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SUBMITTED BYVIJAY PRATAP SINGH ROLL NO: - 15509V082056 CENTRE FOR AGRI-MANAGEMENT UTKAL UNIVERSITY BHUBANESWAR-751004
A REPORT ON MARKET SURVEY OF BRAND AWARENESS AND IMPACT OF PROMOTION STRATEGY FOR MICRONUTRIENT PRODUCTS IN BIHAR
SUBMITTED BY: VIJAY PRATAP SINGH ROLL NO: - 15509V082056 CENTRE FOR AGRI-MANAGEMENT UTKAL UNIVERSITY
A report partial fulfillment of MBA Programme of Management.
submitted in of the requirement (Agribusiness) Centre for Agri-
CENTRE FOR AGRI- MANAGEMENT DEPARTMENT OF BUSINESS MANAGEMENT UTKAL UNIVERSITY BHUBANESWAR-751004 .
This is to declare that I am Vijay Pratap Singh the student of post graduate programme in MBA (Agri –Business) Utkal University, Vani vihar, Bhubaneswar has given original data & information to the best of my knowledge project report entitled “” in three district of Bihar & that no part of this information has been used for any assignment but for the partial fulfillment of the requirements towards the completion of the said course.
Date: Place: 15509V082056
CENTRE FOR AGRI-MANAGEMENT DEPT. OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION VANIVIHAR, BHUBANESWAR
VIJAY PRATAP SINGH ROLL NO: -
MBA (Agri-Business) Center for Agri-Management Department of business Administration Utkal University, Vanivihar, Bhubaneswar
This is that the project entitled “Market Survey of Brand Awareness and Impact of Promotion Strategy for Micronutrient Products in BIHAR” is a bonafied work done by Vijay Pratap Singh under our guidance and supervision and it embodies the result of their original contribution. The project has been submitted for the partial fulfillment of “Post Graduate degree in MBA (Agri-business) 2008-10, Utkal University, Vanivihar.” No part of this project has been submitted elsewhere either in part or full for any other degree or diploma.
I wish him all success in
DR. B. BHUYAN ACADEMIC HEAD CENTRE FOR AGRI- MANAGEMENT
“No good work flows without the help from Faculty Members Industrial Professionals, Colleagues, Organization and Friends”
I would like to extend my deepest gratitude to PARADEEP PHOSPHATE LTD. for giving me the opportunity to work as a summer trainee in their organization. I got the opportunity to understand their business and have an enriching experience and learning. I would like to express our sincere gratitude to Honorable General Manager PPL (Bhubaneswar), Sri Pitabas Routray, Honorable Marketing Manager, Mr. Jay Jagannath Pattanaik and our respected guides Mr., Shailesh Singh (RM, Bihar), Mr. Subhashish Biswas (Area Manager, Katihar), Mr. Rajeev Singh (Area Manager, Muzaffarpur), Mr. Amit Jain (Area Manager, Supaul). Next I would like to express our sincere thanks to “Dr. B. Bhuyan” Academic head of MBA (Agri-Business) for his support, guidance and help. I would like to express our sincere thankful to our project coordinator Mr. Manoj Bal. We also thankful to our faculty members “Mr. Deepak Ram, Mr. Sukant Samal and Miss. Mamta Biswal” for their
valuable cooperation and guidance. I would also like to thank all the staffs of centre for AgriManagement, Utkal University (Bhubaneswar). I bow downs our heads with deep devotion to the supreme Load, our parents & our family members & our friends who have given us this spiritual inspiration for completing this project work successful. Last but not the least we owe our project to the farmers, without whose co-operation and help, I would not have completed this project.
