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Arabic language and culture in the media – Hussein Maxos© 1996-2001

Common vocabulary & key expressions


in the Arabic press- abundant vocabulary: synonyms
‫ﻣﻔﺮدات و ﺗﻌﺎﺑﻴﺮ ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ ﻓﻲ اﻟﺼﺤﺎﻓﺔ اﻟﻌﺮﺑﻴﺔ‬
Adjectives ‫ ﺻﻔﺎت‬-‫ ﺟﻤﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬-‫آﻠﻤﺎت ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
Common expressions - Verbs ‫ أﻓﻌﺎل‬-‫ﻋﺒﺎرات ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
cliché adjectives ‫ﺻﻔﺎت ﺟﺎهﺰة‬/‫ﺻﻔﺎت ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬
========================================
‫ اﻷﻓﻌﺎل‬.1
Verbs
(ً ‫أﻗﺎم )ﺣﻔﻼ‬ ‫ ﻗﺎم ﺑـ‬:‫أﺟﺮى‬ (‫ﻳﻘﺘﺼﺮ )ﻗﺎﺻﺮا‬ ‫اﺳﺘﻘﺒﻞ‬ ،‫ ﺗﻠﻘّﻰ‬،‫ﺗﺴﻠّﻢ‬
To have, to make . ‫ اﻟﻘﻴﺎم ﺑـ‬:‫ ﻳﻨﺤﺼﺮ ﻓﻲ إﺟﺮاء‬:‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ To receive ،‫اﺳﺘﻠﻢ‬
To be limited to (someone i.e. Receive
guest) (something i.e.
message)
to be held ‫أﻗﻴﻢ‬ ‫ ﻋﺒّﺮ‬:‫أﻋﺮب…ﻋﻦ‬ :‫ﻳﻨﻄﻮي ﻋﻠﻰ‬ :‫اﺳﺘﻬﺠﻦ‬ ‫ ﻳﻮﺟﺪ‬:‫ﻳﻜﻤﻦ‬
‫ﻋﻦ‬ – ‫ﻳﺘﻀﻤﻦ‬ ،‫ دان‬،‫اﺳﺘﻨﻜﺮ‬ To be, exist
To express ‫ ﻳﻀﻢ‬-‫ﻳﺤﺘﻮي‬ ‫ أدان‬،‫ﺷﺠﺐ‬
to include, imply condemn, deny,
consider terrible

:(‫ﺗﻢّ )ﺗﺸﻐﻴﻞ‬ ،‫ ﺳﺒّﺐ‬:‫أدى إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ ﻳﺼﻴﺐ‬:‫ﻳﻨﺘﺎب‬ ،‫ اﺳﺘﻄﺎع‬،‫ﺗﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ ﺗﺘﻤﻴﺰ‬: ‫ﺗﺘﺴﻢ ﺑـ‬


‫ﺷﻐّﻞ‬ ‫ أﻓﺮز‬،‫ أﺳﻔﺮ ﻋﻦ‬To have, suffer, to ‫ﻗﺪر‬ ‫ﺑـ‬
= ‫ ﻣﺼﺪر‬+ ّ‫ﺗﻢ‬ To cause, lead to be under or Can, to be able To be known for,
general passive subject to characterized by

:‫ﺗﺤﻈﻰ ﺑـ‬ ‫ ﻇﻬﺮت‬:‫ﺑﺮزت‬ ،‫ أﻧﺠﺰ‬،‫ ﺣﻘﻖ‬،‫ أﻋﻠﻦ‬،‫ ﺻﺮح‬،‫ﻗﺎل‬ ،ّ‫ ﺗﻢ‬،‫ ﺣﺪث‬:‫ﺟﺮى‬
Get, gain, enjoy appear, become ‫ﺗﻮﺻّﻞ اﻟﻰ‬ ‫ أﻓﺎد‬،‫ذآﺮ‬ :‫ ﺣﺼﻞ‬،‫ ﻃﺮأ‬،‫وﻗﻊ‬
visible Achieve, reach To say, announce, Happen ‫ﺟﺮى‬
declare, mention, (‫)ﺗﻌﻴﻴﻦ‬
report

،‫ ﻳﻌﺮض‬،‫ﻳُﻈﻬﺮ‬ -‫ ﺷﺎهﺪ‬-‫رأى‬ ‫ ﻗﺎد‬،‫دلّ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ :‫ﻳﻨﺒﻐﻲ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﻌﻞ‬


show, ‫ﻳﺒﺮز‬ see ‫أﺑﺼﺮ‬ ‫ ﺑﺮهﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ‬،‫اﻟﻰ‬ ،‫ ﻳﺘﻌﻴّﻦ‬،‫ﻳﺠﺐ‬ To make
underline, indicate, prove, (figurative) i.e.
lead to
‫أن‬..‫ ﻋﻠﻰ‬،‫ﻳﺘﻮﺟّﺐ‬ make him happy or
highlight Should the situation harder.
To cause.

