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Voltage Sags

Voltage sags are huge problems for many industries.

Probably the most pressing power quality problem today.
Voltage sags may cause tripping and large torque peaks in
electrical machines.
Tripping caused by undervoltage protection or overcurrent
Large torque peaks may cause damage to the shaft or equipment
connected to the shaft.
Some common reasons for voltage sags are
Lighting strikes in power lines
Equipment failure
Accidental contact with power lines
Electrical machine starts, etc.
Voltage Sags
Definition: Momentary decrease (1090%)in the rms voltage
magnitude for duration from half cycle to one minute.
Voltage interruptions are deeper voltage sags (<10% remaining
Voltage transients are shorter than 10 ms.
A sag to 20%: Line voltage is reduced to 20% of normal voltage
Fig. 1 shows a rectangular voltage sag to 60%, and the duration
is 80 ms.
A rectangular voltage sag is momentary voltage drop to a fixed
level in the rms voltage and an immediate restoration to the
original voltage level after the voltage sag duration.