VIJAY PRATAP SINGH ROLL NO: - 15509V082056
TABLE OF CONTENTS
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
PARTICULARS DECLARATION CERTIFICATE ACKNOWLEDGEMENT TABLE OF ILLUSTRATION EXECUTIVE SUMMARY COMPANY PROFILE RESEARCH OBJECTIVE RESEARCH METHODOLOGY DEMOGRAPHIC PROFILE OF VILLAGE VILLAGE LIST FARMERS PROFILE COMMUNICATION
PAGE No 3 4 5 7 8 10 12 12 14 17 18 22
BRAND BEHAVIOUR BRAND DISPOSITION BRAND IMAGERY MICRONUTRIENTS ATTITUDE RECORD SUGGESTION CONCLUSION BIBLIOGRAPHY ANNEXURE-1
24 26 27 29 34 34 35 36 37 38
TABLE OF ILLUSTRATIONS
S.No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21
PAGE No 17 18 18 19 20 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 34 9
VILLAGE LIST FAREMR’S AGE PROFILE FARMER’S EDUCATION PROFILE FARMER’S HOUSE TYPE TYPE OF FARMERS IRRIGATION CROPS GROWN COMMUNICATION AWARENESS OF PPL BRAND AWARENESS LAST TIME BOUGHT FOR DAP, MOP, NPK, AND COMPLEX FERTILIZERS LAST TIME BOUGHT FOR UREA BRAND DISPOSITION BRAND IMAGERY CORPORATE IMAGE MICRONUTRIENT AWARENESS IN KATIHAR DISTRICT MICRONUTRIENT AWARENESS IN SUPAUL DISTRICT MICRONUTRIENT AWARENESS IN MUZAFFARPUR DISTRICT LAST USERS OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN THREE DISTRICTS MICRONUTRIENT USED IN CROPS ATTITUDE RECORD
Our project namely, “A STUDY ON MARKET SURVEY OF BRAND AWARENESS AND IMPACT OF PROMOTION STRATEGIES FOR MICRO NUTRIENT PRODUCTS IN BIHAR” was carried out in the selected villages of KATIHAR, SUPAUL, AND MUZAFFARPUR districts of BIHAR state. We had a very ice experience while interacting with the farmers of this region. Our main objective was to reach the target farmers and to investigate the depth of knowledge about fertilizers and micronutrients. At the initial stages we faced many difficulties while collecting desired data from the farmers. Farmers interrogated us about various things regarding our purpose of visit, our identity, which company we are from, and the benefit they will get from the survey. We assured them that we are the student of M.B.A and doing this as a part of our course. We interviewed 421 farmers, 184 from KATIHAR, 118 from SUPAUL, 119 from MUZAFFARPUR. Our key findings are as following after analyzing data. Hoardings, Poster and wall painting are most effective communication medium in BIHAR state. 60% people saw hoardings, poster, and wall paintings in three districts. Very low effective communication medium is audio visual. Some of the farmers saw the audio visual only in farmers meeting. Farmers have so many complain like we are the small farmer we did not get invitation for the meetings. People have also said they do not have that much time to attend any meeting. So very few no of farmers only saw audio visual in three districts where only 2.4% of people saw audio visual in KATIHAR district but in SUPAUL AND MUZAFFARPUR DISTRICT not a single farmer had seen the audio visual of Navratna or any other fertilizers brand. Villages are far away from the main road, and companies’ jeep campaigns only went through the main road or in the markets, that’s why people can’t remember those. In Katihar and Supaul district those farmers who had seen jeep campaigns were unable to say about the campaign was of which brand, but in Muzaffarpur district the second highest percentage of the communication medium is jeep campaign. About 30% farmers had seen the jeep campaign of Navratna phospho-gypsum. Press also not a good and effective communication medium due to low literacy rate. In case of awareness about fertilizer brand highest number of farmers can remember NAVRATNA, PARAS, and IFFCO spontaneously. In aided awareness farmers can remember what ever fertilizer available in local market. In three district farmers does not have any brand loyalty due to unavailability of fertilizer in right time. And high price of leading fertilizer brand in pick season also a reason behind it.
Large numbers of the farmers are small and marginal farmer in three districts so they can’t buy fertilizer whatever they preferred at high price. Farmer’s perceptions about micronutrients are not so good. People think that micronutrient is not so much effective to increase yield. Large no of people only use zinc followed by sulphur and boron. In three districts main crops are paddy, wheat, maize, banana, vegetables, litchi, and potato. In those crops people only use zinc, sulphur and boron. About phospho gypsum most of the farmer are using. They have used it as a micro nutrient. In Katihar and Supaul district phospho gypsum users are less in comparison to Muzaffarpur, because of the field demonstration and jeep campaign
RESEARCH OBJECTIVES AND METHODOLOGY
Objective of the study
As desired by company, research study of Market survey of brand awareness and impact of promotion strategy for micronutrient products were conducted in Bihar. In this study as exhaustive interview of farmers & Retailers from different villages of Bihar was done by using well structured questionnaires. The main objectives of market research are:1.
To know about brand awareness of Navratna. Consumer behavior with reference to brand of fertilizer. Findings of corporate image. Awareness and knowledge about micronutrients and its uses.
