Department of Forensic Medicine & Toxicology

Prof. Dr. Maha Ghanem

By the end of this course the student will be able to:
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Define and list different types of identification Recognize different circumstances for identification List ages of medico-legal importance in Egypt Review methods of identification (radiology, anthropology, craniofacial, personal effects) Determine sex in living and dead Estimate age in living and dead Distinguish prints of medico-legal importance

Types of Identification: 1- Criminal identification:
a- Fingerprints b- Photographs c- Witness

Identikit is a composite picture of a person from a witness account.

2- Civil identification:

in courts

3- Personal identification: of dead persons
by their relatives or friends.

4- Legal identification: of dead or living persons.

6years: child enter school. 7 years : discrimination between right and wrong. 11 years: custody of boys after divorce 15 years: custody of girls after divorce 16 years: get identity card license for driving motor cycle

18 years: full criminal responsibility free consent in rape driving car license first military call get job in government marriage of male& females voting in elections 21 years: civil rights 30 years : person can be elected as a member in national assembly 40 years: to be president in A.R.E

1- For medical purpose:
a- unconscious patient. b- patient with true amnesia. c- mental confusion

2- Civil purpose:
a- problems of inheritance. b- marriage. c- employment or immigration d- call for military service. e- disputed paternity

3- For criminal purpose:
a- sexual offences e.g. rape b- kidnapping c- determine the criminal personality

1- A missing person and presumed death.

2- Issue death certificate and allow burial.

3- Accidents

4- Crimes

5- Mass disaster : ten or more person are killed. natural : floods, earthquakes and volcanoes man made: airplanes , train accidents

1- Circumstances of death 2- The elapse of time since death 3- Antemortem data available for comparison.

1- General appearance: Weight Height Color of skin Hair

2- Features:
Face Eyebrows Iris Chin Nose Configuration of ear Portrait Parlé

3- Clothing:
Denote the occupation and the social status.

4- Age

5- Sex

6- Blood groups

7- Prints 8- Congenital anomalies:
Asymmetry Harelip Cleft palate Polydactyl

9- Birth marks.

10- Scars
Recent: reddish or bluish and tender Old : more dense, white, shiny and contract.

11-Tattoos 12- Photographs 13- Anthropometry
not used now days

Personal characters:
Voice Speech Mental power Education Handwriting Gait

1- documents
Personal papers Photographs ID card Credit cards

2- Jewelry:
Rings, bracelets, earrings, watches, lighters, pens and keys. Careful examination may reveal a symbol or name.

2- Contact traces:
give occupational data e.g. Paint Grease Flour Dyes

3-Height :
from the skeleton

4- Teeth examination

5- Handedness 6-Internal physical examination and medical appliances:
a- Underlying disease b- X- ray of the whole body may reveal: old fracture prosthesis: plates or nails in joints and bones

c- pacemakers d- artificial valve

7- Data from the skull: if previous X-ray is available a- frontal sinus b- skull suture pattern c- vascular grooves in the skull

8- Superimposition of the skull and Antemortem facial photographs 9- Facial reconstruction 10- The time that the body or bones have been buried

1. Presumptive data about sex are:  Features  General contours  Clothes and voice 2. Probable signs:  The breast  The muscle development  The distribution of body hair and subcutaneous fat  The external genitalia

The certain signs of sex determination are:
•The presence of gonads (testes in males and ovaries in females) •The identification of sex is of special importance in the problem of intersex

Sex chromatin test (nuclear sex):
•Female cells usually show collection of chromatin material (due to x chromosome) Barr bodies.

•The Y chromosome of the male cells can also be visualized (by using a fluorescent microscope and quinarcine stain) in the cells of hair sheaths, nerve cells and dental pulp.