expect ‫ ﺗﻨﺒﺄ‬،‫ﺗﻮﻗﻊ‬ ،‫ ﺁزر‬،‫ دﻋﻢ‬،‫ﺳﺎﻧﺪ‬ relate ‫ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑـ‬ declare ‫أدﻟﻰ ﺑـ‬ ،‫ ﺗﺎﺑﻊ‬،‫اﺳﺘﺄﻧﻒ‬
to support ‫أﻳّﺪ‬ ،‫ اﺳﺘﻤﺮ‬،‫أآﻤﻞ‬
‫ﺗﻮاﺻﻞ‬
،‫ واﺻﻞ‬،
‫اﺳﺘﻜﻤﻞ‬
continue
still ‫ﻻ ﻳﺰال‬ -‫ﻣﻨﻲ ﺑـ )ﺧﺴﺎرة‬ to ‫ اﻧﻀﻢ‬،‫اﻧﺘﺴﺐ‬ reach, ‫ وﺻﻞ‬-‫ﺑﻠﻎ‬ to ‫ ﻧﻮى‬،‫اﻋﺘﺰم‬
suffer (‫ﻓﺸﻞ‬ join arrive plan, intend

‫ ﺗﻌﻤّﻖ‬-‫ﺗﻜﺮّس‬ re- ‫أﻋﺎد رﺑﻂ‬ bet ‫راهﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ no ‫ﻟﻢ ﻳﻌﺪ‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻮم ﻋﻠﻰ‬
connect (verb but longer based on
used as prefix)
Arabic language and culture in the media – Hussein Maxos© 1996-2001

،‫اﻃّﻠﻊ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ )ﻓﻌﻞ‬+‫ﻗﺪ‬ ‫ ﻳﻜﻮن‬،‫ﻳﺼﺐ ﻓﻲ‬ -‫ ﻳﺒﻨﻰ أﺧﺬ )ﻳﺘﻐﻴﺮ‬،‫ﻳﻨﻄﻠﻖ ﻣﻦ‬


،‫ﻋﺮف‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺿﺮ(= ﻳﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﺟﺰء ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ ﺻﺎر‬،‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﻐﻴﺮ( ﺑﺪأ‬ ،‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬
‫أن‬
-‫ﻏﺎرة‬-‫ﺷﻦ )ﺣﺮب‬ to ‫ ﻳُﻌﺘﺒﺮ‬-‫اﻋﺘﺒﺮ‬ ،‫هﻴﻤﻦ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫أﺷﺎر إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ ﻳﻜﻮن‬،‫اﺿﻄﻠﻊ ﺑـ‬
(‫ﺣﻤﻠﺔ‬ consider-be ،‫ﺳﻴﻄﺮ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ point (ً‫)ﻣﺸﻴﺮا‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺆول ﻋﻦ‬
considered control, ‫ﺗﺤﻜّﻢ ﺑـ‬ to
dominate
‫ أﺛﻨﻰ‬:‫أﺷﺎد ﺑـ‬ ‫ ﺳﻌﻰ‬:‫ﺑﺬل ﺟﻬﺪ‬
‫ ﺣﻤﺪ‬،‫ ﻣﺪح‬،‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ make efforts
praise

‫ اﻟﺼﻔﺎت‬.2
Adjectives
cliché adjectives ‫ ﺻﻔﺎت ﺟﺎهﺰة‬-‫ﺻﻔﺎت ﺷﺎﺋﻌﺔ‬
You mention a noun, and its adjective comes automatically!
Cliché adjectives seem self-explanatory, but here are few notes for further clarification:
• These cliché adjectives are rarely used apart from the given expressions
below, particularly the adjectives written in italic. This means that these
adjectives cannot be considered normal common vocabulary and used in any
context. Some of these adjectives are not in the dictionaries at all. They are
part of their nouns that adds stronger impression.
• Notice that the most common forms of adjectives are ‫ ﺿﺎرﻳﺔ‬،‫ ﻏﺎﻣﺮ‬،‫ﻓﺎﻋﻞ )ﺑﺎهﺮ‬
(‫اﻟﺦ‬and(‫ اﻟﺦ‬،‫ ﻣﺮﻳﺮ‬،‫ أﻟﻴﻢ‬،‫ﻓﻌﻴﻞ )ذرﻳﻊ‬
• Remember that in Arabic, adjectives come after their described nouns except
in few cases such as ‫ آﺒﻴﺮ اﻟﺠﺴﻢ – ﺳﺮﻳﻊ اﻟﺤﺮآﺔ‬then the noun must be
definite and the original noun or the subject is mentioned earlier or known
i.e. compare ‫ ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ‬and .‫ﺣﺴﻴﻦ ﻃﻮﻳﻞ اﻟﺠﺴﻢ‬This is normally
considered a literary style, but exists in the media as well.
• The plurals of these expressions are frequently used, so it is better to be
familiar with their singular and plural forms.
• Most of these expressions are familiar in Spoken Arabic as well, but among
intellectuals or in formal situations.