Research methodology is a way to systematically solve the research problem, formulating a hypothesis, collecting the facts or data, analyzing the fact and reaching certain conclusion either in the form of solutions towards the concerned problems. Thus methodology not only talks about the research methods but also consider the logic behind the method we use behind the context of our research study.
Defining the research problem
Review about the concept of project
Collection of data through structured questionnaire
Analysis of data
Interpretation and report writing
The analysis is an output of primary data which is collected from a structured questionnaire .That was being filled up from PPL considered villages with randomly selected responded through depth interview.
Sample design is definite plan for obtaining a sample from a given population. Sample design is determine before data are collected .We has collected a data from a farmer population and sampling units were selected under certain criteria. The criteria is Eligible respondents • SEC R1/ R2/ R3/ R4 • MALE • 18-70 years • The respondents should not be related to○ Advertising agency ○ Public relation ○ Agri in puts ○ Journalism ○ Market research agency ○ Company manufacturing or selling any agriculture Product And the individuals who are not surveyed within six months
We have collected data from farmer population and the sampling units were selected villages of different blocks. Our sample size was 420 respondents from which 140 were from Katihar district, 140 were from Supaul and 140 were from Muzaffarpur district of Bihar. The parameters of interest were well structured questionnaire. Quantitative survey was carried out in a random manner by taking the interview of farmers. Approximately 30mnts was devoted to each farmer for the interview.
Paradeep Phosphate Limited (PPL) incorporated in 1981 was initially a joint venture between the Government of India and the Republic of Nauru and subsequently changed into a wholly owned GOVT of India Enterprise. After disinvestment by the GOVT. OF INDIA February, 2002, the management of the company is with the fertilizer majors Zuari -Chambal Groups & OCP of Morocco. PPL is a prime player in the phosphoric fertilizers which have application in a wide range of crops. PPL, with a stellar turnaround, is a case study in favor of privatization. The Company’s focus on performance and continuous efforts towards development are reflected in the FAI Awards for improvement in overall performance of the Company and the best Technical innovation in the year 2005-2006. PPL received the ISO 14001:2004 certification in May 2006 for good environment management systems, thus implying that along with technical advancement the Company also values maintaining and working towards a clean and safe environment. VISION Our vision is to be a major fertilizer company of India capable of meeting the challenges of free market economy. MISSION Our mission is to become more profitable, debt free in 5 years and be ready for the free ‘market’ scenario, by optimizing or enhancing capabilities, reducing costs, focused
marketing, financial restructuring and improved productivity. We will be committed to our core values, be good cooperated citizens & develop a workforce of committed employees who would take initiative and contribute to our goals. CORE VALUES • • • • FOCUS PPL’s wide ranges of specially formulated fertilizers are marketed under the brand name ‘NAVRATNA’ which cater to almost all types of crops .The products are well established and are sold through private and institutional channels throughout the country. Aggressive marking initiatives have been undertaken to increases market share of these specially formulated fertilizers throughout the marketing territory. Honesty and integrity Excellence Discipline and Hard work Caring for the people
The company is deeply committed to the development and welfare of the farming community .It has undertaken rural upliftment programmes in selected districts where fertilizers consumption is very low. Soil sample collection , analysis and recommendation of balanced fertilizer to the farmers are the main agenda for education to the farmers on packages on soil health and balanced fertilizers .Field demonstration on packages on packages of practices for effective utilization on agro inputs like seeds fertilizers, pesticides timely irrigation are carried out throughout its marketing territory. Crop seminar , farmers meeting , distribution of crops and product literature, publicity van campaign, retailers, meet and training to farmers are also carried out by qualified staff in marketing area. PRODUCTS PPL manufactures and markets various grades of fertilizers. These fertilizers are marketed under the brand name – “NAVRATNA”. Major products of PPL is DAP which contains 2% ‘extra sulphur’ while NPK 20:20:0:13 contains 13% “extra sulphur”. This sulphur is very beneficial to the crop in various ways and is a valuable input to the crop, particularly in the context of chronic deficiency of sulphur in Indian soil. Apart from the major nutrients – Navratna DAP also contains specially micronutrients viz. Zinc, iron, copper, and, Magnesium & Manganese which are essential for crops in myriad ways.