Types of intersex:
1. Gonadal agenesis: No sex organs , -ve test 2. Gonadal dysgenesis: External organs, no gonads 3. True hermaphrodite: Both organs ,+ve test 4. Pseudo-hermaphrodite: sex determined from gonads , nuclear sex give true sex

•The pelvis, sternum and skull •The articular surface of head of humerus is larger in males. •The distal end of the shaft of the femur is less inclined in males than in females,

Male Pelvis
*Bones *Body of pubis *Pubic arch (sub pubic angle.) *Greater Sciatic notch\ *Obturator foramen *Preauricular sulcus Bones are massive , rough and heavy Triangular Acute angle i.e. less than90 Deep and narrow Oval Absent

Female Pelvis
Smaller , lighter and smooth ,wider. Quadrangular Obtuse i.e. more than 90 Shallow and wide Smaller and more triangular Well defined especially in multipara

Male Pelvis
*Iliac crest

Female Pelvis
Less prominent , less curved Shallow , wide wall curved outwards Smooth , less prominent Narrow , looks laterally Greater Short , wide , curved only at lower end 1½ segments

*Pelvic cavity * Iliopectineal line *Acetabulum *Pubic /ischium ratio *Sacrum *Articulation surface of sacrum

Prominent and highly curved Deep , Straight walls Rough and prominent Wide , looks laterally Less Long, narrow, homogenous curve 2½ segments

•The female sternum is shorter and broad. The body is less than double the manubrium. • The male sternum is long and narrow. The body is more than double the manubrium. •The junction between the body and the manubrium is angular or prominent.

Male skull *Size and weight Bigger and heavier Marked

Female skull

Smaller & less weight

*Superciliary arch Less marked *Fronto-nasal junction Angular Rounded and smooth *Parietal and frontal emimences Prominent and Less prominent and *Mastoid process rough smooth *Muscle attachments Bulky and rough Smooth and less marked Rough Smooth *Condylar facets Long and narrow Short and wide

1. The eruption of teeth (deciduous and permanent) and shape of mandible. The estimation of age is done by x-ray in living and by exposure and dissecting in dead through: 2. The appearance of centers of ossification. 3.The union of epiphyses. 4.The closure of fontanels. 5.The fusion of sutures. 6.The level of the medullary cavity.

A. Eruption of teeth:
Deciduous teeth:
Central incisors: 6months Lateral incisors: 9months Canine: 18months First molar: 12months Second molar: 24months

Permanent teeth:
First molar: 6years Central incisors: 7years Lateral incisors: 8years Canine: 11years First premolars: 9years Second premolars: 10years Second molar: 12years Third molar: at any age above 17years.

B. Mandible:
The angle between the body and ramus is obtuse in infants, right in adults and obtuse in old age.

A. During intrauterine life:
At 5months: calcaneus At 7months: talus At 8 months: distal end of femur At 9 months: proximal end of tibia Cuboids Distal end of femur becomes 0.5cm in diameter

B. After birth:
At 3 month: The head of femur The distal end of tibia. At 6months: The distance end of fibula At 7months: The greater tuberosity of humerus, The distal end of radius At 2 years: The proximal end of fibula. At 3yeras: The greater trichinae of femur, The proximal end of radius At 5years: The medial epicedial of the humerus, The distal end of ulna.

A. Upper limb


7 years the epiphysis of distal end of radius forms 2/3 the diaphysis

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B. lower limb:

18 18

C. Clavicle:

D. Sternum:



E. Hip bone:

 Posterior

fontanel at birth  Anterior fontanel at 18months

5. Fusion of sutures:
•The frontal suture fuses completely at 3years. .The sagittal suture starts fusion at 25years and is complete at 30years. •The coronal suture fuses at 40years. .The lambdoid suture fuses at 50 years.

Reaches the surgical neck at 30years Reaches the anatomical neck at 33years

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In Negroid race the skull has specific characters: The shape of the skull is elongated (dolycocephaly). The alveolar margin of the maxilla is protruded forming a prognathism. The hard palate is flat The nasal orifices are wide. The frontal suture is persistent and does not fuse.

•Prints of medico legal importance: •These are individual for every person

Man with Lip Prints on Face