-‫ﺟﻤﻬﻮر ﻏﻔﻴﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎﻧﺔ ﻣﺮﻣﻮﻗﺔ‬ ‫دور ﺣﺎﺳﻢ‬ ‫أﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ‬/‫أآﺜﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫أﺧﻄﺎر ﺟﺴﻴﻤﺔ‬


،‫ﺟﻤﺎهﻴﺮ‬ remarkable or decisive role ‫ﺳﺎﺣﻘﺔ‬ serious dangers
‫ ﺟﻤﻮع‬،‫ﺣﺸﻮد‬ respectable overwhelming or risks
position majority
big ‫ﻏﻔﻴﺮة‬
audience, huge
masses
‫ﻣﺮض ﻋﻀﺎل‬ -‫ﺿﺮﺑﺔ ﻗﺎﺻﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮآﺔ ﺿﺎرﻳﺔ‬ ‫إﺷﺎﻋﺔ‬-‫دﻋﺎﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﺣﻤﻠﺔ ﺷﻌﻮاء‬
incurable illness the ‫ﻗﺎﺿﻴﺔ‬ fierce battle hostile ‫ﻣﻐﺮﺿﺔ‬ biased campaign
knockout or the or biased rumor
smashing hit
‫ﺟﺮﻳﻤﺔ ﻧﻜﺮاء‬ ّ‫ﻣﻨﻊ ﺑﺎت‬ -‫ﻓﻜﺮة ﺳﺪﻳﺪة‬ ‫ﺳﻔﺮ ﻣﻴﻤﻮن‬ ‫رﻓﺾ ﻗﺎﻃﻊ‬
shocking crime complete or good or ‫ﺻﺎﺋﺒﺔ‬ blessed travel absolute refusal
absolute ban wise idea
‫هﺠﻮم آﺎﺳﺢ‬ ‫ﺟﻬﺪ ﻣﻀﻨﻲ‬ ‫ﻋﻤﻞ ﺷﺎق‬ ‫ ﻋﺬاب أﻟﻴﻢ‬fierce ‫ﻋﺪو ﻟﺪود‬
sweeping attack great, big or Hard or difficult painful torture enemy
painful efforts work. Hard labor
‫رﻳﺎح ﻋﺎﺗﻴﺔ‬-‫رﻳﺢ‬ ‫ﻋﺎﺻﻔﺔ هﻮﺟﺎء‬ ‫آﻔﺎح‬-‫ﻧﻀﺎل‬ ‫ﻧﺼﺮ ﻣﺆزّر‬ ‫ﻓﺮح ﻏﺎﻣﺮ‬
‫‪Arabic language and culture in the media – Hussein Maxos© 1996-2001‬‬

‫‪rough air or‬‬ ‫‪violent storm‬‬ ‫ﻣﺮﻳﺮ ‪bitter‬‬ ‫‪undeniable‬‬ ‫‪overwhelming‬‬


‫‪wind‬‬ ‫‪struggle‬‬ ‫‪victory‬‬ ‫‪joy‬‬
‫هﺰﻳﻤﺔ ﻣﻨﻜﺮة‬ ‫ﺧﺴﺎرة ﻓﺎدﺣﺔ‬ ‫ﺧﻄﺔ ﻣﺤﻜﻤﺔ‬ ‫ﻧﺠﺎح ﺑﺎهﺮ‬ ‫ﻓﺸﻞ ذرﻳﻊ‬
‫‪shameful defeat.‬‬ ‫‪big loss‬‬ ‫)‪(good or firm‬‬ ‫‪(astonishing or‬‬ ‫) )‪absolute‬‬
‫‪plan‬‬ ‫‪brilliant) success‬‬ ‫‪failure‬‬
‫‪Old‬أزﻣﻨﺔ ﻏﺎﺑﺮة‬ ‫أﻣﻮال ﻃﺎﺋﻠﺔ ‪so‬‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺟﺔ ﻣﺎﺳّﺔ‪/‬‬ ‫ﻣﺸﻜﻠﺔ ﻋﻮﻳﺼﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﻓﺔ‪-‬‬
‫‪or ancient times‬‬ ‫‪much money‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﺤّﺔ ‪urgent‬‬ ‫‪Complicated or‬‬ ‫ﻣﺴﺎﺣﺔ‬
‫‪need‬‬ ‫‪unsolvable‬‬ ‫ﺷﺎﺳﻌﺔ ‪Wide,‬‬
‫‪problem‬‬ ‫‪،big or vast area‬‬
‫‪space/ distance‬‬
‫ﺧﻄﺄ‬ ‫ﺻﻌﻮﺑﺔ ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ‬
‫ﺟﺴﻴﻢ‪/‬ﻓﺎدح‪:‬‬ ‫‪extreme‬‬
‫آﺒﻴﺮ ‪big mistake‬‬ ‫‪difficulty‬‬