While DAP, NPK (10:26:26 ) , NPK (12:32:16), NP(20:20:0:13) are suitable for all type of crop , NPK-(10:26:26) is particularly suitable for potato , cotton, and sugarcane in states like Westbengal , Maharashtra, Andhrapradesh and Orissa and NPK- (12:32:16) suitable for soybean and sugarcane in other states . NPK-(20:20:0:13) on the other hand is particularly suited for vegetable and oil seeds, due to its high sulphur content. All the fertilizers produced by PPL strictly adhere to specification as per the fertilizers control order. All the products are packed in 50 kg.HDPE/PP laminated bags.
Product Manufactured by PPL:
Di-Ammonium Phosphate, -20:20:0:13
NPK – 12:32:16,
Demography of Katihar
Katihar is a well known town of India. This is the headquarters of the Katihar district and a super market of Bihar state. Katihar is north-east corner of Bihar. This is border of Bihar and West Bengal. Katihar is a part of Purnea division and has total area of 3057 square km. Katihar district have number of villages having good productivity of crops. Katihar has a modern railway station with facilities are available for tourists. Katihar has a major railway station under the North-East Railway. Katihar Junction is a fine line junction. The 1st line goes to Barauni, the 2nd line to Kolkata, the 3rd line to Jogbani (Nepal border), the 4th line to Guwahati, and the 5th line to Manihari.
According to 2001 census, Population of Katihar is 18, 25,380 in which rural population is 16, 53,761 and urban population is 1, 71,619. Males constitute 53% of the population and females 47%. Katihar has literacy rate of 63%, higher than the national average of 59.5%. Male literacy is 70%, and female literacy is 55%. Katihar district has three subdivision namely Katihar sadar, Barsoi and Manihari. District Headquarters: Katihar Blocks: Katihar have total fifteen blocks namely Katihar, Barsoi, Kadwa, Amdabad, Manihari, Balrampur, Korha, Falka, Barari, Pranpur, Mansahi, Samaeli, Kursaila, Hasanganj and Dandkhore. Ganga, koshi and Mahananda River are crosses through Katihar district .The topography of the Katihar district has been very much affected by the flood of river Ganges, Mahananda, and Koshi. The district has alluvial soil and due to deposit of sand-slit by the river and soil in southern and western part has become sandy. Main crops grown in this region are paddy, Makhana, Wheat, Maize, Banana, Pulses, Jute and Vegetables.
Demography of Supaul
Supaul is the District of Bihar. Supaul is a city and a municipality in Supaul district in the Indian state of Bihar. The Supaul district occupies an area of 2410 km² and has a population of 1,745,069 (as of 2001). Not far from this place is the Indian border connecting Nepal. The Supaul Town is the administrative headquarters of this district. The district is a part of Koshi division. Agriculture is the major occupation in the region and the main crop which is grown here is paddy. District Headquarters: Supaul
Block: Total 11 blocks are Supaul, Pipra, Kisanpur, Tribeniganj, Chhatapur, Raghopur, and Basantpur. Gamharia, Mahaddipur, Pratapganj, Dagmara Supaul District was created from Saharsa district in 1991. Earlier, Supaul was a subdivision. . It is famous for agriculture. This district is sometimes affected by flood by river of koshi.
River Koshi flows through Supaul. After the construction of Koshi Dam the flood situation has improved in Supaul. This year though (2008) the river Koshi changed its course and took the route it used to take 200 years ago. As a result major parts of Supaul districts were flooded.
Demography of Muzaffarpur
Muzaffarpur district of Bihar is spread over an area of 3172 sq. kms. The district is bounded on the north by East Champaran and Sitamarhi districts, on the south by the district of Vaishali, on the east by the districts of Darbhanga and Samastipur (part) and on the west by Saran and part of Gopalganj districts. The district headquarters is located at Muzaffarpur. The district has well developed means of communication. It has a network of railways and well-maintained roads. The district has a population of 3.15 million (2001census). Overall, there were 906 females per 1000 males. Rural population in the district is 90.7% and urban population is 9.3%. The density of the population was 929 per sq. kms. Hindi is the main language spoken in the district.
