Is it possible to change the stressors by avoiding or eliminating them completely? Can their intensity be reduced? Is it possible to shorten an individual’s exposure to stress?
3. Reduce the intensity of the emotional reactions to stress: The stress reaction is triggered by our perception of danger; physical and/or emotional danger. Are we viewing your stressors in exaggerated terms and/or taking a difficult situation and making it a disaster? Are we overreacting and viewing things as absolutely critical and urgent?
4. Learning to moderate our physical reactions to stress: Slow deep breathing will bring your heart rate and respiration back to normal. Relaxation techniques can reduce muscle tension. Electronic biofeedback can help you gain voluntary control over such things as muscle tension, heart rate and blood pressure. Medications too can help in moderating the physical reactions.
5. Build our Physical reserves: Exercising for cardiovascular fitness three to four times a week, eating a well balanced diet are a must. Maintaining the ideal weight is essential. Avoiding nicotine, excessive caffeine and other stimulants can be a great help in reducing stress. Getting adequate sleep is of utmost importance. Being consistent with the sleep schedule helps in reducing stress to a large extent.
6. Maintaining our emotional reserves: Developing some mutually supportive friendships and stable relationships help in sharing bottled-up emotions and reduce stress. Pursuing realistic goals which are meaningful to, rather than goals others have set for us which we do not identify with can help in reducing stress. Expecting some frustrations, failures and sorrows as par of life can make us gear up mentally in handling stressful situations rather than succumb to them.
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