‫‪ .3‬ﺻﻔﺎت ‪Adjectives‬‬
‫اﻟﺮاهﻦ‪ ،‬اﻟﺤﺎﻟﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻴﺪ اﻟﻤﺪى‪:‬‬ ‫)اﻟﻘﻀﺎﻳﺎ(‬ ‫ﺣﺎﺳﻢ‪ :‬ﻣﻬﻢ‬
‫‪present,‬اﻟﺤﺎﺿﺮ‪ ،‬اﻟﺠﺎري‬ ‫ﻃﻮﻳﻞ اﻟﻤﺪى‪،‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻄﺮوﺣﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫‪decisive‬‬
‫‪current‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﺪى‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺮوﺿﺔ‬
‫اﻟﺒﻌﻴﺪ‪/‬اﻟﻄﻮﻳﻞ‬ ‫)ﻟﻠﻨﻘﺎش‪/‬ﻟﻠﺒﺤﺚ(‬
‫‪In the long‬‬
‫‪run‬‬

‫ﻗﺎدم‪ ،‬ﻣﻘﺒﻞ‪ ،‬ﺁﺗﻲ ‪next‬‬ ‫أﻏﻠﺒﻴﺔ=أآﺜﺮﻳﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﺨﺘﻠﻒ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﻔﺎوت‪ ،‬راﺳﺦ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻐﺔ‬


‫‪majority‬‬ ‫ﻗﻮي‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺒﺎﻳﻦ ‪different‬‬ ‫اﻷهﻤﻴﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻤﻴﻖ‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺔ ﺟﺪاً‬
‫‪deep,‬‬
‫‪strong,‬‬
‫‪sound‬‬
‫ﻣﻼﺋﻢ=ﻣﻮاﺗﻲ=ﻣﻨﺎﺳﺐ‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺘﻤﻞ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻣﻠﻤﻮس‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻼﺣﻖ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻨﻲ‬
‫‪suitable, appropriate‬‬ ‫ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﺘﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪ ،‬ﻣﺘﺘﺎﺑﻊ‬ ‫ﺑـ ‪involved,‬‬
‫‪successive‬‬ ‫‪relevant‬‬
‫ﻗﺎﺋﻢ‪،‬‬
‫ﻣﻮﺟﻮد‪ ،‬آﺎﺋﻦ‬

‫‪ .4‬ﺟﻤﻞ ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫آﻤﺎ ﻟﻮ آﺎن=‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺨﺘﻠﻒ‬ ‫ﻻ ﻣﺎﻧﻊ=‬ ‫)هﺬا( ﻣﻦ‬
‫آﺄﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺷﺄﻧﻪ )أن(‪،‬‬
‫ﻳﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫هﺎ هﻮ‬ ‫آﻮﻧﻪ= ﺑﻮﺻﻔﻪ‬ ‫ﻻ‪] ..‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻻ‪] ..‬ﻓﻘﻂ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻻ‪ ..‬إﻻ ‪،‬‬
‫‪as (acting as,‬‬ ‫وﺣﺴﺐ[ ﺑﻞ‬ ‫وﺣﺴﺐ[ وإﻧﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‪..‬إﻻ= ﻓﻘﻂ‬
‫‪taking the role‬‬ ‫‪only‬‬
‫)‪of‬‬
‫ﺗﻤﺪ ﻳﺪ اﻟﻌﻮن‪:‬‬ ‫وﺿﻊ ﻧﺼﺐ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺘﻌﻠﻖ ﺑـ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺗﻨﺸﺐ‪ ،‬ﺗﻨﺪﻟﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺄﺧﺬ ﺑﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫ﺗﺴﺎﻋﺪ ‪help,‬‬ ‫ﻋﻴﻨﻴﻪ‪ :‬اهﺘﻢ ﺑـ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﻳﺨﺺ‪،‬‬ ‫)ﺧﻼﻓﺎت‪،‬‬ ‫اﻻﻋﺘﺒﺎر – ﻻ‬
‫‪assist‬‬ ‫أﻋﻄﻰ أهﻤﻴﺔ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺴﺒﺔ ﻟـ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺣﺮب(‪ :‬ﺗﺒﺪأ‪-‬‬ ‫ﻳﻨﺴﻰ‬
‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔ ﻟـ‬ ‫‪concerning‬‬ ‫ﺗﺸﺘﻌﻞ‬
‫‪Arabic language and culture in the media – Hussein Maxos© 1996-2001‬‬