District Headquarters: Muzaffarpur Muzaffarpur sub-divisions – East Muzaffarpur and West Muzaffarpur Blocks : Total 14 community development blocks are Sahebganj, Motipur, Parod, Sariya, Kurhani, kanti, Minapur, Musahari, Bochaha, Aurai, Katra, Gaighatti, Dholi, Sakra . The Muzaffarpur district comprises of an extensive plain formed by the alluvium brought by the Gandak, the Bagmati and other rivers, which flow through it. The ground is not marked by any high contour and at many places there are chains of shallow marshes, which serve the purpose of drainage for excessive water due to rainfall and overflow of the
stream. The alluvial plain is a tract of great fertility. The soil of the district is largely alluvial. A special feature of the district is that due to continuous deposit of silt many of its riverbeds are higher than the adjoining areas. This leads to frequent floods during the rainy season particularly in northeast and southwest parts of the district The Gandak, Bagmati, Burhi Gandak and Baya are the important rivers besides a few streams. The Gandak and Bagmati have their origins in the mountains of Nepal. The Burhi Gandak is navigable during the greater part of the year. River Baya emanates from the Gandak is a little west of the Muzaffarpur district. It enters the district near Karnaul in Sahebganj block and flows in the southeasterly direction almost parallel to the parent river and ultimately joins the Ganga. Rice is the main crop of the district. It accounts for the major portion of the gross area sown. Maize is the next important crop for the district. Wheat is also grown in some parts of the district. Sugar cane, potato and banana are some of the non-cereal crops grown. The district is famous for mango and litchi, which are exported to other parts of the State.
KATIHAR Dighari MUZAFFARPUR Suriyahi SUPAUL Chauhatta
Chaumukhi Lohsari Sushta
Rajpur Belhi Mahipatti
Bheli Vikashnagar Tilashnagar Nijhara
Kanta Maithi Krishna nagar Dhebaha Jhapaha Dronpur Belahiyan Ratanpura Khemaipatti
Andauli Bhilahi Kharel Parsharma Nunupatti chauk Thumha Sukhpur Nirmali Katiya chouk Basaha Beloghara
A G E N A M E
Marangi Mansahi kewala Badibathna Narayanpur Chakri Narayanpur Rampur Dumariya Madhubani Kheriya Tinpenia Mahiyarpur Bisanpur
1. FARMERS PROFILE
1.1:-AGE:-Most of the farmers are belonging under the age group of 46-50.
Fig. 1.1:-Data source from the farmers
1.2:-EDUCATION PROFILE: - 28% of the farmers are formally literate.
Fig. 1.2:- Data source from farmers
1.3) HOUSE TYPE:In Muzaffarpur 34 % farmers are from R4. In Supaul 30% farmers are from R3 and R4.
In Katihar 32% farmers are from R4 category.
Fig. 1.3:-Data source from the farmers
1.4:- TYPE OF FARMERS: Most of the farmers are small farmers.
Fig. 1.4:-Data source from the farmers
Most of the farmers are using boring well for irrigation in all 3
Fig. 1.5:-Data source from the farmers
1.6) CROPS GROWN:
In Katihar, Farmers are mainly growing the paddy, banana, maize, wheat, and vegetables. In Supaul district, farmers are growing paddy, wheat, maize, and vegetables. In Muzaffarpur district, the main crops are paddy, wheat, maize, banana and litchi. The district is famous for mango and litchi, which are exported to other parts of the State.
Fig 1.6:-Data source from the farmers
2.1:- COMMUNICATION AWARENESS OF PPLFig. 2.1:-Data source from the farmers
About the PPL, most of the farmers are aware from the poster and wall painting in all 3 districts. In Katihar 118 respondents are aware from the poster/painting, In Supaul, 77 respondents are aware from the poster or painting and In Muzaffarpur, 93 respondents are aware from poster/painting. But in Muzaffarpur, jeep campaign is the play the important role, because most of the farmers are aware about the PPL from the jeep campaign. Through radio and press they can’t know about the company or fertilizer because of that all farmers
are not literate so they can’t read the news paper. In all three districts some farmers who don’t know about the name of PPL are less but they didn’t see of any promotional activities of PPL.
2.2:- BRAND AWARENESS Fig. 2.2:-Data source from the farmers
Most popular brand is TATA / PARAS. After that Navratna comes. In Katihar 165
respondents know TATA / PARAS, 148 respondents know NAVRATNA, 63 know IFFCO, 74 are know the IPL, 31 respondents are know the PPL, 21 respondents are know the PPL-PHOSPHO-GYPSUM and 80 respondent are know the other brand. In Supaul, 98 respondents know the TATA/PARAS, 93 respondents know the IPL, 86 respondents know NAVRATNA, and 43 know the IFFCO and 55 respondents are know the other brand. In Muzaffarpur, 113 respondents know the NAVRATNA, 93 respondents know the TATA/PARAS, 107 respondents know IFFCO, and 112 know the IPL and 43 respondents are know the other brand.
