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Organizational Behavior

Organizational Behavior

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Published by: Deepakkr2510 on Dec 18, 2009
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UNIT - IV

ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR

CONCEPT OF OB
It is not a discipline in the usual sense of the term, but is rather an eclectic field of study involving the integration of the behavioral sciences (e.g., psychology, sociology, anthropology, etc.) into the study of people’s behavior within organization.

DEFINATION

“OB is a subset of management activities concerned with understanding, predicting, & influencing individual behavior in organizational settings. -(Callahan et al.) “It is the study & application of knowledge about human behavior related to other elements of the organization such as structure, technology, & social system.”

NATURE OF OB
      

A field of study and not a discipline. Interdisciplinary approach. An applied science. Normative & value centered. Humanistic & optimistic. Oriented towards organizational objectives. A total system approach.

PERCEPTION

 

It is a process by which individuals organize & interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment. However, what one perceives can be substantially different from objective reality. It is the cognitive process. It is the process of selecting, organizing, & interpreting or attaching meaning to the events happening in the environment.

DEFINATION
“Perception may be defined as a process by which individuals organize & interpret their sensory impressions in order to give meaning to their environment”. - by Robbins.

FACTORS INFLUENCING PERCEPTION
FACTORS IN THE PERCEIVER •Attitudes •Motives •Interest •Experience •Expectations FACTORS IN THE SITUATION •Time •Work setting •Social setting

PERCEPTION
FACTORS IN THE TARGET •Novelty •Motion •Sounds •Size •Background •Proximity •Similarity.

CONCEPT OF PERSONALITY

Allport has identified fifty different definitions of the term. He has categorised them into five areas as follows:
Omnibus,  Integrative & configurational,  Hierarchical,  Adjustment,  Distinctiveness.

TYPES OF PERSONALITY/ BEHAVIOR
       

Self-concept & self esteem, Need patterns, Machiavellianism or manipulation, Locus of control, Tolerance of ambiguity, Type A & B, Introversion & Extroversion, Work-ethic orientation.

PERSONALITY THEORIES
   

Psychoanalytic theory, Socio-psychological theory, Trait theory, Self theory:
 Self-image  Ideal-self  Looking

glass-self  Real-self

ATTITUDES Development of Types

People's attitudes of values have significant impact on their behavior, both within the organizational context and social context. They influence the perception of objects of people, their exposure, comprehension etc. Therefore, for effective management in the organization, we must understand the attitudes and values of the workers.

CONCEPT OF ATTITUDE

"Attitude is a mental & neural state (pertaining to nerves) of readiness organized thro. experience, exerting a directive influence upon the individual's response to all objects & situations with which it is related". -(Gordon W. Allport) "Attitude is the persistent tendency to feel & behave in a favorable or unfavorable way towards some object, person , or ideas". -(H.J. Reitz)

FEATURES OF ATTITUDE

 

Attitudes affect behavior of an individual by putting him ready to respond favorably or unfavorably to things in his environment. Attitudes are acquired thro. learning over the period of time. It is a life long process. Attitudes are invisible as they constitute a psychological phenomenon which cannot be observed directly. They can be deserved by observing the behavior of an individual. Attitudes are pervasive and every individual has some kind of attitudes towards the objects in his environment. In fact, attitudes are forced in the socialization process & may relate to anything in environment .

FACTORS IN ATTITUDE FORMATION

I. GROUP FACTORS
  

Family Reference Groups Social Factors Ethnocentrism Impulses Conservatism V/s liberalism I.Q. Level Heredity

II. PERSONALITY FACTORS
    

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