‫ﻻ ﻳﻜﺎد‪ ..‬ﺣﺘﻰ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ… ﻓﺤﺴﺐ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺴﺖ ﺑﻌﻴﺪة‪:‬‬ ‫ﻳﺘﻴﺢ اﻟﻔﺮﺻﺔ – أﺿﻒ إﻟﻰ ذﻟﻚ‬
‫‪soon after..then‬‬ ‫ﺑﻞ‪not only..it :‬‬ ‫ﻗﺮﻳﺒﺔ ‪near,‬‬ ‫ﻳﻔﺴﺢ اﻟﻤﺠﺎل ‪In addition‬‬
‫‪is..‬‬ ‫‪close‬‬ ‫‪–give a chance,‬‬
‫‪create the‬‬
‫‪opportunity‬‬

‫‪ .5‬ﻋﺒﺎرات ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﻗﺪر اﻹﻣﻜﺎن‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫اﻟﻮاﺣﺪ )أﺣﺪهﺎ(‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻣﻦ‬ ‫أﺣﻮج ﻣﺎ ﻳﻜﻮن‬
‫ﺗﻠﻮ اﻵﺧﺮ‬ ‫اﻷﺷﻜﺎل‪،‬‬ ‫إﻟﻰ ‪badly in‬‬
‫ﺑﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ أو‬ ‫‪need to‬‬
‫ﺑﺄﺧﺮى ‪by one‬‬
‫‪way or another‬‬
‫أﺑﺮم اﺗﻔﺎق‪sign :‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎء ﺑﺎﻟﻔﺸﻞ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻬﻤﺎ آﺎن ‪no‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﺎل‪ :‬إذا ‪in‬‬ ‫اآﺒﺮ ﻗﺪر ﻣﻤﻜﻦ‬
‫‪an agreement‬‬ ‫ﻓﺸﻞ‬ ‫‪matter what‬‬ ‫‪case, if‬‬ ‫‪as much as‬‬
‫‪possible‬‬
‫وﻷﻧﻪ‪...‬ﻓﺈﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﻏﻴﺮ ﻣﺴﺒﻮق‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺬا اﻟﺼﺪد‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫أآﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ أي‬
‫ﻷول ﻣﺮة‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺬا اﻟﻤﺠﺎل ‪-‬‬ ‫اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‪ :‬ﻓﻲ‬ ‫وﻗﺖ ﻣﻀﻰ‪:‬‬
‫‪unprecedented‬‬ ‫ﺑﻬﺬﻩ اﻟﻘﻀﻴﺔ‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ اﻟﺤﻴﻦ‪،‬‬ ‫أآﺜﺮ ﻣﻦ ﻗﺒﻞ‬
‫ﻓﻲ هﺬﻩ‪ -‬ﺗﻠﻚ‬ ‫‪more than‬‬
‫اﻷﺛﻨﺎء‬ ‫‪ever before‬‬

‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻨﺘﻈﺮ أن‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﺣﺪ ﺳﻮاء‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻔﺮوض‪،‬‬ ‫ﺑﻼ ﻃﺎﺋﻞ‪ :‬ﺑﻼ‬ ‫ﺑﻐﺾ اﻟﻨﻈﺮ‬
‫‪It is expected to‬‬ ‫‪equally‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻔﺘﺮض‬ ‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪ -‬ﺑﺪون‬ ‫ﻋﻦ‪ :‬ﺑﺼﺮف‬
‫‪Supposedly‬‬ ‫هﺪف‬ ‫‪irrespective of‬‬
‫‪In vain‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ ﻗِﺒﻞ ‪by‬‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ‪ ..‬وإﻧﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ‪ /‬ﻓﻴﻪ‬ ‫ﻟﻴﺲ إﻟّﺎ‪ :‬ﻓﻘﻂ‬ ‫ﺳﻮاء‪...‬أو =‬
‫‪including‬‬ ‫‪merely, just,‬‬ ‫أ‪...‬أم= ﺳﻮاء‬
‫‪only‬‬ ‫أ‪...‬أم‪either..or :‬‬
‫أﻳﺎً آﺎن‪ :‬آﺎﺋﻨﺎً‬ ‫ﻋﻤّﺎ‪ :‬ﻋﻦ‪+‬ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﺑﻘﺪر ﻣﺎ‪ ..‬ﺑﻘﺪر‬ ‫اﻷﻣﺮ اﻟﺬي‪:‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﻜﺲ هﻮ‬
‫ﻣﻦ آﺎن ‪no‬‬ ‫‪about what‬‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ‪the more..‬‬ ‫اﻟﺸﻲ اﻟﺬي‬ ‫اﻟﺼﺤﻴﺢ ‪on the‬‬
‫‪matter who‬‬ ‫‪the more‬‬ ‫‪contrary‬‬