3: - BRAND BEHAVIOR
3.1:- LAST TIME BOUGHT FOR DAP, MOP, NPK, AND COMPLEX FERTILIZERS
Fig. 3.1:-Data source from the farmers
In complex fertilizer, farmers prefer NAVRATNA, TATA / PARAS, IPL, and others in all three districts:In Katihar district, about 42% of the farmers had bought Navratna brand, about 33% of the farmers had bought TATA/PARAS, and about 18% farmers bought IPL, 5% farmers bought other brand.
In Supaul district, about 36% of the farmers bought the Navratna brand, about 26% farmers bought the TATA/PARAS, and about 32% of the bought the IPL, 5% farmers bought the others brand.
In Muzaffarpur district, about 38% of the farmers bought Navratna brand, about 26% farmers bought the TATA/PARAS, and about 32% farmers bought IPL, 6% farmers bought other brand.
In all three district farmers bought only 1-2% of the total fertilizer.
3.2:- LAST TIME BOUGHT FOR UREA
Fig. 3.2:-Data source from the farmers
In straight fertilizer (urea), farmers prefer mostly IFFCO, SHAKTIMAN, KISAN, RAJA, and others brand in all three districts.
In Katihar district, 20% farmers bought IFFCO, 45% SHAKTIMAN, 25% KISAN,
and rest of 6% RAJA, 4% others brand. In Supaul district, 17% farmers bought IFFCO, 62% farmers bought SHAKTIMAN, 15% farmers bought KISAN, 2% farmers bought RAJA, and 4% farmers bought others brand. In Muzaffarpur district, 47% farmers bought IFFCO, 19% farmers bought SHAKTIMAN, 12% farmers bought KISAN, 13% farmers bought RAJA, and 9% farmers bought others brand.
4: - BRAND DISPOSITION
Fig.4:-Data source from the farmers
Navratna brand is the first preference of the most of the farmers. After that farmers give the second priority to the TATA/ PARAS. 82 farmers insist to the Navratna brand, 122 farmers insist to buy the TATA/PARAS brand, 58 farmers insist to buy the IFFCO. 186 farmers prefer the Navratna brand, 109 farmers prefer the TATA, and 92 farmers prefer the IFFCO, 66 farmers prefer the IPL, 108 farmers prefer the other brand. 118 farmers unaware about Gromor brand, 130 farmers unaware about Hindalco and Godavari.
5: - BRAND IMAGERY
Fig. 5.1:-Data source from the farmers
Most of the farmers are used the Navratna but when I asked that which one is complete reliable fertilizer then they can’t give the specific answer. Some farmers told that Navratna, some TATA, some others. In the ques. of pay extra premium they told Navratna, TATA, IPL, Others. In all ques. They all are told same answer but in comparison to others Navratna is the most popular in all the farmers and the give the preferences. Because in all sector like timely available, quality of granules, quality of bag, all mineral requirement are fulfill in the Navratna.
5.2:- CORPORATE IMAGE
Fig. 5.2:-Data source from the farmers
In all three districts, PPL arrange most of the activities like farmers meeting, training programs, demonstration, soil testing, and most important thing is timely availability. But in case of other companies they are lack in timely availability for that reason farmers are not getting the fertilizer at the time of sowing so they choose another brand of fertilizer. As you seen in the above chart in the meeting graph PPL is more than the others. In the advertising area TATA is more than PPL. But in availability area IPL is more than both fertilizer.
6.1:- MICRONUTRIENT AWARENESS IN KATIHAR DISTRICT
Fig. 6.1:-Data source from the farmers
In Katihar district, when we ask about micronutrient then top of mind recall of the farmer was zinc. In this district farmers are mostly use the zinc. About 121 farmers ever use the zinc. Farmers mostly use the sulphur, gypsum; some of the farmers use the phospho-gypsum. Only 24 farmers were ever using the ppl phospho-gypsum in the Katihar district.
6.2:- MICRONUTRIENTS AWARENESS IN SUPAUL DISTRICT
Fig. 6.2:-Data source from the farmers
In Supaul district, when we ask about micronutrients then top of mind recall of the 63 farmers was zinc. About 64 farmers have ever used the zinc. 34 farmers use the gypsum, 36 farmers ever use the sulphur, and 22 farmers have not given any answer. Only 22 farmers ever use PPL phospho-gypsum in this district.