‫ﻣﺎ ﺣﺪا ﺑـ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ‬ ‫اﻧﺪرج ﻓﻲ إﻃﺎر‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﺌﻦ‪ ،‬إذا‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻘﺎﺑﻞ‪،‬‬
‫ﺟﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﻣﺎ دﻓﻊ‬ ‫ﻳﺼﺐ ﻓﻲ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺔ‪/‬ﺟﻬﺔ‬
‫أﺧﺮى‪on the :‬‬
‫‪other hand‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﺠﺪﻳﺮ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﻓﻤﺎ أن…ﺣﺘﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻜﺎن آﻠﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ ﻣﺘﻨﺎول‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﺎﻟﺬآﺮ أن‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺒﺪأ‪ :‬ﺑﺸﻜﻞ‬ ‫‪Soon after,‬‬ ‫ﻣﺘﻮﻓﺮ ‪available,‬‬
‫‪It is worth‬‬ ‫ﻋﺎم‬ ‫‪immediately‬‬ ‫‪accessible‬‬
‫‪mentioning that‬‬ ‫‪In principle‬‬ ‫‪after‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ اﻟﻤﻘﺮر أن‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻦ أﺑﺮزهﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻓﻀﻼ ﻋﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎدئ ذي ﺑﺪء‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻊ ذﻟﻚ – رﻏﻢ‬
‫‪It is scheduled‬‬ ‫أهﻤﻬﺎ ‪one of‬‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻹﺿﺎﻓﺔ إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﺒﺪاﻳﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ذﻟﻚ ‪although,‬‬
‫‪to‬‬ ‫‪the most‬‬ ‫‪In addition to‬‬ ‫ﻗﺒﻞ أي ﺷﻲء‬ ‫‪despite that‬‬
‫‪important‬‬ ‫‪first of all‬‬

‫ﺣﻤﻠﺔ ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫اﻟﺤﺪ اﻷدﻧﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل‪ ،‬ﻋﻦ‬ ‫وﺟّﻪ رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‪:‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻷﻗﻞ‪) the :‬ﺿﺪ(‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‪ ،‬ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫ﻃﺮﻳﻖ‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺮ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺚ رﺳﺎﻟﺔ‬
‫‪Arabic language and culture in the media – Hussein Maxos© 1996-2001‬‬

‫‪minimum, at‬‬ ‫‪meanwhile‬‬ ‫‪through, via, by‬‬


‫‪least‬‬
‫رأب اﻟﺼﺪع‪،‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ ﻗﺪر ﻣﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫وﻣﻦ ﺛﻢ‪ ،‬ﺑﻌﺪﺋﺬٍ‪ :‬ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﻔﺲ‬ ‫ﻳﻨﻈﺮ ﺑﻌﻴﻦ‬
‫اﺻﻼح اﻟﻀﺮر‪،‬‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﻩ ﻗﺪر‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻨﻮال‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﻔﺲ‬ ‫)اﻟﻘﻠﻖ‪-‬اﻟﺸﻚّ(‪and then :‬‬
‫ﺣﻞ اﻟﻤﺸﻜﻠﺔ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻘﻮل ﻣﻦ‬ ‫اﻟﻄﺮﻳﻘﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻳﻘﻠﻖ‪/‬ﻳﺸﻚّ‬
‫‪repair the‬‬
‫‪damage‬‬
‫ﺣﺬا ﺣﺬوﻩ ‪to‬‬ ‫اﻟﻰ اﻟﻌﻠﻦ=‬ ‫أﺳﺪل اﻟﺴﺘﺎر‬ ‫ﺑﺂن واﺣﺪ‪-‬‬
‫‪model-pattern‬‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ اﻟﻤﻸ=‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‪ ،‬اﻧﺘﻬﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻨﻔﺲ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫‪after‬‬ ‫ﺑﺸﻜﻞ ﻋﻠﻨﻲ=‬ ‫)ﻣﺆﺗﻤﺮ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ رؤوس‬ ‫ﻣﻬﺮﺟﺎن‪(..‬‬
‫اﻷﺷﻬﺎد‬
‫‪publicly‬‬

‫‪ .6‬آﻠﻤﺎت ﺧﺎﺻﺔ‬
‫ﻓﻲ ﺣﻴﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﻊ أن‪ :‬ﺑﺮﻏﻢ أن‪-‬‬ ‫‪versus‬‬ ‫إزاء – ﺗﺠﺎﻩ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﺘﺎﻟﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫إﺑﺎن‪ :‬أﺛﻨﺎء‪ ،‬ﺧﻼل‪:‬‬
‫ﺑﻴﻨﻤﺎ‬ ‫رﻏﻢ ذﻟﻚ‬ ‫ﺑﺎﻟﻨﺘﻴﺠﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫‪during‬‬
‫ﻓﻲ اﻟﻨﻬﺎﻳﺔ‬
‫‪subsequentl‬‬
‫‪y, finally, as‬‬
‫‪result,‬‬
‫‪consequentl‬‬
‫‪y‬‬
‫اﻧﻄﻼﻗًﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﻈﺮاً ﻟـ‪/‬اﻟﻰ‪،‬‬ ‫أﻳّﺎً آﺎن‪ ،‬آﺎﺋﻨﺎً ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺷﻲء ﻣﺎ‪،‬‬ ‫إذ – إذ أﻧﻪ‬
‫ﻣﻦ‪ ،‬ﺑﻨﺎءً‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‪ ،‬ﻷن‬ ‫آﺎن‪ ،‬أي ﺷﺨﺺ‬ ‫ﺷﺨﺺ ﻣﺎ‪،‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‪:‬‬ ‫آﺎن‬ ‫ﻣﻜﺎن ﻣﺎ‪،‬‬
‫‪based on‬‬
‫ﺑﺼﺪد‪:‬‬ ‫ﻧﻈﻴﺮ – ﻣﻘﺎﺑﻞ ‪in‬‬ ‫أﻧﺒﺎء – أﺧﺒﺎر‬ ‫ﺛﻤﺔ‪ :‬هﻨﺎك‪،‬‬ ‫أﻣﺎ‪..‬ﻓـ ‪concerning‬‬
‫ﺑﺸﺄن‬ ‫‪exchange/return‬‬ ‫هﻨﺎﻟﻚ‪،‬‬
‫‪concerning‬‬ ‫‪to/for‬‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺾ ‪some,‬‬
‫‪there’s‬‬

‫ﻓﺘﺮة‪ ،‬ﻣﺪة‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺧﻼل‪ ،‬ﻋﺒﺮ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻣﺤﺎﻓﻞ=أوﺳﺎط=دو‬ ‫إﻟﻰ أن‪:‬‬ ‫ﺑﺤﻴﺚ ‪in which‬‬
‫‪through, by‬‬ ‫اﺋﺮ‬ ‫ﺣﺘﻰ ‪until‬‬
‫وﻓﻖ‪ -‬وﻓﻘﺎً‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺣﻴﺚ‬ ‫ﺑﻴﺪ أنّ= ﻟﻜﻦ‪ ،‬إﻻ‬ ‫ﻻﺳﻴّﻤﺎ=‬ ‫ﺑﻐﻴﺔ‪ -‬ﺑﻬﺪف‬
‫ﻟـ =ﻃﺒﻘﺎً‬ ‫أنّ‪ ،‬ﻏﻴﺮ أنّ‪،‬‬ ‫ﺧﺎﺻﺔً=‬
‫ﻟـ=ﺗﺒﻌﺎً ﻟـ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺳﻴّﻤﺎ‬
‫‪according‬‬
‫‪to‬‬
‫ﺗﻔﺎﻗﻢ‪،‬‬ ‫ﻟﻮ ﻻ‪ -‬ﻟﻮﻻ أنّ‬ ‫ﺑﻤﺎ ﻓﻴﻪ‪ ،‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﺑﻔﻌﻞ‪ ،‬ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫ﺻﺎر‬ ‫ﺿﻤﻨﻪ‪including :‬‬ ‫ﻧﻘﻴﺾ‪-‬‬
‫أﺳﻮأ‪/‬أﺧﻄ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﻜﺲ‬
‫ر‪:‬‬
‫‪escalate‬‬
‫ذاﺗﻪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺗﻜﺘﻞ=آﺘﻠﺔ=ﺗﺤﺎﻟ‬ ‫آﺎن ﺳـ )ﻳﺆدي‬ ‫ﻟﻠﺤﻴﻠﻮﻟﺔ‬ ‫ﺗﺪاﻋﻴﺎت=ﻧﺘﺎﺋﺞ=ﺁ‬
‫ﻧﻔﺴﻪ‬ ‫ف‪alliance :‬‬ ‫اﻟﻰ(‬ ‫دون‪ -‬ﻟﻤﻨﻊ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺛﺎر‪effects, :‬‬
‫ﻟﺘﺠﻨﺐ‪in :‬‬ ‫‪consequences‬‬
‫‪order to‬‬
‫‪avoid/preven‬‬
‫‪t‬‬
‫‪Arabic language and culture in the media – Hussein Maxos© 1996-2001‬‬