6.3:- MICRONUTRIENT AWARENESS IN MUZAFFARPUR DISTRICT
Fig. 6.3:-Data source from the farmers In Muzaffarpur district, farmers are mostly aware from the zinc and sulfur micronutrients. About 94 farmers ever use zinc and 83 farmers ever use sulphur. And rests of the farmers are using gypsum, phospho-gypsum, mixture and other. In these micronutrients, 32 farmers are aware from the PPL phospho-gypsum and they are using this. The conclusion is that in all of three district farmers aware mostly about the zinc, sulphur, PPL phospho-gypsum.but in all of these micronutrients zinc comes first in the top of mind. In all three districts, total 78 farmers are aware from the PPL phospho-gypsum.
6.4:- LAST USERS OF MICRONUTRIENTS IN ALL THREE DISTRICTS
Fig. 6.4:-Data source from the farmers
Last time most of the farmers use the zinc, sulphur, PPL phospho-gypsum, phospho-gypsum and others micronutrient. But all of these zinc and sulphur micronutrients are using by large no. of the farmers. About 180 farmers are using zinc in all three districts and about 110 farmers are using sulphur in all three districts, rests of the farmers are using other micronutrient. In all of these about 35 farmers are using PPL phospho- gypsum in last time.
6.5:- MICRONUTRIENT USED IN CROPS
Fig. 7:-Data source from the farmers
In Katihar district, 112 farmers use micronutrient in the paddy crop, 52 in banana, 68 in wheat, 112 in maize, 44 in vegetables, 26 in chilli, and 48 in other. In Supaul district, 84 farmers use micronutrient in the paddy crop, 96 farmers use in wheat, 87 in maize, 72 in vegetables, 23 in chilli, and 36 in other crops. In Muzaffarpur district, 93 farmers are using micronutrient in the paddy crop, 33 farmers are using micronutrients in banana, 72 farmers use in wheat, 95 farmers use in maize, 36 in vegetables, 20 in others crop. In conclusion, most of the farmers are applying micronutrients in paddy, maize and wheat.
7: - ATTITUDE
Fig. 7:-Data source from the farmers 28
At the last we know that what is the attitude of the farmers about the company PPL? They are satisfied with the product and their response. Most of the farmers are satisfied but some are not satisfied with the company and their products.
8: - RECORD
Fig. 8:-Data source from the farmers In both districts, the farmers used the PPL in the last time but they are using less in ppl phosphogypsum.
1. Hoardings, Poster and wall painting are most effective communication medium in
BIHAR state. 60% people saw hoardings, poster, and wall paintings in three districts. 2. Very low effective communication medium is audio visual. Some of the farmers saw the audio visual only in farmers meeting. 3. Farmers do not read newspaper or magazine, due to illiteracy and low economy status.
4. Stimulus like “Pariwala Khad”, “Zada Dam Keemat Kam (PPL Phospho-gypsum)” and
“Navratna Samachar” is not so much effective. 5. Farmers have so many complain like we are the small farmer we did not get invitation for the meetings. People have also said they do not have that much time to attend any meeting. 6. Villages are far away from the main road. Jeep campaign only goes through the main road, so most of the farmers can’t recall it. 7. In Katihar and Supaul district those farmers who had seen jeep campaigns were unable to say about the campaign was of which brand, but in Muzaffarpur district the second highest percentage of the communication medium is jeep campaign. About 30% farmers had seen the jeep campaign of Navratna phospho-gypsum. 8. Product availability is the first priority given by farmers while purchasing fertilizer.
9. Awareness of Paras is the highest followed by NAVRATNA, IFFCO and SHAKTIMAN. 10. In case of awareness about fertilizer brand highest number of farmers can remember
NAVRATNA, PARAS, and IFFCO spontaneously. In aided awareness farmers can remember what ever fertilizer available in local market.
11. In three district farmers does not have any brand loyalty due to unavailability of fertilizer in right time. And high price of leading fertilizer brand in pick season also a reason behind it. 12. Large numbers of the farmers are small and marginal farmer in three districts so they can’t buy fertilizer whatever they preferred at high price.