‫ﻣﻤﻦ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﺪى‪ :‬ﻋﻨﺪ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻋﻠﻴﻚ أن‪:‬‬ ‫ﺳﺮﻋﺎن ﻣﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺣﻴﺚ‪ :‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﻤﻜﺎن‬
‫ﻣﻦ‪ +‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫‪You have to‬‬ ‫ﺑﺴﺮﻋﺔ‬ ‫اﻟﺬي‪ ،‬ﻓﻲ اﻟﻮﻗﺖ‬
‫‪Soon‬‬ ‫اﻟﺬي ‪where, when‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ أن‪:‬‬ ‫ﻓﻲ إﻃﺎر‪ :‬ﺿﻤﻦ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﺪل‪ :‬ﻧﺴﺒﺔ‪،‬‬ ‫إﻻ أنّ‪ -‬ﺑﻴﺪ‬ ‫ﻣﺎ ﻟﻢ‪ :‬إﻻ إذا‬
‫ﺑﺸﺮط‪،‬‬ ‫درﺟﺔ‪ ،‬ﻣﺴﺘﻮى‬ ‫أنّ‪ :‬ﻟﻜﻦ ‪but‬‬ ‫‪unless‬‬
‫ﺷﺮﻳﻄﺔ‬
‫‪provided,‬‬
‫‪if, on the‬‬
‫‪condition‬‬
‫ﻣﻤﺎ‪:‬‬ ‫اﻟّﺎ‪ :‬أن‪+‬ﻻ‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﺟﺎﻧﺒﻬﺎ‪ :‬ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﺑﺪﻳﻬﻲ‪:‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﻌﻤﻮرة‪ :‬اﻷرض‪-‬‬
‫ﻣﻦ‪+‬ﻣﺎ‬ ‫ﻧﺎﺣﻴﺘﻬﺎ – ﻣﻦ‬ ‫ﻃﺒﻴﻌﻲ‪،‬‬ ‫اﻟﻌﺎﻟﻢ‬
‫ﺟﻬﺘﻬﺎ‪from their :‬‬ ‫ﻣﻨﻄﻘﻲ‬
‫‪part‬‬

‫ﻧﺘﻴﺠﺔ )ﻟـ(‪ ،‬ﺑﺤﻜﻢ‪ ،‬ﺟﻬﺔ‬ ‫ﻣﻌﻈﻢ‪ ،‬أآﺜﺮ‪ ،‬أﻏﻠﺐ‬ ‫أﻻ‪...‬؟‬ ‫ﻣﻦ ﻏﻴﺮ‪ :‬ﺑﺪون‬
‫ﺑﺴﺒﺐ‪ ،‬ﻧﻈﺮا ًﻟـ‬ ‫‪most of‬‬
‫ﻋﻠﻰ‬ ‫ﻻﺑﺪ ﻣﻦ )أن(‪:‬‬ ‫اﻟﻤﺼﺎب ﺑـ‪:‬‬ ‫و ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻜﺲ‪:‬‬ ‫ﻟﺬا‪ -‬ﻟﺬﻟﻚ‪ -‬وﻟﻬﺬا‪:‬‬
‫ﻏﺮار‪ :‬ﻣﺜﻞ‬ ‫ﻳﺠﺐ أن ‪must,‬‬ ‫‪inflicted/suffering‬‬ ‫‪and vice‬‬ ‫ﻟﻬﺬا اﻟﺴﺒﺐ‬
‫‪should‬‬ ‫‪from‬‬ ‫‪versa‬‬ ‫‪therefore‬‬

‫ﺣﺘﻰ أﻧﻪ‪ :‬إﻟﻰ‬ ‫ﻓﻴﻤﺎ ﺑﻌﺪ‪:‬‬ ‫ﺁﻧﺬاك‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﻨﺬاك‪،‬‬


‫درﺟﺔ أﻧﻪ‬ ‫ﺑﻌﺪﺋﺬٍ‬ ‫ﻋﻨﺪﺋﺬٍ‪ ،‬ﺣﻴﻨﺌﺬٍ‪،‬‬
‫ﺁﻧﺌﺬٍ‪ ،‬ﻋﻨﺪهﺎ‬