13. In the case of micronutrients used farmer mostly used zinc. 14. Very less farmers are aware about PPL Phospho-gypsum. 15. Micronutrient namely Zinc, Boron, Sulphur are mostly use in Potato, Maize, Banana and
16. Farmer’s perceptions about micronutrients are not so good. People think that
micronutrient is not so much effective to increase yield. Large no of people only use zinc followed by sulphur and boron.. 17. Field demonstrations most of the farmers are prefer.
18. Satisfaction level – about 40% farmers satisfied after the use of micronutrients in terms
of growth, green color of plant and yield increase with 5-10%. 19. In three districts main crops are paddy, wheat, maize, banana, vegetables, litchi, and potato. In those crops people only use zinc, sulphur and boron.
20. About phospho gypsum most of the farmer are using. They have used it as a micro
nutrient. In Katihar and Supaul district phospho gypsum users are less in comparison to Muzaffarpur, because of the field demonstration and jeep campaign.
Promotional Activities➢ ➢ ➢ ➢ Field Demonstration. Advertisement. Jeep Campaign. Hoarding/Posters/Painting.
The most effective promotional activities are field demonstration, jeep campaign. Because of that most of the farmers are illiterates so they can only understand by field demonstration and jeep campaign. When I talk to the farmers they told that every company told that their product is good but when we see the effect of product in the fieldis good or bad then we decide that this product is good or not. Another promotional activity is jeep campaign which is most effective because by the jeep company directly aware to the farmers.
Timely AvailabilityFertilizer should be timely available, because most of the farmer objection they not get fertilizer when they cultivation crop. Due to unavailability retailer demanding high price to the farmers, that should be effective to farmer’s perception.
Awareness of Micronutrient-
Awareness of micronutrient is not good in comparison to complex fertilizer, farmers don’t know “why used the micronutrients” and “what the advantage of micronutrients” they are habituated to used the traditional farming. Some farmers are known about zinc and sulphur and they used it. About PPL Phospho-gypsum farmers they don’t know. Company should give preference of advertisement and arrange farmer meeting in village and gave some knowledge about micronutrient.
At the last, we concluded that in the company point of view, the overall performance is well in all three districts, KATIHAR, SUPAUL and MUZAFFARPUR. But in Katihar There is less promotional activities in comparison to Muzaffarpur. Farmers are using the Navratna due to unavailability of TATA Paras. In the Muzaffarpur district the name of Paras is go down due to the lack of availability and lack of quality. So the farmers are using the Navratna brand. But In the lack of availability of Navratna brand in the market they choose another brand. In all three districts farmers are aware from the Navratna brand. But they don’t know so much about micronutrient and whether it will be use. They only know about the some micronutrient like as zinc, sulphur, boron and gypsum. The impacts of promotional activities are very effective but in case of news paper ad is not so much effective. The effective promotional activities are jeep campaign, demonstration, field visit, meetings. But in case of Katihar, there is no promotional activities are effective. In SUPAUL district there are less promotional activities going on. In that area promotional activities are in only market or shops. Farmers, who illiterate they don’t about their product and services, some farmers, who using the Navratna brand but they don’t about them, they only told to the dealer or retailer for fertilizer, so the awareness of micronutrient and Navratna brand is not so much good.
The literacy level of farmers is good. They grown mostly Paddy, Wheat, Maize, Banana, Some vegetables and in Muzaffarpur the most growing crop is litchi. The result of our project shows that customer based-brand equity has a great importance on consumer’s perception of brand and the lack of brand equity will weaken consumer’s perception. Therefore there should be a continuous effort by fertilizer marketers to enhance customers based- brand equity. Fertilizer operators should bear in mind that old familiar brand dies, as a result of poor management of brand, overextension and lack of investment in developing brand equity and values. Others include: • • • The company should ensure the timely availability of their products at a particular place based on demand. There should be appropriate provisions of information flow among the farmers about the new products launched. The company should ensure the regular visit of their representatives to solve the problems of farmers at their best related to the products.
www.paradeepphosphates.com Kotler P. (2000) “Marketing Management,” Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall International. Kotler P. and Armstrong G. (2004) “principle of marketing” (10th edition) New Jersey: prentice hall http://www.davedolak.com/articles/dolak4.htm http://www.ipsos-ideas.com/article.cfm?id=2159
6. FAI (Fertilizer association of India ) MARKETING NEWS-2009 7. Department of fertilizer ,India
Malhotra Naresh K., “Marketing Research”, An Applied Orientation, 5th edition.